Sanskrit pāmara and its Prakrit and Modern Indo-Aryan equivalents have a broad semantic field. The meaning of the word ranges from a very negative connotation “a low man”, “an outcast”, “a fool” to a positive term denoting a peasant who is a member of a rural community with full powers. The present paper explores the various shades of meaning of the word and their possible social background. The term first appeared in early mediaeval times and has remained productive in the various Modern Indo-Aryan languages spoken in India. The negative connotations of the word are typical of traditional Sanskrit lexicons, while the positive ones were used by poets and playwrights.
This paper examines the Assyrian records of Sennacherib’s third campaign from a literary perspective by investigating the structure of the text, the means of participant reference, and terms and expressions with ideological connotations. It focuses especially on the representation of the Assyrian king and other participants for or against his rule, elucidating how the author portrays the participants through the use of literary structure as well as particular forms, terms or expressions. It also shows how the author makes use of these devices to paint the Judean king Hezekiah as an archenemy and the target of the third campaign.
It is commonly held among scholars that Aśoka’s Minor Rock Edicts were the king’s first attempts at engraving his messages on stone, and as such, they represent the earliest evidence for writing in India. While this may be true, it has not been duly emphasised that the text of the Minor Rock Edicts, in several versions as we have it, shows considerable traces of influence by the Major Rock Edicts and Pillar Edicts. Particular instances for such an influence in the text are the intrusion of the key term dhaṃma or the use of a general formulaic language characteristic of the later edicts. In our discussion, we wish to bring out some of these “Major” trends in the Minor Rock Edicts, making proposals for new interpretations and reading in Minor Rock Edicts I and II. On a similar basis, we will propose placing the Greco-Aramaic edict from Kandahar in the context of the Minor Rock Edicts, and try to account for the elements which may be derived from the Major Rock Edicts by the same scribal procedure as can be supposed to have been at work in formulating the text of the Minor Rock Edicts.
Authors:Farkas Farkas Gábor, Mária M. Horváth, Kinga Körmendy and Zsolt Szebelédi
Lieutenant-colonel Ignác Andrássy kept several hundred books in his country house in Kajászószentpéter in the first half of the 19th century. His widow Mária Végh donated the collection to the library of the National Museum a few decades after his death in 1875. The majority of the books were Latin and German 17-18th century works on law and history and collections of religious homilies in addition to some antiques. The collection included some valuable items such as a copy of János Thuróczy’s chronicle (Brünn, 1488) or the Biblia pauperum. Archival sources outline that in 1814 the attention of Jakab Ferdinánd Miller director of library was drawn to an extraordinary block book. Miller mobilized all his contacts to acquire the book, soliciting help from the sub-prefect of Veszprém county and even the Palatine Joseph, too. It is not known what happened to the Biblia pauperum; probably it perished or is still latent. Later research hypothesized that it was identical with the copy in Esztergom, but we do not this assumption because the provenance of that copy could be convincingly determined: the ex libris in the book reveals that the owner was Tommaso Obizzi del Catajo, an 18th century bibliophile and antiquities collector.
Architecture, art and industry – institutions and education in Hungary in the age of dualism. After the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867, Hungary launched a programme of modernisation and nation building, which included the improvement of education in the areas of architecture and the applied arts. The government made efforts to achieve this by radically transforming the institutional framework, reforming existing establishments, and setting up new ones. In 1871 the Joseph Polytechnic, which had been in operation since 1856, was accorded the status of a university (Joseph Technical University). In 1872 the School of Drawing was launched. Within it the School of Applied Arts was established in 1880, the institution becoming independent in 1896. In 1888 the Municipal School of Industrial Drawing of Budapest, the successor of earlier lower level schools of drawing, was established, now as a new centre for the training of artisans. The State High School of Industry opened its school at the end of 1879. Teachers and students had access to an increasing number of French, German, English and Hungarian books and pattern sheets acquired systematically by the institutions, which also used plaster casts and models as teaching aids. Some newly-founded schools operated in conjunction with museums of their respective disciplines.
Assuming that tones are not phonological primitives but have a complex internal featural structure predicts that the same surface tone can have different phonological representations in one language. I argue in this paper that this assumption of sub-tonal features allows a straightforward analysis for different patterns of apparently exceptional or asymmetric behaviour of floating tones. This paper hence argues for the importance of (abstract) underlying representations that allow purely phonological accounts of apparent lexical idiosyncrasies. In addition, it adds to the growing body of evidence for sub-tonal features.
Authors:Eyad Almasri, Fadi Balaawi and Yahya Alshawabkeh
In 1937 and 1938, a group of high-relief and round statues were uncovered during the joint expedition of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem and the Department of Antiquities in Palestine at the Khirbet et-Tannur Temple, located in Jordan. This expedition was headed by Nelson Glueck (Figs 1, 2). The statues uncovered are important in that they offer considerable information about Nabataean art and religion. This paper concentrates on one of the high-relief statues, called the Atargatis Panel by its excavator, Glueck. It was chosen as a case study for its availability in Amman, Jordan. The other Atargatis statues found at the site are now in the Cincinnati Art Museum in the United States of America. This paper also examines the Nabataean religious beliefs concerning Atargatis and her fertility cult, in addition to the art style of the statue. Furthermore, the digital 3D imaging documentation of the Atargatis statue at The Jordan Museum is presented. Dense image matching algorithms presented a flexible, cost-effective approach for this important work. These images not only provide geometric information but also show the surface textures of the depicted objects. This is especially important for the production of virtual 3D models used as a tool for documentary, educational and promotional purposes.
