This paper discusses the Mithraic reliefs found in Etruria (Regio VII). The reliefs are analysed and their iconographic, archaeological and chronological features compared with a view to advancing new proposals on the cult of Mithras in the area concerned. The paper focuses first on the new Mithraic relief discovered in Veii and discusses the presence of a specific object that constitutes the most original iconographic feature of the relief. It can be seen aligned behind Mithras' head, which obscures its central part: considering its shape and the presence of the quiver over Mithras' right shoulder, the object can be identified as a bow. The object's specific position, probably connected to the symbolic importance of the bow in the mysteries of Mithras, is unique not only among Mithraic reliefs but also in the surviving Mithraic evidence from the Roman world. The other reliefs from Etruria are analysed, with a brief description of the type of iconography, the chronology and archaeological context of each piece. Comparing the reliefs allows us to pinpoint differences in size, style and chronology, highlighting the uniqueness of the new relief from Veii. These differences can be put down to factors that are yet to be examined in more detail, connected to the clients and the workshops operating in the region. The study concludes that the Veii relief can be considered not only the oldest and most stylistically refined of these pieces, but also one of the earliest attestations of the cult of Mithras in Etruria.
In 2014, during the archaeological investigations carried out by the University of Bologna (Department of History and Cultures – Section of Archaeology), within the Ostia Marina Project, in the suburban neighborhood out of Porta Marina (block IV, ix), a new building has been found with outstanding Mithraic features. The building, for the special type of the marble floor of the spelaeum, has been conventionally called the “Mithraeum of colored marbles”. The spelaeum has a single bench, a ritual well and a flowerbed for a sacred plant. It differs clearly both in form and size from the typical patterns of the mithraea discovered until now in ancient Ostia. On the basis of the currently available data, a very late chronology (end of 4th century AD) can be proposed for the building.
A 4. századi Pannoniában hatalmas erődítmények épültek olyan területeken, ahol korábban sem erődök, sem nagyobb települések nem voltak. E belső erődök rendeltetéséről hosszú vita folyt. A kérdésre a jelen tanulmány új szempontok felvetésével új választ kínál.
The author of the article wishes to compare Hungarian textual and musical folkloristics at the turn of the 20th century with regard to changes in fieldwork methodologies. Hungarian folklore studies in the 19th century preferred text-oriented recording of performances, while by the first half of the 20th century the need for a performance-centered study of folklore with the help of audio recording emerged. Owing to a fundamental change in the method of folklorecollection, Hungarian folklorists studying folk music and folk dance by the middle of the 20th century applied the method of participant observation. In the meantime extensive collection gave way to intensive collection focusing on the repertoire of a given local community or of an outstanding performer. In this process Béla Vikár had a distinguished role as he was the first one to use phonograph in collecting folk poetry and folk music in Hungary, besides which, with the help of stenography, he has a remarkable manuscript legacy of folktales and folk customs as well. The approach and objectives of Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály differed from those of Vikár's, since for them quantitative considerations were still important, while Vikár's approach borrowed elements from social sciences as well. The break-through in this respect was marked with the oeuvre of László Lajtha, a disciple of Bartók, who dealt with vocal and instrumental folk music alike. During five decades Lajtha as a collector shifted paradigms a number of times and on the peak of his folklorist oeuvre he published monographs on the vocal and instrumental musical repertoire of bands and villages. His studies inspired György Martin, dance folklorist as well as the revival folk dance movement in the 1970s. The performer-centred study of narration that Gyula Ortutay elaborated on at the beginning of the 1940s proved to be successful primarily in the study of prose epic genres and it unreflexively followed the method of folk musicologists.
Viktor Madarász (1830–1917) is considered as one of the defining exponents of “Hungarian national art”. Yet, paradoxically, the anointed painter of the so-called Hungarian national romanticism had to go abroad to paint the pictures that would promote the national consciousness in an oppressed country and champion the ideals of Hungarian independence. Madarász lived in the French capital for almost a decade and a half, studying under the academic master Léon Cogniet, exhibiting in the Salon de Paris and becoming acquainted with illustrious members of the Parisian art society. The work that Madarász carried out in France prompts us to investigate the circumstances that influenced his career there. This study aims to take a look at the most productive period in Madarász’s career – his Parisian period – in the light of the latest research and with particular emphasis on the works he exhibited at the Salon de Paris. In conveying new information and discussing the social and cultural circumstances of Viktor Madarász’s sojourn in Paris, as well as the connections he built up there – with educational establishments, exhibiting institutions, patrons, mediators and other artists –, this paper is intended to provide new insight into the strategies the artist pursued in order to build his career, and thereby to present his Parisian period in a new light.
Recent research has increasingly questioned the “grand dichotomy” between “Paganism” and Christianity and brings into light the prominence of spaces with shared meanings in diverse cults related to mystic beliefs and practices. An excellent example is Vibia's tomb within Praetextatus' catacomb, on the Via Appia. Dated to the 4th century AD, this place combines epigraphy and a fascinating iconography pointing to a mystic initiation of the deceased within a syncretic context.
In the 10th century, the nomadic Khitan, with their Liao dynasty, became the most dominant power in East Asia, posing enormous threats to the Chinese Song dynasty in the south. Based on an analysis of the traditional Chinese world view, this paper examines the two opposing views of the Song Chinese about their Khitan neighbours in the north. The Song Chinese acknowledged the military prowess of the Khitan and thus advocated flexible diplomatic policies based on realistic observation and careful assessment, demonstrated by the diplomatic parity set by the Treaty of Chanyuan in 1005. In the meantime, many held firm belief in their cultural superiority over the “barbarians”, which derived from the tradition of a cultural sino-centrism. The Song looked for Confucian sources to justify their concession by turning their attention to the cultivation of virtue and were confident that they were the centre of culture and civilisation.
