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A collector handed over to the Hungarian National Museum 15 items of samian ware which he had discovered on the outskirts of Papkeszi. All of the vessels were plain ware: Drag.33 cups or Drag.18/31 platters. 12 pieces bear stamps, with exception one they were all made by the workshops of Lezoux in the Antonine period. Their accordance as a set is evidenced by the graffiti naming Verus on 8 pieces.

The cache of Papkeszi and its closest paralell in space and time the one of Gorsium indicate that they were both purposely hidden deposits. Cache from the same era are also known from Noricum and Pannonia. Deposits from Gorsium and Aquincum can be related to the Marcomannic–Sarmatian attacks of AD 178–179 which among others resulted in the destruction of the earth-timber fort of Celamantia.

Based on samian and brooches the Roman settlement of Papkeszi was inhabited from the Flavian Age. Although its inhabitants might have hidden a cache of terra sigillata as a significant treasure, the Marcomannic–Sarmatian wars (AD 166–180) did not cause any considerable interruption in the occupation of the settlement.

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This study analyzes the music critiques of Géza Csáth (1887–1919) on the interpretational achievements of the eminent European pianists Emil von Sauer, Leopold Godowsky, and Wilhelm Backhaus, who gave guest performances in Budapest from 1906 to 1912. By comparing Csáth’s opinions about the performances of the above mentioned pianists with those of the critics who wrote for Hungarian, German, Austrian, French and Serbian newspapers, the authors arrive to the conclusion that, at the time, artists were being more and more explicitly profiled exclusively as performers, while the practice of both composing and performing one’s own compositions, which had been customary, was slowly disappearing. The importance of the chosen critiques by Csáth lies first and foremost in the author’s comments, which indicate the changes happening in the piano practice in the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century.

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The importance of the early translations, copied or printed, derived from a parallel process that fostered the development of a standard version of the Hungarian language and the norms of literary Hungarian. In Hungary Benedek Komjáti, Gábor Pesti and János Sylvester fulfilled the Erasmus program of translating and distributing the Hungarian translations of the Holy Scriptures. They knew that to achieve this they had to find the appropriate linguistic form. Therefore, they wrote also pieces in diff erent genres and did prepare Bible translations only. Due to the changes brought about by Reformation people needed new books in the vernacular in all areas of life, for example school books, catechisms, church constitution (Kirchenordnung) and of course the Bible. In the century of the Reformation, the Hungarian Protestant ministers who knew languages followed Erasmus’ example and felt their duty to translate the Holy Scriptures into Hungarian. at the end of the century the first complete Bible in Hungarian was published in Vizsoly in 1590, which was prepared by a circle of scholars. The first complete Catholic Bible translation was published in 1626 in Viennna thanks partly to György Káldi and partly to Péter Pázmány.

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Authors: Szabolcs Czifra, Attila Kreiter, Éva Kovács-Széles, Mária Tóth, Orsolya Viktorik and Beáta Tugya

This paper deals with the archaeological material of a Scythian Age settlement excavated near Nagytarcsa in 2007. Located on the higher terrace of a stream, the site represents a characteristic lowland, hamlet-like settlement of the Vekerzug culture, where animal husbandry played an important role in subsistence. Based on diagnostic ceramic finds and radiocarbon dating the settlement can be assigned to the Ha D2 period. The archaeological description, as well as the evaluation of settlement features and finds, is supplemented with a detailed petrographic analysis with an emphasis on wheel-thrown and Hallstatt type ceramics. The petrographic and geochemical analysis of the sherds and sediments collected on the site aim to confirm archaeological interpretations in order to determine the provenance of the ceramics and to assess whether their technological characteristics suggest specialization in production.

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Through the examination of direct epigraphic sources, this paper will trace the South Semitic (Ancient South and North Arabian) and Nabataean inscriptions, whereas other Semitic texts will be studied later in a separate study. The paper studies the historical background of coin usage in the Ancient Near East, mainly in the area of ancient South and North Arabia. In addition to the occurrences of the term, an etymological attempt will also be put forward that explains the origins of the term within the Semitic languages.

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In 1830, a new theater building was opened in the Olomouc Upper square. The stable theatrical life enriched enormously the cultural life of the city and encouraged the development of publishing activities in the field of music journalism and publishing. The public debates on the artistic value of theater performances, on abilities of particular artists and on other subjects gained new quality after the 1860 October diploma because Czechs living in and around the traditional German town put pressure on theater directors and demanded Czech plays on the stage. The fights for the national repertoire on the stage of the Olomouc Provincial Theater are demonstrated in this essay in two contrary ways: at first, the introduction of Czech dramas into the German scene during the 1860s is discussed, then the intensive promotion of German operas during the 1880s and 1890s when internationally played Slavonic operas were performed in all theaters. The director Carl König (1862–1868) offered a contract to many artists who were able to speak both German and Czech, so he could open an independent subscription for the Czech public. The relatively tolerant atmosphere allowed König’s company to give performances in both languages and connect the Olomouc theatrical life to the Prague Provisional Theater. However, Czech nationalism was getting stronger during the 1870s and provoked competitive and unfriendly reactions on German side. The arguments for refusal of Smetana’s and Tchaikovsky’s operas by the directors of the Olomouc theaters are discussed on the basis of archival sources as well as articles published in contemporary periodicals.

