In or. 25 Demosthenes compares Aristogeiton to a watchdog who, instead of defending the sheeps, attacks and tears them to pieces. This picture seems not to be common in Attic rhetoric, but is occurs in Plat. Rep. 416a, where Socrates warns about the danger that the most popular orators, in betrayal of their former task, assault the demos and eventually become tyrants. This platonic passage confers a new meaning to the Demosthenic statement and suggests the possibility that Aristogeiton aimed at tyranny. Hence the nomos, which only can control physis, protects society from the worst human vices (poneria, hybris and anaideia), and represents the most effective defence of democracy.
This paper presents the results of a reexamination of Column V verse 8 of the British Museum Papyrus 134 (Hypereides against Philippides). On the basis of the seemingly unquestioned previous readings (Kenyon, Blass, Jensen) there has developed a more than one-hundred-years-long debate on the dating of the speech in question. But the crucial word, the starting point of the different interpretations (ύπείληφας) cannot be read as it was. All we can see is: [[o]]†προσφας†. By considering some possible emendations any reconstructed verbum finitum is likely to be in the past tense, which determines the questioned date of origin, i.e. post mortem Philippi.
This article discusses the verse 13 of Pindar's sixth Pythian ode. The manuscripts have «χεράδι», but editors generally accept C. D. Beck's conjecture «χεράδει». The text of the manuscripts is also attested in numerous ancient sources, but «χεράδει» also circulated in antiquity as a varia lectio. The ancient criticism on the Pindaric verse is then examined, taking into consideration the possible reading of Aristarchus of Samothrace (fr. 55 Schironi) and the text of P.Oxy. 5039, which probably had χεράδι.
Authors:Erika Gál, László Daróczi-Szabó and Márta Daróczi-Szabó
This paper presents results on three medieval avian bone assemblages found at Debrecen-Monostor-erdő and Debrecen-Tócó-part. respectively. Domestic chicken yielded most of the bird remains to evidence the exploitation of adult birds for egg production and flock maintenance in particular. In addition. feather harvesting and fat production could have been the target of goose (and possibly duck) husbandry. Although the goose bone sizes resemble the greylag goose. the keeping of an unimproved form of domestic goose rather than the hunting of the wild ancestor is suggested by the structure of the assemblage and the presence of healed bones. Wild birds seem to have been rarely consumed by the settlers of the two villages. but the feathers or wings or carcasses of diurnal birds of prey and crows may have been used for special purposes. Either killed for their symbolic meaning or only persecuted for protecting the backyard animals. the red kite (Milvus milvus) and the hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) represent new species for the medieval avifauna of Hungary. similarly to the Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) and the Northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) that could have been hunted in the marshy environment provided by the Tócó creek. Moreover. the use of trained saker falcon (Falco cherrug) for hawking cannot be excluded either. In addition to the exploitation of birds for the abovementioned goods and values. two needle cases made from goose bones evidence the utilization of their skeletal parts as raw material for producing artefacts as well.
In his paper the author deals with a lost late Roman funerary text, Constantius’ epitaph. Based on the manuscript tradition, the epitaph was probably erected in Rome or more rather at Ravenna. Constantius was an important military commander of Western Rome in the 5th century and he had an important role in the fifth century history of Roman Pannonia as he fought against the Barbarians, most probably the Huns who settled down in Pannonia. The earlier identifications must be rejected but his person – unfortunately – cannot be identified with Flavius Constantius Felix. On the other hand, the events (fights against the Huns and the sea-going Vandals) mentioned in the funerary epigram fit perfectly into the period at the beginning of Valentinian III’s reign.
Explicitation, or sometimes increased “explicitness” has attracted considerable attention within translation studies in past decades. The present study employs lexical bundles (LBs) automatically retrieved from a consecutive interpreting corpus to demonstrate the complexity involved in determining the causal factors that may account for this phenomenon. The analysis of the ST‒TT descriptive data demonstrates three regular patterns involved in LB introduction into and recurrence in the interpreted texts, namely, simple addition, repetitive addition and quasi-repetitive addition. By considering the additions of LBs in context, we may illustrate the complexity of possible causation involved.
