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The article deals with the phenomenon of popularity of military service in the eighteenth-century Habsburg Monarchy. It exemplarily examines cases of entering and quitting the army in a wider context of belated career-start or switch in profession. Most typical models under scrutiny are disillusioned officers losing hope of promotion, ex-Jesuits who had joined the army to compensate the consequences of the dissolution of the Society of Jesus, retired army officers using the patronage networks to get admitted to the administrative elites, and retired Hungarian guardsmen who had chosen administrative career. The study is based primarily on ego documents, such as petitions and private letters, which are supplemented (where available) by the minutes and resolutions of respective administrative bodies. Successful, or unsuccessful, case-studies under scrutiny let describing society of the Habsburg Monarchy as horizontally mobile and highly motivated to reach social ascend through flexibility in the occupations-choice.

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In a visual verification study we investigated how syntactic focus affects the interpretation of quantifiers. We compared the effect of syntactic focus on the truth conditions of sentences with the quantificational adverb only and the superlative quantifier most in Polish. In this language, the scopal properties of most as well as the syntactic construction of the sentence final focus allowed us to predict parallel focus association patterns for both quantifiers. We found that, indeed, syntactic focus is able to guide the attention during visual verification. It is known that prosodic focus is immediately integrated during semantic processing, our study is the first to demonstrate that syntactic focus can facilitate the verification of the truth of a sentence, by guiding attention towards the more salient information in the picture, i.e., the set of focus alternatives.

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In my writing, I examine the formation and transformation of the betrothal practices of the Roman Catholic Hungarian community of Gyimes based on the results of my fieldwork research from 2005 to 2016. Betrothal came into practice in the 1980s; prior to that, ethnographic sources only mention the ritual occasion of proposal. According to Roman Catholic church norms, the ring could not be worn before the church wedding; only newlyweds were allowed to put it on their finger. For a long time, they used borrowed rings for the blessing of the rings. I explore why it was important for young couples to buy or have their own precious metal wedding rings made, despite regulations that virtually prohibited, but certainly did not support, the pre-wedding wearing of rings. Why did ring wearing and betrothal itself become fashionable? I identify the ideologies and concepts that transformed the earlier rites and views and how they contributed to the popularity of wedding ring sets and companion rings offered by jewelers. I argue that an alternative betrothal rite, the act and ideology of the Csíksomlyó ring exchange, could have greatly contributed to betrothal and ring wearing becoming a common practice in Gyimes. Until the 1990s, this was a strategy adopted by the local community which, similarly to the secular, profane passage into womanhood or emergency baptism, offered an opportunity to exit marginal life situations.

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This essay tackles some aspects related to the attitude of the Romanian officials after George Enescu left his country definitively (in 1946). For example, recent research through the archives of the former secret police shows that Enescu was under the close supervision of Securitate during his last years in Paris. Enescu did not generate a compositional school during his lifetime, like for instance Arnold Schoenberg did. His contemporaries admired him, but each followed their own path and had to adapt differently to an inter-war, then to a post-war, Communist Romania. I will therefore sketch the approach of younger composers in relation to Enescu (after 1955): some of them attempted to complete unfinished manuscripts; others were influenced by ideas of Enescu's music. The posthumous reception of Enescu means also an intense debate in the Romanian milieu about his “national” and “universal” output.

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Hilke Effinghausen

Zwischen Neutralität und Propaganda – Spanisch- Dolmetscher im Nationalsozialismus

Author: Viktor Zachar
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Authors: Alexis Wellwood, Susan J. Hespos and Lance Rips

Semanticists often assume an ontology for natural language that includes not only ordinary objects, but also events, and other sorts of entities. We link this ontology to how speakers represent static and dynamic entities. Specifically, we test how speakers determine whether an entity counts as “atomic” by using count vs. mass (e.g., some gleebs, some gleeb) and distributive vs. non-distributive descriptions (e.g., gleeb every second or so, gleeb around a little). We then seek evidence for atomic representation in a non-linguistic task. Ultimately we suggest that natural language ontology reveals properties of language-independent conceptualization.

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The paper compares the visions and activities of a Hungarian and a Lebanese female seer, both of whom relive and re-enact the Passion of Christ on a regular basis. The former performs the Passion on the first Friday of the month and weekly, during Lent, while the latter does so once a year on Good Friday. Based on fieldwork by the author among the followers of the seer in Hungary and the work of Emma Aubin-Boltanski and Nour Farra-Haddad in Beirut, Lebanon, the paper discusses the history and background of the seers, the locations where the apparitions take place, and the followers who gather around them. It describes the performance of the Passion itself, the messages the seers convey to the faithful, and the many ways in which the women’s activities and the mis-en-scene of the apparitions connect to the larger world and thus fit into universal patterns of modern, apocalyptic visions. While strengthening the faith of the followers, the devotees also receive reinforcement in questions that seem existential to them existential, in as much as members of both groups see the historical drama of their own nation.

