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Ildikó Enyedi: Testről és lélekről

Skizze zu einer semiotischen Analyse eines Films zwischen Romantik, Strukturalismus und Psychoanalyse

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Wolfgang Müller-Funk

Abstract

This article is about Ildiko Enyedi's film “Testről és lélekről”. It proposes a semiotic analyse. Its thematic frame is a theory of the fantastic literature and film and refers to Tzvetan Todorov (part 1). Following Roand Barthes “S/Z” it discusses the codes in the film, the sequences and spaces in the film (part 2). In the next part the composition of the film comes into play (e. g. repetition, analogy). The fourth part is dedicated to the uncanny and fantastic element that are created by a lack of knowledge about the world in the and the figures of the movy. The article refers to Freud's “Traumdeutung”. Part 5 analyses the funktion of silence in the film on several levels (level of narrating, communication of the figures in the film). The film is seen in a post-romantic tradition which is in-written in “classical modernism”.

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In this paper, we argue that the very convincing performance of recent deep-neural-model-based NLP applications has demonstrated that the distributionalist approach to language description has proven to be more successful than the earlier subtle rule-based models created by the generative school. The now ubiquitous neural models can naturally handle ambiguity and achieve human-like linguistic performance with most of their training consisting only of noisy raw linguistic data without any multimodal grounding or external supervision refuting Chomsky's argument that some generic neural architecture cannot arrive at the linguistic performance exhibited by humans given the limited input available to children. In addition, we demonstrate in experiments with Hungarian as the target language that the shared internal representations in multilingually trained versions of these models make them able to transfer specific linguistic skills, including structured annotation skills, from one language to another remarkably efficiently.

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Abstract

Although the name of Ferenc Hunyadi is known in Hungarian literary history mainly for his Hungarian-language historical song about the peril of Troy, there also exist more than five thousand lines of Latin poetry by him which have not been collected or published since the 16th century. Another eleven of his poems are known from a manuscript written by a Unitarian pastor in the early 17th century. A further, one-distich poem was recorded by István Szamosközy. The date of composition of his poems in manuscript can be placed roughly between the end of 1586 and 1599. In addition to these, there is also a manuscript kept in Oxford in which Hunyadi gives prescriptions for febrile diseases. As a starting point for further research, this paper summarises what is currently known about Hunyadi and his works.

Open access

Abstract

Hungarian has a prolific system of complex predicate formation combining a separable preverb and a verb. These combinations can enter a wide range of constructions, with the preverb preserving its separability to some extent, depending on the construction in question. The primary concern of this paper is to advance the investigation of these phenomena by presenting PrevDistro (Preverb Distributions), an open-access dataset containing more than 41.5 million corpus occurrences of 49 preverb construction types. The paper gives a detailed introduction to PrevDistro, including design considerations, methodology and the resulting dataset's main characteristics.

Open access

Abstract

Nowadays, it is quite common in linguistics to base research on data instead of introspection. There are countless corpora – both raw and linguistically annotated – available to us which provide essential data needed. Corpora are large in most cases, ranging from several million words to some billion words in size, clearly not suitable to investigate word by word by close reading. Basically, there are two ways to retrieve data from them: (1) through a query interface or (2) directly by automatic text processing. Here we present principles on how to soundly and effectively collect linguistic data from corpora by querying i.e. without knowledge of programming to directly manipulate the data. What is worth thinking about, which tools to use, what to do by default and how to solve problematic cases. In sum, how to obtain correct and complete data from corpora to do linguistic research.

Open access

Abstract

The Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC, proposed by Levesque, Davis & Morgenstern 2012) is considered to be the novel Turing Test to examine machine intelligence. Winograd schema questions require the resolution of anaphora with the help of world knowledge and commonsense reasoning. Anaphora resolution is itself an important and difficult issue in natural language processing, therefore, many other datasets have been created to address this issue. In this paper we look into the Winograd schemata and other Winograd-like datasets and the translations of the schemata to other languages, such as Chinese, French and Portuguese. We present the Hungarian translation of the original Winograd schemata and a parallel corpus of all the translations of the schemata currently available. We also adapted some other anaphora resolution datasets to Hungarian. We aim to discuss the challenges we faced during the translation/adaption process.