This paper presents a critical edition of Mordecai Qazaz's poem Adam oglu 'Man's son' written in Crimean Karaim probably at the end of the 18th century. It was published in 1841 under another title by Jacob Firkovich who did not provide the name of its author. This publication has not yet been examined. It is only now that we can identify it with Adam oglu. In the present edition, the text is edited on the basis of four manuscripts and the printed edition. Attempt was made to established the basic form of the poem and discuss language features.
Authors:Beáta Tugya, Katalin Náfrádi, Sándor Gulyás, Tünde Törőcsik, Balázs Pál Sümegi, Péter Pomázi and Pál Sümegi
We present the results of the environmental historical and geoarchaeological analysis of Rákóczifalva-Bagi- földek and Rákóczifalva-Rokkant-földek archeological sites in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. They were discovered in the course of several hectares of archaeological excavations related to the Roman Age and Migration Period, especially the Sarmatian and the Gepids era. A significant number of Gepids sites and finds were found in both the investigated areas and the wider area of the site, in the middle reach of the Tisza valley. So the geoarchaeological and environmental historical analysis of the Sarmatian and Late-Sarmatian and Gepids sites in Rákóczifalva can also provide a model for the settling strategy and lifestyle of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities. The purpose of our work is to present how geoarchaeological and environmental historical factors impacted local settling and lifestyles in the Gepids communities and Sarmatian-Late Sarmatian communities as well during the Roman Age and the Migration Period. In addition, to demonstrate the relationship of the Sarmatian and Gepids communities and their environment in the Rákóczifalva site compared to other Gepids and Sarmatian and Late Sarmatian communities in the Great Hungarian Plain.
Based on the number of objects containing animal bones and the amount of bones found in them, we can reconstruct considerable settling in the Celtic, Sarmatian, Gepids, Avar and Arpadian periods. The number of objects from the Linear Pottery culture (Great Hungarian Plain) and the Bodrogkeresztúr culture is high; however, the number of animal bones is low. On the basis of the bones discovered, we can count on a smaller settlement during the Tiszapolgár culture, the Hunyadihalom group, the Halomíros culture, the Gava culture and during the Scythians period.
In this paper, we present the results of the Sarmatian, Late Sarmatian and the Gepid findings since the largest number of animal bones (except the Avar period) turned up from these periods. Our aim was to compare the animal husbandry, meat consumption and hunting habits of the Oriental origin Sarmatians and the Germanic Gepids communities. Bone artefacts and bone anvils have been found in the archaeological material of both ethnic groups.
In compliance with Translator Studies and its accompanying sociological turn the translator’s work-related happiness is beginning to attract the attention of scholars after having been largely sidestepped in empirical translation studies (TS) research. Although it could be objected that the issue of happiness offers ground only for speculative philosophy, it became a subject of research in the humanities and more recently also in TS. As much as culture dictates that literary translation is an elegant avocation, the harsh reality in Slovakia is that it can be considered as a form of activism in the context of being scandalously underpaid when compared to other translation segments. This paper aims to determine the perception of work-related happiness in Slovak literary translators based on Veenhoven’s (2015) concept of happiness and seeks the greatest sources of their satisfaction at work. The second part of the paper attempts to identify the literary translators’ affective feelings, using the IWP Affect Questionnaire. The results of this study shed fresh light on the psychological and emotional facets of the literary translator’s persona using a triangulation of insights from psychology, identity studies and TS. A quantitative enquiry into the selected translator habitus offers research stimuli for comparison with other literary translators’ nationalities as well as other translation segments.