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There are marked differences between Hungarian and American ethnomusicology in incentives, aims, interests, and methods. Hungarian research was based in the early twentieth century on study of musical form, while the Americans approached music in terms of social context and functions. However, Hungarians from the mid-1930s onward moved toward an increasing interest in the social aspects of folk music. Oszkár Dincsér, a lesser known researcher of Kodály's school, exemplifies this trend in his 1943 study of chordophone instruments in the Csík (in Romanian: Ciuc) County region of Transylvania Két csíki hangszer. Mozsika és gardon (Two instruments from Csík. Fiddle and gardon). A comparison with Alan P. Merriam's fundamental work The Anthropology of Music (1964) reveals that Dincsér's study includes almost every topic and approach set out by Merriam twenty years later. Although Dincsér's scholarly career ended with his emigration in 1944, he remains an important forerunner of musical anthropology.

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Through a corpus assembled under the name of the Hungarian Post-communist Black Series, this paper aims to reconsider the proposals of Nouvelle Histoire historians as well as the time stratums of R. Koselleck, regarding the articulation of different time sets when constructing film history. How can film historians build a proper time structure involving economic and political memory, the evolution of the Hungarian film production system and the multiple times a film may recall? This reflection was made in order to understand such a chain of events as 1988–1990, and to offer new ways of considering the problem of an event’s status in its relation to films and the form of memory they present.

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One of the purposes of this study is to outline the research problem related to the wizard called táltos and a hypothesized shamanism in the pagan, pre-Christian religion of the Hungarians. Another purpose is to present the results of new research on this issue. The first part of the study is the analysis of the activities of a weather wizard called táltos from the 16th to the 21st century, as well as its related beliefs and narrative motifs. Then I present the process in the course of which researchers of the pre-Christian pagan “ancient religion” – Gyula Sebestyén, Géza Róheim, Sándor Solymossy, Vilmos Diószegi and others – created the fictitious construct of the táltos and reconstructed the Conquest-era shaman in line with the model compiled from the attributes of shamanism of various periods and various peoples. The criticism of Vilmos Diószegi’s construct of the táltos is followed by the introduction of new research results. Their main points: modern táltos beliefs and narratives show many correlations with Balkan – especially Bulgarian – folk beliefs and folk epics. The táltos and táltos-epics show the closest correlation with the beliefs of Bulgarian dragon-men who were fathered by a dragon or eagle and born with wings or other animal traits, as well as with the adventures of heroes of epic songs who slay the dragons of the underworld and are protected by the spirit of the eagle, dragon, rooster, crane, etc. We also need to consider the infl uences of Slavic storm wizard practices and the werewolf beliefs and narratives of the Balkans. The infl uences of Balkan peoples on Hungarian culture are indubitable, partly the result of the Bulgaro-Turkic relations between the 5th and 9th centuries and partly the consequences of Slavic relations after the Conquest. It is likely that at the time of the Hungarian Conquest, there was a weather magic practice similar to those of the Balkan dragon-men, as well as a weather wizard called táltos. However, the construct of the research tradition represented by Diószegi must be refuted: there is no evidence of a shaman-táltos similar to the “classic” Eurasian shaman who was initiated in the world tree and established contact with the spirit world through a ritual performance, in a drum-induced ecstasy.

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In memoriam Komárik Dénes (Kecskemét, 1929–Budapest, 2017)

Komárik Dénes ravatalánál farkasrét, 2018. január 10.

Authors: Bibó István and Sisa József
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The authors first review the investigations into the history of the lost mausoleum (türbe) and the surrounding complex of Sultan Süleyman who died during the siege of Szigetvár on September 7, 1566. Then they narrate the establishment in 2012 (reshaped in 2015) of a research group which, by developing a new concept and using interdisciplinary research methods (including landscape reconstruction), found the remnants (foundations) of the türbe on the top of the Turbék-Zsibót vineyard hill in autumn 2015, then, during the rounds of excavation in 2016–2017, the foundations of the adjacent mosque and dervish convent as well as the traces of a fourth building. Regarding the date of the construction of the complex, the authors are of the opinion that the main buildings must have been built around 1575. Finally, they enlarge on the reception of the findings and the potential the site offers for touristic and regional development.

