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Summary

Traces of Mithraism in Slovenia are represented by a large number of Mithraea and finds of altars and stones carved with Mithraic symbols. Some of these have been systematically studied and are quite well-known, others are poorly documented and less known. This difference is largely a consequence of factors from antiquity, such as the social status of the dedicators of the monuments and the choice of the location.

Our contribution focuses on the location of these shrines in north-eastern Slovenia, especially at Drava Plain and Ager of Poetovio, one of the most important Mithraic centres. The questions we explore are: where and in what environment were Mithraea built; what is their relationship to other urban structures, traffic routes, natural resources and topography; and what role do they have in their setting within provincial and city boundaries.

The results of our analysis show the heterogeneity of responses to these questions and, consequently, the vitality of the cult of Mithras in the study area.

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Authors: P. Barna Judit, Tokai Zita Mária, Eke István, Pásztor Emília, T. Biró Katalin, Mesterházy Gábor and Pethe Mihály

Bezeréd-Teleki-dűlő II. lelőhelyen terepbejárás és geofizikai felmérés eredményeként a késő neolitikus lengyeli kultúra körárka vált ismertté. A feltűnően szimmetrikus alaprajzú, kettős körárok mindkét árkán 8–8 bejárat figyelhető meg, melyek némelyike előtt félköríves toldalékok jelentkeztek. A belső árok mindkét oldalán paliszádárkok mutatkoztak. A kapuk tájolása megfelel a dunántúli lengyeli körárkokra jellemző mintázatnak. A körárok belsejében kirajzolódó épületek, a körárok körüli lengyeli kultúrás lelőhelyek, továbbá a körárok időrendi viszonya egyelőre nem tisztázott.

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Antonio Bonfini Symposion című dialógusa egyetlen kéziratban maradt ránk (OSZK Clmae 421). Ezt a kéziratot a szerző maga készítette és adta át Beatrix királynénak, Mátyás feleségének. Ugyanakkor ebben a példányban a Symposion több tucatnyi görög nyelvű idézete zavarba ejtő hibákkal jelenik meg. A cikk ebből a megfigyelésből kiindulva igyekszik feltárni egyrészt azt, hogy milyen okok eredményezhették a hibákat, másrészt azt is, hogy Bonfini ezeket az idézeteket milyen forrásokból vehette át. A források két csoportja érdemel kiemelt figyelmet: a Pindaros-idézetek, valamint a szerelemmel kapcsolatos idézetek sora. Az előbbiekkel kapcsolatban felmerül, hogy közük lehet Bonfini ferrarai tanulmányaihoz, az utóbbiak esetében pedig könynyen adódik a Ficino Lakoma-kommentárjával való kapcsolat lehetősége – a cikk igyekszik mindkét kérdésben egyértelműen állást foglalni.

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La notion d’esthétisme, dessinant le profil conceptuel des romans d’artiste, a commencé à s’inscrire dans les mentalités européennes au cours de la première moitié du XIXe siècle. C’est dans la fameuse préface de Mademoiselle de Maupin que Théophile Gautier a écrit qu’« il n’y a de vraiment beau que ce qui ne peut servir à rien ». (Gautier 1880: 22, Angyalosi 2013: 400) La philosophie de la vie et de l’art qui était alors en train d’émerger affecta tout le continent, plaçant l’apparence esthétique au sommet de la hiérarchie de l’existence humaine. Cette attitude était, en outre, renforcée par l’approche innovatrice des philosophies kierkegaardienne et schopenhauerienne. Pour la première fois, avec la perception romantique de la vie et de l’art, une vision esthétique du monde prenait forme en une sorte de programme d’action. Or ses racines remontaient au XVIIIe siècle. En effet, c’est dans le contexte du néoclassicisme qu’était né l’idée d’absolutisation de la beauté en tant que refuge, ce qui devait évidemment entraîner une perception nouvelle du rôle de l’artiste. Dans cet article, je tenterai de présenter brièvement le processus au cours duquel, dans la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle, l’esthétisme dans la littérature hongroise – à peine esquissé à l’ère des réformes – s’est développée dans un nouveau genre: celui du “roman d’artiste” et de la “nouvelle d’artiste”.

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Plutarchos Bruta animalia ratione uti című dialógusának humanista latin fordításai közül a legismertebb Giovanni Regio nevéhez fűződik. Az 1488-ban készült fordítást, amelyet a Padovai Egyetemi Könyvtár Ms. 958 jelzetű papírkódexe őriz, Raffaele Regio, a fordító testvérbátyja átdolgozta, és 1508-ban Velencében posztumusz kiadta. A kézirati és a nyomtatott szöveg egybevetését a kutatás még nem végezte el. A beható filológiai elemzéssel az a célunk, hogy megállapítsuk az eredeti fordításba való beavatkozás mértékét és természetét, majd ennek révén közelebbi bepillantást nyerjünk a fordító eljárási módszerébe és technikáiba. Ezzel alkalmunk nyílik a fordítás szövegének további kapcsolatait is megvizsgálni a dialógus másik két latin fordításával, amelyeket Antonio Cassarino és Lampugnino Birago készített néhány évtizeddel korábban.

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A közleményben szereplő lelőhelyekről előkerült emberi maradványok részletes antropológiai vizsgálatát végeztük el. A csontok mindkét esetben nem szokványos temetkezésből származnak.

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In 1915 Otto Wagner, the school-founding master of modern Central European architecture, was asked to share with his Hungarian colleagues his thoughts on the tasks of modern architecture, including his views on the issue of the potentials of national architecture. The elderly Austrian architect replied in a letter, which appeared in Budapest’s leading architectural journal of the age, Vállalkozók Lapja. Based on this scarcely known letter and its Hungarian reception that together form an important episode in the discourse on national art and architecture, my paper investigates the conflicting ideals of nationalism and/or modernism, ideals that bear significance to architecture history, urbanism and the formation of national identity alike.

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Three sixteenth-century inscribed Bohemian chalices are known from the Carpathian Basin: one is from Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca, RO) and the other two are from the western Hungarian villages of Csönge and Egyházashetye. These objects have appeared numerous times in exhibitions and catalogues since the end of the nineteenth century, but their origin and history were never investigated. Aside from a description of the inscription and the stylistic features of the decoration, only the remarks ‘Slav inscription’ or ‘Hussite’ referred to the historical context. This study is an attempt to rectify this omission by uncovering the identity of the patrons, ascertaining how and when the chalices arrived in the Carpathian Basin, and establishing the circumstances in which the objects were acquired by new owners.

