Juno, the goddess of marriage who is able – in her form of Lucina – to bring children to light, does not appear to be particularly “motherly” in the ancient sources. I will explain this paradox showing that both attitudes are aspects of Juno’s control over motherhood and childbirth, which can manifest itself both in a negative and in a positive way. Moreover, I will show how control over motherhood and childbirth is nothing but one of the numerous tasks which the feminea dea par excellence has to perform in order to regulate the roles of the Roman women.
It is not surprising, given that the Ab urbe condita is an important source of information about Roman religious practices, to find frequent mentions of Juno’s shrines or cults in Livy’s work. Yet, we have to ask ourselves to what extent this religious data has been rewritten and recomposed according to the Roman historiographical tradition in order to provide the audience with a particular view of Roman history. A further study allows us to distinguish two kinds of Junones: Roman and Italian Junones who stood as a protective goddess of Rome, on the one hand, and on the other, Junones from the borders of the Roman world, who supported or questioned Rome’s identity and its Empire’s guiding principles in the historical narrative.
The Historia Augusta mentions some oracles of Juno Caelestis, the Carthaginian goddess who uttered them shortly before the reigns of Pertinax and Severus. This Juno and her prophecies were imporant to the author of the Historia Augusta mainly because they were concerned with the forthcoming death of Commodus and the coming of Pertinax and Severus.
In the opening of Fasti 6, Ovid proposes different explanations for the origin of the month name June by means of a competition between three goddesses: Juno, Juventas, and Concordia. Each goddess puts forth an etymology for June that derives from her own name or individual attributions, alimenting the indecisiveness of the poet who eventually walks out of the scene unable to return a verdict. As she is depicted in this text, Juno might appear as a parodic version of the Virgilian goddess and the ideas she represents. To a close reading, however, it is evident that Juno has retained her reconciliatory function, which has allowed the Roman development, and moreover has been enriched by characteristics that look back at her ancient Italian cult and, at the same time, place her in the new Augustan reality. In particular, Ovid blends the early martial and political aspects of the goddess with her function as protectress of legitimate marriage, which seems to have been prominent in the Augustan period. In fact, Ovid emphasizes that conjugal union is the means by which Juno ends her hostility and enables further growth and development.
As recent researches in archives, map libraries and the physical building have revealed, the Festetics palace of Keszthely was built in three main periods, and between the second and the third phases a major reconstruction can also be identified. The approximately rectangular eastern main wing was built during the proprietorship of Kristóf Festetics in 1745 and 1750 in baroque style. It is not yet known who designed this phase of construction, but the finishing touches were done with manorial master builder Kristóf Hoffstedter playing an important role. Though the surviving plans suggest that on several occasions the idea of extending the building to a U shape was considered, an asymmetrical L-shaped southern wing was eventually built during Count György (I) Festetics between 1792 and 1804 with its outward-turning section as the library wing. The neo-classical late baroque style addition was based on the logic of Kristóf Hoffstedter’s earlier plans. In 1866 Tasziló (I) Festetics had the residence modified in historicist style, after plans most probably made by the Viennese architect Friedrich Flohr who also supervised the construction. The current form of the palace emerged during the proprietorship of Count (later Prince) Tasziló (II) Festetics in 1883-87 under the aegis of historicism, in revived baroque and rococo styles. That was when the northern L-shaped wing was added, to complete one of the largest aristocratic Hungarian mansions. The plans of reconstruction and extension were made by the Viennese architect Victor Rumpelmayer under the guidance of the owner. Nine plan drawings in ink survive in the archive. After the death of the architect in 1885 construction went on under the supervision of Viennese architects and building contractors Gustav Haas and Maximilian Paschkis. The building contractor was the firm of Oskar Laske. For the interior design and the decoration of the suites and central spaces the Viennese Portois and Fix company was contracted.
In the second part of this series of papers the author investigates the way how the Khitan Small Script rendered the vowels of the Khitan language. The graphic system was tailored to the contemporary Chinese language, nevertheless, it is possible to make conclusions concerning the system of vowels. Three illabial vowels /a/, /e/ and /i/ can be identified, the back vocalic /ï/ can only be supposed. The vowel /o/ is dominant, for traces of /ö/ no sure data can be given. The phoneme /u/ can be clearly detected, the phoneme /ü/ can be supposed. The former opinion that the Khitan had a front:back vowel harmony can be confirmed. The paper presents a few newly deciphered Khitan words. The system of the Khitan word formation is emerging and a few earlier readings have been corrected.
The aim of this paper is to present the kinship terminology in the Ruthenian language and compare it with the kinship terminology in Slovak and Serbian. Some 270 years ago, groups of Ruthenians began migrating south from their homeland in the Carpathian mountains mostly from Zemplen and Šaroš counties (in present-day Slovakia) to the Bačka region (in present-day Serbia). Since the Ruthenian language has been in contact both with the Slovak and Serbian languages for a long time, we expect to find certain influence of these languages on the Ruthenian kinship terminology.
