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FELE JÁTÉK – FELE GYÖTRELEM

Interjú Molnár Márkkal 70. születésnapja alkalmából

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Restricted access

Background and aims

Although studies have suggested that individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may have impairments in cognitive functioning, the nature of the relationship is unclear given that the information is typically derived from cross-sectional studies.

Methods

Individuals with active IGD (n = 154) and those individuals no longer meeting criteria (n = 29) after 1 year were examined longitudinally using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of cue-craving tasks. Subjective responses and neural correlates were contrasted at study onset and at 1 year.

Results

Subjects’ craving responses to gaming cues decreased significantly at 1 year relative to study onset. Decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lentiform nucleus were observed at 1 year relative to onset. Significant positive correlations were observed between changes in brain activities in the lentiform nucleus and changes in self-reported cravings. Dynamic causal modeling analysis showed increased ACC–lentiform connectivity at 1 year relative to study onset.

Conclusions

After recovery from IGD, individuals appear less sensitive to gaming cues. This recovery may involve increased ACC-related control over lentiform-related motivations in the control over cravings. The extent to which cortical control over subcortical motivations may be targeted in treatments for IGD should be examined further.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Olimpia Matarazzo, Michele Carpentieri, Claudia Greco, and Barbara Pizzini

Background and aims

Although numerous correlational studies have shown an association between cognitive distortions and problem gambling, only a few behavioral studies have investigated this topic by comparing problem (PGs) and non-problem gamblers (N-PGs). This quasi-experiment investigated the occurrence in both groups of a widespread cognitive distortion, the gambler’s fallacy (GF), using a fictitious roulette game. Moreover, it investigated whether the GF increased the bet amount and whether impulsivity and sensation seeking were associated with the GF.

Methods

Two indices of the GF were used: a cognitive index, the probability estimate of each outcome (black/red) after manipulating the final run length (the same outcome occurring four times/once), and a behavioral index, the choice of the outcome on which to bet. A total of 320 (160 PGs and 160 N-PGs) unpaid male volunteers, aged between 18 and 68, participated in this study.

Hypotheses

Erroneous probability estimates should mediate the effect of longer runs on the alternation choice (i.e., the choice of an outcome different from the previous one) to support the occurrence of GF. The GF should increase betting. PGs should be more prone than N-PGs to GF.

Results

The choice of the outcome depended on both cognitive (erroneous probability estimates) and affective (preference for red) factors. PGs bet more than N-PGs but they were not more prone than N-PGs to incurring GF. Although impulsivity and sensation seeking were more intense in PGs than in N-PGs, they scarcely affected GF.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, our results corroborate the tested model of the GF that links mistaken probability estimates, choice of the outcome on which to bet, and bet amount. However, they are similar to PGs and N-PGs and fail to corroborate the hypothesis that the GF is more evident in PGs.

Open access

Intelligence and executive functions in 9–10 year-old preterm children born with very low and extremely low birth weight

Igen alacsony születési súlyú és extrém alacsony születési súlyú koraszülöttek intelligenciájának és végrehajtó funkcióinak vizsgálata 9–10 éves korban

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Anett Nagy, Magda Kalmár, Anna Mária Beke, Rózsa Gráf, and Endre Horváth

Theoretical background: Premature birth is in the focus of research interest as it is the most common perinatal risk endangering the development of children. However, the implications of prematurity for the long-term outcome are far from fully understood. Compromised development of cognitive and executive functions may be underlying academic underachievement in school-age preterm children. Aim: to assess the school-age outcomes of Hungarian VLBW/ELBW preterm children in basic cognitive abilities and executive function as compared to typically developing, full-term children as well as to investigate the background of individual differences. Method: 54 preterm children (27 ELBW, 27 VLBW) and a matched group of 27 healthy full-term children, aged 9–10 years, were tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), the Corsi Block Tapping Task (digital version) for measuring spatial–visual working memory and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, digital version) for testing cognitive flexibility. As background variables perinatal and socioeconomic factors were entered in the analysis. Results: In each measure of the WISC-IV all three groups performed in the normal range. The ELBW children displayed certain developmental lags. They scored significantly lower in the Full-Scale IQ and the Processing Speed than the other two groups, and in the Perceptual Reasoning and one measure of spatial–visual working memory as compared to the non-risk comparison group. Perinatal complications and maternal education were related to the outcome. Conclusions: With the improved perinatal care preterm children have fair chances for good developmental outcomes. However, the individual variations are great and various perinatal and social factors may hamper the development of cognitive and executive functions. A birthweight below 1000 grams is a notable risk, particularly if combined with perinatal complications.