Open access

Abstract

Recognition of Hungarian conversational telephone speech is challenging due to the informal style and morphological richness of the language. Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) can provide remedy for the high perplexity of the task; however, their high complexity makes them very difficult to apply in the first (single) pass of an online system. Recent studies showed that a considerable part of the knowledge of NNLMs can be transferred to traditional n-grams by using neural text generation based data augmentation. Data augmentation with NNLMs works well for isolating languages; however, we show that it causes a vocabulary explosion in a morphologically rich language. Therefore, we propose a new, morphology aware neural text augmentation method, where we retokenize the generated text into statistically derived subwords. We compare the performance of word-based and subword-based data augmentation techniques with recurrent and Transformer language models and show that subword-based methods can significantly improve the Word Error Rate (WER) while greatly reducing vocabulary size and memory requirements. Combining subword-based modeling and neural language model-based data augmentation, we were able to achieve 11% relative WER reduction and preserve real-time operation of our conversational telephone speech recognition system. Finally, we also demonstrate that subword-based neural text augmentation outperforms the word-based approach not only in terms of overall WER but also in recognition of Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV) words.

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Abstract

This paper investigates the underlying structure of exceptive constructions with the Arabic exceptive marker ’illā and reveals the existence of two types of constructions: r(estrictive)-exceptives and s(ubtractive)-exceptives. The underlying factor that distinguishes these two constructions relates to the existence of a subtraction domain in s-exceptive constructions and its absence in r-exceptives. This distinction suggests that the exceptive marker ’illā ‘except' has a different syntactic function in these two constructions. Furthermore, this difference in the functional status of ’illā suggests a different internal and external structure of the ’illā-XP in each of these constructions. I argue that while the ’illā-XP in r-exceptive constructions projects a R-ExP, involving a covert antecedent in the form of the NPIs ’aḥad ‘one' or shay’ ‘thing’ and is a nominal adjunct, in s-exceptive constructions the ’illā-XP forms an S-ExP and can be classified into connected and free exceptives.

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This paper develops a syntax-pragmatics interface analysis of imperative clauses overtly marked by two grammatical categories of qing ‘please’ in Mandarin and refines the division of labor among directive force, clause typing and deontic modality jointly computing the interpretative properties of qing imperatives. We present a cluster of properties to differentiate between the two categories of qing and observe that qing 1 denotes obligation imposed on the addressee by the speaker, while qing 2 denotes permission with which the addressee is allowed to perform an action or make true a state of affairs according to a set of norms. It is argued that qing 1 is an imperative mood head, while qing 2 is an imperative adverb, but both are endowed with a similar internal composition and extent of the phrasal hierarchies of the CP periphery, and their disparate imperative properties can be ascribed to the addressee-oriented and subject-oriented deontic modality (Tsai & Portner 2008). Following Haegeman & Hill's (2013) version of the Speech Act Phrase, we claim that a speech act layer externally merges to the topmost position of ForceP to drive the syntax-pragmatics interface computation of the speaker-addressee relation and to mediate the imperative mood and clause typing represented in the CP layer.

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ABSTRACT

A debate has emerged on whether the fifth-century Huns evolved into foot soldiers or remained the same horse archers of the steppes as they had been in the fourth century. So far, the debate has focused on ecological and literary evidence. This paper approaches the argument from an angle neither side has considered: the distances Attila travelled. By examining how far the Huns covered on their longest raid and adducing comparative evidence of pre-modern armies on the march, this paper argues that Attila's Huns remained horse warriors.

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Abstract

This investigation explored the effects of time duration and bilingualism/trilingualism on speakers' language production. A word-naming task was conducted under three conditions—700 ms, 1,000 ms, and unlimited time. The results showed that the participants incurred fewer errors and successfully corrected errors at 1,000 ms and unlimited time; the bilingual/trilingual advantage was identified in error self-repairs at 1,000 ms; and trilinguals were more strategic in correcting errors than monolinguals and bilinguals. This suggests that unlimited time did not ensure higher accuracy in lexical production and efficient error correction, and that 1,000 ms was the optimal timeframe for processing single monosyllabic Chinese characters.