Continuing with his earlier publications (Művészettörténeti Értesítő) the author presents new goldsmith’s marks and mark variants found in private collections and the art trade and makes an attempt to decode them. For already published marks he relies on Elemér Kőszeghy’s book (Elemér Kőszeghy: Hungarian goldsmith’s marks from the Middle Ages to 1867. Budapest 1936) and for the Pest-Buda marks on Ilona P. Brestyánszky’s work (History of goldsmith’s art in Pest-Buda. Budapest 1977), referring to the running numbers in these works. He presents new data about the goldsmiths of Pest, Brassó (Braşov, Kronstadt, Romania), Debrecen, Eperjes (Prešov, Preschau, Slovakia), Lőcse (Levoča, Leutschau, Slovakia), Nagyvárad (Oradea, Großwardein, Romania), Rimaszombat (Rimavská Sobota, Gross-Steffelsdorf, Slovakia), Szabadka (Subotica, Serbia) and Szatmárnémeti (Satu Mare, Romania).
In this article I am surveying several possible loanwords from Koreanic languages (probably Koguryǒ and/or Bo-hai) into the Khitan language. Apart from explaining the origin of some of the Khitan words that have no Mongolic, other Central Asian, or Chinese etymologies, I will demonstrate that these loanwords can shed light on the decipherment of Khitan characters with unknown readings, and therefore advance the reconstruction and reading of the Khitan language itself.
A forgotten figure of the new Hungarian musical movement of the 1910s, Géza Vilmos Zágon (1889–1918) was a talented composer, pianist and music writer. He belonged among those young composers who turned toward French culture instead of the traditional German orientation and searched for new inspiration in Paris. He was, at the same time, one of the few to be personally acquainted with leading personalities of the city’s musical life: letters by Claude Debussy, Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi, Louis Laloy, Émile Vuillermoz and Albert Zunz Mathot have survived in his legacy. During his stay in France between 1912 and 1914, he acted as the representant of the former UMZE (Új Magyar Zene Egyesület, New Hungarian Music Association), and did not only bring attention to himself as a performer of his own works, but was also instrumental in promoting those by Bartók and Kodály. In the present study, I seek to demonstrate that Zágon served as an important liaison for Bartók’s circle with some of the most influential groups of French avant-garde, the Société Musicale Indépendante, as well as Calvocoressi. In an effort to document these important relationships as well as Zágon’s activity, I publish a selection of his correspondence in original language, with French translation provided where appropriate.
L’article est consacré à un roman artistique peu connu de Dezső Malonyay intitulé « Az utolsó » (Le dernier), spécialement sous l’aspect de la gestion du temps et de l’espace. Il essaye de mettre à jour comment, dans ce roman, les structures de l’espace mythique et empirique sont disposées en miroir, en s’appuyant sur les hétérotopies foucaldiennes telles que le miroir, le bateau, le jardin et la bibliothèque. La bibliothèque est le lieu fixe où, en réunissant les documents de la famille Kerbastik, le protagoniste, qui se préoccupe d’écriture, pourra finalement maitriser l’extension du temps dont l’écoulement provoquait en lui une sensation de grande anxiété. Contrairement à l’autobiographie qu’il rédigeait avec difficulté, l’écriture biographique (des membres de sa famille) remet le temps sur les rails en transformant ce dernier d’ennemi en ami. Dans la présente analyse, une place importante revient au mythe celtique de la ville sous-marine d’Ys et à la variante actualisée de l’histoire de Sodome et Gomorrhe, en raison de leur lien étroit avec le raisonnement présidant à la construction du roman.
In the library of the Romanian Academy of Sciences in Kolozsvár there are four albums containing hundreds of caricatures, genre and milieu drawings, political portraits by János Petrichevich Horváth from the period between 1824 and 1864. The albums comprise several so-far little known and unpublished depictions of actors of the age such as István Széchenyi, Miklós Wesselényi, László Teleki, Sándor Teleki, Ferdinand V, Metternich or Emperor Francis Joseph, as well as the less widely known figures of the Transylvanian public scene and nobility, and officers of the imperial army. The set of over five hundred drawings, some only rough sketches, are not only intriguing in terms of iconography but at the same time have intrinsic artistic value as well. The main asset of the albums is the representation of the 19th century small world of ordinary people besides the pictures of representative personages. In addition to unusual themes the artist also challenges some taboos and depicts the abuses of power showing some infamous aspects of the life of the imperial forces, the aristocracy or the clergy.
By occupation, Transylvanian-born János Petrichevich Horváth was a high-ranking officer in the imperial army, and as such he was a committed defender of the feudal social structure and the monarchy, but as an amateur graphic artist he revealed quite a different side of his activities. Although there is no information on his regular artistic training, his works suggest a trained draughtsman mastering refined drawing techniques, with a sense of colour, careful spatial composition and exact anatomical rendering, correct perspective view and sensitive characterization.
The most remarkable works in the albums are the caricatures, which makes scholarship revise the beginnings and history of the genre in Hungary. Though the first half of the 19th century is regarded as a period of rudimentary attempts in Hungarian caricature history, the unfolding of the genre being dated to after the Compromise (1867), the albums of János Petrichevich Horváth render the Hungarian manifestations of the genre commensurable with the European crop of the genre at an earlier date. Of course, Hungarian art struggling with several problems of (self) definition, institutionalization, lack of infrastructure, etc. did not have a James Gillray (1756-1815) regarded as the “father of political caricature” or an Honoré Daumier (1808-1879) yet, but Petrichevich’s works do add several hues to the general tone of backwardness. As a conspicuous analogy, most caricatures of Gillray mock George III whose mental illness was caused by porphyria, Daumier’s most famous caricatures are of the pear-headed Louis Philippe I, and Petrichevich’s several caricature sketches depict the hydrocephalic Ferdinand V. Thus his works can be taken as the start of Hungarian political and cultural caricature whose artistic rendering and embarrassing sincerity project to us a different picture of the Reform Age clad so far in the veil of the golden age or of the customary image of the imperial forces as devilish impostors.