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Cicero Catilina elleni első beszédének struktúrája

Havas László és Borzsák István professzorok emlékének ajánlom

Author: Adamik Tamás

A Catilina elleni első beszéd a Magyarországon is könnyen hozzáférhető Müller-féle összkiadásban 12 oldal terjedelmű; 13 fejezetre, illetve 33 szakaszra oszlik. Jelen előadásomban amellett érvelek, hogy az 1. fejezet, a bevezetés, Cicero reagálása az új retorikai szituációra, azaz arra, hogy Catilina nem távozott Rómából; ellenkezőleg, megjelent a senatusi ülésen. A 2. fejezet pedig az elbeszélés (narratio), a tényállás körvonalazása és a tétel (propositio), amely előkészíti a bizonyítást, az egész beszéd törzsanyagát. Cicero Catilina elleni első beszéde különleges, mert mindhárom szónoki beszédfajta tulajdonságait magában hordozza. Feltűnő sajátossága, hogy bevezetése is, elbeszélése is és érvelése is hat részből áll; e szigorú szerkezet indoka feltehetőleg a beszéd rögtönzött jellege.

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Summary

Three pictorial scenes represented on the walls of the newly discovered Mithraeum in Hawarte (Syria) are deeply rooted in the Middle-Iranian religious world. The pictures of the ‘City of Darkness’, and of ‘The Twin Riders’, as well as that of ‘The Lion and the Demons’, can only be explained by their evident Iranic background. Some of these iconographies are not limited to the Syrian area but are spread all around the Roman world, until London and Vienne-sur-Rhône. Moreover, a possible connection with a heterodox doctrine concerning the post-mortem vehiculated by the Pseudo-Macarius is proposed in this contribution.

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Abstract

During a tour of Austria-Hungary in December 1910, Debussy met a young Hungarian Francophile composer, Géza Vilmos Zágon (1889–1918). The latter sent him the manuscript of the Pierrot lunaire, a cycle of six melodies from the collection of the Belgian poet Albert Giraud. Debussy reviews the vocal line, emphasizing that the corrections he has made almost all concern “prosodic accents.” This rereading of a work by a young composer is a unique case for Debussy and testifies not only to his openness to young composers, but also to his interest in Giraud's poems, as André Schaeffner had so rightly anticipated in 1953 in his article “Variations Schoenberg.” It also reveals Debussy's deep sensitivity to the French language verse and rhythm.

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The purpose of this paper is to highlight some old discoveries from Colonia Dacia Sarmizegetusa (CDS), more precisely a terracotta arm and a few terracotta fingers which, most likely, could be associated with a ritual healing process in local temples. For a complete analysis, this paper approaches the topic of the anatomical votive terracotta phenomenon by examining the contextual relationship between all votive objects and the cult structures which may be connected to them. Even one of the objects under the study has an uncertain discovery context, most of them are connected to the temple of Aesculapius and Hygeia, all of them being anatomical offerings used as a symbol of the suppliant’s gratitude for divine healing. This may be the evidence of an organised medical practice within these sanctuaries, for the average person to get health, sanatio, the relative cost of anatomical votive terracotta was low compared to the consultant’s fee of a physician.

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Abstract

The history of the Hungarian-Slovenian border region is to be understood as socio-natural history: two co-evolving entities, society and nature have always been entangled in a web of connections and reciprocal influences. It is particularly true in this border area, where ecological diversity is the result of a century-long cultivation and correlating local lifestyles and economic strategies depend heavily on the ecological and climatic conditions of the region. In view of this interdependence, we aim to provide an in-depth analysis of both human and non-human agents in a region where ethnic, national, and state relations create a thickly interwoven fabric of human network with a background of a fairly uniform and intensively cultivated environment. By doing so, we would like to challenge the idea of Anthropocene as an overarching model and bring local images to the forefront. We argue that instead of Anthropocene, members of the local communities in this border region have entered an era in which they face difficulties acting as independent agents in their environment, since they have to rely on the mediation of state-funded institutions, such as the National/Regional Parks.

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Abstract

In the first part of this study, I will take into consideration the possible relationships between the anthropologist and the subjects being researched with regards to the terms informant, friendship and cooperation, focusing on the possible connections between them and their impacts. It seems obvious that the relationship between the anthropologist and locals can only function if mutual trust develops in an atmosphere that enables research subjects to reveal themselves and the researcher to collect information effectively. It would seem that the prerequisite for this on the part of the researcher is friendliness, but this gives rise to the question of whether friendliness and positive relations are the only elements necessary for the research to be successful. In other words, is it possible to imagine that fieldwork can sometimes benefit from a lack of friendly behaviour? Is it plausible that occasional conflict between the anthropologist and locals or local individuals may facilitate effective research and assimilation? Using an event from my own fieldwork, I will attempt to show how conflict in a given situation can be decidedly constructive to the researcher and how in certain cases unplanned and spontaneous contact that crosses the line of self-censorship toward deliberate confrontation can be significant with regards to the success of the research.

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Abstract

This paper analyzes selected examples of idioms containing the component head in Croatian and Hungarian. Despite the fact that Hungarian and Croatian are not cognate languages, due to the universal experiences and to the fact that they belong to a common cultural circle, these languages have a large correspondence in their phraseology, which can be seen in somatic idioms as body parts represent a kind of universality. The aim of this paper is to show similarities and differences in lexical content and meaning of Croatian and Hungarian idioms containing the component head. The motivational basis of idioms is also discussed as well as the influence of basic and transferred meanings of the lexeme head on the meaning of idioms.

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Recognizing that disciplinary confines often represent serious hurdles for translation scholars, this article offers a reflection on the boundaries of the subarea of news translation within the discipline of translation studies, focusing on its links with research that employs corpus-aided techniques, in particular critical discourse analysis and corpusassisted discourse studies. Reviewing a number of relevant studies and research projects that use different types of corpora, the discussion explores some of the main difficulties inherent in analysing translated news texts, which are often heavily mediated and edited in various ways; the ensuing key challenges associated with conducting journalistic translation research are examined. The article calls for mutual recognition and cross-fertilization between disciplines that investigate translated news from different, usually complementary, perspectives. In particular, the study of ideology and bias in translated news benefits from composite approaches and multi-faceted research projects that combine methods drawn from different areas: we argue that open and inclusive approaches are vital to uncover new and important insights into news translation.