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The Ovidian story of Baucis and Philemon can be divided into shorter sections based on the structure of the narrative, and several parallelisms and analogies can be perceived between these sections. In one section the number of vegetables and other edibles corresponds with the number of the edibles in the other, as well as with the arrangement of divine names in the text creating a palistrophe, thus showing the individual parts of the whole strory. The aim of this article is to present the Ovidian structure of the narrative of the story and make possible emendations of the widely accepted text utilising the most important medieval codices and this supposed structural framework.

Open access

Abstract

This study consists of a correlational and regression analysis of certain factors involved in the practice of translator training, as perceived by translator trainees. More precisely, our aim is to examine the relationships between translator trainees' strategic competence (as the dependent variable), and autonomy support, amotivation and critical thinking (as the independent variables) in the translation classroom. Building upon recent advances in educational and social psychology, we have relied on Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2011) as an interpretative frame of reference. After revising the concept of translators' strategic competence, the main contributions in the field of translators' motivation are also reviewed and the notions of autonomy support and critical thinking are approached from the perspective of both psychology and translatology. Our findings seem to point to the fact that autonomy support and critical thinking can play a facilitating role in the development of strategic competence in undergraduate translator students, who may also benefit from both when they encounter new challenges in real professional settings. Finally, the implications for translator training are discussed.

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Abstract

Earlier studies have corroborated that human translation exhibits unique linguistic features, usually referred to as translationese. However, research on machine translationese, in spite of some sparse efforts, is still in its infancy. By comparing machine translation with human translation and original target language texts, this study aims to investigate if machine translation has unique linguistic features of its own too, to what extent machine translations are different from human translations and target-language originals, and what characteristics are typical of machine translations. To this end, we collected a corpus containing English translations of modern Chinese literary texts produced by neural machine translation systems and human professional translators and comparable original texts in the target language. Based on the corpus, a quantitative study of discourse coherence was conducted by observing metrics in three dimensions borrowed from Coh-Metrix, including connectives, latent semantic analysis and the situation/mental model. The results support the existence of translationese in both human and machine translations when they are compared with original texts. However, machine translationese is not the same as human translationese in some metrics of discourse coherence. Additionally, machine translation systems, such as Google and DeepL, when compared with each other, show unique features in some coherence metrics, although on the whole they are not significantly different from each other in those coherence metrics.

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Co-location is a crucial precondition for simultaneous interpreters' teamwork. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to secure amid the COVID-19 pandemic, as conference interpreters across the world are forced to embrace distance interpreting due to anti-covid public health measures. This article aims to examine how the disruption to co-location during the pandemic has changed interpreters' teamwork. Drawing on the analytic framework of Pre-process, Peri-process, In-process, and Post-process proposed by Sylvia Kalina (2002), the study explores changing reality in China by combining micro- and macro analysis in a case study involving 136 conference interpreters in the country. Results show that the pandemic has unleashed unprecedented disruption to interpreters' teamwork in spite of their proactive efforts to maintain it. More specifically, a new teamwork pattern featuring major shifts in collaboration themes, division of roles, and fewer benefits is emerging. Findings from the research may shed light on changing realities not only in China, but possibly in the wider world. Practical suggestions and future research needs are also identified.

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Abstract

Interpreting is a highly stressful activity and interpreters are accordingly expected to be stress-resistant. The stress-coping trait of personality hardiness predicts attainments in domains of the military, sport and so on. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, the present study was an attempt to explore whether personality hardiness facilitates interpreting performance in a sample of Chinese postgraduate student interpreters (n = 149) as it does in the aforementioned high-stress contexts. Based on the Hardiness Model, this study positioned interpreting anxiety as a mediator. Analysis of quantitative data suggested that personality hardiness not only correlated to but also predicted interpreting performance. Meanwhile, interpreting anxiety played a mediating effect on the link between personality hardiness and interpreting performance. Follow-up semi-structured interviews provided additional information regarding interviewees' perceptions and behavior during stressful interpreting situations, helping to explain and expand upon the initial quantitative results. Implications of the findings were also discussed.