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An indexical tense occurring in intensional domains, as in John believed that Mary is pregnant conveys a mismatch between the content reported and the content intuitively attributable to the believer: The actual belief does not seem to involve an indexical reference to the speech time. Current logicosemantic accounts of this mismatch propose a de re interpretation, e.g., there is a state in the real world, of which John believes something. Following Gennari’s (1999a; 2003) account, it is argued that current accounts do not capture multiple instances of belief attributions with indexical tenses and an alternative more flexible account is proposed. Specifically, indexical tenses need not be analyzed de re if the belief reports is considered as an attribution of an implicit belief, rather than an explicit one (Stalnaker 1999). Such attributions are felicitous if there is an inference pragmatically attainable in the common ground that allows the speaker to infer and assert the attributed content. The speaker infers the reported content making extra assumptions normally taken for granted. The account correctly predicts whether a given present or future attitude report is felicitous depending on the availability of the speaker’s inference.

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Along with 19th-century folklore material, church documents from the 18th and 19th centuries emphasize the Păscălia as a book used in bibliomancy. In this study, I aim to explore the originally allowed and designated functions of this writing, and to provide an explanation for why this book was associated with the world of bibliomancy in both folklore and in the officially sanctioned culture of the Uniate clergy from Transylvania. Furthermore, by focusing on the specific case of the Uniate vicar Ioan Halmaghi, who was educated in Roman-Catholic institutions, I set out to explore the attitude of the elite clergy toward this text, and to highlight how a corpus of pre-modern and un-Western knowledge was simply ejected into the sphere of magic and superstition.

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The last period at the Aquincum Civil Town has long been a matter of dispute. Earlier researchers presumed a fourth century occupation phase at the settlement. However, re-examining these previous data (including an inscription, a coin hoard, walls, coins and several other finds of excavation contexts and even the “dark-earth” phenomenon) and analyzing the results of recent researches show that there is an obvious paucity of Late Roman finds. What is more, these results even show that most of them turn out to be third century finds. Based on the above mentioned, we can get to the conclusion, that the latest observable period in the Civil Town falls in the middle-end of the third century, or to the beginning of the fourth century at latest. Such an early abandonment of the Aquincum Civil Town is not unparalleled among Pannonian and other Western Roman provincial towns. And why was the Aquincum Civil Town abandoned relatively early? The reasons might be sought in the, by that time, already deteriorated fortifications and the loss of markets. No further (systematic) use could be demonstrated here in layers, finds, or constructions. Nevertheless, since a few fourth century finds still occur, the possibility cannot be excluded that certain areas were still sporadically used, particularly when buildings were mainly mined for spolia.

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The paper explores Hungarian films that make reference to South Slavic cultures. The author examines the problems of cinematic representation and employs the methodology of imagology. The core question of the paper is how Hungarian films represent Yugoslavian (or ex-Yugoslavian) characters. Márk Bodzsár’s Heavenly Shift (Isteni műszak) is set in 1992, events on the minor storyline take place in Sarajevo, while the protagonist of the main storyline is an ethnic Hungarian from Vojvodina who illegally crossed the Serbian–Hungarian border. The story of Ibolya Fekete’s Bolse vita begins in 1989: the Russian protagonists of the film would like cross over Western Europe through Yugoslavia, and the film ends with archival footage of the ex-Yugoslavian conflict. The protagonist of Ibolya Fekete’s Chico takes part in this conflict on the Croatian side and the film depicts events of the war from this point of view. Attila Till’s Kills on Wheels (Tiszta szívvel, 2016) features a character of Serbian origin who is portrayed through devices of black humour.

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With the victory of the Hungarian Workers’ Party – the communist party – in Hungary in 1949 the “reform” of the institutions of tertiary education including the Academy of Fine Arts and Academy of Applied Arts took place, meaning their transformation upon Soviet models. In daily training, in teaching the techniques of drawing and painting, they returned to the copying of plaster casts, which had already been discarded by the free school of Simon Hollósy in Munich in the 1880s for the benefit of a naturalist approach. This principle was promoted further by the art colony of Nagybánya started in 1896, and it was the guideline when after 1920 the Academy of Fine Arts was reorganized. The traditional academic approach had its roots in J. J. Winckelmann’s Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture published in 1755, while the nature-centric thought of free schools could draw on J-J. Rousseau’s Émile, or on Education (1762). In the seething period of Soviet painting in the 1920s an increasingly strengthening current among the greatly diverse trends was the one announcing the slogan of “heroic realism”; it was represented primarily by the Society of Painters of Revolutionary Russia (AHRR). N. B. Terpsikhorov’s The first slogan was painted in 1924; it shows an artist painting the Leninian slogan All power to the soviets! on a red tapestry at the foot of the plaster replicas of the Venus of Milo and the Borghese gladiator.