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Summary

Very likely due to its modest nature, the Cosa Mithraeum has been mentioned in scholarly publications only four times – each in passing – since its discovery in 1954. This sparse attention, restricted solely to literature on Cosa, has meant that the mithraeum is well-known among those intimately familiar with the colony, but has languished in complete obscurity among Mithraic scholars for the past half century. In addition to bringing the Cosa Mithraeum to the attention of a wider audience, this article also argues for a re-evaluation of the most recent dating of the mithraeum. Recent advances in scholarship on mithraea at Ostia give ample reason to suggest that the original date for the Cosa Mithraeum might be more accurate than later interpreters have assumed. Furthermore, the ongoing excavations of Cosa's bath complex, conducted by Florida State University, Bryn Mawr College, and Tübingen University have revealed a city that was still quite active during the 2nd century CE. In light of these developments, this article is an overdue study of the Cosa Mithraeum and its role in the history of the colony.

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Authors: Дениз Атанасова-Соколова, Иван Хегедюш, Лариса Станкевич, István Fried, Zoltán Németh, Józsa György Zoltán and Ева Бона
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A critical assessment of exhaustivity for Negative Polarity Items

The view from Greek, Korean, Mandarin, and English

Author: Anastasia Giannakidou

In some recent works on negative polarity, exhaustivity is posited as the single defining property of all negative polarity item (NPI) and free choice item (FCI) paradigms. Chierchia (2006; 2013), and Chierchia & Liao (2015) are the best-known implementations of this theory. They stipulate that all NPIs and FCIs must be exhaustified, and posit a covert O(nly) and a syntactic feature [+Σ] to derive exhaustification and licensing respectively. In this paper, I challenge the exhaustivity hypothesis and find it, after careful empirical investigation, to be inadequate to explain the distribution and interpretation of NPIs in Greek, Korean, and Mandarin, which have been described in the literature as non-exhaustive. We also find the theory to be unable to derive the actual distribution of any in nonveridical contexts. Analytically, the problems with exhaustification are twofold. First, the use of covert O(nly) fails to account for why NPIs are licensed. Licensing is a grammaticality condition, and in order to capture it the syntactic feature [+Σ] is stipulated, NPI-licensing thus amounting to checking the [+Σ] feature. The stipulation of [+Σ], without a coherent characterization of its semantics, is a regression to a Klima-esque (1964) syntactic account, and faces precisely the challenges that that account faced. Second, for any variant of the Chierchia system to work for the data discussed here, the system built around it must posit additional ad hoc rules on a case-by-case basis. This produces a system with very little predictive power beyond each specific case because of the ad hoc nature of the rules posited. Our overall conclusion will be that the exhaustivity hypothesis, as formulated in the works discussed here, is a falsified, therefore unnecessary, hypothesis for NPIs.

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Abstract

The paper discusses the influence of the Habsburg topographic surveys and cartography on the toponymic landscape of the former crown land of Galicia. Publicly available maps have had a great impact on the geographical names used both by locals and non-locals. The Habsburg toponymic policy was characterized by non-Germanisation of already existing Galician toponyms. The Habsburg toponymic heritage is therefore of double nature: 1) forms of toponyms popularized by Austro-Hungarian maps (especially by Spezialkarte) influenced a wide toponymic usus as well as the toponymy of the later maps (especially interwar-Polish military maps) – these popularized forms may have differed from the names used by the local communities, which could have been caused by a surveyor’s mistake; 2) the topographic and cartographic materials produced by the Austro-Hungarian institutions are a valuable source for toponomastic research. In the paper, the Austro-Hungarian and interwar-Polish topographic manuals are analysed. These documents defined the way a surveyor had to collect and process geographical names. The examples and possible causes of some Polonized forms occurring in Spezialkarte are discussed. Next, the influence of the Austrian maps on the toponymy of Polish maps is explained. Finally, hilarious examples of cartographic name-copying are given.

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Abstract

In this study, I examine a hitherto completely unknown subject: the Hungarian reception of Manuel de Falla's ballet pantomime, El sombrero de tres picos (The three-cornered hat). As I point out, the story of the piece began well before Falla composed his music: Alarcón's novel was published in a Hungarian translation just two decades after the Spanish original. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the Budapest Opera House (Magyar Állami Operaház) and Municipal Theatre (Városi Színház) developed intensive opera, theatre, and ballet seasons, in association with the main European capitals during the first decades of the twentieth century. De Falla's ballet was premiered in Budapest in 1927 by Diaghilev's Russian Ballet, in the Municipal Theatre under the Hungarian title A háromszögletű kalap. The piece had such success that it had to be repeated three times. What is more, a Hungarian production was premiered in the Budapest Opera House one year later and this production continued until 1963, delivering a total of 75 performances. The sources (among others the handwritten performing scores) of this latter production preserved in the National Széchényi Library and in the Archives of the Hungarian State Opera House reveal an intense work of choreographic adaptation, along with careful design of staging, costumes, lightning, and scenery effects, all accomplished by great international personalities to make this very Spanish ballet understandable to the Magyar audience. Falla's work also found a significant support in the press, highlighting both the plot's universality and the expressiveness of his music, which had made it a Hungarian success.