The goddess Juno is traditionally represented as a very powerful entity in Roman literature, caring for stable human relationships, especially between men and women; and, at the same time, she is often depicted as a jealous, furious, even a vengeful goddess. The aim of the paper is to illustrate how Martianus Capella depicts the goddess Juno, to what extent his portrait conforms to the literary tradition, in what points and for what reasons he differs from it when compared with other authors across particular genres and gods.
In the following article, Jarmo Valkola investigates the originality of the Hungarian director Béla Tarr’s filmmaking practice. Tarr represents European pictorialism that is motivated by the commitment to develop and increase the function and effectiveness of images, sounds and performances that aesthetically formulate, translate and change the effects of contemporary cinema to higher dimensions and qualities of art. Tarr emphasises the selective and manipulative role of the camera in orchestrating his narrative concerns. The significance of the form comes forward, and the photographic dimension of the narrative creates static and momentarily captured intensities. Like Jancsó before him, Tarr also invests the narrative with plan-sequences. Some of them can be very long, involving continuous and intricate camera movements, like simultaneous track-tilt-pans, compounded by the ‘virtual’ movement of the omnipresent camera. Tarr’s filmic iconography sets standards for pictorial filmmaking in the sense of an increasingly personal touch of dramatics defining and distilling a cinematic language that is endless in its search for the almost silent colloquy between the artist’s visions and aspirations. Sátántangó, Werckmeister Harmonies, The Man from London, and The Turin Horse are the films referred in this article.
Starting from some reflections on how Hera played the role of mother in mythological tales, we move to take into consideration the special case of the goddess suckling Heracles (sometimes as an adult). Notoriously, the Greeks attributed specific properties to breast-milk, such as transmitting genetic traits and creating bonds of kinship; therefore it does not seem unlikely to think that the episode in question alludes to the (symbolic) adoption by Hera of the illegitimate son of her husband, in order to let him access the divine family. Adoption in the ancient world, in fact, often involved adolescents and adults, with the primary goal being the provision of a legitimate heir to a citizen.
Authors:Ángel L. Jiménez-Fernández and Bożena Rozwadowska
In this work, we show that in Spanish and Polish, the distribution of dative Experiencers in the sentence is influenced by factors pertaining to argument structure as well as to information structure. From an argument-structure point of view, they are claimed to be generated in VP, in a position higher than the nominative subject, and hence it is the closest candidate to move to spec-TP and satisfy the EPP under T. From an information-structure perspective, dative Experiencers occur first only in two situations, namely when they are part of the broad focus that the whole sentence performs or when they function as topic. However, different tests will tear Spanish and Polish DEs apart with respect to their “subject” properties, which will ultimately be derived from the syntactic position they target when they are used in all-focus sentences.
This study investigates the relative chronology of the Late Copper Age Baden culture by analysing the pottery of the largest known cemeteries (Alsónémedi, Budakalász, Fonyód-Bézsenypuszta, Balatonlelle-Felső Gamász, Pilismarót-Basaharc and Mezőcsát-Hörcsögös). Altogether 611 ceramic finds from 253 graves were involved in the research. The results presented here are preliminary; all the known Baden cemeteries will be processed in the future.
Translation studies and other disciplines in the humanities have become increasingly politicized as scholars act on the presumption that the dominance of Western theories is the result of power differentials rather than academic merit. This postcolonialist mindset is based on the claim that cultures are equally valid, but there are objective and cross-culturally intersubjective standards for comparing certain aspects of cultures. The problems with such prescriptive cultural relativism are that the nation-state is regarded as the only legitimate unit of culture, that national differences are overemphasized, and that an “is” is turned into an “ought.” Built on these misconceptions, postcolonialism challenges the political establishment in central countries but serves as an excuse to suppress the demand for progress from peripheral sectors in peripheral cultures. The attempt to export postcolonialism, a culture-specific theory, to the whole world is thus itself a colonialist act.
Gyűrűfű, a small village in Zselic, South-Transdanubia depopulated in the 1970s, is the site of an eco-village experiment since 1990. In addition to some of the physical aspects of the project not covered earlier on, this paper deals with the human ecological features of the new community. Social-anthropological considerations such as community development, social background of the participants, the Communist past, which all are determining factors of the social model emerging on site, are discussed from the systems theoretical perspective which states that certain properties of a subsystem are always defined by the superimposed supersystem, both in physical geography and social organisation. The resulting tensions stretched social cohesion in the past 10–15 years, but new developments such as creating jobs by modern telecommunication means and achieving energy independence through the deployment of solar panels and passive energy conservation solutions off-set for these difficulties. The future of the experiment depends very much on three factors: generation change, immigration/emigration and conflict resolution.
The method and the formal-technical language of documentary filmmaking have expanded so much that the traditional divide between documentary and fiction cannot be reasonably held. Animation has also claimed its place among the possible devices of a documentary film. Consequently, a documentary no longer wears its ’truthfulness’ on its sleeve. The cues of documentary that were used historically, like archival footage or talking heads, are eclipsed by cognitively engaging interactive camera work provoking viewer’s identification. The dilemma that a would-be documentary filmmaker is necessarily confronted with is between perceptual realism and representational realism. An image cannot show the ’original’: it can only declare it in a meta-communication about the image. In the history of film the self-referential ‘dead-end’ of the ‘ontological’ image is expressed by a camera filming the ‘eye’ of another camera. The self-referentiality of documentary filmmaking also entails that documenting is necessarily gappy: it always leaves certain things unsaid or hidden. The story it tells has its own important lacunae. It is the Unsaid of a documentary, and not so much the representation’s truthfulness and that constitutes the ethical source for the viewer.