In addition to the guidance provided by Soviet advisers visiting Hungary in the 1950s, several Hungarian artists could study at Russian academies; they recalled that the basis for learning socialist realism was precise draughtsmanship and the requirement that a work be completed. The demand for high quality socialist realism weighed down upon the teachers with mature ideas socialized in earlier decades and often receiving the badge of “formalism” and on students having to interrupt their art studies for the world war as unattainable. Making copies – in painting and sculpture – was not only part of the training process, but also satisfied the demand of public institutions for representation: replicas of several famous Soviet works, including portraits of Lenin and Stalin were ordered for decoration in buildings, and the program of a museum for the state collection of copies was also deliberated.

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There is a gap separating Kodály's Seven Pieces for Piano, op. 11 from his Nine Pieces for Piano, op. 3. The differences of style, structure, and texture cannot be explained in terms of development, let alone progress in any sense. With op. 11, Kodály undertakes a shift of paradigms from instrumental principles to a kind of vocal orientation within instrumental music. Op. 3 stands in the tradition of autonomous instrumental music, of Liszt and French music in particular, and displays similarities to early piano works by Bartók. In op. 11, that instrumental paradigm and its core principle of indirect expression are called into question. Instead Kodály aims at direct expression, vocality on the piano. Since a piano cannot sing, the pieces op. 11 can be seen as failing in terms of Classical-Romantic composing standards. This paper argues that in dealing with the distinction between instrumental and vocal music, Kodály takes up a major topic of Musical Modernism (Carl Dahlhaus) and exposes himself deliberately to the risky question of “When is Art?” (Nelson Goodman).

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This study deals with Celtis’ practice of rewriting and recontextualizing his own poetry. His poem To the literary odality of Hungarians (Ad sodalitatem litterariam Ungarorum, Odes II.2), addressed to a Hungarian ‘coetus’ (not a ‘sodalitas’) was first published in 1492. Through a detailed analysis of the poem, I claim that this ode was not directed to an academic circle of friends in Buda, but rather to the ‘bursa Hungarorum’ at the University of Cracow. As Celtis took up teaching in Ingolstadt in the spring of 1492, he published the Epitoma, which contained his course material on rhetoric from Cracow, and contained five poems, including this poem, which he composed while still in Poland. Consequently, it cannot be regarded as a proof of the continuity of academic thought between the Neo-platonic circles of King Matthias (1485-1490) and the Vienna-centered Sodalitas Danubiana of 1497. Around 1500, to please his Hungarian aristocratic friends in the Sodalitas Danubiana, he revised the same poem in Vienna and added it to the cycle of his Odes.

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Author: Simon Lajos Zoltán
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Examining 16th-century Kurdish politics, particularly in the frontier districts between the Ottoman and Safavid Empires, aptly serves as a starting point for understanding Kurdish regional semi-autonomy. This paper, dedicated to the activities of Kurdish individuals involved in information-gathering on behalf of both the Ottoman and the Safavid Empires, is the first of its kind. The findings presented here are the result of close exploration in the Ottoman archives as well as detailed reading of a number of materials from Ottoman and Safavid chronicles. The paper discusses three main subjects. The introductory section briefly explains the methods and potentials of Kurdish spying as well as some of the particulars of Ottoman–Safavid espionage. The second section provides an overview of two famous Kurdish intellectual historians and the role each played in information-gathering. The third section discusses cases of espionage throughout the political careers of several Kurdish frontier emirs.

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La période de 1945 à 1948 est marquée en Hongrie par le passage d’un système parlementaire à la dictature communiste. Pendant ces années, l’Église catholique essaya de maintenir sa place au sein de la société hongroise. Pour protéger l’enseignement catholique, elle mobilisa les parents d’élèves dans le cadre d’une association au sein de l’Action Catholique. L’Association de Parents Catholiques joua un rôle important dans la lutte scolaire entre l’Église et l’État.

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The article discusses how the concept of “national composer” was established and developed in Central and Northern Europe by looking into the attempted international careers of two Danish composers in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The analysis focuses on the appropriation of national composers in relation to international recognition in order to reflect on how this changing relationship might have influenced the conditions for international recognition of Zoltán Kodály. In the 1840s, Leipzig was the place to obtain international reputation. It was in Leipzig that Niels W. Gade was first recognized as a composer with a “Nordic tone” and it was because of that reason that he had, a meteoric career and was ranked as an important European composer. In the early twentieth century, Carl Nielsen replaced Gade as the most revered Danish composer; however, at that time, being a national composer was not an advantage to an international career, it was an obstacle, if anything.