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Abstract

This paper explores relationships between consecutive interpreting (CI) performance on the one hand, and interpreters' note-taking effort, note-taking product and note-reading effort, on the other hand. 20 professionals and 29 students consecutively interpreted two easy segments and two difficult segments in an English (L2) speech, with their eye fixations on the notes and handwriting on the digital pad being registered through eye-tracking and pen-recording methods. Both groups' CI performance showed positive but weak correlations with their note quantities in the easy segments, but not in the difficult ones. Almost no significant correlations were found between the students' interpretation quality and effort of note-taking, whereas the professionals' CI performance was negatively correlated with their cognitive effort of note-taking. Significant but weak correlations were observed in both groups between their note-reading effort and interpreting performance, but the students' correlations were mainly found in the difficult segments, and the professionals' correlations were mostly detected in the easy ones. Overall, the interpreters' note-taking behaviour was not closely associated with their interpretation quality, and the associations varied across interpreter groups and task difficulties. These findings suggest that note-taking should be taught more judiciously in interpreter training programs and applied more prudently in interpreting practice.

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Abstract

The primary aim of the article is to present a different approach in the critic of sources concerning the reconstruction of „late Hunnic” and „early Bulgaric” period of steppe history. In the last half century it became a main narrative in research, that the Bulgars, appearing around the 480's on the Balkan Peninsula, are identical with those Oguric tribes (Saragur, Ogur, Onogur), that – according to Priscus rhetor – arrived to the eastern part of the European steppe circa 463. Also it is assumed by certain authors, that in the years following the battle at Nedao river (455) the Hunnic tribes, overrun by the newcomers, fled behind the Moesian borders of the East-Roman empire and lost all the continuity of their political and ethnic existense. Analyzing however the sources providing information on this period – Jordanes' Getica, the works of Cassiodorus, Ennodius, Malalas, Procopius and others –, we can let ourselves to assume differently. Although in this article I do not deal with the questions related to early Hungarian history, it is clear enough, how important the above mentioned problem is in view of these questions as well.

Open access

ABSTRACT

The present article offers some reflections on Werner Eck's translation and interpretation of chapter 11 of the lex Troesmensium regulating the municipal embassies: (1) not the future, but the former magistrates were forbidden to be ambassadors; (2) not the ordo decurionum, but the duumvir sent the ambassadors – according to the decision of the decurions, of course; and (3) the future ambassador had to be informed not five days after the decision, but five days before the departure.

Open access

Abstract

Canvassing views through a questionnaire-based online survey of 25 lawyers and 85 interpreters working in Australia, the present study investigates the approaches to interactional management employed by both lawyers and interpreters in interpreter-facilitated legal aid interviews. Specifically, the study examines lawyers' and interpreters' efforts at coordination before and during interpreted interviews, as well as interpreters' success in complying with ethical principles, and lawyers' knowledge of how to work with interpreters. The findings show that lawyers had a good understanding of their responsibilities when working with interpreters and played the role of coordinator by actively managing turn-taking and monitoring interpreting quality. Although most of the interpreter respondents performed to the ethical standards expected, some knowingly violated ethical principles by engaging in side conversations with the clients or by summarising rather than interpreting fully. The study further found statistically significant correlations between interpreters' level of professional qualifications and their competence in managing interactions and following ethical principles, which highlights the importance of training and professional accreditation for maintaining professional standards among interpreters.

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Abstract

In the Egyptian–Greek legal practice the “fictitious loan agreements” are known as specific constructions of deferred purchase contracts of the ancient legal practice. While Roman law is well known from its consensual contracts, such as the sales contract (emptio venditio), furthermore it acknowledged constructions of sales contracts with deferred payment as valid sale, Greek law always adhered to the prompt sale and besides this, only additional solutions were applied. One of these solutions was the so-called “fictitious loan agreements” (συγγραφὴ δανείου), where – as Fritz Pringsheim emphasized – if the seller provided the purchase price and “disguised” the sale as a loan, he had no claim on the basis of the sale, but could only sue on the basis of the loan. There remained several documents of this kind, however, in light of recent papyrological research, new evidence suggests a revision on how we are regarding these documents.