A görög jogon alapuló hellenisztikus Egyiptom szerződési gyakorlatában a halasztott adásvételi szerződések egy sajátos konstrukciójaként emlegetik az ún. fi ktív kölcsönszerződéseket. Amíg a római jog jól ismertún. konszenzuálszerződéseiről, ekként az adásvételről (emptio venditio), ahol a halasztott adásvételi konstrukciók is peresíthetőek, addig a görög jog mindvégig megmaradt a készvételnél, és ehhez képest csak pótlólagos megoldásokat alkalmazott. Ezen megoldások egyikét jelentették az ún. fi ktív kölcsönszerződések (συγγραϕὴ δανείου), amelyeknél – miként Fritz Pringsheim hangsúlyozza – amennyiben az eladó meghitelezte a vevőnek a vételárat, és az adásvételt kölcsönnek „álcázta”, a vétel alapján nem, de a kölcsön alapján perelhet. Több dokumentum is fennmaradt, amely ezt a gyakorlatot tanúsítja, ugyanakkor a legújabb papirológiai kutatások eredményeként ezen okiratok közül némelyek felülvizsgálatra szorulnak a tekintetben, hogy milyen szerződést is tartalmaznak.
Several types of mineral beads can be found among the 11th–12th-century grave assemblages of the Carpathian Basin. This paper examines the distribution of fluorite beads representing one type in Central and Eastern Europe. The distribution patterns have enabled the identification of the source of the raw material and they also outline the period’s main trade routes
This paper focuses on the important scholar and antiquarian Giovanni Giocondo from Verona and in particular his two editions of the De architectura of Vitruvius published in 1511 and in 1513. Two illustrations of this friar are related to the two Vitruvian passages concerning the female architectural supports called Caryatids and the Tower of the Winds at Athens. A careful study of these two drawings leads to the conclusion that they cannot depend only on the Vitruvian text, but also on visual sources. These sources of inspiration are identified respectively with the so-called Lodge of the Caryatids of the Erechtheum at Athens and with the same Tower of the Winds. Probably Friar Giocondo got information and perhaps drawings of these two monuments in 1506 when he traveled in the Saronic Gulf. Thus Giocondo’s drawing of the Caryatids probably reveals that the wrong interpretation of the Korai of the Erechtheum as Vitruvian Caryatids already existed in the early 16th century.
Hypereidés Euxenippos mellett Polyeuktosszal szemben hazaárulás ügyében elmondott védőbeszédét az első kiadó, Churchill Babington Kr. e. 334-re keltezte. Domenico Comparetti azonban hamarosan Kr. e. 330 és 324 közé szorította a keletkezés lehetséges dátumát. Érvelése szerint a szónok csak úgy idézhette Olympiasnak, Alexandros anyjának az athéni néphez írt leveléből a „Molossia az enyém” kifejezést, ha Olympias már valóban a terület ura volt, tehát Kr. e. 331, azaz fi vére halála után. A keltezést jó másfél évszázada tényként kezelik, olyannyira, hogy a kiadók több szövegjavítást és értelmezési alternatívát is ehhez az elképzeléshez igazítottak. A tanulmány amellett érvel, hogy a hagyományozott, jól értelmezhető szövegnek megfelelően a beszédet Kr. e. 334/333-ra kell datálni, javításokra nincs szükség, Churchill Babingtonnak igaza volt.
This study compares the songs from the original, English-language version of the 2013 Disney film Frozen to those of the Dutch dubbed version, investigating how the thematic representation of love and fear differ between these versions. To support this inherently qualitative analysis, this study employs the triangle of aspects, an analytical model that identifies certain aspects and variables central to animated musical film dubbing, allowing a quantification of differences between dubbed versions. It is found that the dubbed songs differ most strongly from the original songs in the verbal code, which covers issues such as semantic sense and register, and least in the musical code, which concerns matters of rhyme scheme, rhythm, and singability. The effects of the changes are a slight backgrounding of the theme of love versus fear: whereas the source version presents and explores a clear dichotomy between love and fear, the dubbed version concentrates more on love as the ultimate goal of life, eliminating much of the importance of fear. These results show that quantitative data can be useful in qualitative analyses, presenting an important step in the development of the field of animated musical film dubbing within translation studies.