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Le présent article propose de comparer Sándor Petőfi, figure de la révolution hongroise de 1848, avec quelques autres poètes romantiques d’Europe centrale et orientale au XIXe siècle comme le roumain Mihail Eminescu, le polonais Mickiewicz ou encore Pouchkine. Le parallèle, de type analytique, aborde tour à tour les origines familiales (parfois étrangères), le cursus d’enseignement suivi (souvent interrompu), un épisode militaire au caractère généralement ambivalent, et enfin la complexité de l’engagement national.

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Authors: Katalin É. Kiss and Tamás Zétényi

Whereas it is a well-established fact that young children can perform intuitive addition and subtraction, it is an open question whether they are capable of multiplicative operations on sets before receiving formal training. Earlier studies devoted to the study of intuitive arithmetic sought for evidence of intuitive multiplication in children’s ability to distinguish proportional relations between quantities and numerosities. This paper claims that multiplication operations are present in children’s everyday communication, in their understanding and producing sentences with two numerical quantifiers and a distributivity marker such as the Hungarian Mindhárom gyerek két autóval játszik ’Every one of three kids is playing with two cars’, and Három gyerek két-két autóval játszik ’Three kids are playing with two cars apiece’. The paper gives account of an experiment testing how 5–7-year-old Hungarian children with no training in arithmetic operations interpret such sentences. The experiment shows that they have access to the multiplicative readings of distributive constructions; they not only accept them as true but at the age of 6–7 they can also actively compute the product of multiplication. The results also outline the acquisition path of multiplication, showing that children first multiply sets of concrete objects, then they represent the objects by their fingers, before they learn to manipulate sets mentally. Our results highlight the fact that language and mathematics are intertwined not only on the lexical level. Grammatical operations involving quantified expressions, among others, encode logical or mathematical operations on sets. Even if linguistic encoding is often ambiguous, grammatically encoded mathematical operations pave the way for abstract mathematics.

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The study analyzes the changes in the religious and social life of a Roma Pentecostal community in an ethnically mixed village, and the relationship between migration practices and conversion to Pentecostalism. In the first part of the study, the author presents the Roma community and outlines the circumstances under which Pentecostalism emerged among them. Thereafter, the two types of migration practiced by the Roma will be presented: migration focused mainly on northern European countries, based on panhandling, and migration aimed at longer term residence in the countries of Western Europe. The analysis points to the importance of foreign migration-related income in the changing situation of the Roma, as well as the role of the Pentecostal religion in the modernization changes that began in the Roma community.

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In the following article, I examine the originality of Hungarian director Miklós Jancsó’s (1921–2014) filmmaking practice. Jancsó appears as a unique representative of European filmmaking tradition who was motivated by a specific commitment to develop and increase the function of cinematic form, the effectiveness of images and sounds and performances of the actors which aesthetically formulate, translate and change the effects of Hungarian cinema to higher qualities and dimensions of art and spectacle. The significance of the filmic form comes forward, and the camera-based organisation of it increases the intensity of narration. Jancsó’s use of folk rituals adds a strong sense of pictoriality to the overall narrative structure, because his emphasis lies in the physicality of different appearances inside the frame. In his own stylistic way, Jancsó processes these various formations executed by the performers in a style in which all the elementary forces—whether physical, pictorial, psychological, or aesthetic—work in conjoint with one another. In this regard, Miklós Jancsó’s cinematic spectacles are symbolical fantasies enriched by phenomenological realism.

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This study demonstrates that Hanns Eisler's serial music composed in the early 1920s and his cantatas created in the 1930s are interrelated with Arnold Schoenberg's serial music. The specific purpose is to reveal the musical interactions between the two composers, such as how Eisler was influenced by Schoenberg, and how Eisler himself influenced Schoenberg. The former aspect is highlighted by the analysis of Schoenberg's Suite für Klavier (1923) and Eisler's Zweite Sonate für Klavier (1925). The latter is shown while Eisler's Deutsche Symphonie from the 1930s and Schoenberg's A Survivor from Warsaw (1947) are subjected to a comparative analysis. Eisler was not simply a pupil who renounced Schoenberg's teachings, but a “true disciple” who succeeded Schoenberg's serial technique in a manner comparable to that of Webern and Berg and who, in addition, was a musical companion of Schoenberg, influencing Schoenberg's later music.

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This paper inquires about the social reasons and epistemological consequences of sacred knowledge (charms) outside its “original setting”, toward an archive of folklore or to a new age journal. Some local specificities of relationships between knowledge and power are explored through multiple contextualisations of an interview we conducted with a former shepherd and healer in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania.

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Thirteen ancient Chinese manuscripts have been seen as texts of a long lost 8th-century early Chan Buddhist chronicle, the Lidai fabao ji. A number of textual indications, however, suggest that they cannot be taken as the Tang sources, because their texts have been redacted between 907 and the early 11th century. The original Tang source, Lidai fabao ji, remains mysterious to date.