The authors review the past century of Khitan studies in Hungary and introduce the latest achievements in this field in China, the country that has become the centre of academic scrutiny for the decipherment of Khitan script in recent decades. Arranged in a chronologic order for the first time, an exhaustive list of the main known Khitan Small Script monuments is also included, followed by a selected bibliography of essential pieces on Khitan studies.
This paper reconstructs the Khitan vowel system by analysing materials concerning the Khitan Small Script. First, the approximate phonetic values of the graphemes were determined by systematically comparing Khitan transcriptions of Chinese words with their original Chinese sounds and by analysing Khitan rhymes. Next, an exhaustive survey of two adjacent graphemes in a corpus elucidated the script’s spelling rule and thus were the accurate phonetic values determined. Finally, a comparative study based on the reconstructed values established regular vowel correspondences between Khitan and Mongolian. In conclusion, the author presents twelve Khitan vowel phonemes that are distinguished by four vocalic features.
This paper explores intersections of memory and cinematic representation in contemporary Hungarian film culture. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, with the concomitant financial crisis in Hungarian cinema, a number of films have foregrounded questions of Jewish identity, a taboo subject on Hungarian screens after 1945 when nationalistic historiography supported an official government culture of denial with regard to responsibility for the deportation and extermination of some 550 000 Hungarian Jews. The production of relatively few narrative and documentary films on this subject, the essay suggests, is perhaps in part attributable to the fact that the Hungarian uprising of 1956 tended to eclipse the drama of Jewish deportation and genocide. The authors consider post-socialist filmmakers’ uses of the past in the context of the country’s current nationalistic climate, interrogating the impact of controversal films such as László Nemes’s Son of Saul (2015, Grand Prix, Cannes Film Festival ; Academy Award for best foreign film) within a Hungarian society still conflicted about its Holocaust trauma.
This study tries to give an overview of the varied connections between word and image in the calendars and other popular works (penny books, manuscript song collections) of the late Renaissance and Baroque. The author investigates the associations and influences from different fields of culture, considers ancient topoi and archetypes which underwent a great many transformations over space and time. In the first part of this paper are examined some non-traditional figures in the calendar for 1578 (Kolozsvár-Cluj, Heltai’s office) like mermaids/sirens in the role of Aquarius and Virgo, and the appearence of these figures on the painted furniture and ceiling panels of 18th -century Calvinist churches in Hungary.
The second part of this article deals with some typical title pages of calendars, edited in different printing houses of Upper Hungary (by Lorentz Brewer in Lőcse/Levoča, the serie Calendarium Tyrnaviense, Nagyszombat/Trnava) from the second half of the 17th century, and with the calendars of David Frölich, published in Breslau (Wrocław, PL) between 1623 and 1646.
The aim of this paper is to deal with the so-called Lesbian triad, documented by Sappho and Alcaeus, and to determine the nature of the festival and the sanctuary linked to it. I will deal with the problem of the identity of the gods, probably the same, that is Zeus, Hera and Dionysos in both literary sources. I will tackle also the issue of whether it is possible to talk about a Lesbian triad of gods, as supported since the last century, but that has been questioned recently. I will try to determine the main features of the festival, probably an annual celebration including beauty contests and commemorating the establishment of the Greeks in the island. The location of the holy precinct in which the festival took place has been very controversial, but the more believable hypothesis identifies it with a sanctuary by the name of Messon, located in the center of the island next to the old Pyrrha.
Ein besonderer Zug des Luthertums in Ungarn ist dessen ethnische Vielfalt. In der Studie wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche jene Volkssprachen sind, in denen Ungarns lutherische Geistliche um das Jahr 1600 ihre Gottesdienste feierten, predigten, sangen und schrieben. Wenn man aus den Quellen erhebt, mit welchen ethnischen Attributen die Prediger der mehrsprachigen lutherischen Kirchengemeinden damals bezeichnet wurden, kommt folgende Liste zustande: böhmisch, deutsch, kroatisch, polnisch, sächsisch, slowakisch, ungarisch und windisch. Wenn man also die Predigtsprachen zusammenzählt, könnte man (abhängig von der Zuordnung einzelner Dialekte) zu einer Zahl von 6 bis 8 Sprachen gelangen. Die Anzahl der liturgischen Sprachen ist hingegen viel geringer, denn diese standen bereits mit der Buchkultur und den Schriftsprachen in Verbindung. Liturgische Literatur (vor allem Agenden, Gebet- und Gesangsbücher, sowohl gedruckte als auch handschriftliche) stand nämlich nur in vier Sprachen zur Verfügung: Tschechisch, Ungarisch, Deutsch und Slowenisch. Für die Pfarramtskandidaten war es darum nötig, sich andere Volkssprachen anzueignen. Der Fremdsprachenerwerb geschah nicht mit schulischen Methoden, sondern in der Praxis, in der Umgebung von Muttersprachlern. Der hier unternommene Rundblick über Ungarns Luthertum vom Übermurgebiet bis zum Burzenland bezieht sich auf die Zeit um 1600. Die Mehrsprachigkeit war hier damals noch alltägliche Praxis, heute existiert sie jedoch nur noch als kulturelle Erinnerung und als weitestgehend untergegangene Tradition. Die Lutheraner konnten sich aber dank ihrer historischen Wurzeln doch eine besondere Offenheit und ein Verhalten gegenseitigen Respekts und gegenseitiger Annahme aus dieser Zeit herüberretten.