Open access

Background and aims

To remedy problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) in adolescents, much is expected from efforts by parents to help youths to contain their screen use. Such parental mediation can include (a) refraining from acting, (b) co-viewing or co-gaming with the teen, (c) active mediation, and (d) restrictive mediation. We evaluated if parental mediation practices are linked to PIU and POG in adolescents.

Methods

For a systematic literature review, we searched for publications presenting survey data and relating parental mediation practices to levels of PIU and/or POG in adolescents. The review’s selection criteria were met by 18 PIU and 9 POG publications, reporting on 81.002 and 12.915 adolescents, respectively. We extracted data on gaming problems, mediation interventions, study design features, and sample characteristics.

Results

No type of parental mediation was consistently associated with lower or elevated problematic screen use rates in the adolescents. Refraining from parental mediation tended to aggravate screen use problems, whereas active mediation (talking to the teen) may mitigate such problems in PIU, but less clearly in POG. The link of restrictive mediation with problematic screen use varied from positive to negative, possibly depending on type of restriction. In both PIU and POG, family cohesion was related to lower rates of the problem behavior concerned and family conflict to higher rates.

Discussion and conclusions

Parental mediation practices may affect problematic screen use rates for better or worse. However, research of higher quality, including observations of parent-teen interactions, is needed to confirm the trends noted and advance the critical issue of the possible association between PIU, POG, and family interactions.

Open access

Background and aims

Although the peculiarities of problematic Internet use and Internet addiction have been analyzed previously by researchers, there is still no general agreement in the literature as to the effectiveness of psychological interventions for Internet addiction deployed among adolescents. This study sought to investigate the effects of intervention programs for Internet/smartphone addiction among adolescents through a meta-analysis.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EbscoHost Academic Search Complete, ProQuest, and PsycARTICLES using a combination of “Internet addiction or phone addiction” AND “intervention or treatment” OR “therapy” OR “program” AND “adolescents,” and a combination of the following search terms: “patholog_,” “problem_,” “addict_,” “compulsive,” “dependen_,” “video,” “computer,” “Internet,” “online,” “intervention,” “treat_,” and “therap_.” The studies identified during the search were reviewed according to the criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted on the six selected papers published from 2000 to 2019. Only studies with a control/comparison group that performed preintervention and postintervention assessments were included.

Results

Included studies showed a trend toward a beneficial effect of intervention on the severity of Internet addictions. The meta-analysis suggested significant effects of all included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and their educational programs.

Conclusions

Psychological interventions may help to reduce addiction severity, but further RCTs are needed to identify the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy. This study provides a basis for developing future programs addressing addiction problems among adolescents.

Open access

Háttér és célkitűzés

a vizsgálat a lassú, ún. K-életstratégia és a nehézségekkel szembeni ellenálló képesség, valamint a szorongásérzékenység lehetséges összefüggéseit tárja fel. Evolúciós, pozitív és klinikai pszichológiai területeket ötvöző vizsgálatunk megközelítésmódja újdonságnak számít. Célunk a reziliencia és a K-stratégia közötti összefüggések vizsgálata.

Módszer

a papír-ceruza alapú tesztekkel végzett vizsgálatban hozzáférhetőségi egyetemista mintavételezés során 674 személy vett részt, önkéntes alapon. A résztvevők által kitöltött kérdőívcsomag a Connor–Davidson Reziliencia Kérdőívet, az Életstratégia Kérdőívet és a Szorongásérzékenység Indexet tartalmazták.