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This paper examines the iconolographical origin of Johannes Sambucus’ emblem dedicated to Carlo Sigonio, which – according to its title – displays the difference between grammar, dialectics, rhetoric and history. I focus on the central female figure whose innocent nudity represents the truth and whose connection with the ideal historiography standing – balancing together with Dialectics and Rhetoric – on the head of the young virgin Grammar. The special relationship between History and naked truth also defines its symbolic connection with the costumes of the other two figures: Dialectics in rough working clothes and Rhetoric in her long luxury dress. Three symbolic animals also belong to the three female figures: a sphinx to Dialectics, a chimera to Rhetoric and a winged dog to History. Contextual examination of the emblem reveals the possible source of the strange winged dog symbol is Plutarch’s short story of Osiris and Isis. In addition, the paper draws attention to an ironic twist of History in connection with Carlo Sigonio that shows that its nudity is not always so innocent.

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The aim of the present paper is to analyze how pseudo-English loanwords are registered in modern lexicography. This is a rather new and quickly developing research field in European linguistics, however, in Russia, it has received hardly any attention so far. These lexical items are usually treated as real English borrowings in Russian dictionaries, despite the fact that they are not used in the source language in the form they are presented by lexicographers. It is also pointed out in the paper that some pseudo-Anglicisms have been transferred into Russian through one of the main intermediary languages of Europe (French or German).

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Painted dedication to Genius and a relief depicting aquila from a sanctuary in Sopianae

(Appendix to the study: Painted depiction of Genius of Sopianae by Anita Kirchhof)

Authors: Boglárka Fábián and Ádám Szabó

In the locality of Sopianae, Pannonia Inferior, at the east corner of the settlement, there was a presumably customs station built at the end of the 2nd century which existed till 258–260 AD. From one of the rooms of the building excavated on Kossuth Square, Pécs, a fresco depicting a Genius, an inscription belonging to it, two pedestals – probably bases for statues – and a statue of an eagle came to light. Based on the assemblage the room may have been the sanctuary (sacellum) of the official building. The rare but formal telonium or teloneum expression may have been used for this customs station which, as such, belonged to the organization of the Publicum portorium Illyrici. The only surviving inscription may have been dedicated to the genius of the employees or the armed guards of the customs station: Genio | cu(stodiarum?) tel(onei?). On the pedestal bases probably emperor statues were situated. On the eastern wall of the west–east oriented room, based on its own pedestal and generally because of its quality, there was the relief of an eagle placed in a niche personalizing Iuppiter and the imperial power. In this case the eagle can be taken as a state-imperial symbol found in its own context and thus belonged to the rare Roman Age relics of the administration. The sanctuary must basically serve the official imperial cult.

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A preceding archeological excavation opened the way for the recovery of a larger building complex on Kossuth Square, Pécs. A wall-painting islet consisting of fragmented, but contigious pieces was unearthed, was a part of a larger painting decorating the northern wall of the room of the building complex in Severan times. The half man size figure surviving in bust was created with a brilliant brushwork using rich colours on a white background. The figure can be identified as Genius based on his attributes (the cornucopia and the crown) and the inscription of the painting. This paper discusses reconstruction possibilities of the wall-painting, painting techniques and materials applied, and deals with the possible functions of the room the wall-painting was unearthed in.

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Although applied self-efficacy research currently offers some promising avenues of study for Translatology (Jiménez Ivars and Pinazo Calatayud 2001; Atkinson 2012; Bolaños-Medina 2014), no specific translation self-efficacy scale (TSE) with adequate psychometric properties has been devised until now. The purpose of this study is, on the one hand, to develop a scale for assessing translators’ self-efficacy following the recommended standard guidelines (Bandura 2006) and a rigorous statistical testing process which will allow us to determine its factor structure and psychometric properties in undergraduate students (n = 74). On the other hand, by doing so, we will also illustrate the process of developing psychometric instruments specifically designed for cognitive, empirical-experimental research in Translatology, in order to promote more efforts in this direction within our discipline. A conceptual analysis of the relevant domain of functioning was performed and a preliminary pool of 52 items was initially suggested, and later refined into 20. After conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, descriptive statistics and distributions of the items were obtained. Next, the internal consistency and the concurrent validity of TSE’s five subscales were evaluated. The results indicate that TSE shows adequate levels of reliability and validity, and support its five-factor structure.

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Quantifier scope in sentence prosody?

A view from production

Authors: Balázs Surányi and Gergő Turi

Logical scope interpretation and sentence prosody exhibit intricate, yet scarcely studied interrelations across a variety of languages and constructions. Despite these observable interrelations, it is not clear whether quantifier scope by itself is able to directly affect prosodic form. Information structure is a key potential confounding factor, as it appears to richly interact both with scope interpretation and with prosodic form.