Imre Steindl (1839–1902) is thought to be one of the most prominent architects of the Hungarian Historicism, whose active contribution to the Hungarian Neo-gothic architecture and restoration practices can hardly be overestimated. Albeit, his activity as an architect of the renowned late chief work of the international Gothic Revival, the Hungarian Parliament, as a leader of a prosperous atelier and as a driving force in the public life of the Hungarian architects has been studied intensively, to his work as professor at the Joseph Technical University of Budapest has been so far less attention given. Steindl began to teach as an ordinary professor of medieval architecture in 1870 and shaped the curriculum and educational methods following the traditions of his former alma mater, the Academy Fine Arts of Vienna. In this study, beyond the outline of the long 19th-century Hungarian architectural education and analysis the educational principals typical of Steindl’s methods, the manuscript of the professor’s lecture notes is published and analyzed, with special regard to his historiographical orientation and scholarly reference points. The philological reading of the text points out, that Steindl compiled his lectures in question from the ‘great syntheses’ of the Berlin School of Art History, above all that of Wilhelm Lübke and Karl Schnaase. The detection of this kind of historiographical influence may contribute to the scholarship’s image of Steindl’s, furthermore the late 19th-century Hungarian architectural intelligentsia’s erudition.
This paper reports on an acoustic study of the tonal system of the Pahari language. To achieve this aim, an experiment was conducted. Eight native speakers were given a set of monosyllabic triplets bearing three target tones to read them aloud for recording in a carrier sentence. The acoustic measures included F0, final velocity, and duration. The acoustic and statistical results show that (1) the average F0 demonstrates significant difference in the height of the pitch track of the three target words/tones; (2) final velocity shows three trends, namely falling, level, and rising associated with high, mid, and low tones, respectively; and (3) duration results indicate that high pitch track was significantly shorter than each of the other two pitch tracks. The study concludes that Pahari has three tones, namely high-falling, mid-level, and low-rising.
This paper is the first in what aims to be a series of papers toward a new decipherment and linguistic reconstruction of the Kitan Assembled Script Eulogy for Empress Xuanyi of 1101 A.D. In my treatment of this inscription, I have attempted to juxtapose the Kitan text and its very roughly corresponding Chinese text as much as possible, to allow for greater accuracy in decipherment and reconstruction. This methodology has allowed me to identify several words with previously unnoticed Mongolic cognates.
Authors:Hanna Risku, Theresa Pichler and Vanessa Wieser
In order to remain competitive, many translation companies are expanding their fields of activity to include technical communication, layout, terminology, and other related services, and are thus becoming full-service multilingual and cultural communication vendors. As translation agencies expand their services and competencies — in line with the broad definition of translation used in modern-day translation studies — translating marketing communications materials is one potential area into which they might expand. However, international advertising campaigns for multinational companies are often handled by or with advertising agencies, frequently without the involvement of translation agencies (Anholt 2000). Capturing this additional field brings with it new process requirements, especially for translation agencies which have previously focused more on technical and/or business translation. Depending on the creative brief, the translation of marketing communications materials or advertising campaigns frequently involves a comprehensive rewriting and recreation of the message (Bondarenko 2009; Torresi 2010). The term “transcreation” is often used to emphasise the extensive adaptation thereby required (Ray and Kelly 2010; Rike 2013). However, we argue that the need for a term such as “transcreation” — or “localisation”, for that matter — does not stem from a higher degree of adaptation, but from the specific service processes offered under this translatorial action label. In this paper, we look at the challenges translation agencies may face when entering this field. In an exploratory empirical study, we investigated the expectations of 10 regular clients of an Austrian translation agency regarding the translation (or transcreation) of marketing communications materials. For this purpose, 13 qualitative interviews were carried out with agency clients in Austria, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. The interviewees were asked about their interest in such a service in principle, its potential added value, and their expectations of the product and process. The study also looked at their expectations of the briefing and review processes. The results serve to outline the necessary modifications to the processes required to offer this specific translation service.
Puszta is a widely known phenomenon that primarily denotes a deserted countryside and not the flat areas, vegetation, cattle grazing and some picturesque landscape items that are usually associated with. In Southern Transdanubia, a borderline during Ottoman rule for 143 years, settlement desertion became a crucial and overwhelming factor from 1543 to 1686. My paper addresses the age of reorganization (1686–1720), right after the Ottomans were defeated, and focuses on land use and the general appearance of the land. There are two major views on this situation. Some historians hold that the elaboration took place in a scarcely populated and “wild,” natural area, thus the process of colonization was inevitable. Meanwhile, other scholars who worked with local archival sources have pointed out that plenty of families survived there whose livelihood changed during the Ottoman occupation but they filled the land with human activities. This resulted in a different type of land structure, which was far from the so-called medieval landscape.
In my paper I follow the second theory and depict the landscape in a minor area on the basis of archival data. I analyze the practices of land use in order to show the way the “puszta” did and did not exist. I also investigate the key factors that affected a new landscape shift, which brought about the colonial landscape.