Due to the results of my recent anthropological analysis conducted in a community garden in Budapest my aim is to highlight the keypoints, dynamics, and community demand on the organic food production. In this paper I present the main discourse topics, acts and behaviours that sorrounds crop cultivation and defines what the community members consider as organic. Organic is a social construct, and as such, thinking about this issue is multifarious. While contributing to this issue with specific considerations, at the same time I try to measure the importance of organic food in urban context.
The archaeologist author has been involved in dendrochronological research in Transylvania for some fifteen years. In the summer of 2015 she and István Botár got the possibility within the frame of a five-year OTKA research project to examine the altarpiece in the Lutheran church of Almakerék (Mălâncrav, Malmkrog, Szeben county, Romania). It was the first time they had carried out dedrochronological growth ring dating on a work of art in functional use. The material of the altarpiece is presumably fir (Abies alba MILL.). The series of growth rings were measured on the reverse longitudinal surface of all the twelve painted panels and the top board of the predella. The examined panels derived from very old, at least 160-170-year-old fir trees. The researchers managed to determine the year of felling (winter of 1459/60), which is a useful clue for art history to date the making of the altarpiece. If the altarpiece was made in the lifetime of the head of the family that held the advowson Mihály Apafi (whose wife was mentioned a widow in 1469), then the wood was left to season for fewer than 9 years.
This study offers a brief review of the main research directions and issues in the archaeology of identity. Discussed here are the components of identity – meaning the statuses and roles that determine the individual’s relation to, and membership in, a community as well as to other individuals, which are essentially the elements of social cohesion and social organisation – and its formation as well as the various options for categorisation and the modes of display through cultural memory and material culture.
The Middle Copper Age hoard discovered at Magyaregres came to light from a closed assemblage during an archaeological investigation. The exceptionally fortuitous find circumstances enabled important observations in the field and during the conservation of the finds. The assemblage was also submitted to various scientific analyses. The settlement of the Balaton-Lasinja community that had buried this hoard offers an excellent illustration of the diversity of the period’s architectural traditions.
Le Prince de bois de Bartók n’a pas connu le succès escompté lors de sa création, il correspondait peu aux attentes du public, bien que son intrigue de base fût similaire à celles d’autres ballets du moment, comme Coppelia. L’auteur du livret, Béla Balázs, était proche des milieux d’avant-garde, autour du Cercle du dimanche de Georg Lukács, mais son intention de plonger dans les profondeurs du drame humain en s’intéressant moins aux conditions sociales le tenait éloigné, non seulement de la bourgeoisie, mais aussi des mouvements d’émancipation. L’oeuvre peut être envisagée sous l’angle de la psychanalyse des contes de fée. Une analyse de Ferenczi met en évidence l’idée de la toute-puissance du moi. Sur un fond autobiographique, Bartók a donné une forme musicale à cette pièce illustrant la difficulté des relations entre l’homme et la femme. Il répond au livret de Balázs en combinant notamment plusieurs thématiques musicales (des danses) illustrant l’opposition entre l’authentique et l’artificiel, ainsi que la progression dramatique de l’amour, du désespoir et du rituel initiatique.
The establishment and development of the Municipal Theater in Pressburg in the period 1886–1920 was closely linked with the cultural and social development of the city in the period following the Austrian-Hungarian Compromise in 1867. The theater was built by the rising stratum of Pressburg townsmen, based on a requirement of the Hungarian government. The theater was in the possession of the town that rented it to theater directors and their German and Hungarian companies. The theater had a primacy among provincial theaters in Hungary. This was mainly due to the vicinity of Vienna and the efforts to resemble the metropolis, notably by the local patriotism of Pressburg inhabitants who wanted their locality to be regarded as a leading Hungarian town. The opera performances and their reception in the newspapers demonstrate the history of culture of the town, mentalities and collective identifications of its citizens, and last but not least the history of culture of Central Europe.
Konstantinápoly török bevétele egy lassan haldokló birodalom történetének utolsó felvonása volt. A kortárs bizánciak többsége az isteni gondviseléssel magyarázta a török hódítást. Voltak azonban néhányan, akik szakítottak a keresztény értelmezéssel, és más magyarázatot kerestek Bizánc bukására. Közéjük tartozott a Halósis egyik történetírója, az imbrosi Kritobulos. A tanulmány az ő történelemszemléletét vizsgálja. A korábbi elképzeléssel szemben, mely szerint Kritobulos művében a történelem menetét a kiszámíthatatlan τύχη irányítja, azt állítjuk, hogy a hellenisztikus fogalom csak az egyik – és nem is a legfontosabb – volt azon eszmék közül, amelyeket Kritobulos felhasznált a múlt értelmezésénél.
The testament of the Hungarian calligrapher George Bocskay (†1575) has been recently discovered in the Archive of the Benedictine Archabbey of Pannonhalma. Bocskay made his will on the 4th of April 1575, in the house of the Hungarian magnate János Pethő de Gerse (III) in Vienna. The original document published here was written in Latin. The new data provided by the testament are of primary importance regarding the life and social network of George Bocskay. According to the text he left his property to his wife and children as well as his four servants, among others he bequeathed his books and instruments of calligraphy to his son, Stephen. His burial place was unknown yet. However, in his testament Bocskay ordered to be buried in the Himmelpfortkloster in Vienna. It was a significant medieval Premonstratesian cloister, founded for nuns by Constance of Hungary, the daughter of the Hungarian King Béla III, in the 1230s.