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Abstract

The investigation of elite girls' burials in the Italian peninsula is part of a broader doctoral research project that aims to outline the territorial distribution of Early Mediaeval elite women and girls in the Italian peninsula and analyse the strategies of their funerary self-representation in a short but significant period. Altogether 24 elite girls' burials have been identified in Roman-Byzantine and Lombard territories between the second half of the sixth and the end of the seventh centuries AD. Our analysis focuses on the most significant elements: find context, burial topography, the quality of the funerary goods, and funerary construction. In Byzantine territories, elite children were given ad sanctos burial, but with significant differences in purchasing power between the cities and the countryside. The urban elite was willing to spend huge amounts of money for the burial of their girls inside churches, while the same level of wealth has not been detected in the countryside so far. On the other hand, in the Lombard Kingdom and the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, funerals given to elite Lombard girls did not differ from those of older age groups and involved handing over important family brooches between generations. By the mid-seventh century AD, elite girl's burials were frequently near or inside churches and rural oratories, contributing in a significant way to a gradual narrowing of the cultural gap between Lombards and the local population.

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Abstract

The investigation of a 8.1 m long peat sequence from Tăul fără fund (“Bottomless Lake,” Transylvanian Basin, Northern Romania) offers a series representing wetland development since the Middle Holocene. The most striking feature of the sequence is a cca. 900 year-long hiatus caused by peatcutting in the 14th century AD. An artificial reservoir was constructed there in the Late Middle Ages by the excavation of the uppermost peat layer, afflicting a significant environmental impact on this remote location. One of the oldest documented Hungarian settlements from the time of the Hungarian Kingdom (11th century AD, presumably with previous history) in Transylvania was discovered in the vicinity of the former reservoir by an archaeological field survey. By harmonising historical data and the exact chronological sequence of the borehole, the creation of the reservoir was inserted into the local history of the developing mediaeval settlement network at the time when some of the early settlements had been abandoned and a permanent village was established, with a church and upscale landowners, in the area of present-day Băgău in the 13th to 14th century AD. Significant environmental impacts have emerged during this transitional period around the reservoir.

Open access

Abstract

The genesis of Lusatian culture is not sufficiently understood due to the demanding nature of its funeral ideology, which suddenly makes the highest social group invisible in the eyes of archaeologists. The elite proto-Lusatian burial of Nitrica I (Bz C2/D – ca. 1350–1300 BC) points to a persisting warrior-chief component of the Middle Bronze Age origin, which survived here from the previous period and probably contributed to the spread of Lusatian-style pottery. It reveals the diachronic acculturation of ending Tumulus facies, which has retained the habits of depositing votive wealth in graves, while the community of the Urnfield facies have decided (or been forced) to drastically reduce the importance and investment in funeral deposits. Typologically, this is the richest burial of Lusatian cultural zone with a significant continental importance, and offers an excellent case for the integration of multidisciplinary approaches in chronology, sociology, cultural development, and others. Selection of the location of the central burial and its position in the landscape was not accidental, and later began to function as a ritual centre/territorial marker with a high occurrence of metal hoards – which raises several implications in social archaeology and points to a sophisticated spiritual thinking of the Lusatian communities.

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Abstract

Archaeological excavations and inscriptions discovered on site point towards the existence of an Early Imperial Period urban settlement under the area of the present-day village Környe (Komárom-Esztergom County), established in the civitas Azaliorum region, most probably on the territory of the Mogiones tribe. On some of the inscriptions possibly related to the name of the Early Imperial Era settlement, unearthed on site and in the immediate neighbourhood, a striking abbreviation, MOG appears. According to the Inotapuszta (Bakonycsernye) diploma and a Roman urban laterculus, there stood in Pannonia an urban settlement known by the name of Mogionibus as well. The results of the excavations conducted in Környe in the period 1939–2016, local inscriptions and a newly published milestone discovered in Tata (Komárom-Esztergom County) are all witnesses to the existence of a municipium named rather Mogionibus such as Mogionensium on the territory of the present village of Környe. The municipium existed between the reigns of Hadrian and Gallienus. Before 214, it belonged to the urban network of Pannonia Superior, while after 214, to that of Pannonia Inferior.