Porphyry's Cave of Nymphs is dedicated to deciphering the philosophical and theological significance of the cave described by Homer in the Thirteenth Canto of the Odyssey. However, within the exegesis of the Homeric cave awaits another exegesis concerning the cave in which Mithras sacrifices the bull and in which the initiation of the worshippers and the common meal take place.
According to Porphyry, the cave of the Nymphs is the place in which the worshippers were initiated into the platonic mystery of the descent and ascent of souls. Mithras, assimilated to the Demiurge of the Timaeus, generates souls by killing the bull he has caught, ridden and dragged into the cave which symbolises the cosmos. The souls, which are created by the bull/moon like bees in a sort of bougonia (cf. Virgil, Georgics IV), and which are animated by his blood, descend into the cycle of generation and incarnation and are dragged down by Boreas, the cold wind that keeps them cool in the place of earthly generation. After successive reincarnations the warm wind of Notus dissolves the carnal vestments that imprison them and returns them to the heat of the Sun.
Conclusion. After the comparison between the text of Porphyry and the CIMRM will show that the theme of the descent and ascent of souls is very weak in Mithraic finds, and the reading of tauroctony as bougonia remains deprived of iconographic evidence. To sum up, The Cave of the Nymphs is more relevant to the history of Platonism than to the history of Mithraicism.
The Hungarian words komor ‘gloomy’ and komoly ‘serious’ are of unknown origin. The present paper aims to elucidate this question from various angles: it gives an overview of what the Hungarian etymological dictionaries say on this topic, shows that komoly is a relatively late development out of komor, spread by the language reformers (especially by Ferenc Kazinczy) at the end of the 18th century, and presents the attempts to prove the Turkic origin of komor. Finally, it offers a Slavic etymology based on the Slavic stem *chmur-, demonstrates that semantically the two words match perfectly, and dissolves the phonological doubts that may arise at first sight.
Petronius szatirikus regényének legismertebb részlete, a Cena Trimalchionis már régóta nemcsak a filológusok és irodalomtörténészek, hanem a római társadalomtudósok és gazdaságtörténészek érdeklődésének homlokterében áll. A kutatásban mára konszenzussá vált, hogy Trimalchio személyében Petronius a korai principátus egyik tipikus szereplőjét: a rabszolga-származású, részben egykori gazdája vagyonából, részben önerejéből megtollasodott parvenü libertinus karikatúráját írta meg. Trimalchio fiktív síremlékének és sírfeliratának elemzése azt bizonyítja, hogy bár ez a kép nagy általánosságban igaz, mégis „finomhangolásra” szorul. Először is: mindez elsősorban irodalom, melynek elsődleges célja, hogy – a nyilvánvaló morális tanulságokon túl – szórakoztasson. Másodsorban a szatíra három alapvető eszközzel dolgozik: a tipizálással, a vegyítéssel és a nagyítással/kicsinyítéssel. Nem csoda hát, ha Trimalchio személyében is a kortárs Róma megannyi celebritásának jellemzőit felfedezték már (Maecenas, Claudius, Nero stb.). A monumentum és az epitaphium elemzése mégis leginkább azt mutatja, hogy Trimalchio megannyi „császári allűrje” és hatalmas gazdagsága ellenére csak egy nagyszájú vidéki bugris, akinek környezete – mint ő maga is – kívül-belül giccses és ízléstelen. A tanulmányban megvizsgáljuk a Sat. 71, 5–12 eddigi fordításainak erősségeit és hibáit, és egy saját fordításra is kísérletet teszünk.
The Czechs have limited personal experience with foreign non-European cultures, people of different appearances and other religions. Apart from the not always latent xenophobic attitude towards “other” cultures, Czechs are known to have an almost paranoid fear of the decisions of larger nations. These are two complementary factors that determine the cultural profile of the Czech nation. Czech history, rich in moments and periods of the nation's failure, its humiliation and frustration, provides numerous examples serving to explain this situation. Everything foreign, new and unknown attracts an audience and at the same time repels it. This study demonstrates, using several examples from Czech music, how ambivalent the perception of “the other” can be: as something that fascinates but at the same time evokes fear and a feeling of threat. This experience with the ambivalent meaning of “the other” is surely not only characteristic of Czechs. Other nations also view “the other” as a projection wall of their desires and fantasies as well as fears. One can find similar motifs in other art works of a different provenience. In the case of small nations, however, these themes can be accentuated by the influence of particular historical situations and viewed from the perspective of established interpretations.
Two of the most significant innovations of the fourth millennium BC were the invention of the wheel and of wheeled vehicles, which led to other major innovations during the Late Copper Age. Discussed here are the major milestones and advances in research on wheeled vehicles, problems of dating, and the issues relating to the actual place of the invention of wheeled vehicles as well as the fruitful collaboration between various analytical disciplines and archaeology concerned with the study of wheels and early wheeled vehicles.
I have collected the finds relating to wheels and wheeled vehicles. It would appear that the invention of the wheel and of wheeled conveyances occurred in different centres. Even though we are unable to date the creation of the very first vehicle to the year, it seems quite certain that wheeled vehicles appeared more or less simultaneously in several regions in the fourth millennium BC.