Authors:János Gábor Tarbay, Zoltán Kis and Boglárka Maróti
The following study deals with a looted metal sheet artefact probably originating from the Balkan region. Our main goal is to give a preliminary technological characterization of the object by the aid of four different analytical methods (macro- and microscopic observations, Neutron and X-ray Radiography, X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Using these different techniques together allowed us to characterize this complex metal sheet object more precisely than it would have been possible by traditional archaeological methods. According to our results, it seems that the technological characters of the artefact (e.g. the manufacturing technology, decorations, repair marks) are very similar to the metal sheet cauldrons of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.
Budaörs Airport is a work of modern architecture built in 1937 in a country that was fundamentally conservative in its political outlook, and was the first public airport in Hungary that met European standards. It was designed by the architects Virgil Bierbauer and László Králik. The airport architecture made use of the lessons learned, both positive and negative, from countless airports in other countries. In this regard it successfully overcame the technical and other problems faced by designers in European countries, which had made it necessary to redesign the airports in these countries in the midthirties. The building was simultaneously modern and pragmatic. Its overhead view, with the side wings attached to the circular passenger hall, clearly shows the purpose of the building. Budaörs Airport was built as a transit airport: it was intended to have an important geopolitical role in connecting air passengers from Central Europe with other countries and continents in the world. In the 1920s, countless airports had been constructed in Europe to deal with air traffic between the different countries and between Europe and their colonies. Hungary, however, had long been excluded from this development, due to the terms of the peace treaties that concluded the First World War. It was not until the mid-1930s that the country had the chance to break free from these restrictions. Budaörs Airport became a symbol both of this newfound liberty and of the start of modern civil aviation, while its creation was also closely linked to the changing lifestyle of the 1920s and 1930s.
The interior of the airport was also designed to meet the expectations of the modern human with an interest in all the new things of the world. The interior decoration of the passenger hall was quite innovative: bearing in mind the philosophical background underlying modern movements in art, it combined the compositional approach of painting (aeropittura, Expressionism) with the techniques of photomontage and murals. This composition, known by the title of “The Experience of Flight,” aimed to fill the room with a vision of flight, based partly on realistic and partly on imaginary images, to inspire passengers arriving in the passenger hall, as well as whoever accompanied them. Running all the way around the upstairs balustrade, the enormous photomontage – photofrieze, photomural – was the result of collaboration between the architect Virgil Bierbauer and the painter and photographer Ada Ackermann (Mrs Elemér Marsovszky), and was made using aerial photographs from Hungary and Europe.
By presenting Budaörs Airport in detail, this study is intended as a contribution to investigations into the unique modern architectural world of airport architecture and to the evaluation of the decorative and propagandistic role played by photography.
Claude Lorrain was one of the first painters in the art history to break away from literary (religious, mythological) themes and to veer in the direction of more open interpretations of meaning. Works by Claude Lorrain that have positively identifiable themes are scenes of a narrative nature, yet the titles that were applied to such paintings – for instance Landscape with Acis and Galatea, Seaport with Ulysses Returning Chryseis to Her Father – would have been inconceivable to members of earlier generations. In the paintings of Claude, the viewer could celebrate not only the embodiment of beauty but also the art of beauty. Instead of being treated as a parable, subject to constant reinterpretation in accordance with the concept of the idea, the image could now be seen simply as a visualisation of the ideal of the individual. It is the landscape that takes precedence over the events themselves. Nature is not subjugated to expressing or suppressing human passions; nature is never anything but beautiful and indifferent, a backdrop to human action. In my study, I examine in detail a little known 1667 painting by Claude, which is in a private collection and the iconographic status of which is uncertain.
This paper synthetises knowledge concerning the spread of the paredros type statuette in Roman Dacia. Thus, we examined their manner of distribution, the workshops, and most importantly their significance. The author notes that these statuettes were discovered solely in Dacia Superior and Porolissensis, especially in the former. He highlights the fact that these statuettes were found in the area of the most developed urban planning, along the Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa–Apulum–Potaissa–Porolissum line, in highly Romanised towns with important military units stationed nearby. Similarly, it shows the important role the Apulum urban centre played in producing and distributing these votive statuettes. The author concludes that these statuettes are additional evidence of the lower classes’ affiliation to imperial power. Due to the spread of the Jupiter cult in Apulum, it is no wonder that people sought to obtain a cheaper variant, accessible to the poor. Due to this aspect, as well as the sober, rigid stance of the characters, we attribute them to the deities Jupiter and Juno. Considering that such statuettes were not found in burials, it is unlikely that they were funerary offerings that were more likely to depict the divine couple Pluto and Proserpine. The statuettes cannot represent local Dacian deities since the conquered population is rarely mentioned in provincial inscriptions with anthroponyms (just over two percent), and sculptural or epigraphic monuments do not represent the deities of the ancient local pantheon. Furthermore, in the urban environment where these votive terracottas were produced, the presence of the Thracian-Dacian population is almost never mentioned epigraphically (more than 1% of epigraphs depict anthroponyms) or archaeologically.
This paper is an attempt to apply Roger Caillois’ “théorie de la fête” to the contemporary music festivals in Poland and Hungary. The French ethnologist suggested that modernity does not provide the opportunity for collective vertigo, marginalizes the festival, and transforms it into a possibility that is difficult to achieve. Accordingto the results of my ethnographic fieldwork, the festival is a place of rest, fun, elation, rewarding belonging to a community, or even freedom at different levels. For many participants, it is a holiday in its purest form; a festival whose subject is music, but whose purpose is mental rest. In this context, the concept of festivalization should be redefined. In the analyzed cases (Jarocin Festival, OFF Festival, and O.Z.O.R.A. Festival), festivalization is not reduced to specific, collective forms of consumption; it also means the possibility of creating specific space-times of rest and freedom.