Open access

Abstract

Discussed here is the presence of a warrior aristocracy in south-western Hungary, principally in County Somogy, during the early (and middle) Urnfield period (Br D–Ha A1-A2) based on the archaeological record. The period's offensive and protective weapons wielded by the warrior aristocracy during the Urnfield period (mid-thirteenth to ninth century BC) are exclusively known from hoards in this region; none have been recovered from burials. The Lengyeltóti V hoard contained a greave, a composite cuirass, a cheek-piece indicating the presence of a military aristocracy riding horses and wagons or chariots when going to battle and a realistic wheel model. The swords and spearheads were part of the period's offensive weaponry. The hoard's other articles represented the jewellery of the female aristocracy: a diadem, a torc and an ornamented disc pendant. The hoard contained over seven hundred items. In A. Mozsolics's view, the hoard could be assigned to the period lasting up to the close of the Hallstatt period (Ha A2). The rise of the warrior aristocracy began during the Br D, Br D/Ha A1 period, while its consolidation and heyday fell into the early Urnfield period (Ha A1). The aristocracy lived in hillforts – fortified settlements – which had a flourishing bronze industry. The number of settlements and burials declined drastically in the ensuing Ha B period in south-western Transdanubia.

Open access

Abstract

It is well known that, alongside Lutheranism and Calvinism, other, even more radical forms of Protestantism emerged in the 16th century, attacking fundamental Christian beliefs such as the dogma of the Trinity. However, neither Catholic, nor Protestant states welcomed heterodox views, so their proponents were forced to flee to the East, where they were permitted to build their own churches in Poland and Transylvania. In the western parts of the continent they were largely unknown, so when the first representatives of the Counter-Reformation (mainly Jesuits) arrived, they were confronted with a new, obscure foe.

Antonio Possevino, one of the most well-known and influential figures of the Catholic Reformation, wrote a lengthy polemic book against Antitrinitarism based on his own experiences which he acquired in the early 1580s when he performed various missions in Poland and Transylvania, while also studying Antitrinitarism. Possevino's work outlines the history of Antitrinitarism, summarizes its doctrines, and refutes its most important book, De falsa et vera unius Dei … cognitione. Although Possevino's book is intriguing in and of itself, its publishing history is also worth noting. It was not published until 1586, after a heated debate between Possevino, his Jesuit censors, and the pope, and it was printed in three cities (Poznan, Cologne and Vilnius) at the same time with different titles and prefaces. Within a few years, the book was edited two more times. This history outlines some tactics on behalf of the Catholic Reformation, with a focus on the importance of printed books.

Open access

Abstract

Non-finite verb forms, in-between verbs and nouns and also in-between inflection and derivation, pose challenges to grammar writing. In the largely Latin-based European grammar traditions, three or four main types of non-finites are often distinguished: infinitives, participles, verbal adverbs (gerunds, converbs), and – often most closely connected to the participles but classified as derivation rather than inflection – deverbal noun derivatives. Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, the three Uralic state languages with a strong tradition of written cultivation, are situated at the western end of the language family and display a strong “Europeanization” also in their systems of non-finites. Yet, these systems differ greatly even from each other.

In this paper, the classification and nomenclature of non-finites in Hungarian grammars are compared with Finnish and Estonian. The Finnish grammar tradition is based on morphological substance but, failing to acknowledge the category of converbs, ends up exploiting the term “infinitive” in a way which is syntactically and semantically meaningless. The Estonian grammars vacillate between an opportunistic use of traditional European grammar terms and a simple listing of forms at a minimal level of abstraction. Hungarian grammars, in turn, present the non-finites in a way which is incompatible with other grammar traditions and is internally contradictory.

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Abstract

The study discusses the possibilities of the scholarly processing of Hungarian queer literature. In particular, it takes into account the diversity of interpretive strategies and focuses on methods that can productively liberate canonized interpretations and act subversively against the expropriation and manipulation of literary texts. The imported categories of queer study of literature can often only be applied with modifications to Hungarian and Central European literature. The author argues that queer interpretation is not a stigma, nor is it a trademark, but a field of freedom.

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Abstract

One of the perplexing aspects of the depiction of Virgil's Volscian heroine Camilla is her association with the myrtle. Close study of evidence from Aulus Gellius as well as passages from Virgil's epic will reveal the poet's intention to recall the Roman tradition of an ovation in his presentation of Camilla's entry to war.