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Interpreters are public speakers. They spend an enormous amount of time speaking during their professional life. Therefore their speech behaviour is an essential component of their communication and professional behaviour. This paper discusses the main characteristics of human speech with a special focus on continuous speech and its prosodic features such as stress, intonation, speed and voice quality. It also deals with the topic of speech behaviour in general as well as with voice health and voice hygiene, voice and identity, the role of breathing during speaking and the function of the human speech apparatus in voice production in particular. Finally it characterises the speech behaviour of professional interpreters and the factors influencing the paralinguistic features of their speech.

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It is strange to find Wagner and Offenbach mentioned together at the time of their reception in nineteenth-century Budapest, and measured against each other in the Hungarian press. This study seeks to interpret that juxtaposition in terms of the system of theatrical institutions in Budapest at the time. Factors identified that concern directly the way Hungarians received the two stage composers are the multinational, multicultural character of theater life, the want of distinctions between genres, and the ongoing changes in the institutional system of the theater.

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“There are no recipes”

An anthropological assessment of nutrition in Hungarian ecovillages

Author: Judit Farkas

Nutrition, as a fundamental human need as well as a manifestation of a social and cultural function, has always been the focus of ethnographic and anthropological research. Various concepts – sometimes radically different and at odds with each other – have emerged in modern societies to define food that can be considered safe. These include various nutritionrelated movements. Like all social movements, these movements also act as a signaling system: they emerge as a reaction to a societal problem, and the problems they reflect as well as the attempts to formulate solutions also indicate the social dilemmas of the era. Such is the thematization of ecological crisis in recent times.

The ecovillage is a specific type of settlement created in response to an ecological, economic and social crisis. The pursuit of an environmentally friendly way of life and self-sufficiency is also reflected in the food culture of ecovillagers, providing an interpretation of safe food deeply embedded in the ecological discourse. The study presents the considerations that govern the foodways of ecovillagers and how these manifest in practice (from farm to table), analyzing it in a framework of interpretation that places the ecovillages in a broader social context. First, the author briefly presents the ecovillages and the specific community being studied. Next, she sets forth the risk and crisis concept providing the framework of interpretation, and outlines the food movements that respond to it. Finally, she turns to the description and analysis of the specific ethnographic material, the modalities of preparing for an ecological crisis, the relationship and significance of biodiversity and gastrodiversity, and demonstrates the role attributed to the community as an institution in this process.

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The focus of the paper is on ironic statements in Ukrainian media texts and their English translations. The theoretical framework underpinning the text analysis is Sperber and Wilson’s account of verbal irony as echoic allusion to an attributed proposition from which the speaker dissociates himself/herself, implicitly expressing a critical attitude (Wilson and Sperber 1992). The corpus of the present study consists of a series of ironic statements selected from three opinion articles published between 2010 and 2014 in a quality Ukrainian magazine having both Ukrainian and English versions. The paper explores how the ironic interpretation in each particular instance is consistent with the principle of relevance, and discusses implicatures communicated by the ironic statements. Then the focus shifts to the choices made by the translators in reproducing the irony in the target text. The study undertakes to assess how much the irony along with the implicatures is accessible to the target readers of the English translations, considering their cognitive environment. The results suggest that implicatures of ironic statements in the source and target texts do not coincide completely, with irony often being more pronounced in the English translation than in the Ukrainian original. At the same time, the value judgments communicated by the source ironic statements remain basically unchanged in the target text.

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This paper deals with the Turkic background of the English ornithonym terekTringa cinereus’. Despite a large number of works devoted to different aspects of bird names, the origin of the English ornithonym terek or terek sandpiperTringa cinereus’ has not been studied sufficiently. The English name of the bird terek originates from the name of the Terek river in the Caucasus, which, in turn, is a Turkic word meaning ‘tree’ and ‘poplar’. The etymology of the word terek is expounded along the lines of linguistic, historical and geographical data as well as the role of mythology.

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The paper presents the bronze cauldron discovered in 2009 in the vicinity of Sângeorgiu de Pădure. After specifying its typological characteristics, other bronze artefacts from its surroundings, the find spot, the characteristics of the landscape and the role played by the cauldron within this landscape are also taken into consideration.

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“Up” and “Down”. “Zomia” and the Bru of the Central Vietnamese Highlands

Part II.: Fleeing the state or desire for modernity? reflections on Scott and Salemink

Author: Gábor Vargyas

In the first part of my study, based on micro-historical data related to Scott’s hypothesis, I examined whether the Bru were native to their current territory. I came to the conclusion that the Bru are, if not “native”, at least the oldest known inhabitants of this area, and although their history is inseparable from the histories of the surrounding states, they are not a people fleeing from – and only partially because of – the latter. In part two, I examine the other side of the coin: the issue of state evasion, proving that notwithstanding my criticism, Scott still provides a deep insight into the Bourdieu-esque habitus of mountain-dwellers, including the Bru, and that his thesis is much more than just a “populist post-modern history of nowhere”. In the final part of my paper, I refute Salemink’s recent propositions contending Scott’s theory, rejecting his ideas about an alleged wish for inscription into “modernity” through communism and Christianity – a wish that he attributes to hill peoples.