In his paper the author deals with the Pannonian events of the civilian wars under Constantius II’s reign against Vetranio and Magnentius in the years 350 and 351. Based on all written and epigraphic sources (especially Julian’s and Libanius’ orations and Zosimus’ accounts), he intends to reconstruct the events and Magnentius’ route in the province before and after the battle at Cibalae. All sources can be found in the Addendum in chronological order.
The Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus’s royal library as the collection of a renaissance/humanist ruler was enriched not only with works ordered or purchased in Italy but also with manuscripts made in Buda. Most recent investigations suggest that illumining and copying activity started in the Buda court only after the arrival of Queen Beatrice (1476).
The paper is concerned with one of the marked illuminator figures of the Buda workshop labelled – for want of real identification – as “the first emblazoner”. (His figure was first outlined by Edith Hoffmann in the 1920s, who also verified that he had been trained in Florence.) So far modest floral ornaments and Matthias’s coat of arms had been attributed to this illuminator, in addition to two voluminous manuscripts, the Alberti Corvina in Modena and the Ambrosius Corvina in Paris (Modena, BEU, ms.Lat.419; Paris, BnF, Cod. Latin 1767).
The paper sheds light on the illuminator’s figure embedded in a broader context and viewed from a new angle. The novel aspect is the differentiation between the illuminator’s own style and style imitation. The author managed to demonstrate that the master did not only create his own style but occasionally imitated the style of others. Accordingly, the first half of the study analyses the illuminator’s own style in detail, and the second half discusses his work with the method of imitation. The basis for the examination of the latter is the Ransanus manuscript (Bp. OSZK, cod. Lat. 249) in which the master’s hand imitating a certain Franco-Flemish style can be safely identified.
While explicating the above topics, the author also proposes new ideas about the genesis and localization of two important corvina manuscripts. She proves that the Philostratus (Bp., OSZK, Cod. Lat. 417) and Ransanus Corvinae so-far believed to have been made in Florence and Southern Italy were actually produced in the Buda workshop. The author uses all aspects of codicological research in her argumentation. This is the first time during the research that a scribe figure is also delineated who worked in the Buda workshop at the very end of the 1480s. The Beda Corvina as well as Nagylucsei’s Psalter (Venice, BNM, Lat. VIII. 2=2796; Munich, BSB, Clm 175; Budapest, OSZK, Cod. Lat. 369) are by his hand. The Philostratus Corvina can be attributed to a scribe who imitated him fairly closely.
The author concludes that the working method of the “first emblazoner” (idiosyncratic and imitated styles) and his role in different codices epitomize the functioning of the Buda workshop. She opines that the structure of the workshop was based on the parallel activity and occasional collaboration of outstanding and lesser masters. It is almost self-evident to infer from her reasoning that the Florentine illuminator Boccardino il Vecchio possibly decorated the Philostratus Corvina in Buda. The author points out that the inner initials of the manuscript are not by Boccardino il Vecchio but by a lesser figural painter. One of the secondary initials is clearly the copy of a Francesco Rosselli half-figure type. This phenomenon locates the second hand (“first emblazoner”?) to Buda. (Rosselli worked in Buda in 1479/80, his works were included in the Buda library, too.) The fact that a lesser master had a role in such an exquisite manuscript is ascribed by the author to the structure of the Buda workshop.
At the same time the paper also raises the question of the contribution of the “second emblazoner” within the Corvina Library and concludes that the Ransanus manuscript is the joint work of the “first” and “second emblazoners” in Buda (working on the codex with time lags).
The author reflects upon the long-standing question of dating the two heraldic painters and adduces important data to support the earlier also proposed hypothesis that the first and second emblazoners worked parallel, and their work coincided with the comprehensive development and unification of the Buda library at the very end of the 1480s.
The study presents the findings of the archaeological investigation and architectural survey of the vaulted ashlar burial chamber and its burial in Eger Cathedral. The burial chamber is located in the cathedral’s longhouse, whose origins can be traced to the Árpádian Age. In addition to an overview of the relevant medieval and post-medieval historical sources and the archival architectural and archaeological reports, the context and the date of the burial chamber in the architectural history of the medieval cathedral are also discussed, as is its association with the other burials in the cathedral.
The present study started out by posing the question: what reasons might lead to the success of Hungarian intellectuals who were schooled in Hungary and who later emigrated to the West. From among the possible answers, we examined one: education and reading culture in Hungary was more complex in a given period than in Western Europe. We consider whether or not this answer is persuasive.
Based on the results provided by basic research in reading history in Hungary in the early modern period, one can safely say that the culture of experts in Hungary was more heterogeneous, and these experts constantly revisited traditional sources and kept them alive. On the other hand, in terms of the depth of professional knowledge and the level of concentration on a given field they were lagging behind their contemporary colleagues in Western Europe. This situation produced a dual eff ect: experts in Hungary had a stronger sense of tradition and they looked for transitional solutions due to the lack of the latest technical development and literature. Out of the Hungarian context, however, they produced outstanding achievements thanks to the more heterogeneous nature of their expertise.