This study surveys the musical notation appearing in the liturgical manuscripts of the Order of St. Paul the First Hermit from the fourteenth until the eighteenth century. As a Hungarian foundation, the Pauline Order adopted one of the most elaborate and proportionate Gregorian chant notations of the medieval Catholic Church, the mature calligraphic Hungarian/Esztergom style, and used it faithfully, but in a special eremitical way in its liturgical manuscripts over an exceptionally long period, far beyond the Middle Ages. The research sought to study all the Pauline liturgical codices and codex fragments in which this Esztergom-Pauline notation emerges, then record the single neume shapes and supplementary signs of each source in a database. Systematic comparison has produced many results. On the one hand, it revealed the chronological developments of the Pauline notation over about four centuries. On the other hand, it has been possible to differentiate notation variants, to separate a rounded-flexible and a later more angular, standardized Pauline writing form based on the sources, thereby grasping the transition to Gothic penmanship at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. A further result of the study is the discovery of some retrospective Pauline notation types connected to the Early Modern and Baroque period, after the Tridentine Council. The characteristics of the notations of the choir books in the Croatian and the Hungarian Pauline provinces have been well defined and some individual subtypes distinguished – e.g. a writing variant of the centre of the Croatian Pauline province, Lepoglava.
This paper is written in order to reread the sequence of signs 〈ẄzčI〉 and 〈TSN〉 occurring in the sentence 〈ẄzčI : TSN : TWTmstgbIz〉, in the 13th line of the Tuńuquq Inscription. It is proposed that the sequence 〈ẄzčI〉, which has been hitherto transcribed as *üzäči, *üzüči, *özäči, *öz [i]či, *özčä and *üzči, may be transcribed as öz äči ‘(someone’s) own (paternal) uncle’. As is known, the sign 〈S〉 represents both š and s which have been used beside back vowels in the Tuńuquq Inscription. However, the sign 〈S〉 in the 〈TSN〉 sign group has been uniformly transcribed as š by all previous researchers (*tašïn), and they attempted to interpret that lexeme either through the meanings ‘stone’ or ‘outside’. The present paper proposes that the 〈TSN〉 sign group may also be read as atïsïn ‘his nephew (+acc.)’. Furthermore, the meaning ‘to capture’ of the Old Turkic verb tut- is particularly emphasised in the interpretation of the mentioned sentence. Finally, the whole sentence is transcribed and interpreted as öz äči atïsïn tutmïš täg biz ‘We look as if (someone’s) own uncle has captured his own nephew’.
Roma people are often depicted in Central European literature and fine arts in the end of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century. The topic was likely chosen not only because of an ethnographical interest, but also because orientalism in the nineteenth century meant for several Austrian artists the depiction of the life and customs of Hungarian and Transylvanian gypsies, who were believed to be originally from the East. In the second half of the century August Pettenkofen, who had often visited the town of Szolnok in the Great Hungarian Plain with his painter friends, also turned to the ‘exotic’ life of Hungarian peasants, csikós (horse-herdsmen) and nomadic gypsies. The artists of genre artworks depicting the folk, a genre flourishing in Hungary since the middle of the nineteenth century, also often choose the life and customs of Roma people as the topic of their art, usually presenting them in a detailed way and using stereotypes.
This study examines a different kind of depiction of Roma people in the nineteenth century in literature, artworks and music. The so-called ‘Three gypsies’ topic is currently believed to have appeared for the first time in 1836 in Ferenc Pongrácz’s painting, however, it became truly popular because of Nikolaus Lenau’s poem, which had a title similar to the painting’s and was published soon after the painting. The topic appears in several contemporary paintings and illustrations, and Ferenc Liszt also created a musical composition based on it. Lenau’s poem and the artworks inspired by it include a certain symbolical-philosophical approach instead of the ethnographic interest popular at the time or the anecdotical depiction of the everyday life of Roma people. The image of the three gypsies in the poem and the artworks and illustrations – the first one is playing a fiddle, the second one is smoking a pipe and the third one is sleeping – symbolizes not only the longing for a poor but free life without the yoke of social norms, but also illustrates different attitudes and philosophies of life (vita activa, vita contemplativa, turning away from the world).
The symbolical-philosophical nature of the poem and the artworks is emphasized by a significant part of these works, the motif of the instrument hung upon a tree, which first appears in Psalm 137 from the Old Testament. The psalm depicts the pain of the Jews suffering in the Babylonian captivity, who in their sorrow hung their harps upon the willows. The song about the sadness felt because of their exile and the loss of their home was later interpreted in the context of those times. The heartbreaking description of the destroyed home of the exiled Jews in János Thordai’s psalm written in the seventeenth century was likely inspired by the grief caused by the destruction of Hungary during the Ottoman rule. The motif of the instruments hung upon the tree, earlier related to society and nation, was enriched with new, individualistic meanings during the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The depictions of the atypical Three gypsies topic in literature and fine arts are more closely related to allegorical paintings from earlier centuries, for example Giorgone’s The Three Philosophers or The Three Ages of Man, than to the genre artworks in the nineteenth century depicting the life of Roma people in an anecdotal way.
A tatárjárás és a Sajó menti csata eseményeit eddig jórészt az írott források alapján rekonstruálták. A közelmúlt ásatásai lehetővé tették az időszak vizsgálatát a régészeti források tükrében. A tanulmány számba veszi és értékeli az ország pusztulására, a településszerkezet átalakulására, a várépítészetre, a kunok és jászok hagyatékára vonatkozó legújabb adatokat. Az ásatási eredmények a Sajó menti csata helyszínének lokalizálásához és a tatárjárás hazai forrásainak kritikai értelmezéséhez is segítséget nyújthatnak.