To address this complication, the current study investigates, based on data from Hungarian, whether quantifier scope is expressed prosodically if information structure is kept in check. A production experiment is presented that investigates grammatically scope ambiguous doubly quantified sentences with varied focus structures, while lacking a syntactically marked topic or focus. In contrast to the information structural manipulation, which is manifest in the analysis of the acoustic data, the results reveal no prosodic effect of quantifier scope, nor the interaction of scope with information structure. This finding casts doubt on the notion that logical scope can receive direct prosodic expression, and it indirectly corroborates the restrictive view instead that scope interpretation is encoded in prosody only in cases in which it is a free rider on information structure.

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Sposalizio, the piece opening the “Italian year” of Franz Liszt's Années de pèlerinage (first published in 1858), is one of the most analyzed and interpreted compositions in this piano cycle. Much attention has been paid to its connection with the painting of the same title by Raphael, which was printed as an internal title page for the piece's first edition at the explicit request of the composer. This connection has inspired many studies on the relationship between image and music, reinforcing the notion of Sposalizio as a musical realization of Raphael's painting as seen by Liszt for the first time in February 1838 at the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan. Adopting a critical view of the hermeneutical tradition, which has an impact on the interpretation of the piece still today, and assuming that its composition began in Weimar only around 1848, the article proposes an alternative reading of the piece. By connecting pictorial and musical elements, Sposalizio seems to evoke several cultural discourses and practices fundamental to Liszt's artistic and biographical background, such as Raphael's image as a genius, the revival of Marian devotion, and marriage as a sacrament of the Catholic Church.

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During the second decade of the twenty-first century, documentation in electronic format has come to form a normal part of the workplace for all professional translators. The aim of this article is to present the results of the acquisition of the instrumental sub-competence, which is based on the use of electronic resources. These results are part of empirical-experimental research carried out by the PACTE group on Translation Competence Acquisition. In this study, the evolution of the acquisition of this sub-competence for five groups of translation students, from the first year of their degree course to their entry into the labour market, was measured using a methodological design that simulates a longitudinal study. The experiment was carried out in 2011 with 130 students on the Translation and Interpreting degree course. Five indicators related to the direct and inverse translation processes are analysed: number of resources, time taken on searches, time taken on searches at each stage, number and variety of searches. These indicators are then correlated with the quality of the final product of the translation process: translation acceptability. The results produced by the translation students are compared with those obtained in the Translation Competence experiment, carried out by the PACTE group in 2005−2006 with 35 professional translators.1

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Authors: Aleksandar Uzelac and Stefan Bojowald
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Authors: Benedek Láng,, Ildikó Tamás,, Vilmos Voigt,, Judit Kis-Halas,, Tóth G. Péter, and Gábor Vargyas
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Authors: Anthony Pym and Kayo Matsushita

The translator’s risk management while translating can involve several general dispositions, of which risk taking, risk avoidance, and risk transfer have been modeled previously (Pym 2015). In this paper we propose a fourth type of disposition, risk mitigation, which was identified by Matsushita (2016) through empirical research based on Pym’s model. Risk mitigation is a disposition where the translator incurs one kind of risk in order to reduce another. Analyzing authentic examples in multiple languages, we ask whether mitigation is fundamentally different from the other three types, whether it involves a specific restriction on how much effort should rationally be invested by the translator, and whether a general logic of trade-offs is applicable. We further propose that mitigation correlates with factors both on the production side of the translator’s discourse, where it enhances translatorial visibility, and on the reception side, where it can respond to imprecise identification of the target public.

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Sara Laviosa, Adriana Pagano, Hannu Kemppanen, Meng Ji

Textual and Contextual Analysis in Empirical Translation Studies

Author: Xin Li
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The aim of this paper is to show that conceptualizing and defining those subsets of data that the researcher extracts from an online searchable corpus constitutes a step forward towards more methodological transparency, especially in those settings where researchers do not build their own corpora, but use those that can be searched online. To that end, in Section 2 a succinct typology of online searchable corpora for the study of language-pair related or translation-related phenomena will be drawn. In Section 3, the concept of secondary sample corpus will be put forward, which, in turn, will shed new light on the status of web-based parallel (and parallelized) corpora. Section 4 will be devoted to general methodological requirements and to requirements of the quantitative approach as the main – but not the only – approach shaping the research work in the fields of Corpusbased Descriptive Translation Studies and Corpus-based Contrastive Linguistics; the focus will lie on issues of replicability, comparability, availability and usability. In Section 5, some brief conclusions will be drawn.