Eredmények

A korrelációs és lineáris regressziós statisztikai elemzések igazolták, hogy pozitív kapcsolat figyelhető meg a lassú életstratégia és a reziliencia között. A szorongásérzékenység ugyanakkor negatív összefüggést mutat az említett változókkal. A nemi különbségek szintén megmutatkoznak, bár a minta jellemzői miatt ezek további vizsgálata szükséges.

Következtetések

Az eredményeink alapján elmondható, hogy a fiatal felnőttek esetén gyenge, ám szignifikáns kapcsolat áll fenn a K-életstratégia és a reziliencia között. Az életstratégiához tartozóan a reziliens személyek intim és tartós partnerkapcsolatokra törekednek, emellett kognitív szinten jellemzőjük az előrelátás, a tudatos és következetes tervezési képességek kibontakoztatása. A szorongásérzékenység bár helyenként statisztikailag szignifikáns kapcsolatot mutat a fenti változókkal, ezek mértéke sok esetben igen alacsony. A nemi különbségek releváns szempontként jelenhetnek meg, ám ezek tisztázásához a minta további bővítése szükséges.

Open access

Háttér és célkitűzések

A nevetségessé válástól való félelem (gelotofóbia) eddig kevéssé kutatott jelenség volt a pszichológiában. Kutatásunkban a nevetségessé válástól való félelmet az önbecsülésen és a negatív megítéléstől való félelmen keresztül vizsgáltuk meg. Azt feltételeztük, hogy az alacsony önbecsülés a negatív megítélésen keresztül együtt jár a nevetségessé válástól való félelemmel.

Módszer

Az online kérdőíves kutatásban 666 fő vett részt (239 férfi, 427 nő). A résztvevők egy 3 kérdőívből álló tesztcsomagot kaptak, mely tartalmazta a gelotofóbiát mérő Geloph-15 kérdőívet (Boda-Ujlaky, Proyer és Ruch, 2012), a Rosenberg Önértékelés Skálát (Sallay, Martos, Földvári, Szabó és Ittzés, 2014) és a Félelem a Negatív Megítéléstől Skálát (Perczel-Forintos és Kresznerits, 2017).

Eredmények

Az önbecsülés szignifikáns közvetett kapcsolatban van a nevetségessé válástól való félelemmel. A negatív megítéléstől való félelemnek mediáló szerepe van a gelotofóbia és az önbecsülés között. A demográfiai változókat tekintve a nőkre jellemzőbb a nevetségessé válástól való félelem, mint a férfiakra.

Következtetés

Az önbecsülésnek a negatív megítéléstől való félelem aspektusa az, ami gelotofóbiához vezethet.

Open access

Poszttraumás növekedés gyermekkorban daganatos betegségen átesett gyógyult fiatal felnőttek és daganatos betegségen átesett gyermekek szülei körében

Posttraumatic growth among young adult survivors of childhood cancer and parents of childhood cancer survivors

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Orsolya Zsigmond and Adrien Rigó

Theoretical background: Childhood cancer is a serious, traumatic experience for the child and for the parents of the child. However, in addition to negative psychological consequences, in a lot of cases positive changes, posttraumatic growth (PTG) can also occur in the experience of the child and the parents. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the factors affecting posttraumatic growth in young adult survivors of childhood cancer and the parents of childhood cancer survivors. Methods: In our retrospective study, 53 young adult survivors of childhood cancer (17 male and 36 female, mean age = 27.5 years, SD = 5.4 years) and 112 parents (9 male and 103 female, mean age = 44.9 years, SD = 6.7 years) participated. We examined the relationship between PTG and demographic (gender, age, disease variables (time since diagnosis, age of diagnosis, risk of diagnosis) and psychosocial factors (social support, emotional regulation, well-being, posttraumatic stress symptoms) using descriptive, comparative, correlational and regression analysis. Results: The results confirmed that more than 90% of young adults and parents experienced PTG at least at minimal level at least in one dimension of growth. In the group of young adult survivors 50% of PTG variance was explained by social support, intrusive thoughts from posttraumatic stress symptoms, dampening of positive emotions, and well-being. In the group of parents hyperarousal, self-focused rumination and well-being explained 26.5% of PTG variance. Conclusions: The results confirm that in the explanation of PTG different variables are working in a complex relationship system. The results of our study show that in the planning of clinical psychological interventions, in addition to individual treatment of negative symptoms associated with the disease, the involvement of the family, the improvement of social factors and various cognitive therapeutic tools could be important for the integration of trauma.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Lucien Rochat, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, Elias Aboujaoude, and Yasser Khazaal

Background and aims

The use of the smartphone dating application Tinder is increasingly popular and has received much media attention. However, no empirical study to date has investigated the psychological characteristics driving its adaptive or problematic use. The aim of this study is to determine whether reliable subtypes of users can be identified via a cluster analysis approach.