Depending on the problem, various methods can be justified for obtaining data in ethnographic research. Narrower interests can be served using simpler, formal methods, while lesser-known, broader connections can be investigated using a more open and diversified approach. Most ethnographic data are obtained in the field. However, it is proper fieldwork – which involves being immersed in a network of human relations and the communal life of the people being studied over a longer period of time – as opposed to short-term methods of gathering information that provides the opportunity to explore and explain the relationships and contexts of sociocultural phenomena that have yet to be identified. All types of fieldwork require the leavening effect of theoretical considerations, and even intensive fieldwork can and should be combined with data from other sources (e.g., historical or statistical), if possible, in order to enhance the validity of the interpretations. The author demonstrates these opportunities from his own practice: gathering data for the Atlas of Hungarian Folk Culture in a variety of localities; participating in a team undertaking a community study of Varsány, a village in Northern Hungary, which became long-term field research; and carrying out fieldwork in Rititi, a Kikuyu village in Kenya, to investigate coffee production. The analysis takes into account the interests and length of the research, the techniques applied, the position of the researcher in the studied communities, and his relationship with their members, including social distance, both during the fieldwork and through subsequent contact with them.
This paper sheds light on a new Ancient North Arabian (Safaitic) inscription that makes mention of the famous Nabataean Damaṣî. This is the fourth known Safaitic inscription to contain a reference to Damaṣî; the paper makes a comparison of the appearances of Damaṣî in the known corpus and evaluates the historical context. The significance of this inscription lies in its description of the author waiting (nẓr) for Damaṣî.
One of the most important moments in the Isiac and Mithraic mysteries is certainly that which involves the ritual presentation to the initiates of a symbol which served to explain the essence of the divinity. For the Isiac cult, we have the benefit of the famous Herculanum fresco where a priest is shown presenting, in a very ritual context, a sacred urn, doubtless containing Nile water, the very symbol of Isis. As for the Mithraic cult, we have a by no means less famous source: the text of St. Justin the Martyr which indicates that holy water and bread were shown. Our paper will analyse these two vital source documents and seek to establish, in so far as is possible, the theological content of these acts, as much by reference to the highest degree of initiation into the Mysteries of Eleusis as by consideration of the offering of bread and wine in the Christian eucharist.
The recently published curse tablets from the sanctuary of Magna Mater in Mainz, from the hero shrines of Opheltes and Palaimon, and from the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, as well as a single curse tablet from late Roman Antioch invoking the “secret names” of the Samothracian deities, all suggest some connection between mystery religions and cursing. Two possible explanations are explored: (i) because initiates had special access to divine powers, their curses were thought to be especially powerful; or (ii) because these new discoveries fit two traditional types of defixiones: those placed in or at the graves of those violently killed, like Opheltes, or those placed in sanctuaries of female divinities, like Demeter, whose myths focus on the loss and return of a loved one from Hades.
During rescue excavations between 2009 and 2013 carried out at the periphery of the vicus at Kempraten (municipality of Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland) a Gallo-Roman sanctuary, dating from the second quarter of the 2nd to the end of the 3rd century AD, was unearthed. The excavation included intense sampling for geoarchaeology and archaeobiology, which prompted the Archaeology Department of Canton St. Gall (KASG) to launch an interdisciplinary project. Four curse tablets attest to the cult of Magna Mater in the sanctuary at Kempraten.
This paper presents the first results of the interdisciplinary study and compares them to the Magna Mater sanctuary at Mainz (Germany), focusing on 1. the layout of the sanctuary, 2. sacrificing, 3. feastings and 4. cursing. The comparison between both sites showed that there was no strict setting of rituals in the cult of Magna Mater, but the importance of cursing and of burnt sacrifices is characteristic for both sites. Summing up: The temple precinct at Kempraten had a specific setting, which showed on one hand local and regional influences, for instance in terms of the temple architecture and the choice of food offerings. On the other hand, distinct differences between the Kempraten sanctuary and local Gallo-Roman sanctuaries can be observed, for instance in relation to cursing, the composition and the importance of the burnt offerings.
Secrecy was one of the major features of the so-called mystery cults that met with significant diffusion and popularity throughout the Greco-Roman world. The Roman cult of Mithras was a particular example of mysteries that took place in secret, without any public aspect.
This paper examines the ways in which the major symbolic systems of the Mithras cult, the mithraea, the scene of the tauroctony and the hierarchy of the initiatory grades, would have operated as elaborated security systems that would have contributed to the secrecy of the cult, obstructing both the physical and cognitive access of the uninitiated to their symbolic meanings.
Further, the cognitive processes that mediate the attractiveness of secret communities and forge social cohesion among members of secret groups are explored. It is argued that secrecy was a crucial aspect which would have promoted the formation of close exclusive communities of Mithraists and the development of social cohesion between the cult members.
A tanulmány a Seuso-tál szegélydíszítésének 12 szelvényében és a központi medalion három sávjában ábrázolt állatok és vadászjelenetek archaeozoológiai leírását adja. A tálon 136 figura: 39 személy, 21 kutya, 75 egyéb állat és egy kocsi ábrázolása található. Néhány állat korábbi meghatározását revideálni kellett.
Relying on the experiences of my fieldwork carried out in the town of Jedwabne in Poland, my article investigates the way in which a deeply traumatized field potentially makes anthropological inquiry impossible, and the methodological and ethical problems researchers face both in the course of fieldwork and while processing, analyzing, and making the knowledge gained through research public. The first part briefly introduces the small town of Jedwabne, the conflict that drew me to this place, and the research project, which I believed I was never going to be able to write about. In the second part, I discuss the complex system of taboos that I termed ‘the culture of seclusion’, which, in my view, is the most typical aspect of the society of Jedwabne, as well as the greatest challenge of my research. As a sort of synthesis of the first two parts, in the third part I consider some practical issues and concerns related to the fieldwork.
The existence of a mithraeum at Angera (VA, Italy) was assumed for the first time in the 19th century, after the discovery of two Mithraic inscriptions re-used as ornaments of a private garden in the middle of the small town. The location of the alleged mithraeum is still uncertain: the inscriptions have been found out of context, and the place of worship has never been localized.
