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Following the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 Lajos Kossuth was forced into exile in Turkey. Thanks to intervention on behalf of the American government that he was able to travel to the United States in 1851–52. His visit left a lasting mark on American culture. He made over 500 speeches and public appearances, however his position on slavery led to a controversy eventually undermining his original purpose of securing American support for the potential renewal of the Hungarians’ struggle for freedom.

While anti-slavery activists in the United States, especially William Lloyd Garrison, were looking forward to him openly supporting the abolitionist cause, Kossuth opted for a much-maligned policy of non-interference. In response, Garrison, while admiring Kossuth at first, changed his stance and launched a vitriolic attack in a book-sized publication titled Letter to Louis Kossuth Concerning Freedom and Slavery in the United States (1852).

While the circumstances of Kossuth's visit have been a subject of numerous scholarly essays, I intend to focus on Garrison's text in the forthcoming analysis of its form and content.

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Following the success of Eugène Sue's serial novel Les Mystères de Paris a pattern emerges in the era's literary market. Sue's works provide a narrative, politico-cultural and economic model with a worldwide impact. These works created a new way of presenting a city, while also developing a type of narrative that sometimes precedes the actual urbanization of an area, thus offering ready-made panels when talking about often unfinished processes. Several Hungarian works following the same literary model were published that used the panels introduced by Sue in relation to a city early in the process of urbanization and promote a distinctly national image of Budapest. The popularity of Sue's works helped the kindred Hungarian novels become successful projects. This piece of research attempts to identify the ways in which these transnational patterns became adapted and domesticated by the earliest Hungarian urban mysteries and helped the emergence of a specifically urban nationalist sentiment.

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(Im)politeness and alignment

A case study of public political monologues

Authors: Dániel Z. Kádár and Sen Zhang

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the role of (im)politeness and alignment in public monologues. Linguistic politeness theory has predominantly focused on the interpersonal aspect of (im)politeness, and we know relatively little about forms of (im)politeness that do not serve a direct interpersonal function but rather aim to form a sense of alignment with an indefinite group of recipients. We define such form of pragmatic behaviour as ‘alignment’, to distinguish it from politeness as an interpersonal form of interaction. Forms of alignment may operate in a duality with interpersonal (im)politeness, and they represent the default mode of relational involvement in public discourses – in particular, in public monologues. We argue that forms of alignment cannot be ignored in politeness research due to their prevalence in certain genres/modes of communication, and also because their operation can be intriguingly complex from a politeness theoretical point of view, considering their dual relationship with (im)politeness. We use data drawn from Chinese political discourse as a case study to illustrate this dual relationship.

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Authors: Єлизавета Барань, Tamás Tölgyesi, Krešimir Mićanović and Marko Jesenšek
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Julia Pastrana is one of the best known personalities of the mid-19th-century freak show business, understood as institutionalized exhibitions of human oddities. Born in 1834 in Mexico, she suffered from a genetic disorder which resulted in abnormal hair growth. Her career as a profit-making exhibit began in 1854 and lasted till 1860. Together with her impresario and husband Theodore Lent she toured the US, Canada and the British Isles from where she moved to Berlin, Vienna and Warsaw. Pastrana further headed for St. Petersburg and Moscow where she died in childbirth. While her odyssey in the US and Britain is well known, her stay in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia remains shrouded in obscurity. The aim of this article is to fill this gap in Pastrana's biography. Reconstructing her itinerary in Eastern Europe, I will focus especially on her visit to Warsaw. Drawing mainly on press accounts and unpublished iconographic sources, I will analyze both Pastrana's ‘enfreakment’ and commodification. My point is to see how her embodiment of difference was conceptualized at the eastern borders of Europe and how local artists and entrepreneurs reacted to her performances and the possibilities for making money that the freak show business offered.

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The present introduction provides an overview of the field of linguistic politeness research. Since Acta Linguistica Academica has diverse scope of inquiries, and linguistic pragmatics has been only one (and perhaps not the most central) of the various areas featured in the journal, it is relevant to provide such an up-to-date overview. My goal is not only to point out how the contributions advance politeness theory, but also to make the research featured in the special issue relevant to academics working in other areas of linguistics.

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E tanulmány bemutatja, hogy az egyik utolsó bizánci történetíró, Michaél Kritobulos hogyan alkalmazta az irodalmi utánzás eszközét II. Mehmed szultán drinápolyi beszédében. Megpróbálja feltárni a beszédben olvasható hosszabb történeti ekphrasis irodalmi mintáit és szerepét, majd az orációban található rejtett történetírói reflexiókat vizsgálja. Közismert tény, hogy a klasszikus szerzők történeti szereplőik beszédeiben számos alkalommal implicit módon saját nézeteiket szólaltatják meg a történelemről és a történeti megismerésről. Mehmed beszédének egyes mondatai arra utalnak, hogy e jelenség nemcsak a klasszikus, de a késő bizánci történetírásban is felfedezhető.