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Die ungarische Literaturgeschichte weist zahlreiche enge oder lose literarische Kreise und Schriftstellergruppen auf, die im 18. Jahrhundert den Beginn des modernen Literaturlebens kennzeichneten. Die bisherige Fachliteratur sagt, dass die ersten relevanten Zentren des ungarischen (und ungarisch geschriebenen) Literaturlebens erst in den schon hierarchisierten, akademischen und literarischen Kreisen und Salons im 18. Jahrhundert zu orten sind. Meine Forschungen führen mich hingegen zu der Erkenntnis, dass dieses Bedürfnis nach einem organisierten literarischen Leben schon im 15. Jahrhundert auftritt. Das Ziel meiner Arbeit ist es, den Beginn dieser frühen Gruppierungen, die sich von der der Aufklärungszeit natürlich unterschieden, zu erforschen. Die Forschung behandelt die Frage, welche Kontakte die Netzwerke des literarischen Lebens definierten und zuletzt was für ein Modell diese Kollektive gebildet haben. Mein Ausgangspunkt ist, diese frühen Gruppen als kulturelle Knotenpunkte zu sehen. Um den vorliegenden Quellenkorpus analysieren zu können, möchte ich die Methoden der Netzwerkforschung verwenden, und diese führt mich zu der Frage, wie wir diese Gesellschaften als ein Netzwerk, also in einem Graph visualisieren und analysieren können, um dadurch neue Informationen über die Wirkung und die Identität der Literaten zu erhalten. Mit diesem Forschungsbericht möchte ich die wichtigsten Überlegungen, den theoretischen und methodischen Rahmen des interdisziplinären Projekts darstellen.

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The cathedral “Esztergom II”. The construction of the St. Adalbert’s Cathedral in the twelfth century with an Excurse: To the chronology of the Early Gothic in the middle of the Kingdom as witneßsed by the Cistercian Abbey of Kerc (Cǎrţa, Kerz, RO), Transylvania. Among at least 4 construction periods of the medieval Cathedral (not counting additional buildings) the second building cannot be dated by written sources and is only witnessed by its High Romanesque and Early Gothic stone sculpture. As in the late seventeenth and in the eighteenth century stone elements from the ruins of the Cistercian Abbey of Pilis were used as building material in Esztergom and later also medieval stone sculptures from the region (mainly from the provostry in Dömös) entered in the collection of the Esztergom Castle. The distinction among these related monuments has in recent times also determined our concept of reconstruction of the Esztergom Cathedral. This reconstruction can be based on a few authentic landscapes, on a series of surveys drawn by military engineers and a description of the ruins before their final demolition. The early book by J. B. Máthes (1827) also contains a detailed ground plan of the St. Adalbert Church – a survey drawing from the early eighteenth century with possible traces of an ideal reconstruction. In recent times more efforts were spent to hypotheses concerning the building I of St. Adalbert’s than to the second construction, the ruins of which were still standing by the middle of the eighteenth century. It was a basilical building originally with an apse (rebuilt as a polygonal choir in the fourteenth century) between two towers in the East. The levels of the oriental part of the church are well documented: as the canons’ choir in the 3 east bays of the nave was elevated by 2 steps over the aisles, the choir square with the main apse was higher than the chorus minor. As the altar of the Virgin Mary in front of the choir was dedicated in 1156, the eastern parts of the building together with several parts of the nave can be dated about this time. The sculptures belonging to this building are classicizing (Corinthian and composite) capitals, partly with figurative elements, going back to figurative capitals from Dömös and related to classicizing details from the construction of the first half of the twelfth century of the royal priory in Óbuda. It seems that the capitals have belonged to a construction both with composed piers and with columns – perhaps in a form of alternation. The nave was not vaulted until the fourteenth century, but vaulting in choir and also in the aisles seems probable. The western part of the nave was built with cross-shaped piers observed by an eighteenth century witness of the ruins. Capitals with acanthus leaves and also with elements of chapiteaux à crochet appear as typical elements of this style also present in the inferior room of the annex to the donjon of the royal Palace, which was built presumably in the 1180’s. The role of North-Italian (magistri campionesi and also Antelami) models in the transmission of stylistic elements of French Early Gothic mixed with Italian traditions has received a strong accent mainly in the art-historical literature of the last decades. The author indicates a very strong analogy of this orientation in Esztergom with the late twelfth century reconstruction of the Salzburg Cathedral of Archbishop Konrad III, the crypt of which was dedicated in 1219. The use of local red marbles – together with the polychromy of different stones – on a series of decorative works following the models of the Salzburg Cathedral in the first half of the thirteenth century is comparable to Esztergom. Recent research – supported both by analysis of sources, technical observations and also geological investigation – have proved that large surfaces of the Esztergom Cathedral were covered with red limestone plates, for obtaining a noble effect. The supposed chronology of Esztergom can be supported by a new chronology of the Transylvanian Cistercian Abbey of Kerc, where the earliest parts of the building seem to correspond to models in Esztergom and Pilisszentkereszt about the hypothetical foundation year 1202. The relationship of this workshop to the central region of the country found its continuation about 1220 as on Kerc monastery appear influences of later works of the same circle (Óbuda, royal palace, cathedral Kalocsa II) and elements of the South German Early Gothic (Magdeburg, Walkenried, Maulbronn) as well. The parish church in Szászsebes (Mühlbach, Sebeş, RO) can be considered as a parallel to Kerc Abbey. Among local followers of Kerc, in Brassó (St. Barthelemys’ Kronstadt, Braş ov, RO), and Halmágy (Holmwegen, Halmăgiu, RO) can be identified decorative and also figurative forms originating from Salzburg, maybe through the intermediary of Kalocsa. It seems, that up to the first third of the thirteenth century the model of Kerc is still valid for provincialized followers as Prázsmár (Tartlau, Prejmer, RO) and Szék (Sic, RO). The latest phase of its influence shows a modernisation following the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár (Weiβenburg, Karlsstadt, Alba Iulia, RO).

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Die Maria Theresianische Urbarialverordnung führte im Wesentlichen, vornehmlich in Hinblick auf die Abgaben und Leistungen keine grundlegenden Änderungen ein, schuf aber in den mitunter unübersichtlichen Zuständen Ordnung und führte landesweit ein einheitliches System ein. Neben etlichen Erleichterungen waren dies Schritte, die den Weg in die Zukunft wiesen.

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Am 29. November des Jahres 1780 starb die Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia, und ihr mitregierender Sohn Joseph II. übernahm die Regentschaft im Habsburgerreich. Dieser Moment gab für die literarisch tätigen Intellektuellen im gesamten Habsburgerreich Anlass Lob- und Huldigungsgedichte zu verfassen. In erster Linie waren es Epicedien (Traueroden), eine andere, weit verbreitete Textsorte war die literarisch anspruchsvolle Trauerpredigt, die gleichzeitig auch als Panegyrik zu deuten ist.