Jelen tanulmányban Michaél Kritobulos jellemábrázolási módszereit elemzem. Azt vizsgálom, hogy a bizánci történetíró munkájában található jellemleírások milyen kapcsolatban, illetve kölcsönhatásban vannak a szöveg stílusával és bizonyos szerkezeti sajátosságaival, valamint hogy a szerző honnan merített szereplői jellemének megrajzolásánál. A dolgozatban választ keresek arra a kérdésre is, hogy milyen célt szolgáltak a történeti szereplők jellemábrázolásaiban előforduló nyelvi formulák.
This paper argues that until 1680s, the Oirat political culture in the upper Irtysh area was based on the leadership of Khoshut clan rather than Jungars, as it is believed nowadays. Ablai Taiji of the Khoshut nobility, the founder of the Buddhist monastery Ablai-kit, inherited and pursued a policy of cooperation with Muscovy in an attempt to profit from its trade with China. Over the course of 1670s, under pressure from his brother, Ablai lost his domains and was defeated by his enemies. To construct this narrative, this paper engages in critical analysis of diverse archival sources and existing historiography.
Pottery at the late Roman fort of Visegrád-Gizellamajor contains both forms common in the 4th century as well as new ones, which appear at the turn of the 4th and 5th centuries. On traditional Roman household pottery and glazed vessels new surface ornaments (incised and notched) and new designs (fired yellowish-white, very gritty fabric) appear. Additionally, there are vessels with smoothed and smoothed-in ornaments. Although the excavators distinguished various layers in the fort, pottery from the layers often fit together. What survived to the greatest extent were the materials from the upper destruction debris. Room III of the north wing was a later addition to the fort; hence its pottery can be dated from the Valentinian period until the Hun period.
Authors:Pier Marco Bertinetto, Chiara Finocchiaro and Clara Rastelli
It is generally assumed that, within an inflectional paradigm, some forms are cognitively more salient than others. Although this effect is the result of various concomitant factors to which all forms of the given paradigm concur, the existence of salient forms is crucial to assist the speaker in predicting the remaining forms of the paradigm. The notion of ‘salient form(s)’ was implicit in the so-called Kennform(en) proposed by Wolfgang Ullrich Wurzel as inflectional class marker(s). A possible candidate to salience is the so-called citation-form, i.e. the form by means of which lexemes are referred to in a dictionary, but this should be checked on a language-by-language basis. The present paper addresses the task of defining the most salient form(s) within the Italian verb paradigm. By means of three lexical decision experiments, the performance on the Infinitive (the citation-form) was compared with the performance on its most likely competitors, i.e. the Present Indicative 3SG, which is the most frequent form of most verbs, and the Present Indicative 1SG, which is selected as citation-form in some lexicographic traditions. The results indicate that the Infinitive and the Present Indicative 3SG prevail over the Present Indicative 1SG – as well as on various other forms used as controls and fillers in the experiments – but do not differ from each other. This offers an interesting insight into the organization of a complex verb paradigm, such as the Italian one. In particular, it shows that salience depends on the interaction of various morphological and psycholinguistic factors, whose relative weight is a function of the specific language considered.
Finnish wh-movement exhibits internal roll-up movement with pied-piping and is therefore overtly successive-cyclic. On the other hand, its morphosyntax is nonlocal, suggesting countercyclic behavior. The existence of overtly cyclic computations and nonlocal agreement penetrating nearly every cyclic domain constitutes a near contradiction in this language. A solution is proposed which partially resurrects the notion of d-structure: grammatical operations are cyclic and operate in small phases (as indicated by Finnish successive cyclic wh-movement), but some operations, Agree in particular, access leftover copies of elements in situ and are not restricted by the phase impenetrability condition (PIC). PIC restricts operator/A-bar movement, not morphosyntax.