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Kallimachos Artemis-himnusza

Megjegyzések a művészi egység és a datálás kérdéséhez

Author: Adorjáni Zsolt

Kallimachos Artemis-himnusza az a költemény a himnuszok könyvében, melynek művészi egysége, különösen Wilamowitz elmarasztaló ítéletének hatására, mind a mai napig élénk vita tárgya. Jelen tanulmányban ehhez a kérdéskörhöz szólok hozzá. Először a himnusz könyvben elfoglalt helyét, illetve a többi vershez való viszonyát vizsgálom. Ezek után kísérletet teszek az egység jellegének meghatározására a kohéziós elemek feltérképezésével, miközben eredményeimet kritikusan ütköztetem korábbi befolyásos nézetekkel, különösen a „fejlődéspszichológiai” irányzattal. Végezetül kiszélesítem a vizsgálatot a költemény tágabb történelmi kontextusára, és ennek keretében javaslatot teszek datálására is.

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Authors: Roboz Erika, Szilágyi Laura Menta and Guba Ágoston
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Au cours de la dernière décennie, la Hongrie est devenue plus visible sur le marché international de la série télévisée: les productions de la chaine HBO et les productions, plus récentes, de RTL Klub contribuent à l'apparition d'une image nouvelle pour la région. L'objectif du présent article est d'analyser le choix et la décoration des lieux d'habitation dans les séries télévisées hongroises. Dans ce but, on présente d'abord les modalités du marché domestique de la production télévisée. Or l’évolution de ce marché ne peut pas être comprise sans aborder dans un premier temps l'histoire des séries dites complexes et le rôle joué par HBO dans leur développement. Les séries analysées, qui appartiennent au genre dramatique (Terápia, Aranyélet, Alvilág), font parti de ce nouveau format. La seconde partie de l'article présente les schémas théoriques d'analyse du décor cinématographique proposés par Charles et Mirella Jona Affron et par Charles Tashiro. En se basant sur les catégories respectives de ces auteurs, l'article montre que les séries hongroises adoptent de plus en plus un modèle caractérisé par une grande attention au design et où les signes de la culture matérielle jouent un rôle essentiel dans le projet de décrire les conflits d'ordre culturel, sociaux et politiques inhérents à la société hongroise contemporaine.

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Abstract

Research on late antique and early medieval economic and social processes during the past three decades called for, and enabled, a fresh look at the history of the ‘Late Avar period’ of the Carpathian Basin, corresponding exactly to the ‘long eighth century’ of the Mediterranean and European world. This paper offers a rather sketchy new model, alongside raising questions and framing a research programme focusing on social and economic historical processes. Therefore, using the archaeological evidence as a solid foundation, I have proposed a set of research hypotheses as starting points for regional and micro-regional studies.

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La religion sabbataires a vu le jour en Transylvanie à la fin du XVIe siècle, dans la foulée de la réforme et de l'unitarisme. Ses fondateurs affichaient l'intention de vivre “comme Jésus” c'est-à-dire également comme au temps de Jésus. Le destin des sabbataires a fini par rejoindre celui des juifs, y compris lors des persécutions du XXe siècle. Quant à leur sensibilité à l'idée de destin et de peuple élu, elle peut être mise en relation avec certains aspects de l'identité hongroise.

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Der ungarische Romancier Mór (Maurus) Jókai (1825–1904) war in der Hinsicht sicherlich ein Schriftsteller der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts, als er das Fortkommen der Nation mit auf die Technik und die Wissenschaft gerichteten Hoffnungen verband. In seinem über hundert Romane und Erzählungen umfassenden Lebenswerk wird unter anderem ein für das damalige Ungarn bedeutsames Spezialthema, die Hydrografie des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts erfasst. Themen wie die Moorkolonisation, die Flussregulierung und die Melioration sind in verblüffend vielen Werken Jókais handlungsrelevant und entfalten darüber hinaus eine Ästhetik, die ihn zu einem besonderen Vertreter literarischer Topografien macht.

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Małgorzata Tryuk

On Ethics and Interpreters

Author: Nijolė Maskaliūnienė
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Die vorliegende Studie beschäftigt sich mit der Märchensammlung einer deutsch-ungarischen Vermittlerfigur: Graf Johann Mailáth (1786–1855). Mailáth erfüllte nämlich mit seiner Anthologie eine mehrfache Brückenfunktion: Einerseits transferierte er durch seine Erzählungen ein positives, dem Geschmack der Romantik entsprechendes Bild über das Königreich Ungarn. Andererseits wollte er durch seine Märchen, die auch ins Ungarische übersetzt worden sind, eine neue Gattung in der ungarischen Literatur einbürgern. Die Autorin des vorliegenden Aufsatzes versucht hier, die Bedeutung der Magyarischen Sagen und Mährchen hinsichtlich literaturhistorischer Entwicklungen des deutschen und ungarischen Sprachraumes sichtbar zu machen und die darin vermittelten Ungarnbilder im historischen Kontext zu analysieren.

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Mariachiara Russo, Claudio Bendazzoli, Bart Defrancq (eds)

Making Way in Corpus-based Interpreting Studies

Author: Feng Pan
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Die wichtigste deutschsprachige Tageszeitung Ungarns, der liberale Pester Lloyd (1854–1944) spielte in der Kulturvermittlung zwischen Ungarn und den anderen europäischen Ländern von Anfang an eine entscheidende Rolle. Um die Jahrhundertwende, als Literatur und Kunst den Erwartungen der institutionalisierten volksnationalen Ästhetik untergeordnet wurden, konnte seine Praxis des regelmäßigen Kulturtransfers in Form von kritischen und theoretischen Veröffentlichungen der Moderne zur Etablierung verhelfen. Der Beitrag stellt die einzelnen Etappen dieses Prozesses mit typischen Textbeispielen dar.