Der Tod der Großfürstin wurde auch in Siebenbürgen von Vielen als historische Krisensituation betrachtet. Welche Ängste und Erwartungen in Siebenbürgen in diesem geschichtsträchtigen Moment auftauchen, lässt sich an den Gedichten ablesen, die aus diesem Anlass von verschiedenen siebenbürgisch-sächsischen Autoren verfasst wurden. Zu den Autoren gehören vor allem Kleriker wie der Stadtpfarrer in Hermannstadt und Dekan des Kapitels, Daniel Filtsch; Professoren der Gymnasien wie z.B. Martin Traugott Closius, Rektor des Kronstädter Gymnasiums; der Konrektor Johann Roth, der Lektor Samuel Schramm. Die wohl bekannteste Persönlichkeit ist aber der Historiker, Sprachforscher und Dichter Johann Seivert, der zugleich stellvertretender Rektor des Hermannstädter Gymnasiums und später Hammersdorfer Pfarrer war.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie die politischen Bestrebungen von Maria Theresia in Siebenbürgen literarisch rezipiert, bzw. in verschiedenen literarischen Textsorten beurteilt worden sind. Darüber hinaus wird versucht, das im kulturellen Gedächtnis der Siebenbürger Sachsen erhaltene, literarisch geformte Bild der Großfürstin von Siebenbürgen zu untersuchen.

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Der Beitrag widmet sich der Schulreformen in Ungarn und im Besonderen der Rolle von Johann Ignaz von Felbiger (1724-1788). Seine Pressburger Jahre (1779-1788) werden kommentiert, jedoch nur in Anfangsphase seiner Tätigkeit in Ungarn. Es wird gerne behauptet, dass er dorthin eigentlich verbannt worden sei. Die neuere Forschung, so auch diese Studie, erhellt die frühere Rolle von Felbiger in österreichischen und tschechischen Ländern, die eine ganz ähnliche war: Er sollte Anfang der 1780er Jahre das System der Trivialschulen in Ungarn in Schwung bringen und seine Kompatibilität mit jenem in hereditären Ländern gewährleisten. Der Verlust seiner Position hing mit dem Wechsel in der Schulpolitik nach 1781 zusammen.

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We investigated whether there is an association between autistic traits in the broader phenotype and the ability to compute scalar implicatures. Previous studies found that the frequency of autistic traits is higher in students of science than of humanities. Here we recorded the frequency of rejection of underinformative scalar items in students enrolled either in a science or in a humanities curriculum and assessed their autistic traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient questionnaire. We found that rejections were less frequent in science curricula students than in humanities curricula students. Moreover, rejections were associated negatively with autistic traits and positively with performance on Theory-of-Mind tasks. These findings suggest that autism cognitive phenotype is negatively associated with a propensity to spontaneously derive scalar implicatures.

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In 2014 the discovery of a Mithras' statue at Tarquinia occurred. This was due to the Comando Tutela Patrimonio Culturale dell'Arma dei Carabinieri, which informed the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Etruria Meridionale about clandestine activities in May 2014 on the poggio della Civita – where the ancient city of Tarquinia stood – in a zone close to the Etruscan temple of the Ara della Regina (fig. 1).

As soon as possible, the Soprintendenza carried out an archaeological excavation, focusing the effort on the need to find evidence for the place of origin of the magnificent sculptural group (fig. 2), which represents Mithras Tauroctonus. This sculpture was recovered by the Carabinieri after investigation by the police, directed by the Procura della Repubblica of the law court of Rome.

Archaeological research since then has led to the discovery of another marble part of the same sculpture (fig. 3), i.e., the dog leaning on the knee of the bull and perfectly dovetailing with the Mithraic Tauroctony. The discovery of another fragment pertaining to the same sculpture is an irrefutable proof that the Mithras' statue came from the domus of the Civita of Tarquinia, which represents an important and new scientific result.

The only other sculptural group depicting Mithras in Southern Etruria was one previously found in Vulci, discovered in 1975 after a clandestine excavation close to the domus del Criptoportico. This new finding proves the spread of this cult in Tarquinia, as well, and the style of the new sculpture suggests a chronological priority of the Tarquinian Mithraeum in respect to that in Vulci.

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Abstract

Dohnányi's Second Piano Quintet in E-flat minor was written in 1914 and is less well-known than his first one dating from 1895. The composer has been called a traditionalist, so it is worth examining how tradition appears in this work. The outer movements of the three-movement-form are both elegiac and weighty. The beginning bears the key signature of E-flat major instead of minor, but the keys are changing rapidly as the piece progresses. This is reminiscent of Franz Schubert or of Antonín Dvořák, for instance in his Piano Quartet (op. 87) inspired by Brahms. The third movement's opening is a homage to Beethoven's late String Quartet in A Minor (op. 132). While the latter works on a sub-thematic level, Dohnányi presents an elaborated theme in fugal technique, which in 1914 was a more conservative approach than Beethoven's in 1825. For Dohnányi, the symmetric structures are not a way out of traditional tonality (unlike for Bartók, who also frequently used symmetries), but rather are a way of extending it. The formal concept is no less interesting. The recapitulation of the first movement's material within the third is evocative of the double-function form used by Franz Liszt. While Liszt conflated the traditional multi-movement form into a new one-movement form, Dohnányi – so to speak – concealed the characteristics of the new one-movement form inside a traditional three-movement form. Thus, one could ask if the accusations against Dohnányi for being a traditionalist are justified. Perhaps instead we should reconsider how traditionalism and modernity are situated in our own set of aesthetic values.

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A unified semantics of Chinese adverbial ziji ‘self’ is proposed for its three exclusive readings. In the proposal, adverbial ziji is a focused item, evoking alternatives for consideration by its focus semantic value. Depending on domain variation and different syntactic adjoining positions, ziji shows various surface readings, though the availability of readings is affected by context, world knowledge, and a relation presupposition triggered by ziji. The proposed mechanism suggests the following. First, CauseP for internal causation cannot be introduced by ziji, but is projected more prevalently than commonly assumed. Second, CauseP should be projected in anticausatives. If this analysis is on the right track, it will give us a new perspective of intensifiers and the projection of CauseP, and it will also help us advance the study of anticausatives.