The “Antro mitraico” (Mithraic Cave), also known as “Tana del Lupo”, is a natural cave situated at the base of the East wall of the cliff on which the Rocca Borromeo (the Castle of Angera) stands. At the cave the most visible archaeological evidences are tens of breaches cut into the outside rocky wall, which probably contained votive inscriptions or stele. These elements denote the use of the cave as a place of worship.
In 1868 Biondelli identified in the cave the location of a Mithraic cult, giving rise to a theory that continues still today. If, on the one hand, the proposal appeared plausible, there is no clear evidence that in the cave a mithraeum was ever set up; besides, the presence of many an ex voto is in conflict with the mysteric ritual practices. This paper is intended to present an analytical study of the monument, with a broader inquiry on the characteristics of mithraea and other sanctuaries within natural caves.
The Mithraic evidence in Etruria and Umbria – VII and VI Regiones – presents some particular features of great interest, not only because they contribute to enlarging our knowledge regarding the extent of the diffusion of Mithraism in these regions, but also as regards the general study of the cult itself and the comprehension of certain facets of the cultic implantation patterns within the religious communities.
The epigraphic corpus of Mithraism in Umbria provides valuable information concerning some grades of initiation and Mithraic priesthood, highlighting the specificity of this religion. The importance of such information transcends what we know about the local level, by revealing details about the functioning of the cult in general, especially regarding the degree of Leo and some variants of the priesthood, which are poorly documented elsewhere in the Roman Empire.
In addition, the discovery of Mithraea, Mithraic images and other archaeological evidence in Etruria and Umbria provides a picture that shows an important spread of the worship in the private context, i.e., both domus and villae, with examples as relevant as Vulci and Spoletium. Further ahead, the prevalence of astral components in the material evidence also suggests a strong preference among local devotees of Mithras of higher social status for the cosmological aspects of their religion.
Iconographic analogies between the Mithraic torchbearers, Cautes and Cautopates, and the Greek Dioscuri encourage a comparative analysis of these figures in context. Previous studies have emphasized the potential for the divine twins to be the origins of the torchbearers: a closer examination of the Dioscuri as they functioned within another mystery cult, the rites of the Great Gods of Samothrace, offers light on both the phenomenology of initiation and the cultural context common to both the Greek and the Roman rituals. Among the numerous visual and conceptual parallels, the strongest commonality between the two sets of youths is a cultural appetite for astral mysticism, which connects the late Republican Roman voices on Samothrace and the later world of the Mithraic caves. The two mysteries served, however, profoundly different functions with respect to Roman identity – a dynamic which the parallel presence of twinned, framing shining lights reveals.
The highest number of mithraea in urban context of the ancient world come from Ostia. Although we do not know the whole city, mithraea have been found in all districts of the town. The spread and fortune of the Mithraic worship are also attested by the plenteous epigraphic and sculptural materials. This research deals with the Mithraism at Ostia, focusing on the particular case of monograms, just mentioned by Giovanni Becatti in his seminal work about mithraea at Ostia, dating back to more than sixty years ago. After the recent discovery of the Mithraeum of colored marbles by the archaeologists of the Ostia Marina Project (University of Bologna), it seems necessary to examine and contextualize the phenomenology of Mithraic monograms at Ostia, as is done in relation to similar processes which involve the Christian world.
A 7. századra datálható, régészetileg jelentős kis sírszámú avar kori temetőből tíz csontvázmaradvány antropológiai vizsgálatát végeztük el. Sikerült megállapítani, hogy az eltemetettek közül hét öt év alatti gyermek, kettő fiatal férfi és egy fiatal nő. A csontmaradványok rossz megtartása ellenére az egyik fiatal férfi arckoponyáján mongoloid, a fiatal nőén pedig europid jellegeket találtunk. A temető kis közösséghez vagy akár egy családhoz is tartozhatott, de ezt morfológiai vizsgálatainkkal nem tudtuk alátámasztani.
Bóna István a szegvár-sápoldali 1. sírt az avarság első generációjához sorolta. Ennek megfelelően a temetkezési szokások és a mellékletek keleti párhuzamait keleten, főleg Közép- és Belső-Ázsiában kereste. Ugyanakkor az új eredmények fényében a sápoldali halott kulturális gyökerei Kelet- Európában, a Sivašovka-típusú temetkezések előzményei között keresendők. A sírban talált tárgyak kapcsolatai nem ázsiai, sokkal inkább közép-kelet-európai kontextusban értelmezhetők.
A tanulmány a szegvár-sápoldali kora avar kori lovas sír új szempontú értelmezését, a sír körül feltárt újabb kilenc, kirabolt temetkezés ismertetését és a sírkert közös értékelését tartalmazza. Részletesen tárgyalja a temetkezési szokásokat (pl. fülkesír, részleges állattemetkezés, obulusadás stb.). A temetkezési szokások alapján a sápoldali közösség a kelet-európai sztyeppéről 568-at követően a Tiszántúlt megszálló népesség utóda lehetett. A sírkertet a 650 utáni évtizedben alakíthatták ki, és igen rövid ideig, egy-másfél évtizedig használhatták.
A tanulmány a szegvár-sápoldali sírcsoport öt sírjának egymástól eltérő stílusú gyöngyviseletét mutatja be. Az adatbázisba felvett és rendszerezett 32 db gyöngy tipokronológiai elemzése és az egymástól eltérő technológiával készült gyöngysorok ismertetése egy 7. század közepe táján megfigyelhető gyöngyviselet divat- és korszakváltásának néhány jellegzetességére világít rá.
The article sets forth two different methodological models. The first one follows the accepted patterns and rules of speaking. According to this, the aims, attitudes, and motivations of the participating actors, as well as the thematic implications and external, factual references of the topic become evident during the speech event. These observations explain why and how experiences are elaborated, shared, and transmitted. This model of speaking culture was established by Dell Hymes (ethnography of speaking). In the second kind of speech situation, the researcher observes the communication between individuals who do not know each other and investigates the self-representational aims and strategies of the speakers. This model follows ethnomethodological points (E. Goffman).