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A IX–XII. század során az európai orosz területeken tevékenykedő skandináv fegyveres alakulatok, a varégok, felesküdött testőrként a korabeli „Kelet” több udvarában is megfordultak. Ezek közül kiemelkedik konstantinápolyi szolgálatuk, ahol a X. századtól kezdve a basileus személyes védelmét látták el. A Varég Gárda néven elhíresült bizánci katonai alakulat történetének elemzése azt sugallja, hogy a varégok egy egyszerű testőrségnél jóval szerteágazóbb feladatkörökkel voltak megbízva. A vizsgálat másik célja – kultúrtörténeti szempontból – bemutatni Konstantinápoly udvartartásának varég testőrökre tett hatásait és a bizánci főváros kitüntetett szerepének okát a skandináv zsoldosok világában. A varég gárdisták esetében a skandináv asszimiláció egy speciális esetéről beszélhetünk, melyben ötvöződtek a hagyományos viking beidegződések a bizánci életstílussal.

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Authors: A. F. Mackenzie and Volker Rybatzki
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Strict criteria on phonological categoryhood coupled with strict privativity of representation inevitably lead to a conclusion that sonorants must not contain a prime responsible for voicing. Assuming that this prime is also not supplied to sonorants in the course of phonological derivation, this class of segments, contrary to observed patterns, should be inactive with respect to voicing phenomena. Presonorant sandhi voicing in Cracow-Poznań Polish is used to show how such apparent patterns can be dealt with without compromising the above theoretical assumptions. This however has consequences which bear on almost every aspect of laryngeal phonology. Some of them include: arbitrariness of the relation between phonology and phonetics, emergent nature of laryngeal categories, minimization of the role of phonological computation, re-evaluation of typical analytical criteria for deciding on phonological representation of laryngeal distinctions, which are used in phonological practice, as well as a possibility that the prime [voice], or its theoretical counterpart in various models, is not present in some ‘voice’ languages.

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Euripidesʼ Helen was performed in 412, some months after the complete débâcle of the Athenian army on Sicily. Aristophanes speaks of the “new Helen”, and there is indeed no reason to criticize the pretty heroine. This new character corresponds to the new poetic conception Euripides presents in the Helen as in the contemporary Andromeda, too, after having tried to apply it already in the Iphigenia Taurica (414 or 413). In the mentioned tragedies large-scale operations as the Trojan War are missed. However, this war is condemned in the diccussions of the post-war time in Helen. In the action prevail rather single fates and a lot of adventures. To return home proves to be a remarkable motive, when according to Thucydides only few succeeded in escaping from Sicily. The hard struggle to save the life against tyrannical violence in far-off barbarous countries seem to be important for the new conception. Cheerful components are the love and the happy ending. But there is no doubt: The new poetic manner does not prevent tragedies from remaining tragedies.

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Astronomical phenomena play a specific role in ancient literature to illustrate the internal chronology of the plot. It is obvious that especially poetical texts which deal with constellations and astronomical terms show a maximum of the so called poetical doctrina as – for example – can be seen in the work of Statius. The present paper thus tries to prove this thesis by analyzing the verses 692–693 of the first book of the Thebais. Therein the vanishing of the Great Bear/Big Dipper constellation seems to refer to a specific season.

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Authors: Andrzej Gillmeister and Danuta Musiał

The article is devoted to the analysis of the historiographical background of the category of the so-called oriental cults/oriental religions created in the 19th century and developed by Franz Cumont. We discuss the role of this term in 20th-century historiography with the focus on the works of Tadeusz Zieliński that are important to the reception of the oriental cults metaphor. We argue that the concept of oriental cults/oriental religions in its original version is not an effective or useful research tool. However, as a historiographical concept it has fulfilled its role in a threefold way: firstly, it drew scholars’ attention to the vitality of ancient religious experience, secondly, it established the fact that Roman religion was a living organism, naturally adapted to changing political, social and cultural conditions, thirdly, it helped to understand the principles behind the construction of metaphors in the academic discourse.

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Based on ethnographic and botanical sources as well as observations between 2012 and 2015, we have data about the sale of 130 species of wild plants in the markets of Hungary’s fifth largest city. Most species, 98 of them, were sold as bouquets or wreaths, as ornamental plants. Sources reported sales of 67 wildflowers in the past, while between 2012–2015 they offered a total of 57 species in ornamental bouquets at the market but only 23 of the species sold in the past were among them. The main reason for changes in the wildflower species is that several species have become protected and hence their sale prohibited. Based on the available data, only 30 species of herbs and edible plants gathered in the wild were sold – 10 species as wild vegetables, 6 species as flowers, and 18 species as fruits. Today, of the edible wild species, mostly wild fruits and wild onions are available on a regular basis. Because the sale of medicinal plants became regulated very early on, their sale in the markets is not common, available mostly through wholesalers and already processed. Even today it is mostly edible herbs that are available in the market. During the 4 years of observation, they also sold 38 mushroom species in the markets of Pécs as forest products.

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This paper gives an overview of plays on words with the Egyptian irp ‘wine’. In total, seven examples could be found, which are introduced individually and, as much as possible, reduced to origins related to sounds. The relatively large number of plays on words built with irp ‘wine’ can be explained by the importance of wine in cultural history.