Most linguistic theories postulate structures with covert information, not directly recoverable from utterances. Hence, learners have to interpret their data before drawing conclusions. Within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT), Tesar & Smolensky (1998) proposed Robust Interpretive Parsing (RIP), suggesting the learners rely on their still imperfect grammars to interpret the learning data. I introduce an alternative, more cautious approach, Joint Robust Interpretive Parsing (JRIP). The learner entertains a population of several grammars, which join forces to interpret the learning data. A standard metrical phonology grammar is employed to demonstrates that JRIP performs significantly better than RIP.
By examining ϕ-agreement in relative clauses, this paper investigates the relation between syntax and morphology in terms of the person feature. English relativized subjects appear to have different phi-features for the purposes of subject-verb agreement and binding relations. The verbal morphology uniformly displays 3rd person whereas reflexive binding shows 1st/2nd person in addition to 3rd person. If subject extraction must trigger an invariable verbal form as Ouhalla (1993) argues, the binding alternations cannot be accounted for. This paper proposes dual properties of the person feature based on Harley and Ritter’s (2002) feature geometry, and argues that relativized subjects may not obtain both properties of the person feature from the head noun via Agree. This partial agreement causes morphosyntactic variation in English and cross-linguistically in Distributed Morphology (DM). The current analysis demonstrates that referential and morphological (under)specifications are kept separate under the constraint of the syntactic operation Agree.
Bartók’s later works from the years 1939–1945 present an impressive synthesis of his musical innovations. Beginning with the Divertimento and Sixth String Quartet (both composed in 1939), the Hungarian composer starts with a freely tonal, neo-Classical foundation. Above this initial compositional level he then superimposes Beethovenian formal structures gleaned from the latter’s opp. 53 and 135, in addition to a prominent Stravinsky quotation from The Rite of Spring, part two. In both works Bartók achieves an impressive large-scale cyclical unity, frequently through wholetone scalar integration.
The Concerto for Orchestra (1943) blends pervasive quotation techniques with analogous cyclical intervallic patterns, such as major third cells on F–A–D4. One is again distinctly reminded of the F Major Divertimento. Like the latter work, the Concerto is especially notable for its expansive codas, which function in the manner of Beethovenian second developments. Similarly, the Sonata for Solo Violin (1944) fuses neo-Bachian counterpoint with the expansive forms of the Concerto for Orchestra. Finally, the interrelated last two Concertos for piano and viola (both penned in 1945) present a cumulative synthesis of Bartókʼs later style, emphasizing the tertial (and modal) degrees of VI and flattened VI. Here, too, we encounter elaborate quotational systems that distantly recall the 1910s and 1920s music of French composers as Debussy, Ravel and Satie.
Constituent negation (CN) is commonly thought to be a subtype of natural language negation which does not exhibit substantial differences from the more frequent verbal negation. In this paper, I argue that at least Czech CN is different. I argue that its semantics targets both at-issue meaning and focus alternatives. The evidence will come from differences in interpretations between English and Czech with respect to negated comparatives adjoined to NPs (like no more than two people) and from many other types of negated constituents. I argue that the cross-linguistic variation can be explained if Slavic CN is treated as a focus-oriented particle, unlike English no which targets scalar alternatives.
A Georgica legvégének dulcis alebat Parthenope sorát (IV, 563–564) a Serviusig visszanyúló olvasati hagyomány hol a Szirének egyikével, Neapolis/Parthenopolis védőistenségével hozza kapcsolatba; hol a szűzi tisztasága miatt Partheniasnak nevezett költőre utaló autoreferenciális játékot vél felfedezni benne. Az életrajzi és a lokális tradíción alapuló korábbi értelmezések kiegészítéséül a tanulmány a hely metapoetikus olvasatának lehetőségét veti fel. Parthenope megidézése a sphragisban az erotikus elbeszéléseiben a mítosz megújításával kísérletező, Vergiliusszal és Galluszal szoros kapcsolatban álló Parthenios előtti tisztelgésként is értelmezhető. Az Erótika pathémata latin utóéletének kutatása döntően az elegikusokra és Ovidiusra korlátozódik, noha a Georgica rejtett mitológiai allúzióinak hátterében ugyancsak jellegzetes partheniosi narratív sémák sejlenek fel. Vergilius rövid, többnyire szerelmi szenvedéstörténeten alapuló aitionjai tekinthetők egyes partheniosi történetvázak erkölcsi téttel kiegészülő, egységes világképbe rendeződő újraírásának is.
The trope of the valiant woman/women fighting with arms during the Ottoman siege of Szigetvár in 1566 has mainly been studied by Hungarian historiography and literary history, and art history has hardly paid attention to the motif in the visual arts. In the historical and literary sources the trope has had three distinguishable – and sometimes connected – variants since the 16th century, each of them also represented in Hungarian works of art.
The story of the woman fighting at the side of her husband already cropped up in the Hungarian historical song created in the year of the battle: before the final charge the defenders wanted to kill their wives or brides to save them from falling into pagan hands but a valiant woman asked her husband to give her armour and weapon to fight the enemy. The story passed into the Transylvanian German poet Christian Schesaeus’ Ruinae Pannonicae (1571) and into a Latin-language album in memory of Miklós Zrínyi published in Wittenberg in 1587. The motif is included in the mid-17th century biographies of women by the French Jesuit poet Pierre Le Moyne, in the February 1749 issue of Mercure de France and in several 18-19th century German and Austrian periodicals and literary works. From the early 19th century the heroic deed of the brave woman of Szigetvár appeared in several Hungarian magazines and pieces of juvenile literature often together with the story of the valiant women of Eger.