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Abstract

The present study discusses five Bronze Age sandstone casting moulds from the Hatvan-Strázsa-hegy tell (Hungary, Heves County), which have been acquired by the Ministry of Defence Institute and Museum of Military History in the 1990s. One of the moulds is a semi-finished product, showing a negative of a dagger hilt pommel. The other four moulds were suitable to cast large triangular-shaped dagger blades and they can be arranged into two pairs, based on their dimensions and the outlines of their negatives. According to macroscopic observations, these finds have been used for a period of time, proving that advanced metallurgy was present on the Strázsa-hegy site during the Rei. Br. A. Besides they provide a chance for an evaluation of these significant objects that do not abound in parallels. The main goal of this paper is to discuss and reconstruct the life-cycle of daggers, based on macroscopic data obtained from the moulds and their parallel finds.

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Author: Takács Levente

Nero a halála után néhány évvel ismét feltűnt a római politika színpadán, a birodalom keleti tartományaiban, mégpedig legalább kétszer. Az ál-Nerók tevékenységén túl más politikai kalandorok hasonló történetei is ismertek a római történetírásban. A tanulmány elemzi az ismert hasonmások történeteit, bemutatva a közös motívumokat. Továbbá megpróbál magyarázatot adni az ál-Nerók kísérleteire az adott történelmi kontextusban.

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Authors: Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky and András Róna-Tas
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This paper is intended to view a specific epistemic turn from various angles concerning the role and function of scientific cognizance in relation to the documentation forms of the medical writings of physicians operating in the eighteenth century. Nevertheless, the internal structure of eighteenth-century medical knowledge is also revealing itself as being instrumental in presenting new elements of knowledge and making them accepted as scientific facts, disregarding direct relationship between doctors and patients, or in other words, exclusively relying on the application of the academic knowledge of doctors and specific observations on patients. It is rather aimed at continuously comparing various illnesses, such as epidemics, recurring endemic diseases, or unique illnesses, as well as arranging them on the basis of perception into homogeneous series of information incessantly proliferating in space and time.

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Author: Antonín Vašek

The present paper deals with the dialectal situation of the lexeme ogar,-a m.‘a young man’, ‘a youth’, ‘a son’, which belongs to the core vocabulary of the traditional Eastern Moravian dialect. The dialect called Wallachian is spoken around the towns of Rožnov, Valašské Meziříčí, Vsetín, Zlín, Vizovice, and Valašské Klobouky. In the southern part of the Wallachia region (around Zlín, Vizovice, and Klobouky), the expression is realized as ogara, -y / -i m. In addition, the same sense of the word ogar is common not only in the Silesian-Moravian dialectal region (namely, the Lachia area around Frenštát), which was likewise affected by Carpathian pastoral colonization in the past, but also the eastern Moravian dialectal island of Kelč with its very specific phonology.

In Slovakia, the expression is found in two places. It is attested from the Spiš region (more specifically, from Veľký Šariš), where it has a pejorative meaning and is also used as a swearword (denoting a rather neglected young man). The second location is Revúca in the Slovak Central Mountains, where it denotes a tall man who is very thin - almost emaciated.

In Poland, the word ogar is attested in the southern part of the Malopolska region around Ropčice (ogar - “czasem na dziecko wołają: Ty ogarze!”) and in the Zakopane region (ogarek - “2. przezwisko małych chłopców”). This information is confirmed as of the last quarter of the nineteenth century as well as the beginning of the twentieth century by Karłowicz's dictionary. Apart from that, the present-day Kraków urban dialect contains the expression agar ‘a youth’.

The word ogar is not attested in the sense of ‘a boy’, ‘a youth’ in any other Slavonic or non-Slavonic language.

As regards linguistic geography, the distribution of the word does not extend beyond the mountainous and sub-mountainous regions of the Western Carpathians. As it appears in several semantic varieties in multiple places around the Carpathian region but nowhere else, the word can be classified as a distinctly Carpathian expression.

The alternate form ogarek, ogárek is a common diminutive derived by the suffix -ek and having a positive affective function. The form ogara found in southern Wallachia was most likely coined by analogy or by mistaking the indirect grammatical case of ogar for the nominative. Such a mistaken interpretation is quite plausible, given the fact that the area in question was less affected by the Carpathian pastoral colonization than the other regions. Hence the possible change of the nominative form of the word from ogar to ogara (and resulting in a different declensional pattern according to the keyword předseda).

The lexeme ohař ‘a hunting dog’ is most likely to be an old borrowing from Eastern languages, which possibly indicates some degree of influence of those languages over the European area in question. As regards the Western Carpathian (and thus also the Moravian-Wallachian) ogar ‘a boy’ etc., it concerns a second borrowing of the same non-Slavonic word but with a different semantic content via Romanian (regardless of whether this non-Slavonic Eastern word got into Romanian directly or, rather, via a Slavonic language). In that sense, the word exists as yet another evidence of the Romanian linguistic (and perhaps also ethnic) involvement in the pastoral colonization of the Western Carpathians.

