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Arts and Humanities journals’ primary focus is on presenting theoretical and empirical research in these respective fields. The main goal is to encourage educational research and connect academia to the scientific community. Researchers and scholars need to share their research findings with others to help better understand and act on the ongoing social changes in the field. The Arts and Humanities journals aim to provide a platform for everyone who shares a common interest in these fields and to group all the latest field findings in one place.

Arts and Humanities

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Abstract

The object of this presentation is Júlia Hajdu (1925–1987), the first and only female Hungarian operetta composer. Although there is no abundance of female composers in either international or Hungarian music literature, most of the few were canonically mistreated, despite their creations being worthy of research. The author of choice, Júlia Hajdu, had a rather rich artistic career during which she excelled in various musical genres, such as the composition of dance songs, operettas, revues, dance suites, and incidental music. Besides composing, she was also an outstanding pianist. At the Zeneakadémia (Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music), her master teachers were Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967) and György Ránki (1907–1992) – the latter, too, being a composer of operettas. Hajdu studied folk music from Kodály and jazz orchestration from Ránki. Hajdu's name was soon mentioned next to the best-known creators of popular genres by both her contemporaries and the critics of the age. Among others, she worked on the popular music shows of Magyar Televízió (Hungarian Television) and was employed as Hanna Honthy's piano accompanist. Hajdu recorded hundreds of dance songs, revues, and dance suites, as well as fourteen operettas, including those for radio and television broadcasts. Her career is to be explored within the cultural, political, and civilizational contexts of state socialism, thus understanding her work as not only another oeuvre of an operetta composer, but also as a representation of the artistic sentiment of a whole era. During her active years, she had to make compromises which she later interpreted as assertions of herself as a female artist in a male-dominated cultural milieu. After recognizing various narrative patterns in her creations, I aim to discuss Hajdu's career along two of the most prevalent and recurring issues: the “female composer as a sensation” narrative, and the “significance of the master teacher” narrative.

Open access

A rare Sarmatian coin imitation in lead from a grave at Hódmezővásárhely

Ritka szarmata éremutánzat ólom medalionja egy hódmezővásárhelyi sírból

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Lajos Juhász

Abstract

The paper discusses a very rare type of Sarmatian coin imitation cast of lead of which only two other specimens are known. The one from Martfű is best preserved, which is very helpful for the interpretation. This piece was found in the grave of a Sarmatian woman in one of the biggest Sarmatian-period cemeteries in the Carpathian Basin, Hódmezővásárhely-Aranyági-halom. The crouched position of the deceased only adds to the peculiarities of the find, since it is very rare for the Sarmatians.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper I focus my attention on the debate between three renowned Germanists of the interwar period: Elemér Moór, Elemér Schwartz and Walter Steinhauser. Their discussion of the population history of Burgenland can serve as a case study of knowledge production. This was a discourse in which the relationship between science and politics or the boundary between scholarship and dilettantism were often tested. Relying on both published material (their books and papers) and unpublished sources (correspondence, commission reports) I analyse the different standpoints of the three scholars and show the development of their rivalry. At the end of my paper, I will draw some lessons concerning the history of historical writing.

Open access

„Wer um alles in der Welt ist Pom-Pom?”

Platzhalter und recycelte Erinnerung im öffentlichen Raum

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Ferenc Szolar

Abstract

The article deals with the stories of Pom-Pom, which appeared in Hungary from the beginning of the 1980s, initially in the media network of picture books and animated films. Since the 2010s, the characters have increasingly appeared in the public space of Budapest: first in the context of thematic playgrounds, then in the form of mini-sculptures, and finally street art murals. In terms of time, these events coincide on the one hand with the so-called critical threshold, that transition between communicative and cultural memory, and on the other hand they set in at a point in time initiated by the operational end as well as the incipient building decay of the renowned Pannónia film studios. The examples chosen solely according to the criterion of visibility in public space prove to be representations planned, supported and tolerated by the public authorities.