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A Sókratés-kérdés kutatóinak egy része újabban erőteljes kihívással szembesíti azokat, akik úgy vélik, a történeti Sókratésről – néhány alapvető tényen kívül – bármi érdemlegeset is tudhatunk. A mai szkeptikusok álkérdésnek tartják a Sókratés-kérdést, mert alapvetően mind Platón, mind Xenophón tudósításait úgynevezett „sókratikus beszédként” (sókratikos logos) értelmezik, mely műfaj nem tartott számot történeti hitelességre. Ez a tanulmány arra vállalkozik, hogy új módszertani szempontokkal hozzájáruljon e radikálisan szkeptikus következtetés elkerüléséhez. Az első meggondolás, hogy elsősorban Sókratés peréből kell kiindulnunk, és annak platóni, illetve xenophóni bemutatását kell összehasonlítanunk, mégpedig eltérő szerzői szándékaik, Sókratésről alkotott benyomásaik, valamint a korra vonatkozó ismereteink összefüggésében. Az összehasonlítás első része Xenophón szerzői szándékait vizsgálja meg, és amellett érvel, hogy a Sókratés korára, a per körülményeire és a rá vonatkozó alapvető információink fényében Xenophón tudósítása nem tekinthető történetileg hitelesnek, majd hiányosságai alapján felvázolja azokat az elméleti kritériumokat, amelyeknek egy ilyen beszámolónak meg kell felelnie. Előrevetíti, hogy Platón Védőbeszéde megfelel ezeknek a kritériumoknak, azonban történeti hitelességét további vizsgálódások tárgyának tekinti.

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The reliefs of the Hadrianeum in Rome still pose a lot of difficulties even several centuries after their discovery. This meant a number of varying identification proposals from different scholars. Some of them are too fragmentary to ever to be solved, but in this paper I propose some modifications to the previous readings based on iconographic parallels.

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The Turkic nomads of the Mongol successor states in Central Asia and the Qipchaq Steppe arose from the merging of various Turkic groups and the Mongols. The former had consisted of heterogeneous elements that did not coalesce into a single entity sharing a common identity and historical consciousness. They thus did not constitute a uniform majority in relation to the more cohesive Mongols. In terms of tribal and genetic compositions, the Turkic nomads of the Mongol successor states were closer to the Mongols than to the pre-Mongol Turkic groups. Naturally, they held on to a predominantly Mongol orientation rather than reverting to pre-Mongol identities.

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In this paper I argue that the early moral philosophy of Ákos Pauler was informed by eugenic and racial hygienic theories of his age. Perhaps one of the key social theorists of his time was the British philosopher Herbert Spencer who arguably had an influence on the moral theories of Pauler as well. Pauler became an influential theoretician in Hungary during the interwar period. His ideological commitments to Christinity and national values made him favorable to the authoritarian politics of the 1920s and 30s. His significance lasted until the end of the 1940s; during the Socialist period from 1948 to 1989 Pauler’s heritage was played down because of the idological divide between the two political eras. However, after the transition, the works of Pauler were re-discovered and my study contributes to this strand of research from an intersectional perspective. In this paper I will analyze how conceptulizations of race and gender structured their moral theories in which the responsibility of women was understood in terms of their reproductive contribution to their country’s racial future. I claim that Pauler’s early moral philosophy rests on racially informed principles that justify gender subordination.

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Serbian–Hungarian lexicography has been developing from the late 19th century. The scope of its activities includes over one hundred dictionaries, among which professional ones are especially interesting. Their number is smaller because general dictionaries take over their task to register the professional vocabulary. In this paper, the author presents the most important Serbian–Hungarian and Hungarian–Serbian professional dictionaries, their concept, and the prospects of drawing up new technical dictionaries.

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Stroop-like interference of grammatical and visual number

Experimental evidence from Polish speakers

Authors: Piotr Gulgowski and Joanna Błaszczak

The current paper presents results of two experiments attempting to replicate with Polish speakers a Stroop-like interference of grammatical number with the counting task, first reported by Berent et al. (2005) for Hebrew. Both experiments tested the influence of the type of number morphology (marked with overt suffix vs. unmarked) of nouns on the strength of the interference effect. Additionally, the second experiment investigated the processing of nouns with a mismatch between grammatical and conceptual number and tested the possible effect of animacy on number interpretation in order to determine the time at which the information about grammatical number is activated. The first experiment showed a significant interaction between the grammatical number and visual numerosity of the counted words and the effect of markedness, with marked singulars producing a bigger congruency effect than unmarked singulars. However, in the second experiment the influence of morphology was reversed and the overall effects were considerably weaker.

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Author: Lővei Pál
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