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In this paper, we introduce some new fragments preserved at the Dunhuang Academy. These are five detached pieces of a Chinese scroll of the Prajñāpāramitāsūtra (Da banruo boluomiduo jing 大般若波羅蜜多經). The first text on the verso side is a conversation between a brahman and the Buddha. It is similar to the Kasibhāradvāja sutta which is a talk between a brahman working as a ploughman and the Buddha who comes to him to beg for food. One gets the impression that the Old Uigur text is essentially based on the Pāli text. After a long gap, the second text presents quatrains following the metrical structure of Buddhist verses, as they were widespread among the Old Uigurs. We edit the texts with transliteration and transcription, as well as offer an English translation accompanied by comments.

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On the Sogdian Prątihārya-sūtra and the Related Problems

One Aspect of the Buddhist Sogdian texts from Turfan

Author: Yutaka Yoshida

In this paper three Buddhist Sogdian texts discovered from Turfan are identified and edited. These are unique among the Buddhist Sogdian texts in that they are not translated from the Chinese prototypes, but are dependent on, if not translated from, the originals which were popular among the Buddhists resident in Kucha, Karashahr or Turfan, i.e. the area along the Northern Silk Road, whereas most Buddhist Sogdian texts are shown to have been translated from Chinese originals. The three are the Sogdian versions of (1) the Karmavibhaṅga, (2) the so-called Prātihārya-sūtra or chapter twelve of the Divyāvadāna, and (3) the legend of King Kāñcanasāra. The last one constitutes the fifth chapter of the Daśakarmapathavadānamālā, of which the Tocharian and Uighur versions have been discovered.

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The practice of ‘political advice’ covers events such as media appearances, in the course of which the representatives of a country deliver symbolic ‘advice’ to another country through a monologous announcement. As such, political ‘advice’ is a ritual practice (Kádár 2017): on the surface level it represents communication with another country and its style is formed according to this symbolic surface function; however, its implicit function is to form alignment between the political authorities who deliver the advice and the citizens of their country. Studying political advice provides a twofold contribution to politeness theory. First, on the empirical level, this discursive ritual practice has not received sufficient academic attention, and so modelling it through the lens of interactional ritual theory fills an empirical knowledge gap in the field of pragmatics and broader sense language and society. Second, by modelling the complex relationship between politeness and political advice, the paper delivers a contribution to the theory of language use, since it demonstrates that in certain ritual practices such as political advice, and arguably a variety of similar ritual practices in the political arena. It is challenging to capture ‘politeness’ in the conventional sense as an other-oriented (and interpersonal) form of pragmatic behaviour, in spite of the fact that on the surface level such forms of communication are veiled as abundantly polite and as other-oriented. We argue that one needs to deploy interactional ritual theory to model the pragmatic operation of this phenomenon. The data studied is drawn from the website of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

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“An outright abundance of amusements. Twenty out of thirty posters announce and praise the spectacles so far unparalleled. In Passage-Panoptikum, the Dahomeys laid out. I proceeded onwards to catch sight of some more people. (…)

A huge, gilded hall flooded with rays of the sun, crowded and buzzing. Music plays a sentimental waltz. The masses smoke, and speak. White aprons of waiters cross the hall in diverse directions, and one may hear knocks of pitchers and a hoarse voice:

– Beer!

The hall is full of Dahomey. They squeeze between the tables with the dexterity of monkeys and wheedle money. They are almost naked and beautifully built. The black-and-ashen hue of their skin is velvety, glittering and invariably soft. A certain Dahomey Venus simpers and intrusively strives for selling a photograph of her. (…) two enchanters or bonzes wearing white coats came out to the forefront of the stage. One of them holds a monstrous deity, coarsely hewn of wood; and the second – a flat, cane basket and a long pipe made of reed.

– Serpents! A serpent! Die Schlange! – the crowd yells and a strange kind of shiver pierced through everyone. (…)

The snakes stood almost vertically and started to perform a kind of dance along slanting lines. Their long and greenish bodies writhed, bounced and fell on the ground hissing. There is commotion in the hall, but after a while the crowd erupts in applause, and this European, metropolitan mob is immersed in delight. (…)

Gentlemen! Buy photographs showing the King of Dahomey. Only one mark a piece…” (Reymont 1894).

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Abstract

In this paper, I combine a model of context, practice, and perception with a discursive-interactional approach to investigate the moral order of the practice and perception of unexpected topic switching in the context of everyday communication in mainland China, using data derived from recorded mundane conversations in Mandarin and playback with native Chinese speakers. Results show that the speakers initiate, react to, and perceive unexpected topic switching as a part of appropriate interactional norms. The analyst understandings, participant understandings, and metaparticipant understandings that I uncover indicate the influence of the sociocultural context, interactional context, and personal context on the practice and perception of unexpected topic switching.

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This study investigates the effect of explicit vs. implicit prosody teaching on the quality of consecutive interpretation by Farsi–English interpreter trainees. Three groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at the University of Applied Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Participants were assigned to groups at random, but with equal division between genders (6 female and 6 male students in each group). No significant differences in English language skills (TOEFL scores) could be established between the groups. Participants took a pretest of consecutive interpreting before starting the program. The control group listened to authentic audio tracks and did exercises in consecutive interpreting. The first experimental group received explicit instruction of English prosody and did exercises based on the theoretical explanation which was provided by their Iranian instructor. The second experimental group received implicit instruction of English prosody through the use of recasts. The total instruction time was the same for all the groups, i.e. 10 hours. Students then took a posttest in consecutive interpretation. The results showed that explicit teaching of prosody had a significantly positive effect on the overall quality of interpreting from Farsi into English compared with that of implicit prosody instruction. These results have pedagogical implications for curriculum designers, interpreter training programs, material producers and all who are involved in language study and pedagogy.