The goal of this study is to propose an Optimality-Theoretic (OT) account of the assimilation that arises from adjacency between root and pattern consonants in the two verbal patterns “ɪn-a-a-” and “ɪ-ta-a” in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). As for the pattern of “ɪn-a-a-”, ranking syntagmatic constraints higher than the faithfulness constraint of the root explains why the nasal /n/ agrees with the first radical in place features. In the second pattern (“ɪ-ta-a-”), ranking syntagmatic constraints higher than the faithfulness constraints correctly predicts the change of the pattern affix /t/ to [d] provided that it follows a voiced coronal consonant. This ranking also successfully explains why /t/ becomes emphatic (i.e., [tˤ]) when it occurs after an emphatic radical. Some constraints are posited in order to account for the change of pattern /t/ into /w/ when the latter comes after the vowel /ɪ/.
The article examines the history of the trade in Polish slaves and captives in the Tatar and Ottoman Crimea in the seventeenth century on the basis of hitherto unknown archival evidence and rare printed sources. After the capture an average Polish slave of simple origin was transported to the Crimea, where he had been sold on the local slave markets. Unless he had some special qualifications, a slave usually had to fulfil agricultural duties and do heavy manual work. The slaves usually had some limited free time and could attend Catholic services in the churches of the Crimea's large urban centres. Rich Polish captives were treated in accordance with their high social status and were ransomed for a considerable redemption fee. Important role in ransoming such rich captives was played by Jewish, Tatar and Armenian merchants.
This paper describes the distinctive features of cultural back-translation. This term is employed here to refer to the translation of source texts into a target language from which most or all of the culture-specific elements of the source text were drawn. It makes an attempt to provide a systematic analysis of the distinctive features of this type of translation with special reference to the concepts of domestication and foreignization. The findings show that cultural back-translation is necessarily domesticating, or more precisely, re-domesticating. Re-domestication has several types: re-domestication proper, repatriation and additional domestication. Domesticating and foreignizing strategies work out differently in cultural back-translation: domestication does not mean adjustment to a different culture but restoring the original cultural context. In re-domestication the distribution of translation strategies used is different from those used in domestication and the purpose and effects of various strategies are different. The whole process from text composition to back-translation may be described as a process of double domestication. It is claimed that while domestication in general reduces readers’ processing effort by sacrificing some contextual effects, redomestication reduces processing effort and at the same time may increase contextual effects. It is concluded that the study of cultural back-translation is worthy of more serious attention and further lines of inquiry are suggested.
In this paper, the author publishes a Roman funerary stela from Bölcske found in 2015. Only two highly fragmentary rows have survived of its inscription. The execution of the stela (proportions, arrangement, the framing of fields) and the rider scene of the relief field provide more information than the incomplete funerary inscription: based on three analogous tombstones belonging to soldiers of the ala Frontoniana, one may assume that the person mentioned on the Bölcske gravestone had also served in this unit. Unit history, style analysis arguments and palaeographical reasons all point toward the dating of the monument to the early reign of Emperor Trajan.
Authors:Elek Benkő, Pál Sümegi, Tünde Törőcsik, Elvira Bodor, Balázs Sümegi and Gusztáv Jakab
The study aims to contribute to the medieval environmental history of the eastern periphery of the Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség). With the help of archaeological and historical data and the multi-aspect analysis of undisturbed core sequences, the economic life of the Pauline Monastery founded in the 14th century near Sâncraiu de Mureş (Marosszentkirály) and the surrounding villages was investigated. The multidisciplinary research focuses on the paleochannels of the Mureş and the artificial watercourses (ditches) that branch off the river, and the mills built on them. The work also provides new data on the general environmental changes in the middle course of the Mureş river during the Middle Ages and the early modern period, which are largely due to the very intense human activity here.