This paper explores decision-making in literary translation focusing in particular on written alternative translation solutions (ATSs) and their role in the translation process. Drawing on psychological research on decision-making and translation process research, it investigates why an experienced translator produces various written ATSs in Draft 1 and how he chooses among the various possible solutions during the subsequent phases of the translation process. The investigation is carried out at the translator’s workplace who is studied as he self-revises a literary translation from French into Maltese. Data collected through think-aloud, translator observation and analysis of drafts pertaining to decision-making processes behind four sets of written ATSs concerning a similar lexical item are analysed and discussed. Results indicate that the translator produces written ATSs for strategic reasons.
Disentangling the roles of phonological well-formedness and lexical attestedness in phonotactic processing has proven challenging. In this study, we present results from a passive listening ERP study showing that English speakers exhibit distinct neural responses to CCVC nonce words according to the phonological well-formedness and attestedness (in English) of the onset cluster. Clusters with poor sonority sequencing evoked an N400 effect compared to those without poor sonority sequencing, regardless of whether the well-formed clusters were attested in English. In contrast, unattested clusters, regardless of whether they were well-formed or ill-formed in terms of sonority sequencing, evoked a late positivity compared to attested clusters. The results suggest that listeners first perform a phonological analysis on potential words before submitting them to a lexical search.
In this paper I scrutinize the origin of the concept of dreams influenced by mens’ daylightexperience. To this end I showcase some texts from Hellenistic literature until English Renaissance which to my mind can be brought into connection with each other in terms of realism of dream-vision. By looking on the common traits one can arrive at the conclusion that the dream-realism is a concept which first became popular in the Hellenism and it was from there that it took its long way through ages.
The author, a priest and art historian, is a collector and donator of art works of sacral contents, first of all small graphics. He has brought the special handcrafted pieces of mixed technique, the so-called nuns’ works to the attention of art historians. In an auction in Budapest in 2017 he managed to buy an 18th century copperplate engraving printed on silk and richly embellished with embroidery and pearls. It shows the miracle of striking water by the Hungarian king Saint Ladislaus. The cult of St Ladislaus in the baroque age is also perpetuated by folk hymns; together with the Holy Virgin (Patrona Hungariae) he is the patron of Hungary. Another of his acquisitions is an oval porcelain painting of the bust of St Dorothy from the 19th century. Unfortunately, he failed to get the third remarkable piece of art, another 18th century nuns’ work. It shows Empress Maria Theresa as St Elizabeth of Hungary distributing alms. Maria Theresa founded the episcopacy of Székesfehérvár in 1777 and ordered a new high altar for the cathedral. The high altar by Viennese painter Vinzenz Fischer shows the scene of placing the Holy crown, that is, the country under the Virgin Mary’s protection achieved by King St Stephen and in the sculpted parts St Elizabeth appears, too.
Ha a görög kultúra azon szegmensére gondolunk, amelyet közmegegyezés alapján ’vallás’-nak nevezünk, elsősorban a politeizmus és az isteni pantheon kifejezések juthatnak eszünkbe. Természetesnek vesszük, hogy a görög vallásban több isten részesül kultikus tiszteletben, az egyénnek számos isten ünnepén kell részt vennie, nekik áldoznia, hozzájuk fohászkodnia kell, hogy polispolgári kötelességét teljesítse. Ám nem igazán szoktunk foglalkozni azzal, hogy ez a sokistenes vallási környezet miképpen működik: az egyén milyen módon tart fönn egyszerre több istennel kapcsolatot, hogyan tisztel több istent, képes-e egyáltalán arra, hogy a pantheon összes istenével jelentéssel bíró kapcsolatot ápoljon? Az utóbbi két évtized görög vallástörténeti kutatásait a fenti kérdések foglalkoztatják, a cikk ennek a tudományos iránynak a keretébe illeszkedve a politeizmuson belül létrejövő egyensúlyi helyzetet, az istenek között kialakuló konfl iktusokat, az egyén részéről személyes igények mentén megvalósuló választásokat és a személyes pantheonok képződését teszi vizsgálata tárgyává.
This paper presents the case of the elimination of cave houses in Tibolddaróc in the socialist era with the help of the affordable housing program implemented by the 2/1965 ÉMPM regulation. The housing program aimed to eliminate poor living condition in slums where Gypsy* and non-Gypsy people lived. Contrary to popular belief, 30% of the people living in the settlements “not complying with social requirements” were non-Gypsies, according to the settlement survey of 1964. Most surveyed non-Gypsy dwellers lived in cave houses, barracks, miner colonies or family houses. To provide a comparison, the author found it important to investigate the case of cave-dwellings in Tibolddaróc, where a well-definable group of non- Gypsies were accepted into the affordable housing program. In addition to demonstrating the elimination process in the locality, the author describes the discrepancies in the execution of the affordable housing program as compared to the original plan aimed at the Gypsy population. Furthermore, the paper reflects on the role of the socialist regime and its responsibility in the favorable or detrimental outcome of the elimination program.
The paper offers a digression into the issue of a specific group of children in the Early Middle Ages – the children of the elite in the northern region of the Carpathian Basin. By means of analysis and evaluation of the grave goods, the elements of the burial rite of children’s graves, it is possible to detect certain distinctive phenomena that show the importance of child individuals of higher social class. In terms of archaeological material, it is shown to a large extent by analogical phenomena of the burials of adult elite individuals. The phenomena manifest themselves with certain deviations due to the effect of a different social and cultural-ethnic development.