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Authors: Dénes Gabler and Zsófia Masek
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This paper delivers an interdisciplinary approach to historical Chinese epistolary data, by examining the language and style of historical Chinese letters from the perspective of linguistic pragmatics, historical politeness research and relational ritual theory. It argues that various discursive characteristics of Chinese epistles, which previous Sinological research has identified, may be systematically modelled if one approaches historical Chinese letter writing as a ritual practice. Language use in historical Chinese letters tends to have a strongly ritual character, due to two reasons. First, Chinese epistles represent interpersonal interaction in a sociocultural context that triggered intensive ritual politeness. Second, many literati regarded letter writing as an activity of fine art by means of which one could ritually display one’s epistolary skill. Owing to this, the language of historical Chinese epistles features a duality of (1) other-oriented ritual politeness and (2) self-oriented ritual display. The present paper examines this duality by setting up an analytic model, and by investigating a renowned corpus of Qing Dynasty letters, Xuehongxuan chidu 雪鴻軒尺牘 (Letters from Snow Swan Retreat).

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Authors: Lővei Pál, Végh János, Prokopp Mária, Jávor Anna and Passuth Krisztina
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Authors: Iwona Kabzińska, Julia Harasimowicz, Zofia Załęska, Csaba Mészáros, László Koppány Csáji and Mátyás Balogh
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Ritual public humiliation

Using pragmatics to model language aggression

Authors: Dániel Z. Kádár and Puyu Ning

Abstract

This paper investigates cases in which people who are perceived to have violated a major communal and/or social norm are humiliated in public in a ritual way. As a case study we examine online videos drawn from the Chinese videosharing site Youku. Humiliation as a form of punishment has been thoroughly studied in sociology (see e.g., the seminal work of Foucault 1977). This interest is not coincidental, considering that studying humiliation may provide insight into the operation of shame as a punitive phenomenon, as well as the role of publicity and complex participation structures when shame is inflicted on others. Yet, punitive humiliation has been understudied in pragmatics; in particular, little research has been done on cases in which it is not an institutionally/socially ratified person (e.g., a judge) but the members of the public who inflict humilation. The study of this phenomenon contributes to the present Special Issue as it demonstrates that pragmatics provides a powerful tool to model the dynamics of (language) behaviour such as humiliation that might be difficult to capture by using more conventional linguistic approaches. We demonstrate that while ritual public communal humiliation tends to be highly aggressive, it also shows noteworthy recurrent (meta)pragmatic similarities with institutionalised forms of punishment.

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Abstract

The article presents outcomes of the transformation of ethnographic shows into circus acts at the example of Sarrasani Circus performances in Opole (German: Oppeln) in the beginning of the 20th century. The author examines how circus performances created experience of the extraordinary on stage by presenting faraway, distant, exotic cultures. Thus ethnographic shows in the Sarrasani Circus were an element of magic world of wonders performed at arena. The circus visited Opole thrice: in 1913, 1928 and 1933 becoming one of the main attractions in the city. Each time the shows were preceded by a huge advertising campaign in the local German- and Polish-language press. Press articles, notes and advertisements along with scarce archival data constitute the main source for the analysis, though they offer a very specific image of the past. Taking this into account, the author focuses on the manner of conceptualizing exotic cultures to make them attractive to the city audience. Such an approach enables research on the process of presenting exotic ethnic groups within a framework of city entertainment in the first decades of the 20th century. Therefore what the author describes is a way in which distant cultures become a stage attraction, a circus trick and an element co-creating a fantastic reality on arena.

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Abstract

The understanding of the role of the contemporary translator is fraught with contradictions and idealistic visions of individuals who, by definition, should be fully competent and versatile. In spite of the fact that lots of translation researchers have probed into the identification and exploration of the concept of translator competence, relatively little study has been devoted to training specialised translators and its metacognitive aspects. Due to the dynamic nature of the translator's occupation, it is difficult to predict what specific skills will prove useful for novice specialised translators in their professional career. The article aims to stress the importance of self-study in the specialised translator competence development. First, the author briefly discusses the nature of specialised translator competence in relation to medical translation and then analyses the principles of and approaches to specialised translator training. With the assumption that it is vital for the translator to be a reliable and self-reliant mediator in specialised service environment, the author poses the question of how to implement self-study strategies in specialised translator training. The article demonstrates a number of task-based terminological activities which exemplify the implementation of self-study strategies into project-based specialised translator training.

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The study deals with the role of Slavic antiquities in the age of national revivals and with the forging of such antiquities. It discusses the subject of Slavic antiquities and forgeries in Central Europe, bringing in the cultural context of Western Europe as well.

‘Antiquity’ is understood to mean a kind of medium that conveyed textual or visual information. The collecting of antiquities became fashionable during the first decades of the 19th century and led to the need for antiquities to be described and categorized. In turn, antiquities served as corpuses for the shaping of modern national cultural canons. It contends that these artefacts, authentic and forged alike, played an important role in moulding the cultural canons of the Slavic nations in Central Europe.