A tanulmány két kiskunsági lelőhely tanulságai alapján a tatárjárás kérdéskörét taglalja. A kiskunmajsai és a Bugac közelében lévő Árpád-kori kolostort övező településen feltárt tömeggyilkosságok bizonyítékai kapcsán a korabeli források adatainak hitelességét vizsgálja.
Frustrée par les frontières imposées lors du traités de paix de 1920, la Hongrie a tenté, entre les deux guerres, d’agir sur les esprits afin d’obtenir la modification pacifique de l’ordre des relations internationales. La Nouvelle Revue de Hongrie, rédigée de manière indépendante, mais de concert avec le ministère des Affaires étrangères hongrois, entrait dans le cadre de cette diplomatie non officielle en s’adressant aux élites francophones du monde entier. Tout en présentant la culture hongroise, elle abordait des sujets de l’actualité internationale, de manière parfois complexe et ambitieuse. Une dizaine d’articles de la revue, publiés entre 1932 et 1934, montrent l’ambition (sans doute démesurée) de contribuer à la réconciliation franco-allemande.
A very rare brooch was found during my research in the Collection of the Hungarian National Museum. According to the main characteristics, its type can be defined easily. It belongs to thistle-brooches/Distelfibeln. I would like to present this brooch in detail.
A miniature relief representing the scene of tauroctony, i.e. Mithras killing the bull, is on display in the Archaeological Museum in Split. Despite its visibility, the relief has so far remained unpublished. It is therefore the aim of this article to provide the detailed description of the object, and to contextualize it within the broader framework of “small and miniature reproductions of the Mithraic icon”. Based on this, the original provenance and dating of the miniature relief are proposed. Furthermore, the relief is taken as a fine example of interconnectedness of social, material, and religious mobility in “globalizing Roman world”. The final part of the article discusses the psychological effectiveness of miniature Mithraic reliefs, suggesting their possible role as memory aids.
Although journalistic translation research has been quite successful over the past 15 years, from a methodological point of view many scholars struggle with the total or partial absence of a traceable source text. As a consequence, parallel corpora are rare and the researcher often has to rely on multilingual sets of texts that are comparable. This contribution deals in detail with that essential methodological problem. It relates the multisource and multi-author situation of translation in journalism to this non- (or only partially) identifiable character of the source text–target text relationship. We argue that the triangulation of comparative text analysis with fieldwork adds value to this type of research. This argument is illustrated with a study triangulating textual analysis in three languages with interviews and non-participant observation. Such a triangulation also responds to earlier calls for a more elaborated contextualization of the production process and the sociohistorical circumstances in journalistic translation research.
In dem Beitrag geht es um die veränderte Rezeption der Osmanen im Zuge der Rückeroberung weiter europäischer Gebiete aus ihrer Oberhoheit. Türkische Mode, türkische Sitten und Musik wurden europaweit modern und waren sehr gefragt. Auch der Wiener Hof übernahm diesen Modestil und selbst Maria Theresa ließ sich wiederholt in türkischer Kleidung von ihren Lieblingsmalern porträtieren. Selbst im Repräsentationsbereich liebte man das Dekor alla turca. Im östlicheren Teil der Habsburger Monarchie blieb das Bild des ehemaligen Erzfeindes allerdings weiterhin ambivalent.
The external orientation of the Mithraic sanctuaries shows a great variety and heterogeneity. The internal orientation of the sanctuaries suggested by the cult image, however, shows a great homogenity and uniformity. The internal structure is organised on the possible axial line drawn from the entrance to the cult image, and continues beyond that. We can establish that the interior of a mithraeum is oriented along the ‘North-South – East-West’ frame of reference by the cult image.
The representation of the “Cosmos” in the sanctuary portrays only the visible, sensorial world. The known and organised “Cosmos” is the sanctuary itself, the ‘northern part’ of the Mithraic ‘Universe’ with its own inner coordinates.
The ‘Anti-Cosmos’, the Underworld, had been abolished from the ‘Mithraic Universe’, completely unmentioned by literary sources. After the vertical North-South and horizontal East-West orientation we can consider, that the cult image also as a partition, divides the ‘Mithraic Universe’ up into ‘northern’ and ‘southern’ parts. The ‘northern part’, as it is displayed, the ordered part of the ‘Universe’, or the “Cosmos” itself is represented by the shrine. Its opposite, the ‘southern part’, the disordered part of the ‘Universe’, or ‘Anti-Cosmos’ is absent on the cult image.
The Tauroctony prevents the specifically represented Underworld and its principles to manifest, creating the opportunity for the initiates to continue their eternal life in the living and organized part of the ‘Universe’, in the “Cosmos”.
The paper teases apart two types of interpretations displayed by so-called “universal” free choice (FC) determiners (e.g., French n’importe quel or Spanish cualquiera) depending on the kind of licensing environment they are placed in, which will be called parallel and serial universality respectively. Since serial universal readings are available to all FCIs cross-linguistically and the only possibility in some cases, they are taken to be the central semantic ingredient of free choice. Section 2 aims to establish a parallel between serial universality (particularly subtrigged sentences) and other constructions which involve semantically constrained pairs of events. The third section represent the co-variation of entity, event and world indices as an option that determiners have under certain (syntactic and semantic) conditions, and which FCIs have grammaticalized. The other ingredient which singles out serial universality from other event-related readings is the (non-optional) causal link between the events introduced by the relative clause and matrix events. The link between relative clause and matrix events is analyzed as a form of historical necessity, a relation between cause and effect, as understood within a metaphysical modal base.