Authors:Eyad Almasri, Yahya Alshawabkeh, Fadi Balaawi and Allaa Shwater
The round statue of enthroned Tyche was originally displayed in the middle of the front row of seats in the west theatre of Umm Qais. The statue of high quality is made of ivory coloured marble, while the theatre is constructed of black basalt stone. This contrast of colour and material made the statue stand out and intensified the beauty of the theatre. The statue has been moved by the Department of Antiquities of Jordan and displayed at Umm Qais Archaeological Museum, registered as number 13c. The Gadara Tyche appeared with one of the main symbols of the goddess, the cornucopia.
Highly realistic and geometric models of cultural heritage objects are attractive tools for documentation, preservation and promotion purposes. 3D imaging, using dense stereo matching techniques, is used for accurate and realistic modeling of the Tyche statue and the theatre of Umm Qais. Acquiring 3D surfaces with image matching solutions has many advantages related to the flexibility, cost effectiveness of, and need for short data collection time on the site without disturbance to the site’s visitors.
The paper presents Bertalan Árkay’s post-1945 smaller churches and through them the architect’s formal solutions and working method on the basis of plans in the estate, archival sources and his own list of works. After a source critical collation of the listed sources, the author takes stock of the elements of the oeuvre and identifying the buildings attributed to Árkay she clarifies the size of the oeuvre. She has found that between 1945 and 1953 he planned three churches (Cegléd, Gerjen, Kömpöc) but the construction of the Cegléd church was interrupted by the historical circumstances. Between 1957 and ’60 he made plans for nine churches (Győr-Kisbácsa, Szalkszentmárton, Vecsés Andrássy-telep, Hernád, Inárcs, Móricgát, Tiszalök, Újtikos, Vecsés-Óplébánia) seven of which were constructed on his plans. In 1961–65 he planned and built the churches of Pátroha, Parádsasvár and Tiszaeszlár. After the identification of restoration work and the contributions of other architects, it could be concluded that in addition to the churches of Hort and Taksony Bertalan Árkay saw 12 of his planned churches built up.
The examination of the buildings and the plan drawings confirmed that Árkay had some favourite formal solutions that he was wont to resort to. Regarding the façade design, three versions can be differentiated: one with a façade tower, one with a gable wall, and one with a pediment. As for window types, he had a penchant for windows with circular head, windows/French windows designed upon the arms of the cross and rosettes subdivided with a cross. Comparing them to the material in the estate one finds that Árkay often reused his motifs designed 20–25 years earlier. Behind the repeated forms of details (portals, choir) collaboration with the same craftsmen can be discerned.
By correcting some facts of the biography the author clarifies that apart from his work in state planning offices, Bertalan Árkay accepted several ecclesiastical commissions. It also came to light that in addition to planning new buildings he often undertook the restoration of buildings and the designing of objects of furnishing in any style.
The final conclusion is that after 1945 Bertalan Árkay was not able to repeat the architecture historical bravura he achieved with the Városmajor church, the prelude to modern Hungarian church architecture, designed with his father Aladár Árkay. In aesthetic terms his smaller churches satisfy the standards of ecclesiastic art and the expectations of the users, but their historicizing elements remove them from the contemporary trends of architecture, and their repetition shows routine rather than architectural invention.
Liszt fut un génie de son temps autant qu’un génie de la musique. Restant inclassable, malgré son tempérament romantique, il inventa le format du récital qui lui permettait de se donner en spectacle, seul et à travers toute l’Europe, sans reposer le bon vouloir d’un mécène. Sa recherche eff rénée de liberté coïncide, en outre, avec l’esprit qui soufflait alors sur la Hongrie, qui allait culminer avec la révolution de 1848. C’est ainsi que la liberté lisztienne trouve son enracinement dans un territoire, une patrie, qui restèrent par ailleurs chez lui largement fantasmés.
A hatodik század talán legnagyobb műgonddal elkészített törvényműve Iustinianus császár nevéhez fűződik. A császár a klasszikus római tradíció helyreállítójaként és a megújult keresztény birodalom első uralkodójaként tekintett magára, és ennek főként rendeleteiben adott hangot. Törvénykönyveinek bevezető rendeleteiben kettős birodalmi célkitűzését, nevezetesen az imperium Romanum visszahódítását és a klasszikus jogtudomány kodifikálását mint Istennek tett szolgálatot jeleníti meg. Iustinianus keresztény kodifikációjának középpontjában a Digesta áll, amelynek a császár különleges szerepet szentelvén, mintegy az igazságosság saját legszentebb templomaként emelte alattvalói fölé.
Authors:Csaba Mészáros, Stefan Krist, Vsevolod Bashkuev, Luboš Bělka, Zsófia Hacsek, Zoltán Nagy, István Sántha and Ildikó Sz. Kristóf
The authors intend to provide an overview of the diaries, travelogues, and correspondence of Austro-Hungarians who traveled to the Asian peripheries of Russia during the Dual Monarchy. We aim to contribute to ongoing discussions on colonial discourses of otherness, as well as to the historical development of ethnographic scholarship in Europe. Travel writing, orientalism, and colonial encounters with Asian otherness are closely intermingling phenomena in the modern era. We argue that the rich corpus of visual and verbal representations of North-, Central-, and Inner-Asian peoples recorded by the subjects of the Dual Monarchy provides instructive examples of colonial encounters with non-colonizers in 19th century Asia. Furthermore, we believe that these examples will bring forth a more detailed picture of how the ideas born in the centers of German enlightenment (like Völkerkunde) impregnated the intellectual life of more peripheral regions in Europe. As ethnographic scholarship developed within national research traditions rather than in the frame of a monolithic, European intellectual project, our question is whether or not the Dual Monarchy provided a meaningful frame to bridge national research traditions.