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Abstract

The present study offers a re-evaluation of literary production in Hungary under the Jagiellonian kings Wladislas II and Louis II. Traditionally, the literary works produced in this period have been contrasted to the blossoming of humanist literature under King Matthias, and disregarded in many respects. The aim of this study is to make a survey of the main authors and other agents of the literary culture of this period and to stress that this age experienced an unseen growth and expansion in late medieval and humanist scholarly and lay culture. While János Horváth called the authors of this period “humanists with party allegiances”, I argue that their stronger “party allegiance” is, in fact, the direct result of the steady growth in the number of intellectuals with a modern, humanistic educational outlook, and of a less centralized state.

Open access

Abstract

The paper aims to clarify connections among the terms designated in the title on the basis of a well-known passage of the Aristotelian corpus (Politics I 2. 1253a7–18). The first part of the argumentation unfolds mainly through conceptual explanations and conceptual distinctions, during which some relevant claims of Aristotleʼs other works (primarily the biological and logical writings) are also taken into consideration. The main question of this part is directed to the difference between man and other living beings. The difference, as it will appear, lies in the specific performance of human speech (logos), contrasted with the performance of the animal voice (phōnē). In the second part, the reconstruction of Aristotelian theory based on close textual reading is complemented by references to some later but theoretically insightful contexts, especially with regard to the field of politics in the narrower sense. Conceptions of social constructivism (Berger and Luckmann), philosophical anthropology (Gehlen), political philosophy (Arendt), and philosophical hermeneutics (Heidegger and Gadamer) will primarily come into play.

Open access

Abstract

The present paper addresses the fragmented history of Hungarian legal anthropology. Although legal anthropology does not have a centuries-long tradition in Hungarian legal scholarship, the activities and publications of the late Ernő Tárkány Szücs, along with those of Sándor Loss and István H. Szilágyi, can be said to have established the scholarly framework for an anthropological understanding of law in Hungary. While not explicitly, all three authors relied on the folk concept of law and contributed to the introduction of a cultural aspect to the study of legal issues. The first part of the present paper discusses the work of the late Tárkány Szücs, the leading personality in the Hungarian legal ethnology movement after 1945, with a particular focus on how the author conceived the research of socialist legal folkways. Although Tárkány Szücs's frame of reference was legal ethnology, it can be argued that his insights into socialist legal folkways brought him close to an anthropological perspective. The second part of the paper presents in detail the research carried out by legal anthropologists in the 1990s, focusing on the work on Romani law carried out by István H. Szilágyi and Sándor Loss. It should be stressed that in this latter research, the methodology of participant observation was applied, thus expanding the toolkit of Hungarian legal scholarship to some extent. In conclusion, the paper argues that a proper understanding of everyday legal practice — including trouble-free cases — is impossible unless legal scholarship is liberated from the constraints of the analytical concept of law and exploits the freedom offered by the folk concept. The reinterpretation and revitalization of the broadly understood legal anthropological tradition — from the late Tárkány Szücs to H. Szilágyi and Loss — can be of significant help in this respect.

Open access

Az Inana és Šukaletuda című mítosz •

Áldás vagy átok a hírnév?

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Anna Krisztina Pintér

Az alábbi tanulmány a sumer Inana és Šukaletuda mítosz új magyar fordítását tartalmazza, illetve egy elemzést a szöveg egyik problematikus részéről, Šukaletuda „megáldásáról”. Az elemzésben amellett érvelek, hogy a szöveg szóhasználata arra vonatkozó utalásokat rejt, hogy Šukaletuda, a kertész, alacsony származású, uralkodói szerepkörök betöltésére alkalmatlan személy, és az uralkodókat utánzó, jogtalan tette után kap isteni büntetést. A mítoszról szóló eddigi elemzések a szöveg ezen aspektusára még nem tértek ki.