An antiquity's canonical value stemmed from its age most of all and an antiquity needed to be linked as specifically as possible to the history and culture of a given nation. The worth of an antiquity was further boosted when it could be connected with historical personages of great significance. Finally, the more mysterious the history of an antiquity, the greater the degree of speculation permissible in regard to interpretations of it.

A forged antiquity is basically an objectification informed by the forger's thinking and imagination. A forgery bears not just marks characteristic of past times but also marks of the forger and those of the time in which the forgery was made. It is something which calls an entire system into question, thereby causing bewilderment. From this perplexity, only one phenomenon can derive benefit, namely, the national culture. Important among the motives for the forging of Slavic antiquities was the circumstance that framers of canons felt that the structures of their national cultures were incomplete. Researching the reasons for the forging, the study points out structural gaps in the canons in Central Europe as well as traumas stemming from forgeries. Using four examples taken from Kollár's oeuvre (the Poison Tree of Java, the Slavic idols of Prillwitz, the Queen's Court and Green Mountain manuscripts and Derzhavin's poem God in Japanese and Chinese translation) it presents the most common motives behind Slavic forgeries along with the kinds of fake most frequently encountered; it also shows the processes by which forgeries were exposed for what they were.

These examples show that when Kollár worked with antiquities and fake antiquities, playing the imposter and pecuniary advantage were very far from him. On the other hand, as a philologist he became a prisoner of contemporary national canonical and emblematic structures.

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Abstract

This paper is devoted to how the Slovaks were staged, encountered and recognized by the Czechs at the Czechoslavic Ethnographic Exhibition organized in Prague in 1895. The Slovaks, living during the last period of the Hungarian Kingdom, were perceived by the Czechs as an ostensibly familiar collective of ‘Slavic relatives.’ The less the Czech urban society in the last decades of the 19th century kept its ties with the slowly, but inevitably modernized countryside, the more the picture of the ‘Czechoslavic’ imagined community required a different area for placing its ‘native cottages’ into. In reconceptualizing the modern Czech ‘geography of knowledge’, even the most notable Czech specialists in Slavic studies have adopted the notion that Slovaks were in fact an ‘eastern branch’ of the ‘Czechoslavic people settled in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia as well as the Northwest of Hungary’. Consequently, the idea of an ethnocentric, ‘national’ exhibition needed a demonstrative extension of the ‘Czech territory’ on to the East. To achieve a public demonstration of the idea, the later renowned architect Dušan Jurkovič invited a small group of people from the Trenčín and Zvolen/Detva regions to act as ‘Slovaks’ at the exhibition and so they did, wearing ‘typical’ folk costumes, singing and dancing in a peculiar style. They were viewed as a strangely exotic ‘Slovak colony’ by visitors and Czech journalists alike. The public response to the show only reinforced the petrification of the Czech collective stereotype of the ‘Slovak people’ as an underdeveloped poor community, ‘unspoiled’ by ‘western’ civilization, yet still resisting Hungarization. This ingrained discourse of ‘otherness’ survived among most of the Czechs until the establishment of the Czechoslovak republic in 1918, resulting in a growing wave of mutual misunderstandings.

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In the American academic tradition, the freak show as a research topic appeared in the late 1970s, focusing on othered bodies and popular culture, considered revolutionary at the time. This article looks at the history of the discourses staged otherness provoked in the American context. While it was launched together with other discussions of othering – such as ‘the ethnic other’, which eventually led to the field of postcolonial studies – otherness based on physical difference led to discussions that established a perception of the freak show as an American phenomenon. Scholars like Leslie Fiedler used the othered body to cope with personal crisis, while Edward Said criticized Western European and American forms of colonial thinking. However, physical otherness seduced academics to argue along the dichotomies of self and other to eventually position the self. This article looks at this development historically, involving psychoanalysis, postcolonial studies, literary criticism, and popular culture, to question the American element of the freak show and encourage a rewriting of its cultural significance.

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What brings together Daniel Defoe, Charles Dickens, Vsevolod Krestovsky, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Аlexander Kuprin, George Bernard Shaw, and Аstrid Lindgren, i.e. writers from different countries and belonging to different epochs? In their creative work, they all used stenography, or rapid writing, permitting a person to listen to true speech and record it simultaneously.

This paper discloses the role of stenography in literary activities of European and Russian writers in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some researchers believe that the first ties between shorthand and literature appeared in the days of Shakespeare when the playwright's competitors used shorthand to put down the texts of his plays. Others have convincingly refuted this viewpoint, proving that such records never existed. The most famous English novelist in the 17th and 18th centuries Daniel Defoe can be considered one of the first writers who used shorthand in his literary work. The writers mastering the art of shorthand writing such as Defoe, Dickens, and Lindgren were popular in various professional spheres (among others, the secret service, journalism, and secretarial service) where they successfully applied their skills in shorthand writing.