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Ps.-Herodian’s treatise De barbarismo et soloecismo (Valckenaer/Villoison) cites theog. 321 ἦν τρεῖς ϰεϕαλαί as an example of the incorrect use of number as in this passage ἦν is accounted a third-person singular of εἶναι. This view is shared by several ancient and modern scholars, who regard the supposed incongruence as either a peculiarity of syntax or a figure (σχῆμα). In this paper I shall argue that there is morphological, dialectal, syntactical and stylistic evidence that theog. 321 ἦν is an original third-person plural of εἶναι. While discussing the plausibility of ἦν τρεῖς ϰεϕαλαί being a so-called σχῆμα Πινδαριϰόν I also suggest an old plural reading for Pind. fr. 78 Snell–Maehler.

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The paper is devoted to the tendencies of syntactic development and functioning of syntactic units in contemporary Russian prose. The recent syntactic processes (reduction of the syntactic relationships, simplification, compression, contamination of syntactic units, integration and disintegration of its components, etc.) are considered in the aspects of language, speech, and text. The author provides a critical analysis of the analytic progress of Russian syntax on the basis of contemporary prosaic discourse (e.g. L. Petrushevskaya, S. Dovlatov, V. Sorokin, V. Makanin, T. Tolstaya, V. Pelevin, S. Bolmat, M. Palei, etc.) and screenplay. Today screenwriting became the main occupation of many Russian authors such as M. Mareeva, A. Mindadze, O. Osetinsky, and others. Contemporary discourse stimulates the development of new syntactic phenomena. The main task is to analyze the qualification of syntactic units (combinations of words, sentences, multicomponent complex statements, syntactic complex, direct speech, etc.) and to make evident the syntactic organization of contemporary Russian prose and screenplay. Syntactic complex is considered as a formed unit of text organization and direct speech is considered as a unique syntactic unit among other types of speech.

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The paper deals with some food names in Russian (апельсин, ананас) within the framework of linguoculturological approach. The aim of this study is to analyze the main tendencies prevailing in the semantic adaptation of these loanwords that entered the Russian language in the 18th century. The first part is devoted to the conditions of appearance of these words in Russian culture and their semantic characteristics. The second part contains the description of semantic shifts that occur during the formation of cultural connotations of orange and pineapple. The author also demonstrates the manner in which semantic shifts can be used to describe a huge amount of cultural knowledge or cultural information. Proceeding from the notion of “cultural memory”, I set out to show that the phraseological meaning is a complex structure including semantic information and its conceptual basis. In my study, I would like to demonstrate what processes go on during its actualization in idiomaticity. The analysis is conducted on the basis of data found in the Russian National Corpus.

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The aim of the paper is to describe the language situation and the main features of the Aromanian dialect in the Prespa region. The ethnolinguistic group of Aromanians is represented in this region only by one family. Nowadays, this linguistic situation is an example of language death, as the younger generation no longer speaks the Aromanian language whereas the senior generation uses it in limited contexts. The Aromanian speech abounds with multiple examples of interference of Macedonian, which is the dominant language in relation to Aromanian in this situation. The Aromanian language is still used on a daily basis; however, it is spoken only by the senior members of the language community. We suppose that in this situation, there is little chance for the Aromanian language to experience its renaissance in Prespa.

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The problem of Slavic–Finno-Ugric cultural and language contacts is one of the stable scientific dominants of Slavic studies. Though the lexical units remain the basis of etymological and ethnolinguistic reconstructions, phraseology has also recently become increasingly the object of research on Hungarian–Slavic and Slavic–Hungarian language contacts. A special place here is occupied by the analysis of the Finno-Ugric–Russian phraseological interaction. The paper offers a linguistic interpretation of 7 Hungarian–Russian phraseological parallels. The comparison with the Slavic and other Indo-European material helps to clarify their historical and etymological interpretation proposed by the famous Hungarian folklorist and paremiologist Gábor O. Nagy

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The present paper is aimed at the interpretation of Ivan Štrpka’s poem Interlude. Puppets Shortened by a Head. The ambiguity of main pictures, the logics of the plot and the functions of intertext as well as peculiarities of its poetics are analysed. The theatricalization of the artistic world shows the crisis of totalitarian society, a “mental Armageddon” as well as an increase in contradictions in the very lyric subject at the same time. The social and politic meaning in the poem is directly related to philosophic content and metaliterature thoughts. The traditions of surrealism and dadaism are important to the author, and we can make a parallel with “neobaroque” of Elena Shvarts in contemporary Russian literature.

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The paper demonstrates the change in the topic of Russian literature under the pressure of revolutionary events in Russia from 1917 to 1921. The author considers the gap between the concepts of “land” and “people”, traditionally indivisible in the Russian linguistic image of the world. On the one hand, the “motherland” plays a redemptive role in relation to the people betrayed by her, on the other, being ready to take them into her space, she is more worthy than her people. Historical and biblical analogies are also given in the paper. The author traces the deconstruction of the concept “people” in Russian literature in the 20th century and at the turn of the 20th and the 21st century. She determines the connection of this process not only to the unique history of 20th-century Russia but also to the worldwide globalization process and notes the apparent weakening of the traditional relationship between “lands” and their people. The author analyzes the works written by D. Merezhkovsky, S. Bulgakov, M. Prishvin, A. Remizov, S. Durylin, and M. Voloshin between 1917 and 1920. She uses historical-typological and hermeneutical methods and also conceptual and mythopoetic approaches in her paper.