The first visual representation of the brave woman of Szigetvár is the monumental painting about Zrínyi’s charge from Szigetvár by Austrian Peter Krafft created upon the commission of the National Museum in 1825: there is a helmeted woman with a determined look in her eyes among the troops charging out of the castle. This detail was to be repeated not only in several engravings made after Krafft’s painting but also in multiplied prints including title-pages of printed music.
Another variant of the trope appears in the Italian Giovanni Michele Bruto’s manuscript of the history of Hungary written in the 1570s-80s. In this version some brave women and mothers whom their husbands wanted to kill entreated them to let them die fighting against the foe with their children held as shields. This motif is included in German-language plays on Zrínyi by August Werthes and Theodor Körner written at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. The women and children locked in the castle are also shown in Alajos Rohn’s lithograph Zrínyi’s oath after Béla Vízkelety’s painting of a tableau vivant staged after Körner’s Zrínyi play in a charity performance at the National Theatre of Pest on 3 April 1860. Women and children are important actors in Bertalan Székely’s monumental painting Zrínyi’s charge (1879–1885) showing a woman picking up a fallen sword to fight the Ottomans.
The third variant of the motif of the courageous woman cropped up in literature at the turn of the 18-19th century: in the plays by Werthes and Körner Zrínyi’s wife blows up the powder-house with a torch to send as many of the intruding Ottomans into the netherworld as she could. The best-known example of the theme is the oil painting by Xavér Ferenc Weber The final moments of Szigetvár (1871) also shown at the 1873 Vienna World Fair. A fusion of historical and legendary elements can be seen in the 20th century colour print entitled Ilona Zrínyi’s heroism in defence of the castle of Munkács 1688 in which Ilona Zrínyi is about to dip her torch into a powder barrel to kill the invading Ottomans while defending the castle of Munkács in 1688 (actually against the Habsburg imperial troops).
Vergil’s depiction of Juno as saeva does not correspond to Homer’s depiction of Hera, but rather to a combination of Homer’s Hera and Pallas. Vergil’s Juno, moreover, is far less subservient to Jupiter (who is not really as active in the Aeneid as Zeus is in the Iliad). While Homer frequently pairs Hera with Pallas Athena, Vergil’s Juno acts independently, while assuming in particular many of the traits of Homer’s Pallas Athena.
The gramophone recording of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G major, K. 453, featuring Ernst von Dohnányi as soloist and conductor of the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra, made in 1928 for the Columbia Company, is important in many respects. The Hungarian pianist and composer made little more than a handful of gramophone recordings until the late 1940s. This performance is also the first audio recording ever to be published that contained a Mozart piano concerto (some piano rolls with concertos or extracts did exist beforehand). From the beginning of his career, Dohnányi had been one of the keenest promoters of the Austrian composer’s piano pieces. In the Columbia recording, the performing style of Dohnányi and his orchestra is characteristic of its time, notably because it chooses to use a flexible tempo. In addition, the soloist makes use of rubato and chord dislocation. Nonetheless, the performers are also playing in an intimate conversational tone and they emphasize Mozart’s structural clarity. The execution of themes by the pianist is both poetic and restrained. These traits will define the “mainstream” performing style of Mozart’s piano concertos over most of the twentieth century. An implicit aesthetic standard comes into force in the critical reviews of the Columbia records: Mozart’s piano concertos require lightness and gentleness from the soloist. The elements given prominence to the recording and in the reviews also appear in contemporary musicological literature and in texts on music. Recordings of two additional Mozart piano concertos (K. 271 and K. 503), played live by Dohnányi in the 1950s, display a broadly similar performing style. Over the ten years that followed the Columbia recording, the majority of Mozart’s “great” piano concertos were published on records. This newly found popular interest is connected with a positive re-evaluation of this group of Mozart’s works.
Although the ecovillage-movement is a relatively new phenomenon (it was first formalised in the 1990s), the initiatives, which aim to integrate, do have a much longer history. The author of this article has been studying ecovillages since 2008. As a cultural anthropologist, her focus lies in the socio-cultural dimensions of the ecovillage-movement. In the present paper the history and roots of the movement are covered by positioning eco-villages within both the history of the broader environmental movement and that of intentional communities; the international and Hungarian history of the ecovillage-movement is presented; and, last but not least, an interpretation is given of the Hungarian ecovillages in the context of rural migration processes. The picture drawn up here is not intended to be an exhaustive one, since the ecovillage-phenomenon can be presented from numerous different perspectives. Yet, the paper clearly demonstrates the multiple embeddedness of the movement, and provides an insight into the aspirations of ecovillage inhabitants and the current functioning of ecovillages.
My reflexions propose a parallel reading of Pasternak and Nabokov. Firstly, some possible perspectives in the comparative research of these two authors are listed. Then, there follows an outline of some typological similarities in the two writers’ early period that may be deducted from their literary situation of the time and their similar position between traditions and innovations. Finally, I discuss a very possible intertextual dialogue that may cast a new light on Nabokov’s Pale Fire.