The German cultural periodical Ost und West was published in Prague between 1 July 1837 and 10 June 1848. The goal of its editor, the librarian Rudolf Glaser was the mediation between East and West from Austria, Germany, Russia, and the Balkan countries. A lot of articles were published on Czech, Moravian, Russian, and Polish literature, but the culture of other countries was also mentioned in the form of novels, dramas, poems, travelogues, and other genres about regional matters, music, theatre, etc. Its target readers were the educated bourgeoisie of the age. The literary contributions in Ost und West were submitted by authors. Czech folk poetry played a special role among the subjects. Every now and then, Hungarian authors’ works were included (e.g. Pál Jámbor’s poem and Károly Kisfaludy’s novel) in German translation. Karl Georg Rumy, the enthusiastic collaborator of many German-language papers of the Central European region and a zealous propagator of Hungarian literature sent reports to the journal on several occasions. The reviews of the young Frigyes Szarvady also appeared in Ost und West. Julian Chownitz, among others, reported on local curiosities.
There are four variants of the Rusyn language: the Bačka-Srem variant (in Serbia and in Croatia), the Prešov variant (in Slovakia), the Lemko variant (in Poland), and the Transcarpathian variant (in Ukraine). The author of this paper compares the verb forms /constructions in the Bačka-Srem variant of the Rusyn language (South Rusyn / Ruthenian; руски язик) and the Prešov variant of the Rusyn language (West Rusyn; русински язик) and determines the similarities and differences between them. The work essentially represents one of the rare comparisons of a language segment of the existing Rusyn language variants and the author pleads for comparing other language segments too, including the respective language segments of the Lemko variant and the Transcarpathian variant, which could lead to a wider comparative project on an international level. The comparison of the verb forms / constructions in the Bačka-Srem and the Prešov literary standard is based on contemporary grammars.
The study of kinship has occupied a central role in anthropological scholarships for more than a hundred years. In the 1970s, after the deconstruction of kinship as the inherent logic of social structure, studies on kinship faced a number of new epistemological issues. Based on experiences gained during subsequent fieldworks in Yakutia, the author tackles a few of them in this article. Due to the legacy of Soviet-type ethnography in Yakutia, people even in the remotest villages usually have a firm idea of what anthropological fieldwork is about. Reflecting on his fieldwork strategies in Yakutia while studying local kin relations, the author argues that anthropologists should not neglect to consider the expectations local communities have of the goals and means of the fieldwork. In the case of kinship research in Yakutia, local communities are interested in reconstructing the vertical aspects of kin relations instead of unfolding horizontal relations for the anthropologist.
Die Rezension untersucht das Buch des österreichischen Historikers Walter Rauscher „Die fragile Großmacht. Die Donaumonarchie und die europäische Staatenwelt 1866–1914“. Rauscher rekonstruiert die außenpolitische Geschichte der Habsburger Monarchie anhand zahlreicher Archivdokumente aus Österreich, Ungarn, Tschechien, Deutschland, Großbritannien, Frankreich, Italien und der Schweiz. Die einzigen dem Forscher unzugänglichen Quellen blieben dabei die Russischen.
Der Historiker analysiert in chronologischer Reihenfolge die Politik jedes Außenministers der Donaumonarchie von 1866 bis 1914. Rauscher betrachtet die außenpolitischen Widersprüche der Donaumonarchie in Verbindung mit ihren inneren Problemen. Fast jedes für die österreichisch-ungarische Außenpolitik wichtige Thema betrachtet der Autor im Kontext der Arbeit von Delegationen – die Außenpolitik war Teil des innenpolitischen Kampfes, ein Thema, das in Parlamenten, Wahlprogrammen, Partei- und innerparteilichen Streitigkeiten diskutiert wurde – sowie angesichts der komplexen Beziehungen zwischen verschiedenen Ländern und Nationalitäten. Rauscher weist zwar auf wichtige Phänomene und Tendenzen hin, bringt jedoch keine theoretische Grundlage dafür. Offensichtlich hatte der Historiker nicht das Ziel, den Gegenstand seiner Forschung zu schematisieren und zu vereinfachen. Der Autor betrachtet die Außenpolitik von Österreich-Ungarn und dessen Beziehungen zu anderen Ländern in ihrer ganzen Vielfalt.
In seinem zweibändigen Werk zeigte der Forscher, wie die große und schwierige Arbeit an der Aufrechterhaltung eines multinationalen Staates im Endeffekt zur Vorbereitung seines Zusammenbruchs wurde.
In tonal music, pitch orthography reflects different structural and functional meanings of notes in various contextual and textural settings such as harmony, melody, and voice leading. At the turn of the twentieth century, many composers attempt to progress beyond the confines of traditional tonality, whose works, as generally perceived by most analysts nowadays, treat the twelve chromatic notes as the twelve enharmonically equivalent pitch-classes and thus present “the dissolution of … [the] notational conventions of earlier times” (Gillies 1993, 43). Contrary to this general sentiment regarding orthography, the present paper brings the significance of pitch notation into sharper focus by investigating its crucial role in the course of the text setting and form in Webern's op. 12, no. 2. I will demonstrate how Webern utilizes orthography to reinforce the structure of the text and the narrative of form, assisting the analyst in considering notation as a core element while examining the pitch structure of the early twentieth-century music.