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The paper deals with the twofold role of the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in inter-Slavonic, mainly Polish–Russian language contacts, based on the material of diplomatic correspondence of Muscovy. The author summarizes the research data proving that the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania played the role of an active mediator in the 15th–17th centuries in Polish–Russian language contacts and it was a source of lexical and semantic borrowings in the Russian written language and in the Polish written language. What is more, the paper examines anew some lexical borrowings from the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Chancery language of the 17th century as well as in the Polish language: golosovati / galasovati ‘cry, make a noise; make a hubbub’, navyklyj ‘accustomed to, habitual’ and futor / chutor ‘small settlement; khutor (separated farm)’.

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The present paper comprises a comprehensive study of the metaphoric use of proper names in a prominent piece of Russian memoirs – My Past and Thoughts by Alexander Herzen. Having been established as a regular semantic phenomenon in the Russian literary language by the middle of the 19th century, the onomastic allusive metaphor was fully accepted by Herzen with the whole spectrum of its conceptual, syntactic, evocative, and cognitive capabilities. Aligned with Herzen’s “explanatory metaphor”, his proper name allusions also play a noticeable part in both structuring the writer’s worldview and in the evolution of the text. Other peculiarities of Herzen’s onomastic allusive metaphor include a wide extension of the corpus of proper names used and the enrichment of their contextual representation. The findings presented in the paper are supported by a thorough analysis of vast linguistic material.

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the manifestations of the influence of perceptual-logical components of thinking on the evolutionary processes in the Russian lexis. The study is in line with a cognitive and evolutionary approach. Based on the information of anthroponymic sciences about degrees of perception and the quality of logics, this approach allows to take a deeper view on the main reasons of the phenomena. The review of historical transformations of the Russian lexis in terms of its perceptual-logical evolution suggests that native speakers of Russian tend to optimize the lexical system of Russian in a logical way: 1) by generalizing the lexical meanings; 2) by creating abstract vocabulary; 3) by word formation with the help of a variety of derivational means, including borrowings; 4) by overcoming mnemonic shortage using two available, metaphorical and metonymic, opportunities to create new lexical meanings; 5) by getting rid of the logical inconsistency of polynomials; 6) by distinguishing words derived from Church Slavonic and their native Russian equivalents; 7) by getting rid of the vernacular, not required for communication by the overwhelming majority of native speakers; 8) by logically returning obsolete nominations for communication needs; 9) by continuing the development of polysemy at the present time.

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The aim of this paper is to present the compatibility of words in the Ukrainian language of 16th and 17th centuries based on the attributive-substantival complexes and the lexicographical attempt to describe these lexical units.

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This paper is based on three major premises derived from philosophy of history, historical poetics, and theory of intertextuality, which are seen as interconnected. Taras Bulba and Khadzhi Murat inherit different forms of epic writing from archaic ones (e.g. epic poems) to heroic ones (e.g. sagas, bylinas, chivalric romance, etc.). Some variations and distant derivatives of these multiple forms (e.g. tales about bogatyrs, Orlando Furioso by Ariosto, Alonso Quijano by Cervantes, ballad, historical novella, etc.) are related to some extent to the given texts by Gogol and L. Tolstoy.

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The present paper dwells upon the subject and the conception of freedom in the novel Jerusalem (2005) written by the Russian-Israeli writer, poet and scholar Dennis Sobolev. According to this conception, the fragmentariness of the being serves as the foundation for the search for freedom. This search consists of renunciation of the world of absolute power. The renunciation enables apprehension of freedom as a possibility in the splits between the fragments of the being. In the novel, this search for the real order of freedom beyond the imagined chaos of history unfolds within the symbolic order of Jerusalem – the earthly, political, and mystical city, which is presented through the eyes of seven narrators in seven separate and united stories. Dennis Sobolev’s work thus reveals as a dissipative novel-myth about the disparate attempts to constitute the realistic and skeptical, and at the same time spiritual and playful, ontology.

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Newspeak as a language of political manipulation is an indispensable attribute not only of the Soviet political language (novojaz) but also of the language of politics as such. And in a certain sense, any normal language can contain some elements of newspeak because the regulatory function is peculiar to a language. This paper is dedicated to the continuity of Soviet and post-Soviet political discourse, in particular, the reproduction of rhetorical devices of Soviet novojaz in modern Russian political discourse.

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The famous Kurukṣetra War is rightly considered as one of the greatest mythological conflicts in world literature. All the heroes of the Mahābhārata came together on Kuru’s field to fight with each other. But one of the great warriors was absent. He was Balarāma, Kṛṣṇa’s brother, who alone refused to take part in the war and went on a pilgrimage. In this paper I aim to present Balarāma’s travel during the epic battle. My research is based on an Epic sub-parvan, namely the Sārasvata-parvan. This book is a detailed catalogue of the sacred sites along the Sarasvastī. Having studied this text I examine how the importance of these places changed through the ages. Some of them (like Somnāth, Thānesar) are among the most popular places of pilgrimage, while others have lost their significance. This paper may provide an insight into the history of this sacred area along the mysterious river.