Restricted access

Abstract

On March 24, 2020, the international flower trade association Union Fleurs issued a statement on the situation of the ornamental plants sector hit by the Covid-19 crisis. In a study published in April 2020, Copa-Cogeca (European Farmers and European Agri-Cooperatives) echoed the findings of the above-mentioned international flower trade association, stating that the flower and ornamental plants sector was the agricultural sector most impacted by the coronavirus in the EU, as in most Member States, including Hungary and Romania, there was a historical drop in demand and consumption of almost 80%, and unfortunately the virus hit at the worst possible time, as the spring season would have been the peak period for ornamental horticulturalists. In my case study, I examine the flower growers of Curteni, a settlement in the Mureș region of Transylvania (Romania). How has this global phenomenon caused by the coronavirus manifested itself locally in a settlement where nearly 60 families make their living from growing and selling ornamental plants? Has this community been able to maintain its territorial/regional competitiveness? Have the people of Curteni joined the group of producers known in economic anthropology as farmers who chose to halt and wait, or did they find a quick and resilient response to the obstacles they encountered? How did this crisis become an identity-shaping factor in their lives? The pandemic has also exacerbated the situation in Curteni, made it more difficult to act and make decisions, and has brought new perspectives and values into play. The example of the florist community of Curteni shows that a new situation, and indeed any crisis, can bring about positive changes in the lives of communities. In any crisis, emergency, or exigency, members of a community may almost instinctively, but mostly also consciously, seek innovative responses to their problems. One way is to discover and exploit the opportunities inherent in a crisis, communally re-assessing and utilizing the available values, opportunities, and resources, and finding truly resilient responses.

Open access

Abstract

Food culture has played, and continues to play, an important role in the definition of identity and community cohesion. Food is not just a matter of sustenance but is also a cultural element with myriad links to the material world and to festive and everyday customs. Meals and individual dishes also function as mediators, providing a means and a channel of communication. Local communities select, reconstruct, or construct their common food heritage through their social discourse on the past, belonging, and locality. This paper presents the institutional framework for the management, preservation, and transmission of food-related traditions at the national and local levels in Hungary and looks at the practice of heritagization through one specific local example.

Open access

Abstract

In his paper the author deals with the contributions of a new volume on the history of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century and added several additional notes to each paper. As several papers studied the relationship of Ravenna and Attila the Hun the author examined the written sources concerning the Huns in detail and came to the conclusion that there was only one foedus concluded with Attila after 433 and Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in this treaty. Attila was formally the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire.

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Abstract

Vessels decorated with domed metal discs were extraordinarily rare and valuable commodities of the Late Bronze Age. Pottery adorned with bronze discs and tin first appeared in Hungary during the earlier Urnfield period (14th/13th century BC). A vessel adorned with three ring motifs inlaid with a high-tin alloy on its belly is known from Nagykanizsa-Bilkei-dűlő and a cup decorated with bronze domed discs was recovered from Grave 222 of the Vörs-Battyáni-Disznólegelő cemetery, both in southern Transdanubia. The decorative bronze discs similarly had a high tin content. The metal composition was analysed with particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. Pendant ornaments of “white bronze”, an alloy with a high tin content, are principally known from southern Transdanubia: the elemental composition of two pendants with bird protomes from Grave 51 of the Vörs-Battyáni-Disznólegelő cemetery and of a funnel-shaped pendant from the Pamuk hoard were examined by PIXE for compositional make-up, which indicated a high tin content for all three. These pendants had been worn as adornments. Tin was an important raw material in the production of bronze. Most of the vessels decorated with bronze discs were brought to light in the late Urnfield cemetery uncovered at Budapest-Békásmegyer (boot- and amphora-shaped vessels, a feeding vessel, resin balls). It seems likely that these vessels had once served ritual purposes. Regrettably, they have not yet been submitted to PIXE analyses.

Open access

Abstract

The curious shape of the so-called early Christian mausoleum of Iovia, Pannonia has attracted much attention since its discovery in the 1980s. The main part of the building, a hexagon flanked by alternating semi-circular and rectangular rooms was complemented by a bi-apsidal vestibule and a rectangular peristyle courtyard. The hexagon was a relatively rarely used form in late antique architecture compared to the octagon, however, hexagons can still be detected in all parts of the Roman Empire in all kinds of architectural contexts: they appeared in late Roman villae, baths, funerary buildings, early Christian mausolea and baptisteries.

The architectural parallels of the mausoleum of Iovia are traced among the thin-walled hexagons that were flanked by protruding semi-circular and rectangular rooms. The buildings closest in shape were the pagan mausoleum of Louin in France and the trefoil hall of the Villa of Aiano in Italy. Other related structures include the so-called Stibadium A of the Villa with Peristyle in Mediana in Serbia, the reception rooms of the Keynsham villa in England, the hexagonal hall of the Palace of Antiochus in Constantinople, the Domus delle Sette Sale in Rome, the baptistery of Limoges in France, and the cella quinquichora of Aquincum in Hungary. Although similar in general layout, they had different functions: early Christian mausoleum, baptistery, pagan mausoleum, and foremost dining halls or reception rooms. This warns us that it is essential to study early Christian buildings in the context of late antique architecture in its complexity and not only in the limited context of other early Christian buildings. Late antique architects seem to have been fascinated by the opportunities offered by the different polygonal or central-plan halls and buildings and used them for different purposes.

Open access