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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

The theoretical framework adopted in the analysis of Old English obstruents is laryngeal realism, a framework using privative features in modelling laryngeal oppositions. Equipollent oppositions, although real in the phonetic sense, must clearly be delineated from phonology. Old English obstruents are either unmarked (lenis/neutral) or marked: 〈b〉 /b/, 〈d〉 /d/, 〈cg〉 /dʒ/ or /ɟ/, 〈g〉 /ɡ/ are not marked for [voice] (although they are passively voiced between sonorants) and as such cannot regressively voice obstruents, singleton 〈p〉 /p/, 〈t〉 /t/, 〈ć〉 /tʃ/ or /c/, 〈c〉 /k/ are marked for [spread] (aspiration, or GW ‘glottal width’), singleton 〈f〉, 〈þ/ð〉, 〈s〉, 〈g〉, 〈h〉 are unmarked, but are passively voiced in the V ´ FricV/Son environment. Fricatives in unstressed syllables (even when couched between sonorants) are not voiced. If there is a sonorant separating the fricative from the stressed vowel there is no voicing ( V ´ SonFricV/Son). The only voiced fricatives after a stressed vowel+sonorant consonant are /f/ [v] and /x/ [ɣ] (but this is a historical coincidence). (Phonetically voiceless) Geminates, s+stop and f/h+stop clusters are special in that they constitute a sequence of a fortis followed by a lenis obstruent impervious to passive voicing.

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Abstract

This intervention focuses on the close relationship that links Mithras to Hercules, witnessed by the presence of the image of Hercules in some mithraic caves, on ritual vessels and in other contexts related to Zoroastrian Mithraism, such as the funerary monument of Antiochus I of Commagene at Nemrut Dağı.

Likewise, even the veneration of the goddess Caelestis by some followers of Mithras is testified by the representation of the symbol pro itu et reditu in contexts referable to the cult of Mithras.

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Abstract

Károly Kós, along with other Hungarian artists and architects, contributed to the development of a natural approach of culture, based on the local environment and on the local way of life. This is, in his eyes, the right way to the universal. Architecture and music, in particular, are intertwined, as they both attempt to create an agreeable environment to mankind. The transylvanian or Transylvania-inspired art is an example of this proximity between the architectural and the musical language.

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Abstract

The control of the Mediterranean and its surroundings by the conquering Roman Republic after the victory over Carthage, and later over the Hellenistic kingdoms throughout the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, notably increased connectivity and the movement of people. This paper focuses on the wide range of ritual instruments, above all the propitiation of the gods through sacrifices, in the face of journeys in general, and on the diverse religious resources documented in the epigraphy of the Latin West.

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“Returning Home in the Greek and Roman World”

Symposium Classicum Peregrinum, June 10–12 and 16, 2022 Messina and Taormina

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Patricia A. Johnston
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Abstract

This article focuses on two stories contained in Deipnosophists 15 by Athenaeus of Naucratis. Both stories are comprised in the section in which Athenaeus discusses the use of crowns in festive rituals. Athenaeus attributes the first story (672a–e) to Menodotus of Samos. Here we read that some Tyrrhenians went to Samos to steal the simulacrum of Hera. But, having boarded the ship with the statue, they were unable to set sail. Thus, they unloaded the simulacrum on the shore and left. Then the heroine Admete retrieved it and took it back to the temple. For this reason, every year since then, the inhabitants of Samos celebrated the feasts called Tonaia in honor of Hera. The second story, that Athenaeus draws from Polycarmus of Naucratis (675f–676b), tells of a certain Herostratus who, on his return journey from Cyprus to Naucratis, was saved from a storm thanks to the sailors' prayers to the statue of Aphrodite on board. Thereafter, Herostratus prepared a banquet at the temple of the goddess to honor her. These stories introduce the recurring motif, also found in other sources, of travelling divine statues, which display supernatural powers.