Chinese sources document foreign names with phonetic transcriptions and render them in Chinese characters with close, or at least approximate, sound value. Among the Sogdians who were active at the Chinese court of the 6th century there were two persons named He Zhuruo and An Weiruo respectively. The etymology of both names can now be tentatively identified with Maniach, the name which was recorded in a Byzantine source, being that of a Sogdian envoy to Constantinople. Hence the original written form of Zhuruo and Weiruo can be restored with the spelling Moruo. The reason for these misspellings goes back to the graphic similarity of the concerned characters. Some further emendations of similar kinds are also proposed.
This paper deals with the syntax of the direct speech particle in Hittite, particularly its inconsistent use within direct speech. It is suggested that a syntactic account of what appears at first sight as an entirely chaotic distribution is possible.
A tanulmány egy ókori eredetű görög–latin szótár, az ún. Pseudo-Kyrillos egyik XV. századi példányát elemzi, melyet a Cambridge University Libraryben őriznek Kk. v. 12 jelzettel. A cikk szövegkritikai eszközökkelkel igyekszik elhelyezni a befejezetlenül maradt példányt a szöveghagyományban, és feltárni a szótár keletkezésének körülményeit, időpontját és helyét.
This paper focuses on Diplomatic Interpreting (DI), a speciality often included either in the conference or dialogue interpreting branch, depending on geographic and modal variables. Historically, diplomatic interpreters resorted to bilateral interpreting or mediation, but in the modern day, they oscillate between short and full consecutive, and on occasion simultaneous (presidential press conferences). This diffuse affiliation and the relatively small job market niche – hence its absence from degree syllabi – might be two of the motives why DI has not captured more attention from scholars. One interesting avenue for researchers might be the identification and classification of those aspects DI has in common with other types of interpreting, and what makes it different. In my discussion, I recapitulate DI specificities, encompassing requirements, expectations and devices, among which optimisation (as a strategy to overcome barriers and ensure full communication) is pivotal. As an illustration, I analyse an example of optimisation in the case of Romanian PM Viorica Dăncilă’s political blunder on her first visit to Montenegro. Finally, I advocate the recognition of the specificity of DI and I call for focussed research in this area.
The author discusses some questions on the transformation of Roman identity in the south-eastern Alps and the neighbouring regions, which in late Antiquity represented an area of constant transition. How people dealt with quickly changing powers is an important point of view in the identity discourse, not so much the identity of an individual, but of a population. In the discussed territory it seems Roman identity, such as it was, gradually became something we read as mostly Mediterranean and Christian. It probably goes beyond the kingdoms that followed Rome and most probably even beyond strict ‘Roman-ness’.
Business advertisements are multimodal consumer-oriented texts with persuasive functions. Advertisers create specific advertisements for marketing products/services in specific contexts. The headline in an advertisement is the main element as it attracts attention and summarizes the advertising message. Advertising relies on socio-cultural implications through visual and non-visual elements. When products/services are marketed in a new context with a different language, their advertisements are translated into that language. Because languages have different ways of encoding information, the success of a product/ service in a culturally different context depends on how its advertisement is translated. The structural and cultural differences between English and Arabic and the functional nature of headlines in English business advertisements seem to have direct bearing on how advertising headlines are rendered into Arabic. This study investigates the translation of advertising headlines from English into Arabic in the context of marketing products/services in UAE. The aim is to identify the techniques used in translating headlines and their implications for translation quality and to identify views of Arab customers over the acceptability of Arabic versions of advertising headlines. The study findings indicate that seven translation techniques are used and customers consider Arabic advertisements produced via function-oriented translation techniques more acceptable than translations produced via form-based techniques.
This contribution presents the concept of 'seven heavens' as preserved by eight manuscripts of Muhammad ibn 'Abdallah al-Kisâ'ï's collections of Islamic religious tales Kitab A’ğāi’b al-MalakUt and Qisas al-Anbiyā It focuses on and compares the contents and composition of the chapter devoted to the topic and analyses the variations in the mss., which shed light on the way the tales are transmitted. Some of them represent variability in the original information, whereas others (including significant semantic shifts) may easily have emerged as a result of even minor scribal lapses.