George Enescu’s aptitude as a virtuoso musician, developed at the conservatoires of Vienna and Paris, built on childhood experiences with Romani-Romanian musicians (the muzica lăutărească tradition), and Romanian folk music. The doina, a folk genre constructed from improvisatory repetitions of melody, and particularly associated with the concept of dor, “longing,” served as an inspiration throughout Enescu’s compositional career. This study examines virtuosity in relation to Enescu’s musical expressions of dor, specifically in his approach to the hora lungă, a sub-class of the doina. The virtuosic zenith of his Third Violin Sonata involves blurring the lines between emulation of muzica lăutărească performance with traditional vocal hora lungă delivery. The later Second Cello Sonata is contextualised with reference to Lucian Blaga’s formulation of the “stylistic matrix” as a means for depicting dor in connection to the temporal. Virtuosity here rather relates to interpretation: evoking the unconscious and the “mioritic space” by contrast to emulation of muzica lăutărească or the spontaneity of improvised hora lungă performance. Considering these examples with reference to personal and historical context, the present study suggests these passages perform the traditional function of the hora lungă: catharsis.
Authors:Elisabeth Lechner, Stefan Simonek and Marlena Tomala
Sirens became an essential element of the literary imagination in many European literatures in Romanticism and have remained popular ever since. Also, in Russian and Polish culture, the image of the dangerously alluring and transgressive female nymph called “rusalka” is omnipresent. In this paper, the authors use a comparative approach to trace the evolution of the “rusalka” motif from its creation in the Romantic period to its transformed (and often highly sexualized) use in present-day popular culture. From works written by Pushkin, Lermontov, Mickiewicz as well as Bal’mont and Gumilev (amongst others), we move on to contemporary actualizations of the motif in the music videos and lyrics of a Russian girl group (“Фабрика”), a Polish pop performer (Doda Elektroda) and a Russian folk-metal band (“Alkonost”). We argue that the centuries-old popularity of the “rusalka” motif can be ascribed to the theme’s core semantics of female transgression and adaptability that lends itself especially well to the sphere of pop and its remixing and resignifying practices.
The tragic events of the most recent history of Ukraine, particularly, the “Euromaidan” of 2013–2014 and the subsequent war in Eastern Ukraine, have been closely linked with problems of Ukrainian identity and language. Currently, an overall positive development of the Ukrainian language can be observed in many spheres, as corroborated by a variety of statistic data. Some significant initiatives in the sphere of language legislation have been made; the unconstitutional language law of 2012 is likely to be cancelled soon. Most importantly, the civic society of Ukraine is strongly supporting the position of the Ukrainian language.
The author analyzes biaspectual verbs with borrowed roots which have prefixed perfective or suffixed imperfective correlates. The analysis focuses on the change (the weakening or loss) of biaspectual semantics of these verbs.
The paper deals with the national and gender specificity of Jelena Dimitrijević’s travelogues. This specificity is significantly caused both by the phenomenon of women travelling, its literary representation (the female author achieves a special status leaving her home as the place prescribed by the patriarchal culture to women) and her own Balkan culture identity. Dimitrijević’s texts are analyzed here in connection with the concept of the Balkan orientalism and the theory of nomadic subject. The paper considers the explicitly transnational character of Dimitrijević’s writings.
This paper analyzes G. Vinokur’s scientific heritage. The main focus is on the development of his ideas in the field of linguistic construction: from the first attempts at “linguistic technology” speech and the reform of traditional approaches to literature to the establishment of philology as a science. The scientist significantly contributed to sociolinguistics and the ecology of language, style and poetic linguistics, philological criticism and textology. His innovation is remarkable in the study and interpretation of the history and the theory of verbal culture.
This paper offers an analysis of museum ekphrasis as a subgenre of ekphrasis, understood in literary studies as a description and interpretation of works of art in poetry and prose. Previously, the concept of museum ekphrasis has not been considered by researchers as the definition of an independent genre, while description of museum exposition and museum exhibits not only had been significantly represented in literature but often had the quality of hypertext. The author analyzes museum ekphrasis in the texts of A. Bitov, Y. Dombrowski, S. Dovlatov, A. Ivanov, K. Vaginov, and contemporary authors, where museum discourse is not limited to the description of real and imaginary museums but the museum represents the metaphysical projection of reality, or hypertext, symbolically associated with the cultural paradigm of the era.
This paper explores the ways of displaying anger in the Russian linguistic image of the world. According to the National Corpus of the Russian Language, anger dims eyes, makes blind and mad. In metaphorical projections, anger is defined in relation to the structural elements of other subject areas, including fluid, wild animals, natural disasters, fire, lightning, or thunderstorm. By analogy with some resources, anger is collected, wasted, and exhausted; by analogy with water, anger overflows and boils; by analogy with fire, inflames, and fades, anger can flare up and fade; by analogy with wild animals, it can be curbed, tamed, or subdue. It is quite common that speakers do not pay attention to metaphorical expressions but take them almost for the objective characteristic of anger.
The traditions and stereotypes of perception and imagination of different dishes belonging to different national Slavonic cuisines could be considered as a special cultural and linguistic formation, a special layer. The article presents some of the stereotypes of “national menus” and their reflections in some Slavonic languages, including the phraseological level, especially in the culture of Ukrainians, Serbs, and Croats. Culinary and “cooking” metaphors often become the basis for creating expressivity.
Some peculiarities of the translation of Holy Scripture fragments in the texts of baroque sermons are discussed in the paper. The author analyzes the features of the national language testified in the translations, and concludes that the preachers studied gospel stories creatively, made them more stylistically expressive, which can be explained by the specificity of homiletic work.
This paper deals with the presentation of Serbian and Croatian biblical similes in dictionaries and their usage by native speakers. The author also draws material from Macedonian and Montenegrin. Some of the examples are presented with etymological commentaries.