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Propertius II. 15. elégiájának fordítása az Erato latin ciklusának közepén (Ovidius Amores I. 5. elégiájával szimmetrikus párban) hangsúlyos szerepet tölt be Babits fordításkötetében. Ennek a Proper-tius-fordításnak ez az első és egyetlen megjelenése Babits életművében, de a klasszikus szerzőhöz való viszonya nem előzmény nélküli. Babits levelezésében és irodalomtörténeti munkáiban is előkerül Propertius neve, de mindezeken túl latintanári pályafutása során is foglalkozhatott verseivel. Ez a dolgozat elsősorban arra a kérdésre keres választ, hogy a fordításhoz Babits milyen szövegforrást használhatott, illetve hogy a Babitsra sajátosan jellemző fordítói paradigma jelei, a költői invenciók mutathatnak-e összefüggéseket a szövegforrások vagy Babits más fordításai között.

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Abstract

In Hungarian settlements, tizedek (tenths), streets, divisions, and fertályok (viertels, quarters, or districts) were areas that enjoyed a certain autonomy. They were led by elected “decurions,” “street captains,” or “captains” in Hungarian-populated settlements, and by viertelmeisters, or district wardens, in German-speaking settlements. These officials liaised between the municipal authorities and the local community. From the 16th century until the mid-19th century, the decurions and district wardens had official powers, kept the population informed about national and local regulations, helped carry out local censuses, collected taxes, and organized public works. They played a key role in maintaining law and order in their neighborhoods, and in ensuring protection from fire. In the northeastern region of present-day Hungary, we have information concerning the history of the district wardens in the cities of Eger, Gyöngyös, and Miskolc, while in the case of Eger the tradition is still in existence today. There were decurions in Eger as early as the end of the 17th century, who were replaced by district wardens from the 1710s. The position existed in Gyöngyös from the middle of the 18th century until 1874. In Miskolc, there were district wardens from 1794 to 1800. After a hiatus of half a century, the position was then restored, while in 1884 the parallel position of “section warden” was abolished. In Eger, district wardens were active until 1949, then, after a forced interruption in the Socialist era, the institution was revived in 1996, becoming an important element in local identity through its heritage preservation activities. The present study introduces the different eras in the institution of the district warden, its changing functions, its organizational structure, its symbols, and its various forms of social interaction. Eger is the only city in Hungary in which this centuries-old office is still preserved today, justifying the inclusion of this living custom in the UNESCO National Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2014.

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A XVI. század elején tizenkét kéz által másolt Codex Monacensis Graecus 307a jelzetű kézirat Laonikos Chalkokondylés történeti munkáját tartalmazza. A kézirat a főszövegen kívül több széljegyzetet is megőrzött. Chalkokondylés Apodeixise után, a kódex 237v oldalán található egy Nikolaos Sophianos által írt bejegyzés, amelyben a szerző különböző módszereket ír le a bolhák és poloskák ellen. Bár Darkó Jenő korábban már kiadta a receptet, az átírása pontatlan és számos helyen hibás. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy új átírást adjunk a négysoros szövegről fordítással és rövid megjegyzésekkel kiegészítve.

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Abstract

In his treatise The Exposition of the Content of Virgil according to Moral Philosophy, Fabius Fulgentius allegorically interpreted the contents of Virgil's epic the Aeneid. The aim of our paper is to explain the main principles of Fulgentius' allegorization by analysing the first verse of Virgil's Aeneid. In Fulgentius' view, the 12 books of the epic depicted the three main stages of a human life as they follow the “natural order”: childhood, adolescence and adulthood. In his prologue (Fulg. Cont. 87. 4–6; 87. 11–89. 3; 89. 19–90. 17), the author supports his claim by presenting an allegorical interpretation of the first line of Virgil's epic (Verg. A. 1. 1), which contains three famous words: arma (“arms”), vir (“man”) and primus (“first”). According to Fulgentius, the first term arma (“arms”) represents virtus (“manliness”) in the sense of characteristics that are available to all human individuals during childhood. The second term vir (“man”) refers to sapientia (“wisdom”), which is related to the development of the ingenium (“mind”) during adolescence. The third term primus (“first”) symbolises the adult ability ornare (“to ornament”) what we have learnt in the first phases of our life. With life experience in childhood and adolescence, a person can gradually become princeps (“a ruler”). In other words, they can be “first” within a given society and thus conclude their personal development towards perfection. As such, the contents of Virgil's Aeneid correspond to these three terms: Books 1–3 to childhood, Books 4–6 to adolescence, and Books 7–12 to adulthood.

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