Unlike his Ottoman contemporaries, Yavuz Sultan Selïm composed his poems almost exclusively in Persian. A great part of his poetic output consists of poetic replies inspired by the classics of the Persian poetic canon as it was perceived by Ottomans. Through an in depth analysis of four imitation poems inspired by four ghazals by Häfiẓ the present paper aims at highlighting the poetic strategies Selïm used when he composed poetic imitations.
This paper proposes a novel representation of branching onsets within the framework of Government Phonology 2. They are argued to be complex onset phrases, where the second member is directly embedded within the first and controls its head. The system predicts that for fricatives, the ability to become the first member of a branching onset depends on their place of articulation. In particular, [s]-like fricatives (S) are predicted to lack this ability, thereby explaining Kaye’s (1992) empirical generalization that SC clusters are never branching onsets.
I argue that English has no voicing assimilation, in fact, it does not have phonologically voiced segments at all. Voicing in English is spontaneous in sonorants, while obstruents may be phonetically voiced only if lenis and surrounded by spontaneously or passively voiced sounds. The paper claims that most obstruent clusters of English are traditionally misanalysed as fortis+fortis clusters. These clusters are all either fortis+lenis or lenis+fortis; in fact, fortis+fortis clusters are completely ruled out in English.
Authors:Quentin Dabouis, Guillaume Enguehard, Jean-Michel Fournier and Nicola Lampitelli
This paper deals with English vowel reduction and focuses on what is generally referred to as the Arab Rule (Ross 1972 i.a.). Vowels tend to reduce if the preceding syllable is light, whereas they do not reduce if the preceding syllable is heavy. Our purpose is twofold: first, based on the scrutiny of Wells (2008), we evaluate the efficiency of the Arab Rule and show that is empirically verified. Second, we propose an analysis of blocking contexts couched within CVCV phonology (Lowenstamm 1996). We use two central notions such as Government and Licensing, and show that vowel reduction only applies to “governing-and-governable” vowels.
This paper provides a complete, exclusively phonological account of the alternations in the paradigms of the two largest verbal types in the Ethio-Semitic language Tigre. It is proposed that “weakfinal” verbs are constructed using the same templates and vocalizations as “strong” verbs. All of the differences between the two inflectional paradigms follow from weak-final verbs involving a vowel /e/ where strong verbs position a consonant. The analysis, conducted with the tools of Strict CV Phonology and Element Theory, is the first of its kind for Tigre.
In the present paper, one chapter of the Jangar epic, chanted by the famous storyteller, khuurch Rinchin of Inner-Mongolian Baarin origin, is discussed from two main points of view: (1) the spread of Jangar among Mongols not belonging to Oirats and Kalmyks, and (2) how contemporary social circumstances transform the traditional heroic epic into another folkloric genre, i.e. the so-called khuuriin ülger. The chapter ‘Minggan, the Beauty of the World’ told by khuurch Rinchin—discussed here—is well known from other Jangar publications like the ‘Mingyan the Beauty of the World’ (published in the Thirteen Chapters Jangar/Jinggar: Takil ǰula qaγan-u üledel Tangsuγ bumba qaγan-u ači Üǰüng aldar qaγan-u köbegün üye-in önöčin Jingγar-un tuγuǰi arban γurban bölög). The life story of Rinchin and his creative innovation in traditional folklore genres are typical phenomena of the contemporary transitional period in preserving and sustaining folklore genres and performance.
In the fourth part of this series of papers the authors investigate the way how the Khitan Small Script rendered the dental stops in initial position. They conclude that the main opposition was between the postaspirated and not postaspirated dental stops.
By comparing different theoretical models of phonological representation, this paper considers (i) what kinds of properties are lexically specified in morpheme-internal phonological structure, and (ii) how this morpheme-internal phonological structure is constructed before being stored in the mental lexicon. The aim is to contribute to the ongoing development of a model which can characterize the lexicalisation of phonological structure within morphemes.