Eucharistic references in the representations of saints constitute a relatively unexplored segment within the iconography of the Holy Sacrament. This article analyses a number of hagiographical compositions from the Late Gothic wall paintings of Transylvania, which seem to carry eucharistic connotations, either through explicit references to the Sacrament (in the form of a monstrance, a chalice or host-shaped bread) or through subtler allusions to the sacrificial Body of Christ present in the Eucharist. The fact that most of these images are located in the sanctuaries of churches and are typically associated with other, more straightforward eucharistic imagery suggests conscious choices on the part of the inventors of the iconographic programs in adapting the subject matter of the wall paintings to the function of the given liturgical space.
In 1523 the papal legate Tommaso de Vio corroborated the statutes of the Pest Confraternity of the Virgin. The large booklet-shape diploma is representatively executed: the first page carries floral ornamentation in addition to the text. The decoration and the titulus starting the textual part, however, are archaizing, in line with the practice of the papal chancellary, instead of adopting the then widely popular modern all’antica decoration. The style of the embellishment of a diploma depended on the type of the diploma.
Hungarian art historiography has long been resorting to letters patent of nobility in its efforts to date and define the place of origin of the manuscripts from the time of King Matthias and the Jagiello age. That was how the manuscripts of provost of Székesfehérvár Domokos Kálmáncsehi – including the activity of the master of the Breviary Francesco Castello (OSZK, Cod. Lat. 446) – could be located to Buda, and three ornamental manuscripts with music (OSZK, A24; Bratislava, Archív mesta, EC Lad. 6; Zagreb, MR 2) could be proven to have ties to Buda in the early 16th century. The Bakócz Gradual (Esztergom, MS I. 1a.), the Erdődy Missal (Zagreb, RK 354) and the Gradual of Máté Tolnai (Pannonhalma, Caps LIV. F f.) as well as the overwhelming majority of letters patent issued in Buda between 1514 and 1525 were illumined by the so-called Bakócz monogrammist. The letters granting nobility and armorial bearings in the Jagiello age are not merely props for art history but also constitute a separate diplomatic genre.
The paper presents the results of a study of metaphorical vocabulary with the meaning of assessment of social change. The analysis involves common Russian vocabulary as well as the material of Russian dialects. Previously unpublished expeditionary records of dialect speech are introduced into academic discussion. Special attention is paid to the onomasiological analysis of linguistic facts. Four groups of motives are revealed: the motives of destruction (loosening, turning inside out, and death); spatially dynamic motives (moving away and disappearance); the motives of qualitative changes (the loss of one’s own properties and status, the acquisition of similarity with representatives of a foreign nation, the acquisition of worse properties, cooling down); and the motives of confusion (mixing of different cultures and disorientation). It is shown that the bearers of traditional folk culture tend to evaluate the changes of any kind as undesirable. A disapproving assessment of social change is due to the orientation of traditional culture toward strict adherence to customs.
Sustainable agriculture is the re-production of resources, which has a positive impact on the natural environment, assists in the survival of rural communities, and improves the quality of life through food production. The job opportunities can also positively influence the population retention of the communities. The study seeks to answer why a farming community in a traditionally agricultural area may have to re-learn the foundations of crop production on a social agricultural farm created by the local government. In this case study based on my fieldwork, I present the operation of an organic farm established with the help of external resources and specialists as a sustainable agricultural model, its effect on community life, and briefly referring to food culture and lifestyle changes that occurred in Hungary in the second half of the 20th century.
In Catalonia, there is great ambiguity regarding the terms employed to define the roles, profiles and scope of the individuals who act as intermediaries in the communication process in public services. The main confusion surrounds the terms of intercultural mediator and interpreter. This article aims to contribute to the current debate on the fuzzy boundary between these roles. We first describe the conceptions and beliefs, collected through semi-structured interviews, from healthcare staff, health service managers and interpreters about the different roles. Secondly, we analyse whether the evident confusion is also reflected in the educational context. A widespread tendency to resort to intercultural mediators in the health and educational contexts is observed, despite the fact that they are in most cases performing the task of an interpreter. Even though it is possible for the same professional to carry out both roles, this article advocates establishing a clear differentiation between them and stresses the importance of specialized training.
This paper aims to examine gender differences in hedging in Chinese–English conference interpreting based on a transcribed parallel corpus. The point of departure was to test Holmes’s (1986, 1988a) claims that women do not necessarily employ more hedges than men but that women’s use of hedges tends to focus more on interpersonal relationships while men’s is more on propositional precision. Hyland’s (1996a, 1996b) model in which hedges were categorized into accuracy-oriented, speaker-oriented and audience-oriented, has been adapted for this end. Our finding shows that male interpreters actually employ more hedges than their female counterparts on the whole. In particular, their accuracy-oriented and speaker-oriented hedges exceed those of female interpreters, but not for audience-oriented ones. To find out whether these differences were caused by the source texts per se or by interpreters’ manipulation, we named four types of interpreting approach towards hedge items: direct transfer, indirect transfer, shift and addition. The former two types were identified as source text interference while the latter two as interpreters’ manipulation. The results indicate that male interpreters exceed female interpreters in terms of shift and addition cases in all three types of hedges. The findings of the present study contribute to a more profound understanding of gender difference in language mediation and also have implications for future interpreter training.