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“Few of the many returned home”

The Sicilian Expedition and the Genesis of the Ionian War

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author:
Joshua Nudell

Abstract

Histories of the Sicilian Expedition usually focus on Athens, and with good reason: Athens supplied the largest number of ships, all the leaders were Athenians, and Thucydides' account is constructed as an Athenian tragedy that largely subsumes the allies into the crowd of soldiers. Moreover, it was in the aftermath of the disaster that the Aegean poleis slipped through the Athenian grasp. Scholars have offered explanations for the outbreak of the Ionian War that range from anti-Athenian sentiment stemming from wartime measures like the Standards Decree that primed the Athenians to reject Athenian hegemony to a change in Persian policy to an ephemeral mood. When they invoke Sicily, it is to follow Diodorus Siculus in arguing that the failure created contempt for Athenian hegemony (τὴν ἡγεμονίαν αὐτῶν καταφρονηθῆναι, 13. 34. 1). Another cause of the Ionian War, however, has received too little attention: the Ionians who fought in Sicily. In this paper I re-evaluate the Sicilian Expedition from the perspective of the non-Athenians, and particularly the Ionians. These contributions have traditionally been underestimated because Thucydides implies that they had fallen out of practice with warfare and were thus complicit in their own subjugation. Nevertheless, Thucydides' history is littered with accounts of Ionian soldiers fighting far from home, up to and including in the Sicilian Expedition (Thuc. 7. 20. 2; 7. 57. 3). Re-evaluating the evidence for Ionian contributions to the Athenian war effort in turn complicates straightforward assessments of the popularity of the empire and opens the possibility that it was not only Athenian weakness but also the costs borne by the allies that led the Ionians to put in motion the events that led to revolt.

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Abstract

This paper explores the theme of the homecoming (nostos) by examining the homecomings of the Scythians in Book Four of The Histories of Herodotus from two different approaches, the philological and historical. As Herodotus makes clear, for Scythians, such as the famous traveler Anacharsis and the Scythian king Scyles, returning home could be deadly. From the philological approach, which emphasizes the literary nature of the Scythian logos, this pattern of thematic repetitions of denied homecomings serves to emphasize the hostile nature of Scythia for outsiders and thus to increase the tension surrounding the outcome of the larger narrative of Book Four, which describes the disastrous military campaign of the Persian king Darius I in Scythia. However, from the historical approach, which regards the account of Herodotus as a historical source that provides valuable testimony when combined with other sources of evidence, it becomes clear that these stories of impossible homecomings also reflect the conditions at the Greek frontier of the Scythian world and for Scythians like Anacharsis and Scyles who adopted foreign customs, especially Greek religious practices, namely that in this region marked by competition and conflict, including religious conflict, adopting foreign customs meant it was not possible to return home again.

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Abstract

The purpose of this essay is to compare the story of Er in Plato's Republic's tenth book with the concept of antarābhava in the Vedic World and the ancient schools of Buddhism. First, the story of Er, a warrior who was believed to have died in battle and returned to life shortly before his body was burnt on the pyre, will be told. Er describes the vision he had before returning to life: he saw the actions and fate of the disembodied souls in the state and stage before their reincarnation. Next, the Indian doctrine of antarābhava, the intermediate state between death and rebirth, according to the Vedic religion and ancient schools of Buddhism, will be discussed. Finally, we will say a few concluding words to make a historical-religious comparison between the two in order to better understand both these doctrines and visions of the afterlife.

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Abstract

This study explores the major types and main interpersonal functions of meishi (没事, literally ‘I'm fine’) by Chinese females in romantic conversation through analyzing collected posts from Sina Microblog. Results show that meishi by Chinese females in the context of romantic relationships primarily manifests the attributes of “expressive” and “assertive” (“insincere assertive” in particular), with specific functions to express comfort (expressive), to implicitly express negative feelings (expressive), and to avoid self-disclosure of negative emotion (insincere assertive). We hold that Chinese women's use of meishi is not only a realization of gendered discourse but also has a practical function as it detects the sincerity and attentiveness of their male counterparts.

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