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Authors: Timofey Arkhangelskiy, Natalia Serdobolskaya and Maria Usacheva

Beserman Udmurt documentation project is a long-term undertaking aimed primarily at collecting lexicographic and corpus data in the field. During our work on the project, we developed a pipeline for collecting, annotating and publishing our data. In this paper, we describe this pipeline and present the online web interface we developed for providing public access to Beserman materials. We use TLex lexicographic software for working on the dictionary and Fieldworks FLEX for annotating the corpus. After the data have been annotated, they are exported to XML and stored in the online web interface, where these two types of data become interconnected and searchable. We propose solutions to challenges that arise in projects of such kind and reflect on various constraints imposed on lexicographic databases being developed in long-term projects aimed at description of underresourced languages. We suggest that the proposed pipeline and the web interface we developed could be employed by similar projects dealing with other minority languages. The web interface based on the database and a corpus of oral Beserman texts is available online at beserman.ru.

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Digital resources for Enets

A descriptive linguist’s view

Author: Olesya Khanina

The paper describes digital resources available for Enets, an endangered Northern Samoyedic language: a multimedia dictionary and a digital corpus, both created by the author with her collaborators. Possible uses of these resources for linguistic research are discussed with the help of several examples. The dictionary is shown to seize limits of phonetic variation involving a mixture of two vowel phonemes, and the corpus is shown to provide a better description to grammatical structures involving ditransitive semantics. All examples illustrate the added value of the digital resources’ use.

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Authors: Judit Ács, Katalin Pajkossy and András Kornai

We investigate the digital vitality of Uralic languages and dialects, and discuss how existing approaches to language revitalization relate to this model.

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Authors: Tommi A. Pirinen, Francis M. Tyers, Eszter Simon and Veronika Vincze
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Michel Beheim, a prominent 15th-century German author and musical composer — who was at the Siege of Nándorfehérvér (1456) in the entourage of King Ladislaus V (the Posthumous) of Hungary — wrote one of the first song-poems in reaction to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Entitled Von den Türken und dem adel sagt dis, these verses, translated here into English for the first time, have previously been neglected in scholarship. Beheim’s perspective is particularly important, documenting as it does an emotional reaction to a defeat that spawned invective-filled rhetoric, crusading propaganda, castigation of the Christian nobility for a failure to come together, and an interpretation of the Turks under Mehmed II as a scourge of God. Beheim here, and in his subsequent body of anti-Turkish works, including his detailed depiction of the Crusade of Varna (1443–1445), contributes to the shaping of a late mediaeval and early modern negative Türkenbild.

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The inscription on the Adad-guppi Stele is an unusual literary work due to both its innovative structure and its contents describing Adad-guppi as the intercessor for Nabonidus. The literary structure of the inscription was the combination of the three-tier royal inscription (theological 1st person narrative) and a memorial text at her mother’s funeral (secular 3rd person narrative). It is a literary invention of Nabonidus’s scribes to meet the need of the occasion, and is surely a creative attempt. The mother’s role is described as an intercessor for her son: First, she gave birth to Nabonidus and provided an opportunity for him to have a court career. Secondly, the mother led her son to the sincere faith to Sîn and became the source of his blessings. Thirdly, she worked hard to build a bridge between Nabonidus and the ancient Mesopotamian political ideology, to achieve the legitimisation of her son’s ascension to the Babylonian throne. His line of propaganda seemed to work very well for 17 years, which is 8 more years after the death of the queen mother, but it lost its leverage at the appearance of Cyrus, king of Persia.

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Ob-Ugric database

Corpus and lexicon databases of Khanty and Mansi dialects

Authors: Axel Wisiorek and Zsófia Schön

In this paper we describe the data processing procedures and the preliminary results of the project Ob-Ugric database (OUDB), a web-based framework which aims at developing corpus-based descriptive resources of Khanty and Mansi dialects. Using established language documentation and annotation tools, OUDB provides interlinked corpus and lexicon data from digitized texts as well as recent fieldwork studies in an uniform IPA-transcription together with the corresponding audio recordings thus making these less described languages of the Ob-Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric language family accessible for researchers as well as the language community and archiving the raw data for documentation, linguistic evaluation and possible future use in building resources for language technology applications.

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Manchu words like giranggi ‘bone’ or senggi ‘blood’ are traditionally classified as part of a nominal class system inherited from the Proto-Tungusic parent language. This nominal class system has obscure origins and it is unproductive in the historical languages (Manchu included). Manchu giranggi and senggi contain the class suffix +nggi which in historical terms cannot be easily reconciled with the so-called “collective” suffixes +ksa and +kta in Core Tungusic languages. In this contribution we argue that the class suffix +nggi is the result of the reanalysis *…V/n+g.i ⇒ …V+nggi whereby nasal nouns are reinterpreted as vowel nouns. Common Tungusic “collectives” *+kta and *+ksa are secondary formations that were created after Manchu had branched off. The general assumption is made that Manchuric (a.k.a. Jurchenic) serves best to improve our understanding of the prehistory of the Tungusic languages when it is seen as the conservative member of the family instead of the innovative one as usual.