Stenography was an integral part of a creative process of the authors who resorted to it (Dostoevsky, Krestovsky, Shaw, and Lindgren). It economized their time and efforts, saved them from poverty and from the terms of enslavement stipulated in the contracts between writers and publishers. It is mainly thanks to stenography that their works became renowned all over the world. If Charles Dickens called himself “the best writer-stenographer” of the 19th century, F. M. Dostoevsky became a great admirer of the “high art” of shorthand. He was the second writer in Russia (following V. Krestovsky), who applied shorthand writing in his literary work but the only one in the world literature for whom stenography became something more than just shorthand. This art modified and enriched the model of his creative process not for a while but for life, and it had an influence on the poetics of his novels and the story A Gentle Creature, and led to changes in the writer's private life. In the course of the years of the marriage of Dostoevsky and his stenographer Anna Snitkina, the author's artistic talent came to the peak. The largest and most important part of his literary writings was created in that period.

As a matter of fact, having become the “photograph” of live speech two centuries ago, shorthand made a revolution in the world, and became art and science for people. However, its history did not turn to be everlasting. In the 21st century, the art of shorthand writing is on the edge of disappearing and in deep crisis. The author of the paper touches upon the problem of revival of social interest in stenography and its maintenance as an art. Archival collections in Europe and Russia contain numerous documents written in short-hand by means of various shorthand systems. If humanity does not study shorthand and loses the ability to read verbatim records, the content of these documents will be hidden for us forever.

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In this paper five new and unpublished fragments of a Buddhist sutra in Uighur script will be presented. According to our research, they belong to The Scripture of the Divine Spell of the Eight Yang of Heaven and Earth Spoken by the Buddha, i.e., säkiz yükmäkyaruq sudur (SYY) (Fo shuo tiandi bayang shenzhou jing 佛說天地八陽神咒經, T85n2897). The first three fragments (T2 a/b, T3, T4) from Turfan were discovered by our technicians during their protection work of the cultural relics section while they were classifying, cleaning and repairing other objects. Due to several reasons, these documents have not been numbered up to now. Advised by our technicians we have numbered them with the capital letter T. Two fragments (U1895 a/b and U1896 a/b) belong to the Turfan Collection of Berlin. The paper mainly gives transcriptions, translations, and notes.

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Authors: Szabó Pál and Juhász Erika
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This article aims to disentangle three explanations that have been proposed for the increased explicitness of translated English, as reflected in the more frequent use of the complementiser that in translated English texts compared to non-translated English texts. These three explanations are designated as the cognitive complexity (or processing strain) hypothesis, the pragmatic risk-aversion hypothesis and the source-language transfer hypothesis. Four comparable register-controlled corpora are used for the analysis: a corpus of English translated from Afrikaans, a corpus of written Afrikaans, and corpora of written British and native South African English. A multivariate analysis of the factors conditioning complementiser omission across the four corpora is used to test the three hypotheses proposed. The transfer hypothesis is tested by investigating whether the translation corpus demonstrates overall omission preferences that are more similar to the omission preferences of Afrikaans than of English. The cognitive complexity hypothesis is tested by investigating whether translated English is more sensitive to the complexity-related factors that are known to condition omission than non-translated English. The risk-aversion hypothesis is tested by investigating whether translations opt for the communicatively and normatively “safer” choice of including the complementiser in contexts where non-translated writing would typically omit it, and therefore demonstrate less sensitivity to register and frequency effects than non-translated English. The findings of the study provide strong evidence against the transfer hypothesis and find stronger support for the pragmatic risk-aversion hypothesis although the cognitive complexity hypothesis cannot be ruled out.

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At the turn of the 20th century many Native Americans took part in white man's enterprises: first Wild West shows, then silent movies. Wild West shows toured not only the United States but the Old World as well, including the south-eastern edges of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Among the Native Americans who performed in Europe particularly visible were the Lakota (western Sioux) who performed, among others, in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. The most famous of these Lakotas was Sitting Bull who had led his people's military resistance against encroaching white Americans a decade beforehand. Sitting Bull joined the Buffalo Bill's show for 1885 season. In 1890, the Sioux and other tribes lived a great religious awakening that was named Ghost Dance, hoping that by performing the Ghost Dance ritual they would make their lives better and get rid of the white men who took their lands, put them in reservations, broke treaty promises and brought hunger and diseases. On December 15, 1890, Sitting Bull was killed by Indian Police in front of his cabin at the Standing Rock reservation. Two weeks later, on December 29, 1890, at least two hundred, but perhaps as many as three hundred, Lakotas were killed in the tragic battle (that soon turned into a massacre) at Wounded Knee or died in its aftermath.

A few months later, almost one hundred Lakotas, including those who survived Wounded Knee massacre, joined the Buffalo Bill show during its second European tour. In 1902 they participated in the third European tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West, now called Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World. I will discuss the show as well as the Native American performers and their reception while the show travelled among Polish cities during the summer of 1906, almost at the end of that tour. Delving into Polish press of that period, I will attempt to demonstrate how the Polish press made various, sometimes quite unexpected uses of the show.

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The aim of this paper is to examine a group of brooches whose numbers have been increasing in recent years to determine their origins, their relationship to each other and their role in the fine metalwork, goldsmith practice of the period. These brooches and pairs of brooches were found in ten sites scattered across a large geographic area (Szarvas, La-Rue-Saint-Pierre, Bernhardsthal, Uppåkra, Narona, Hemmingen, 'Italy', Collegno, Domoszló, Nagyvárad). The artefacts share common features that can aid in determining the areas of production for objects within the group. We can confidently date them to the second half of the 5th and the early 6th centuries A.D. and examine their role in the development of the so-called Thuringian-type brooches. Furthermore, they allow us to investigate changes in female attire and shed light on the relationships between the Middle Danube region and Southern Sweden (Skåne).