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This paper discusses Early Byzantine clasps in the form of peacock, which occurred in modern Abkhazia and Kartli. These brooches date from the sixth and seventh centuries and meet with parallels among synchronous mediaeval antiquities. Peacock brooches discovered in the Southern Caucasus were imported directly from Byzantium. These finds indicate connections of the population of the Southern Caucasus and the Byzantine Empire.

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Egy 14. századi oltármenza elméleti rekonstrukciója

Megjegyzések a mecseknádasdi Szent István-kápolna művészettörténeti értékeléséhez

Author: Gergely Kovács
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Egyptianism

Appropriating ‘Egypt’ in the ‘Isiac Cults’ of the Graeco-Roman World

Authors: Valentino Gasparini and Richard L. Gordon

Summary

When dealing with Isis, Serapis and the other members of the so-called ‘gens isiaca’, scholars have hesitated whether to emphasize their (indisputable) historico-geographic origin in the Nile valley or their (no less indisputable) character as Graeco-Roman cults. We thus find these deities referred to as ‘Egyptian’, ‘Graeco-Egyptian’, ‘Graeco-Roman’, ‘Greek’, ‘Roman’ and, again, ‘Oriental’, ‘Orientalized Roman’, and so on. Each of these definitions is evidently partial, which is one reason for the growing preference for the less specific terms ‘Isiac gods’ and ‘Isiac cults’. Yet even these elide the problem of how these cults were perceived in relation to Egypt. This article aims to challenge the terms of the conventional dichotomy between Egyptian and Graeco-Roman, by exploring the many specific contexts in which ‘Egypt’ was appropriated, for example, by institutions, intellectuals (e.g. ‘Middle-’ and Neo-Platonists), Christian apologists, late-antique encyclopedists, etc. Starting with the comparandum ‘Persianism’ recently highlighted in relation to the cult of Mithras, the paper will explore the various interests and aims involved in the construction of ideas of Egypt, which might even involve more than one ‘Egyptianism’ at the same time. Each of our nine suggested ‘Egyptianisms’ is the creation of numerous ‘producers’, who adapted what they knew of ‘Egypt’ (‘foreign’, ‘exotic’, ‘other’) to create their own religious offers. Our basic model is derived from the Erfurt project Lived Ancient Religions, which inverts the usual representation of ancient religion as collective (‘polis religion’, ‘civic religion’) in favour of a perspective that stresses individual agency, sense-making and appropriation within a range of broader constraints.

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A solidus of Constantine VII and Roman II from Marosújvár/Ocna Mures. The paper deals with a solidus of Constantine VII and Romanos II which was found in 1861 in Marosújvár (today Ocna Mureş, Romania). A drawing and a description of the finding circumstances was sent to Carl Torma, historian of antiquity by the engineer Franz Pošepny. From Transylvania only half a dozen Byzantine coins of the 9th–10th centuries are known. The majority of the Byzantine coins known from the Carpathian Basin belong to the reign of Constantine VII and Roman II, and were given to the Hungarians as a gift or subsidium. The author in his study gives an evaluation of it.

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Summary

Regarding the Mithras cult, Pannonia had an exceptional status in the Roman Empire. This unique status was connected with the huge numbers of military forces stationed there. Numerous inscriptions and altars give evidence that Pannonia had an uncommon sensitivity for religions; this is why some local characteristics and relief-versions could be made, for example: dadophores with pelta shields, and unique dedicational forms which are mostly known in Pannonia, and perhaps spread from there to other parts of the Empire. In my paper, I want to show the connections between Mithras and Sol on their Pannonian representations.

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In his paper the author deals with the famous verse inscription CIL III 3676 that described an event in Pannonia in 118 AD during Emperor Hadrian’s visit. Based on the thorough examination of the very long manuscript tradition of the text the lost epitaph was most probably erected in/or around Rome and never belonged to Pannonian inscriptions. It seems there was an earlier unknown Italian and British line of the tradition but the archetypus (x) remains unknown. The author also intends to point out that the Batavian rider cannot surely be called Soranus. This adjective refers rather to the findspot, Sora near Rome. The question of the rider’s name und his unit must remain unsolved. The poem was attributed to Emperor Hadrian latest from the Late Antiquity.

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2016-ban Kiskunmajsán egy régészeti leletmentés során egy éremlelet, valamint egy kincslelet került elő. A két leletegyüttes pénzeinek meghatározását V. Székely György végezte el. Jelen tanulmányunk célja a numizmatikai emlékanyag rövid ismertetése, amivel a feltáráson előkerült régészeti jelenségek keltezéséhez kívánunk hozzájárulni.

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Abstract

The investigation of the integration of East-Central European nurses into global labour market excluded the possible analysis of a spatially well definable group at the beginning of the research project; therefore the application of a different method became necessary. These women move between not only home and a new place of residence abroad, but, depending on job opportunities and various life situations, live in a number of countries, changing sites. Consequently, it has seemed adequate to focus on the specific features of the subject matter and to choose sites of research accordingly.

For the study of migration it is a significant contribution of multi-sited ethnography, beyond the pragmatic novelty of methodology, i.e. the multiplication of sites, that transgressing the national and international interpretive framework, it opens up transnational dimension and draws attention to the fact that new entities (e. g. networks and sites) may come into being that rewrite the topography of migration. This method requires flexibility, creativity and shifts of technology. But how can this new type of information be managed? This is the level where it is worth stepping over from multiple fields to multiple sites, and search for the connection between the sites instead of the comparability of fields. The author of the article provides an interpretive framework for the understanding of participation of East-Central European women in global catering sector at various points of the phenomenon and it contributes to the exploration of the inner dynamics and logics.

In course of the ever-expanding field research integrating new sites it may become clear that the key to understand the phenomenon is not to be detected in locally available contexts, but, rather, in the study of the various aspects of the phenomenon. Data got into context due to glancing at the process at several sites. The sites formed context for one another to deepen understanding.