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Parsing and beyond

Tools and resources for Estonian

Authors: Kadri Muischnek, Kaili Müürisep and Tiina Puolakainen

This article gives an overview of the state of art of tools and resources for syntactic analysis of Estonian. A morphosyntactic disambiguator, surface-syntactic analyzer and dependency parser are all based on the Constraint Grammar formalism. As for language resources, a 400,000-word manually annotated dependency treebank has been created, its annotation scheme is compatible with the output of the Constraint Grammar dependency parser. Part of the treebank has been converted to the Universal Dependencies annotation scheme. Our tools have also been tested by large-scale corpus annotation.

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The collection of Buddhist legends entitled Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā (DKPAM) is best preserved in Old Uyghur. According to the colophons of this Old Uyghur version, it was translated from Tocharian. In this paper, two Tocharian B fragments that are parallel to the Supāraga-Avadāna of the Old Uyghur DKPAM are presented, together with a third Tocharian B fragment that may belong to the same avadāna, but is so far lacking a parallel in Old Uyghur.

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Transcribe.mari-language.com

Automatic transcriptions and transliterations for ten languages of Russia

Author: Jeremy Bradley

The aim of this paper is to introduce my efforts to create server-sided (i.e., platform independent web-based, from a user’s perspective) automatic transcription and transliteration software for Uralic and non-Uralic languages of Russia. For ten literary standards — Meadow Mari, Hill Mari, Komi, Udmurt, Erzya, Moksha, Russian, Tatar, Bashkir, Chuvash — an operational interface can be found at transcribe.mari-language.com and the source code at source.mari-language.com, published under a Creative Commons license. This paper details many of the fine aspects of writing systems used for (Meadow) Mari that I had to take into consideration when creating transcription mechanisms for that language.

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Two “many”-words in Slovenian

Experimental evidence for pragmatic strengthening

Authors: Penka Stateva and Arthur Stepanov

Slovenian features at least two lexical items that are potential semantic counterparts of the English many, namely veliko and precej, whose meaning appears close to identical. Yet speakers are certain that the two items are not equivalent, although they find intuitively felt differences hard to pinpoint. We argue that precej and veliko are lexically synonymous, but their meanings are pragmatically strengthened under relevant conditions, which leads to subtle interpretative differences. Specifically, we extend Krifka’s (2007) analysis of double negatives and propose that veliko is assigned the stereotypical interpretation of a quantity degree word, whereas precej is identified with the non-stereotypical one and consequently relates to moderately big amounts. To support this claim, we report the results of an experiment involving a sentence-picture verification task, which highlight the similarities and contextually-determined differences in the use of both determiners. Our results suggest that the interpretation of precej is not consistent with relations in the upper part of the proportional scale and is dependent on whether or not it is in direct competition with veliko in the appropriate contexts.

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The Budapest lawyer Dr. Bertalan Neményi (1892-1947) was one of the notable figures of Hungarian art collection in the interwar period. He was mainly drawn to contemporary Hungarian artists, so he had considerable numbers of works by József Rippl-Rónai, Lajos Gulácsy and Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka. The reconstruction of his collection is very difficult as the bulk disappeared at the end of WWII. In early 1944 he deposited a considerable segment of his collection in thirteen locked wooden crates in the safe of the Hungarian General Credit Bank. The safe was left intact by the siege of the city, but the corps of the Soviet army specialized for gathering art works plundered the safe. On 19 March 1945 Neményi asked help for the search after his collection. The list included 98 paintings, some 350 graphic sheets and 2000 books. Several of his treasures were not put in the bank but in homes of private persons. When Neményi died unexpectedly in 1947, the existing pieces of the collection got into the art trade. Some were also found there from the stock once deposited in the bank. Most of the bank deposits, however, went to Moscow. The paper tries the reconstruct the collection and the intellectual portrait of the collector with the help of archival sources first published here.

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The allegorical interpretations of pagan gods flourished in late Antiquity. They were the work of the pagans, who thus sought to spiritualize their religion, but also of some Christians, who thought that the pagan fables were hiding truths they needed to discover.

The goddess Hera-Juno has not escaped the phenomenon. Here we consider, taking as one basis the works of Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, African writer of the fifth-sixth century, what these interpretations are and what they tell us both about this goddess and the mentality of late Antiquity.

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This article focuses on the possible connections which can be established between the Roman goddess Juno as the protector deity of marriages and married women and the rites and rituals associated with the sacred feast of the Lupercalia. The role of other Italic gods associated with these sacred ceremonies is also analyzed, such as the rustic god Faunus, as well as Jupiter, Mars, and Romulus-Quirinus (albeit in secondary roles; for example, the name Luperci given to the young Roman men involved in the ritual flogging of the Roman women of fertile age is linked with lupus, the Latin name of the wolf, animal sacred to the god Mars and forever bound to the Twins Romulus and Remus, the mythical and heroic founders of Rome). The amiculum Iunonis or the garment of Juno is in fact the name given to the ritual objects used by the Luperci in the act of symbolic fecundation of the Roman young women, namely the leather thongs carved out of the skin of a sacrificed goat. The he-goat (Latin hircus) is also connected with the ancient Roman and Latin god Faunus (the Italic divine counterpart of the ancient Greek Πᾶν). As a final acknowledgment, I hereby thank Professor Attilio Mastrocinque who had the idea of this study and whose book revealed to me the hidden links between Juno, Bona Dea, and the feast of the Lupercalia, normally associated with the god of wild nature, Faunus-Pan. I owe also a debt of gratitude to the patience and unremitting help of Professor Patricia Johnston, whose observations greatly improved my conclusions.