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Can translated language really be analysed based on published texts, given the many agents that may influence the translator's work before publication? This article seeks to address this question through a parallel corpus study of English business articles, their German translation manuscripts and the published German translations. The objects of study are passive voice constructions. I analyse the frequency of instances where translators used the active voice to translate verbs that are in passive voice in the source text (and vice versa), and whether editors maintained that construction or intervened to change it again. The study finds that translators use the passive voice extensively to translate active voice constructions. Editors intervene often to change such constructions back to active voice. This suggests that translators mainly passivise while editors mainly activise constructions. The tense used in the source text is shown to have an effect on whether these interventions take place or not. The article argues that there is a difference between what translated language actually is and what we find in published texts.

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Turkic kinship terminologies have been diversely classified as Turco-Mongolic, Siberian Generational, Omaha etc. by anthropologists as well as by linguists in previous studies. Obviously, it is difficult to claim an invariable kinship system covering all Turkic languages, since modern Turkic kin systems differentiated from not only the Proto-Turkic or Old Turkic system, but also within themselves over time. This paper presents an attempt to trace changes in the kinship systems from Proto-Turkic to the present as far as possible based on surviving well-attested kinship cognates.

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Moulds and potters’ marks are primary sources for our understanding of the relief decorated terra sigillata production. In this paper the Gallo-roman terra sigillata moulds (for relief decorated bowls and goblets) from the collection of the Louvre are presented together with a signed fragment from a relief decorated terra sigillata bowl from Lezoux. Among the moulds several potters’ centres are represented: La Graufesenque, Les Martres-de-Veyre, Lezoux and Rheinzabern ranging chronologically from the Trajanic to the Antonine periods. These finds allow a better understanding of workshop activities, individual potter’s style and enrich the repertory of motifs and dies used by the decorators. The bowl fragment reveals the name of a Trajanic Lezoux potter Genialis. Based on this fragment, we can hitherto name a previously anonymous Lezoux potter (Potter X-5) and characterise better his activity as one of the early workshop leaders “advertising” himself by large marks stamped into the decoration.

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Abstract

Variety and revue shows played a significant role in popular culture during the first half of the 20th century. Serving as a typical genre of cosmopolitan urban entertainment, these productions consisted of international acts, where a ‘foreign’ act was mostly defined by music, visual appearances and performance style; thus, not exclusively by the actual origin of the performer. This paper aims to analyze the presence and influence of Hungarian (style) acts in Berlin in three different socio-political contexts: the Weimar Republic, the NS-Zeit, and the Nachkriegszeit until the Berlin Wall was erected. Three large venues, the Plaza, the Scala and the Wintergarten (ca. 3000 seats each) defined the urban live entertainment sphere from 1920 onwards. These venues held shows until 1944. After the Second World War, only one large hall was opened in the destroyed city, the Friedrichstadt-Palast (in the Soviet occupation zone), which became a representative venue for East-Berlin as well as the GDR. The fact that Hungarian (style) acts were present in Berlin shows without a break during the entire research period shows that it did not depend on governmental cultural policies. The Hungarian show constituted a complex phenomenon which generated interest in the audience, guaranteeing their regular appearance. This analysis is based on primary sources; namely, a photography and programs collection housed at the Stadtmuseum Berlin. Moreover, Hungarian and German professional journals were utilized in this research.

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Für die kultische, bzw. hagiographische frühe Rezeption der Dichtung von Miklós Radnóti erwies sich jene Stelle bei Abda unter dem Damm des Flusses Rábca, wo er mit 21 anderen jüdischen Zwangsarbeitern Ende August 1944 von einem ungarischen Soldaten erschossen wurde, als ein bindender Ort. Nachdem der Körper des Dichters in einem Massengrab mit anderen Leichen verscharrt worden war, wurde er noch zweimal exhumiert und neu bestattet. Der traumatische Ort des Mordes schreibt sich durch die letzten Gedichte ins Gedächtnis der Generationen. Die traumatisierte frühe Rezeption von Radnóti besteht auf den Stillstand der Zeit, auf die Nähe zum mehrmals beigesetzten und wieder ausgegrabenen Körper des Dichters. Diese seltsame Art der Rezeption, die die Dichtung von Radnóti der Historisierung zu entziehen versucht, ist als eine Antwort auf die Frage zu verstehen, ob der Holocaust in seiner Außergeschichtlichkeit zu bewahren ist. In der Ästhetik der Zeugenschaft wiederholt sich die Frage, wie man eine einmalige Raum-Zeit-Beziehung in ihrer Form bewahren kann, die sowohl das Trauma der Zerstörung einer historischen Gemeinschaft, der Gemeinschaft der ungarischen Nation als auch die Hoffnung auf eine Therapie, auf eine Neustiftung der Gemeinschaft miteinschließt. Das Gedicht von Radnóti „Nem tudhatom“ stiftete in der frühen Rezeption eine neue Perspektive für die Neubelebung der durch den Holocaust zerrissenen Gemeinschaft der Nation, es konnte aber von der romantischen Ideologie der nationalen Identität nicht Abschied nehmen, und dadurch blieb diese neue Perspektive unvollendet.

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