Food represents a significant segment of human culture. It is not only a component of the material world and a means to satisfy basic biological needs, but also plays an important role in the economic and social life of the individual and community. Until the middle of the 20th century, the food culture of the Slovene population strongly depended on regional origin. Pumpkin seed oil has a special dietary role and a long tradition among the inhabitants of North- East Slovenia and the cultivation of oil seed pumpkins and production of pumpkin seed oil in the region was already mentioned in 18th century. Slovene pumpkin seed oil is of high-quality and is processed according to the traditional procedure. Since 2005, Styrian-Prekmurje pumpkin seed oil has been protected in the European Union with the Geographical Indication-PGI.
Nowadays, the pumpkin seed oil is also becoming an important expression of regional affiliation and a notable factor of economic development in Prekmurje, Porabje and Štajerska, especially significant for tourism, catering and the production of traditional rural products.
Dans les années quatre-vingt, le compositeur français, Francis Bayer, a réalisé de longues heures d’entretien avec György Ligeti. L’extrait présenté ici concerne la jeunesse de Ligeti, en Transylvanie, et ses premières années de compositeur, pendant la guerre et immédiatement après la guerre, à Budapest. Ligeti y apparaît marqué par l’héritage de Bartók et par l’atmosphère studieuse et exigeante du milieu intellectuel au sein duquel il a été élevé. On apprend également quelques éléments de sa vie liés au destin des Juifs à cette époque.
Authors:Balázs Péter, Bíró Szilvia, Csapláros Andrea, Hódi Attila and Sosztarits Ottó
The study reviews our current knowledge on grain processing and granaries in Savaria based on the interpretation of the building inscription of a well-known horreum, with a focus on the provisioning of the late Roman army and the construction of horrea in the provinces during the 4th century.
Compared to his contemporaries Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, Ernst von Dohnányi (1877–1960) did not leave an extensive legacy of prose writings. He rarely spoke either of himself, the background of his compositions, his musical principles or compositional aesthetics; nor was he particularly active as a musicologist, ethnomusicologist or critic. Yet, during a long life filled with wide-ranging professional activities, he authored numerous writings pertinent to the history of music and musical life. Equally informative are the interviews he gave in his various capacities as composer, performer, teacher, and institutional leader. A volume in progress, entitled Ernő Dohnányi’s Selected Writings and Interviews, will offer an annotated critical edition of these texts (collected and edited by the author, to be published in late 2019). This study is based on the collected interview-material and gives a summary of some of their most important topics such as Dohnányi’s views on modern music, creative and reproductive talents, live-, radio-, and recorded performances. Though these transcripts cannot always be considered authentic sources, this study attempts to show that there is a great deal of information, heretofore unknown, contained in the numerous new interviews our research has brought to light.
The poetry of Paul Verlaine inspired several songs by Debussy. Il pleure dans mon coeur is no. 2 in the cycle Ariettes oubliées. The same poem is used as a motto for a short piano piece by Zoltán Kodály: no. 3 in the Seven Pieces for Piano, op. 11 (Esik a városban). The paper describes the madrigalesque word painting of Kodály’s composition on the one hand, and analyzes the modes of its melodic material on the other. In a broader context, the influence of French art (the music of Debussy in particular) on the artistic development of the young Kodály is discussed, as well as the two composers’ mutual estimation of each other.
This paper deals with the material of Italian archives related to the history of Crimea. It demonstrates that only a few scholars have dedicated their research to Crimean studies and published papers in Turkey or elsewhere in recent years. Turkish historians have tended mainly to focus on the Ottoman Empire. Although some publications about the Crimean Khanate have been produced in historical literature during the last twenty years, the sources they use are mostly limited to either Russian or Ottoman archives. Italian archives are usually disregarded despite being important sources for historians interested in the Crimea. My aim is to guide researchers who wish to study this subject using Italian archives. First, information about archive catalogues directly connected to relations between the Khanate and the Italian city-states, such as Bologna, Modena and Venice is given. Then some examples of the documents, including letters, dispacci, reports and missionary records, considered to be relevant to the Crimean Khanate, will be presented.
The issue addressed in this study is effects of speakers’ fast speech rate (FSR) and strong accent (StrA) on simultaneous interpretation (SI) quality. Although it is perceived that FSR and StrA negatively affect overall SI quality, such effects have been mostly derived from small-sample quantitative studies and have not been consistently borne out by empirical evidence. The present mixed-methods study therefore draws upon a sample of 32 professional interpreters to shed both quantitative and qualitative insights into the issue. In particular, a parallel mixed design was used in Phase I of the study to explore the effects of FSR and StrA on three measures of SI performance (i.e., fidelity, fluency and expression), followed by Phase II where data quantitizing was performed to verify an emerging finding from Phase I. Overall, FSR produced differential effects on the three measures, while StrA exerted a consistent detrimental effect across the measures.
The Istállóskő cave is one of the classical Palaeolithic sites in Hungary, generally regarded as the only important Aurignacian locality in Hungary with two discrete culture bearing layers. The lower unit, characterised by the presence of split based points played a key role in several theories on the appearance of the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe, while in the upper layer some Mladeč or Olschewa type points were found.
In this paper the author reviews the antler and ivory artefacts found in the lower layer stored in the Hungarian National Museum. The reconstruction of assemblage formation was rather complicated, but the high number of fragments, the occurrence of typical macrofracture patterns and the rejuvenated implements shed light to the human behaviour. Finally a few pieces with sufficient preservation allow us to point some details to the operational chain of the osseous tool production.
All these aspects of the assemblage were determined by the topographic location of the cave, lying at a large relative height by the end of a long and deep valley, determining the nature of the human occupation of this locality. This raises the question of the comparability of the assemblages with other collections.