The paper addresses the rendition of the words denoting humility in six Ukrainian biblical translations of the 19th and 20th centuries. The author outlines the evolution of the semantics of tapeinos in Ancient Greek, Bible Greek, and New Testament Greek, identifying its contextual meanings in the New Testament. It is established that Ukrainian translations of the 19th century tend to use smyrennyi ‘humble’ and smyrennia ‘humility’ (as well as the outdated smyrnyi ‘humble, mild’, smyrnota ‘humbleness’, and smyrnist ‘humility, mildness’) to render the positive and neutral semantics of tapeinos and its nominal derivatives, while the translations of the end of the 20th and the 21st centuries mostly rely on pokirnyi ‘submissive’ and its cognates pokirlyvyi ‘submissive’, pokora ‘submissiveness, obedience’, pokirnist ‘submission’, though in some cases they also use sumyrnyi ‘humble, peaceable’ and the corresponding noun sumyrnist ‘humility, humbleness’ (but not smyrennia). When used in the negative meaning, tapeinos is rendered in modern biblical translations by prynyzhenyi ‘humiliated’, ponyzhenyi ‘base’, upokorenyi ‘subdued’ (occasionally by smyrennyi), whereas the translations of the 19th century do not take into account the negative connotations of tapeinos, and therefore render it by smyrennyi.
Authors:Francesca Ceci and Aleksandra Krauze-Kołodziej
The myth of Orpheus experienced a great popularity in ancient world, covering the path from a mythical legend to a complex and sophisticated mystic cult. There were many various features of Orpheus that characterized the Thracian singer, being the result of his different adventures: from the quest of the Argonauts and the pathetic story of love of Eurydice, to his journey to the underworld.
The myth of Orpheus was highly represented in iconography. The most frequent representations are those showing Orpheus as a singer surrounded by the beasts and, in smaller amount, in the scene representing the story of descent to the underworld in search of Eurydice. Numerous images connected with the legend of Orpheus, dating from the Classical times to Christian era, are the proof of a wide influence of the mystery cult of Orpheus on ancient and late antique culture.
This paper aims to present an overview of ancient coinage iconography representing Orpheus. Various motives considering the story of Orpheus appear on one of the most powerful means of propaganda – the coins, particularly from the Roman provinces, that were easily able to reach a wide audience. In the limited space of coins, the engravers could highlight effectively the most important and popular events from the story of Orpheus.
An analytical overview of the famous work by F. Buslaev “A Historical Anthology of Church Slavonic and Old Russian” is offered. The facts of its creation are given. The structure and the content of the work are considered. Its role in the formation of the professional culture of philologists and its influence on the subsequent tradition of the preparation of historical and linguistic textbooks is noted. Special emphasis is placed on the scientific value of the first complete textbook of historical written documents and the tradition that was developed after Buslaev’s publication.
This paper is devoted to revealing the axiological specificity of the emotional image of the world, represented by ten fundamental emotions (interest, joy, surprise, embarrassment, disgust, anger, contempt, shame, suffering, and fear) in Ukrainian phraseology. The main methods of research are the method of parametric analysis of the semantic structure of phraseme with the accentuation of the evaluative component and the method of thematic fields. Phrasemes has been classified according to their evaluation load, developed in the framework of axiophraseme pragmatics based on the three-value positive–negative–situational evaluation system and the sequential allocation in the emotional image of the world of positively evaluative, negatively evaluative phrasemes, and phrasemes with diffuse evaluation. Our attention is focused on cinematic phrasemes based on the description of the external expression of emotions in Ukrainian phraseology. Manifestation and intensification are positioned as defining signs of the level of the emotional image of the world.
The aim of the present paper is to characterize types of information which can be received from studying the Ukrainian dialect vocabulary derivated from ethnic names. The possibility to reconstruct the notions of Ukrainians about ethnic groups through the analysis of motivating means of secondary coinage is outlined. In the paper, the author attempts to recreate the axiological portraits of Gypsies, Jews, and Poles on the basis of facts of naive knowledge about the subject incarnated in the internal form of dialectal lexical units.
In the present paper, the peculiarities of G. Grebenshchikov’s American text are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and metaphor is considered as a cognitive mechanism. The authors’ metaphoric models serve as a key for understanding the writer’s intention and help to overcome the difficulties of perception of the writer’s text. The metaphors “America – Mechanism” and “America – Organism” are revealed and compared. Grebenshchikov’s conceptual blend “American Babylon” is reconstructed. The research was carried out on the basis of archive documents from the writer’s personal materials.
The present paper is devoted to issues related to creating a universal concept of café in the mentality of Russian and Polish speakers. In this paper, it is descriptively presented as ‘a coffee-drinking place’. The results of the analysis do not allow for clearly establishing the name of this concept in the consciousness of Russian-language speakers. By contrast, in the mentality of Polish speakers, the discussed concept is included in the notion of “kawiarnia“ (i.e. ‘café’) and it is verbalised by the same word kawiarnia.
The history of the works composed by Jesuits Fulvio Androzzi (1523–1575) and Marcin Śmiglecki (1563/1564–1618) and their translations into Church Slavonic as well as the so-called “prostaâ mova” are considered as an interesting example of the spread of Catholic works among adherents of Orthodoxy in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Androzzi’s Della frequenza della communione (1579) was originally an essay on the preparation for frequent communion. Its two Polish-language editions by Stanisław Grochowski (Scieszka poboznego chrześcianina, 1600) and Szymon Wysocki (Skarbnica duchowna, 1600) served as a source for a concise funerary sample-sermon written in “prostaâ mova” which is found in the Vilna’s Orthodox Ritual (1621). An essay on theological and legal aspects of money-lending (usury) by Marcin Śmiglecki (O lichwie i trzech przedniejszych kontraktach, 1596) was partly used for drawing up a treatise on moral theology Mir s Bogom čeloveku (1669) published in the Kiev Monastery of the Caves. Both sample-sermons and treatises on moral theology were new literary genres for Orthodox tradition; their origin in the 17th century can be associated with Catholic influences. In both cases, the question of a translator from Polish into Church Slavonic and “prostaâ mova” remains open.