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Abstract

As a result of the Sámi ethnic revitalization process, not only is the right to practicing indigenous culture controlled by local communities today, but it is also heavily disputed who can access, use, perform, interpret, and shape their culture. Recently this debate has increasingly influenced academic discourse as well. By the last decades of the 20th century, the Sámi people, similarly to other indigenous peoples, contributed to ongoing scholarly activity with their own researchers. As a consequence of this, reservations as to external (foreign) rresearchers are more and more emphatically worded. Besides differences of the motivations and opportunities of “western” vs. “indigenous” science, epistemological problems also occur, due to varying world views and categories derived from differing practices of experiences, as well as to a scepticism as to the existence of authentic translation. In this way the relation of researcher and field site cannot be merely restricted to data collection and interpretation. Data processing, publication of findings and presentation of achievements for the scholarly elite of informants and the studied community are also of importance.

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In this study, the author reflects on his personal experiences and dilemma, when in 2000 an analyst from the Missing in Action Division of the United States Department of Defence asked him to identify some photos taken during the 1980-s in Vietnam. Although the author refused this request at first, he later realized that he would in fact have to identify himself on the photos and agreed to cooperate. The department wanted to make sure that the person in question was not a lost American officer previously detained in a “re-education camp”. The mere fact of this request shocked the author, making him aware of the ideological, political and ethical hazards of field research in Vietnam and the dangers generally inherent in anthropological fieldwork. His article investigates these problems.

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During the excavations of the Upper Palaeolithic site at Mogyorósbánya several non-utilitarian artefacts were found. Beside the earlier published piece of fossil resin (amber) and lumps of red ochre, more than one hundred Palaeogene and Neogene fossil molluscs, large foraminifers, corals and trace fossils from at least three different geological formations, as well as numerous fragments of phyllite were documented.

Pebbles of this soft shale were most probably collected from the alluvium of the Danube river. The majority of the pieces show clear traces of scraping and along the periphery of the largest artefact rhythmic incisions are visible. Even if this piece is not a ready-made object, it can be compared to the limestone and sandstone pebbles found on the Epigravettian site of Pilismarót-Pálrét. Another interesting artefact of unknown function is a carefully shaped but strongly fragmented piece with sharp edge.

Fossils of the Eocene Epoch were easily accessible in the region of Mogyorósbánya, while the nearest fossiliferous outcrops of the Oligocene and Pannonian sediments are found 15–17 km in south-eastern direction from the site.

Few gastropod shells show unambiguous traces of human modification. Typically, among the 16 Melanopsis fossils found in a single square meter only three pieces were manufactured. On the other hand, the majority of the Dentalium and worm tube fragments were cut and their surfaces show intense rounding and shine.

The not modified Nummulites, corals and large internal casts of gastropods were most probably collected by Prehistoric humans because of their unusual form. This interesting group of the Mogyorósbánya artefacts and are compared to the fossils published from the Pilisszántó I rockshelter and to the not modified fossils from Moravia and Romania.

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Abstract

The gains from the folk music collection movement initiated by Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály in the first decade of the twentieth century set a path for Hungarian music theory that continued to influence the approach to composition in later decades. Placing folklore material in composed, classical works is complicated by tonal and formal problems and by political overtones. For quotations or thematic material from folk music may introduce complex implications and associations. So the way a composer imbues folk music calls for more than mere technical skill – it embodies an artistic statement. This article analyzes two works by the Hungarian composer and ethnomusicologist László Lajtha (1892–1963): his string quartets nos. 7 and 10 completed in the early 1950s. Through these two quartets I attempt to fathom the aesthetic, ideological and personal motives behind Lajtha's use of folk material in classical composition. Analysis of the composing process involved and the reception the two works received reveal the manifold scope that folk music brings as a source of inspiration.

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Summary

Augustus' approach to cults of foreign origins has recently undergone much reconsideration. Until the late 20th century, scholars largely regarded the emperor's religious policies as deeply conservative, maintaining that Augustus was mostly preoccupied with the ‘restoration’ of ancient Italian religion and discouraged the worship of foreign gods. In the last three decades, however, scholars have identified a rather different trend, noticing, in fact, Augustus' openness towards the ‘foreign’. In this paper, I explore Augustus' position about ‘foreign’ rites that were highly popular in contemporary Rome, and specifically, the Eleusinian Mysteries, the Egyptian rites, the cult of Mater Magna, and the cult of Apollo (although, as I clarify below, the last one cannot be strictly labeled as ‘foreign’). I offer a survey of ancient literary sources – giving an interpretation of them as comprehensive as possible considering the nature of this contribution – and argue that Augustus was not only receptive of ‘foreign’ practices but was also able to shape the ‘foreign’ to his own advantage and self-promotion, transforming it into a vital feature of the new imperial reality.

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Gabriel González Núñez, Reine Meylaerts (eds)

Translation and Public Policy: Interdisciplinary Perspectives and Case Studies

Authors: Hui Liu and Liuyin Zhao
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Carved, embroidered, painted. Effectual strategies of late medieval devotional images. Based on the assumption that the late medieval tension between the desire for God’s grace (Heilssehnsucht) and the uncertainty of it (Heilsunsicherheit) influenced devotional art, the article focuses on three late medieval images designed for private devotional use. A prayer nut carved from boxwood, a triptych embroidered with silk, gold and silver, and the Leipzig Man of Sorrows by the so-called Master Francke all show a popular image of the late Middle Ages, the Man of Sorrows surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. They all make use of techniques to create both closeness and distance to what they represent. The images pull the beholder close through a multitude of details, a realistic style and the illusion of the Man of Sorrows being palpably present, to the point of triggering an impulse to touch him. At the same time, they fail to provide the closeness they suggest. The border between the beholder’s sphere and that of the Christ represented, marked by the necessity to open the objects first, cannot be crossed. Blurred details, overlappings and the impossibility to touch the fine artworks, lest they be impaired, push the beholder away, leaving the contemplation of the presented image to his or her inner eye instead. This fine balance designed to induce devotion gets lost in the modern era when the images’ skilfulness becomes the main motive for admiration.

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Jelen tanulmány a balatonszemes–szemesi-bereki temető sírleleteinek háromszintű (viselet, viseleti elem, készítéstechnológia) elemzésének az eredményeire épül, amelyek alapján az antik, késő római, barbár és germán hagyományok 5. századi továbbélésével, átalakulásával és a korszak újításaival foglalkozik.

