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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

This paper argues that the indefinite, definite, and kind interpretations belonging to nouns and noun phrases are independent universal semantic features realized by different linguistic means across and within languages. The investigations presented here take the viewpoint of the speaker: first the semantic content of the three features is characterized, then the linguistic expressions these interpretations belong to and arise from are examined. Cross-linguistic data support the conclusions that none of these features is derived from the other(s), their primary source is the intrasentential context, and they express “instructions” to the hearer to find more or less identifiable or more or less representative referents that pertain to the denotation of the noun (phrase).

Open access

Narrowing or in Kálmán's writings

Investigating the usage of vagy ‘or’ in Hungarian

Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors:
Anita Viszket
,
Eszter Kárpáti
, and
Judit Kleiber

Abstract

The paper investigates the usage of the Hungarian connective vagy ‘or’. Our starting point is Ariel & Mauri's (2018, 2019) and Ariel's (2020) papers about the use of or, where they argue that its core meaning is ‘alternativity’. Our goal is to describe Hungarian vagy ‘or’ by analyzing various corpus data, and compare the results. We examined the personal subcorpus of the Hungarian National Corpus (MNSZ2), and the Hungarian Spontaneous Speech Database (BEA). In this paper, as a tribute to the memory of László Kálmán, we investigated a third corpus that is constructed from Kálmán's very popular informative texts on Qubit.

Open access

The paper deals with one of clitic third orders in Hittite that involves later than the expected second position of the clitic -(m)a, a contrastive conjunction and discourse marker, otherwise a standard second position clitic. -(m)a is delayed beyond its common second position by clause connectives, subordinators and conjunctions with varying obligatoriness: it is obligatory with clause connectives and optional with subordinators and conjunctions. This study explores in detail the variation with subordinators and conjunctions and it argues that clitic third order in this context is an innovation. In explaining how clitic third order was triggered in this context the etymological hypothesis of Eichner (1971, 1981) is combined with the prosodic explanation of clitic third of Kloekhorst (2014) against an alternative account of Sideltsev (2019).

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In the early modern Ottoman Empire, social identity was closely tied to a hierarchical structure, with the sultanate occupying the highest tier and ordinary subjects positioned at the lower end. Empire’s inhabitants were divided into groups based on the style and color of their clothes. By dressing in clothing from a different gender, socioeconomic class, or ethnoreligious group, one could disguise their true identity and social status. This article endeavors to unveil the motivations that compelled ordinary people to employ clothing as a means to conceal their involvement in criminal activities. Furthermore, it investigates the constraints associated with common identity-altering practices, particularly from the vantage points of religion, gender, and intersectionality. Drawing from an array of archival sources such as mühimme records, chronicles, manuscripts, and qadi court registers, the article scrutinizes the consequences of these practices.

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The article deals with the origin of palatalisation in the plural paradigm of the Khotanese i-declension. According to the common view, palatalisation resulted from regular sound change only in the nominative-accusative plural, with the etymological form of the endings remaining not-palatalised in the rest of the plural inflection. Subsequently, there emerged a tendency for the palatalised allomorph to become generalised and extend across the paradigm. However, a thorough examination of older and later Old Khotanese manuscripts challenges this perspective, revealing no evidence of original allomorphy between the palatalised and non-palatalised stem variants in the plural. This study demonstrates that palatalisation did not originate from analogical levellings but rather arose from regular sound change. Additionally, the article draws a comparison between the i-declension plural paradigm and the inflection of most numerals greater than ‘three’, which exhibit palatalisation in all case forms except for the nominative-accusative.

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The multi-layered cultural structure of the Mamluk Kipchak area can be seen in the language of the period. The linguistic evolution of the Turkmens and Kipchaks, the initial settlers of the region, is documented in contemporary grammars and dictionaries. The language of the Eastern Turks also became incorporated as their numbers in the region gradually increased. This study investigates the vocabulary used in al-Qavânîn al-Kulliyya li-Ẓabṭ al-Luġat at-Turkiyya, one of the grammars of the period. The first stage of the study was to identify words with the same meanings and equivalent pairs that may be indicators of how the dialect of the period has changed. The status of the words which were considered to be indicators of the dialectal differences between the historical text, and that of the Turkic languages of contemporary Oghuz and Kipchak groups, was then analysed. Results indicate that 37.03% of the fifty-eight words analysed in this study still exist in contemporary Oghuz, while 25.93% are still present, and even have the same meaning, in contemporary Kipchak. The rate of equivalent pairs identified in this historical text was 37.03%.

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There are more than 10 block-printed and hand-copied versions of the Vajracchedikā Sūtra (The Diamond Sūtra) in Old Uighur preserved in Berlin, Paris and St. Petersburg. Recently, two block-printed fragments of Vajracchedikā Sūtra in Old Uighur, which are of the same origin as those in Berlin, were found in the National Library of China. Based on a comparative study, these items are believed to be translated from a Sanskrit version while referencing the Chinese translation by Dharmagupta. This paper presents a textual examination of the two Old Uighur Vajracchedikā Sūtra fragments.

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As many world languages, Turkic also has simple suffixes in terms of structure, as well as complex suffixes with controversial origins. Although some of these suffixes have been systematized and bound to certain rules, the emergence of some suffixes still remains a mystery. Old Uyghur, which is one of the historical periods of the Turkic language, has such an undeciphered suffix. The compound suffix of +DXrtI has been evaluated by some researchers to date; however, no definite conclusion has been reached regarding its origin and function. For this purpose, various structures in Altaic languages will be examined and a connection will be made between this suffix and the ‘extraordinary’ examples seen in Old Uyghur.

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Ethnicity and Representation

Material Folk Art at the Intersection of Local Identity, Minority Policy Goals, and Ethnographers' Aspirations in the 1970s and 1980s in Hungary

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author:
Bence Ament-Kovács

Abstract

Those Germans who remained in Hungary after the Second World War faced complex political, economic, and social difficulties. In cultural terms, the diverse self-definitions of the Germans living in Hungary at that time precluded national cohesion, despite the use by the authorities of the unifying definition “German.” This national minority was bound together primarily by shared trauma. Individuals and communities alike were searching for their place amidst the changed circumstances, and it was the umbrella organization known as the Democratic Association of Germans in Hungary (Magyarországi Németek Demokratikus Szövetsége) that sought to bring them together. It was not until the 1970s that the association began to professionalize its activities and to conduct ethnographic research in cooperation with qualified specialists. During this process, the village of Harta, which was already famous for its folk art, came to their attention. It was specifically the economic potential of this settlement in Bács-Kiskun County, and its character as an ethnic and confessional enclave, that laid the foundations for the uniform objects and motifs of this local center of furniture painting. After the Second World War, the county administration's cultural policy was relatively accepting of the furniture-making tradition here, and the local intelligentsia showed a supportive attitude towards the settlement's German heritage. In the 1970s, there was still a furniture painter living in Harta, who won the most prestigious folk-art award, regularly participated in exhibitions and gala events, and even produced painted furniture in the cooperative's subsidiary branch at the initiative of the local council president. This ensured that painted furniture from Harta came to represent not only the traditionalist aspirations of the German Association, but also national cultural policy. Harta furniture emerged as the most iconic style of minority painted furniture and as the shared heritage of the German community in Hungary.

Open access