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Béla Bartók’s “On Hungarian Music,” one of his controversial articles published in 1911, is known for criticizing Géza Molnár’s book, Theory of Hungarian Music (1904). However, it has not been mentioned that Molnár himself replied to Bartók’s article in the next volume of Aurora [Dawn] magazine, using exactly the same title as Bartók’s. While Bartók asserted that true Hungarian music had never existed before, Molnár, a musicologist in Budapest, bitterly criticized Bartók’s assertions from an academic perspective. This controversy over Hungarian music published in Aurora seemed quite crucial for understanding and relativizing Bartók’s position at that time. The historian Mary Gluck explained that several intellectuals, including György Lukács and Béla Balázs, had to depend on the older generation, both financially and philosophically, during that period. Using Gluck’s framework, this paper examines the genesis of Bartók’s article and the connection between him and the intellectuals in 1911, as well as to interpret this controversy. In conclusion, the controversy with Molnár, and plausible “defeat” in the field of musicology could be added to his list of challenges and setbacks before 1912, the year that saw Bartók’s temporal exit from public musical life.

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A XV. század közepe táján a kereszténység előtti kultúrák iránti érdeklődés megnövekedésével egyidejűleg emelkedni kezdett a görögül tanulni vágyók száma is Európa latin nyelvű felében. Ezzel párhuzamosan megnőtt az igény a különféle nyelvtanulási segédletek, így a görög–latin szótárak iránt is. Kétnyelvű szótárra többféleképpen lehetett ekkoriban szert tenni, az egyik lehetőséget egy ókori bilinguis szótár, az ún. Pseudo-Kyrillos jelentette. A Pseudo-Kyrillos a magyar kutatás érdeklődését is felkeltette az utóbbi évtizedekben, főként azért, mert egyik példányát Janus Pannonius is beszerezte magának. Az alábbi tanulmány nem ezzel a példánnyal kíván foglalkozni, hanem egy másikkal, amelyet egy bizonyos Benedictus másolt. A szerző arra tesz kísérletet, hogy azonosítsa az illető személyét, nyomon kövesse a példány keletkezésének történetét, valamint feltérképezze a Pseudo-Kyrillos szöveghagyományozódásának egyik ágát.

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Since the early days of translation and interpreting studies, scholars have emphasized the value of certain personality related traits for translation and interpreting performance. Especially in the conference interpreter world, preconceived opinions about the desired personality traits for conference interpreters seem to exist. However, there is little to no empirical evidence to either corroborate or refuse these ideas. In this paper we aim to explore a set of individual difference variables (IDs) — as these traits are called in the literature — to gain an insight into the profile of aspiring interpreters and to explore whether this profile differs from that of other advanced language experts. To this end, we have compared the IDs of three groups of advanced language learners who have received the same bachelor training but will branch off into three different master’s programmes: interpreting, translation and multilingual communication. By means of self-report questionnaires we have gauged the language learners’ willingness to communicate, cultural empathy, social initiative, flexibility, open-mindedness and emotional stability before they began their professional training. The data show that student interpreters score significantly higher than students of multilingual communication and student translators on the social initiative and emotional stability dimensions. These results seem to indicate that students aspiring to become interpreters can be distinguished from students aspiring to become translators or multilingual communicators on the basis of these personality traits. These differences are already in place before the students embark on their professional training in the master’s programme.

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Authors: Orsolya Žagar Szentesi and Арпад Ковач
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Post-editing of machine translation is gaining popularity as a solution to the ever-increasing demands placed on human translators. There has been a great deal of research in this area aimed at determining the feasibility of post-editing and at predicting post-editing effort based on source-text features and machine translation errors. However, considerably less is known about the mental workings of post-editing and post-editors’ decision-making or, in particular, the relationship between post-editing effort and different mental processes. This paper investigates these issues by analysing data from a think-aloud study through the lens of eye movements and subjective ratings obtained in a separate task. The results show that mental processes associated with grammar and lexis are significantly associated with cognitive effort in post-editing. This association was not observed for other aspects of the task concerning, for example, discourse or the real-world use of the text. In addition, it was noted that lexical issues are linked to long sequences of thought processes. The paper shows that lexis plays a central role in post-editing, and argues that more emphasis should be placed on this issue in future research and in post-editor training.

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Translation revision (TR) is an important step in the translation workflow. However, translation revision competence (TRC) remains an ill-defined concept. This article addresses that gap by operationalizing TR and by presenting a theoretical TRC model. Subsequently, the article analyses and interprets the results of an empirical pilot study designed to test the presence of two TR subcompetences hypothesized by the TRC model, in an experimental group and a control group of 21 MA language students. The experimental group was given TR training whereas the control group was not. The two subcompetences that were tested using a pretest—posttest experimental design were declarative-procedural knowledge about TR and the procedural strategic revision subcompetence. Both groups of participants replied to questionnaires and performed controlled revision tasks, which were subjected to quantitative statistical analyses. This article provides a detailed analysis of the results and the causes of the limited progress. In addition, it discusses the lessons learnt for both TR training and further research.

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