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Abstract

During the 1960s, the operatic works of Slovak composer Ján Cikker were among the most often performed contemporary operas in Europe, especially in the two German states. The reasons of this success are as interesting as the reasons of the decline that occurred during the 1970s. In both cases, the intensity of the publisher Bärenreiter's support and marketing played an important role, as did the change of the audience's taste which brought a general decrease in the popularity of the post-war Literaturoper in the tradition of Richard Strauss, the music of which was moderately modern and did not fulfill (as it was not meant to fulfill) the requirements of New Music. The reception of Cikker's work, its aesthetic background, and its musical and dramatic solutions are exemplified within his chef d'oeuvre, the opera Vzkriesenie (Resurrection, 1962), based on Tolstoy's novel, which is highly consistent in its dramaturgy thanks to Fritz Oeser, the libretto's silent co-author.

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Klára Garas was called upon in 1993 to write about the paintings by or attributed to Giorgione preserved in America. The manuscript was completed, but it has been never published. The author passed the article to the Acta Historiae Artium shortly before her death (26 June 2017), and it is published now only with small technical amendments.

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Authors: Chantal Gagnon, Pier-Pascale Boulanger and Esmaeil Kalantari

This article deals with some of the theoretical and methodological problems that arise when working with a bilingual comparable (i.e., non-parallel) journalistic corpus of financial news that is relatively large (9 million words). The corpus under study comprises two sets of texts drawn from Canadian French and English newspapers in the years between the Tech Wreck of 2001 and the financial crisis of 2007−2008. Following Davier (2015) who advocates for a broadened definition of news translation that includes intralingual activity, the authors make a case for the study of intralingual translation, or rewording, which is a fundamental feature of financial news, as journalists work to popularize specialized knowledge for lay audiences. The methodological challenges of surveying interlingual translation in a sizeable corpus of financial news are discussed in relation with the production of news in Canada. A pilot study using the lexical item “subprime” and its French equivalents illustrates how interlingual and intralingual translation can be investigated in a corpus comprising 18,601 news items. The authors explain how they apply a mixed-method approach (Saldanha and O’Brien 2013) that is based on the interaction between qualitative and quantitative analysis in their research on news translation.

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The one hundredth anniversary of the end of World War I and the subsequent peace negotiations will inevitably become a historical focal point. Accordingly, this article will deal with American involvement in Europe, but especially in Hungarian affairs with regards to the private realm rather than the official spectrum. American participation always bordered official yet unofficial conduct, which is even truer for the successor countries in Central Europe. A few Americans visited Hungary during the Peace Conference in various capacities. Although their official work has been to a large degree uncovered by historians, their private work still remains elusive. Hence, the diary of such an American officer will shed light on various interesting angles of American thinking of the era and the relationship between American representatives and various Hungarians of the day. The article will introduce Charles Moorfield Storey’s journal, a significant part of which was written while he was in Hungary in the first few weeks of 1919. Storey was a member of the famous Coolidge Mission, whose headquarters was in Vienna. From here Americans set out to visit and gather information on the various countries in their purview, Hungary among them. Based upon the diary entries, one can learn about daily work of the Americans at the Paris Peace Conference, the Coolidge Mission, and Storey’s experience in Hungary shortly after the conclusion of the war.

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Authors: Beatrice Palma Venetucci, Beatrice Cacciotti and Maria Mangiafesta

Summary

This paper discusses the preliminary results of a research project, concerning Egyptian statues and Mithraic monuments, which were probably discovered in Antium and obtained by chance by local collectors or sold by antiquarians after scarcely documented excavations through the 17th–18th centuries.

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Abstract

Giulia Grisi (1811–1869), the first Adalgisa in Vincenzo Bellini's Norma (Milan, 1831), broke her Italian contract and left for Paris in 1832, where she became prima donna under Gioachino Rossini at the Théâtre Italien. In addition, she made her London debut in 1834, replacing Maria Malibran in the young Victoria's eyes and ears with her singing, acting, and flawless beauty, especially in the operas of the future Queen's favourite, Vincenzo Bellini. Grisi's real goal, however, was to conquer Giuditta Pasta's throne by embodying Norma: she first performed the role in London in 1835, and then in almost every season until 1861. Despite her success, she was unjustly attacked for copying Pasta, as established by Thomas G. Kaufman. Bellini himself likewise misjudged her, stating that “the elevated characters she does not understand, does not feel, because she has neither the instinct nor the education to sustain them with the nobility and the lofty style they demand.” “In Norma she will be a nonentity; … the role of Adalgisa is the only one suited to her character.” Nonetheless, even hostile critics like Henry F. Chorley had to acknowledge that “her Norma, doubtless her grandest performance … was an improvement on the model [i.e. Pasta]; … there was in it the wild ferocity of the tigress, but a certain frantic charm therewith, which carried away the hearer – nay, which possibly belongs to the true reading of the character.” The purpose of this article is to investigate Grisi's London reception, primarily in the context of her Norma performances.

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The paper focuses on the news backgrounder, a sub-genre which has until now received less attention in translation studies. It is a major site of the journalist’s voice and is thus deemed a fertile field for the exploration of subjectivity and ideology in translation. The paper, dealing with the language pair English–Italian, stems from an emblematic context which led to two case studies allowing for interesting comparisons. The weekly news magazine Internazionale, counting on the collaboration of freelance professional translators and the news website Italiadallestero, supported by volunteer collaboration, are the focus of attention. The two cases share the same interest, i.e., how Italy and Italians are seen through the eyes of the foreign press and both fundamentally rely on translation. Issues of subjectivity and ideology are invariably entailed and conveyed through evaluative language choices. In order to examine their meaning and effects, the paper makes use of an approach that combines a product- and a context-oriented methodology, the former grounded on a text-focused qualitative analysis within the framework of Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005), the latter based on interviews with (some of) the agents who were actually involved in the translation process.

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This article sets out to contribute to the debate and discussions on methodological approaches in news translation, focusing on a specific research question in a specific news context, namely community radio news in South Africa. Multilingualism and translation in community media has not been problematized within translation studies. In South Africa, research on multilingualism and the media has focused mainly on language planning and language policy, rather than practice. The hypothesis guiding this paper is that the multilingual nature of community radio in South Africa necessarily implies a multiple flow of translation into and from the country’s eleven official languages. The aim is, thus, to explore and describe the multilingual community radio landscape in the Free State province of South Africa, to map the translation flow. A mixed methods research design is followed to collect data and provide answers to the research questions posed.