Methods

A total of 1,159 Tinder users were recruited. Survey questions investigated user characteristics, including: motives for app use, sexual desire, attachment styles, impulsivity traits, self-esteem, problematic use, depressive mood, and patterns of use.

Results

Four reliable clusters were identified: two with low levels of problematic use (“regulated” and “regulated with low sexual desire”), one with an intermediate level of problematic use (“unregulated-avoidants”), and one with a high level of problematic use (“unregulated-highly motivated”). The clusters differed on gender, marital status, depressive mood, and use patterns.

Conclusion

The findings provide insight into the dynamic relationships among key use-related factors and shed light on the mechanisms underlying the self-regulation difficulties that appear to characterize problematic Tinder use.

Open access

Objectives

Previous studies have reported an association between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and depression, but the directionality of the relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the reciprocal relationship between level of depressive symptoms and IGD among children in a longitudinal study.

Methods

Research panels for this study consisted of 366 elementary-school students in the iCURE study. All participants were current Internet users, so they could be considered an at-risk population for IGD. Self-reported severity of IGD features and level of depression were assessed by the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen and Children’s Depression Inventory, respectively. Follow-up assessment was completed after 12 months. We fitted cross-lagged structural equation models to investigate the association between the two variables at two time points contemporaneously.

Results

The cross-lagged analysis revealed that level of depression at baseline significantly predicted severity of IGD features at the 12-month follow-up (β = 0.15, p = .003). Severity of IGD features at baseline also significantly predicted level of depression at the 12-month follow-up (β = 0.11, p = .018), controlling for possible confounding factors.

Conclusions

The cross-lagged path analysis indicates a reciprocal relationship between severity of IGD features and level of depressive symptoms. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and severity of IGD features can assist in interventions to prevent both conditions. These findings provide theoretical support for prevention and remediation plans for IGD and depressive symptoms among children.

Open access

Background and aims

Individuals with high level of negative mental health often tend to use the social platform Facebook to escape from daily stress. They are at risk to develop an emotional bond to Facebook linked to a need to stay permanently online. The current work investigated addictive use of Facebook and its conceptual framework in clinical context.

Methods

In a longitudinal study design, duration of daily use of Facebook, addictive Facebook use, depressiveness, insomnia, and positive mental health (PMH) were assessed in a sample of 349 inpatients [M age (SD age) = 50.13 (9.41)] of a psychosomatic rehabilitation clinic in Germany over a period of on average 6 weeks.

Results

Regression analyses revealed that duration of daily Facebook use at the first measurement time point (T1) served as significant positive predictor of addictive Facebook use at the second measurement time point (T2). Addictive Facebook use (T1) significantly positively predicted depressiveness and insomnia (T2). Its prediction of PMH (T2) was significantly negative. Mediation analyses showed that PMH (T1) partially mediated the association between addictive Facebook use (T1) and depressiveness (T2), and fully mediated the relationship between addictive Facebook use (T1) and insomnia (T2).

Discussion and conclusions

Current longitudinal results indicate that addictive Facebook use might negatively impact the recovery process of inpatients. Thus, it might be relevant to assess and consider addictive Facebook use in the clinical context. Therapeutic interventions are suggested to focus on the enhancement of inpatients’ PMH level, which may buffer the negative effect of problematic Facebook use.

Open access
Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors: Pablo Polo Polo, Jose Antonio Munoz-Reyes, Ana Maria Fernandez Tapia, Juan Enrique Wilson, and Enrique Turiégano

Individuals vary in their intrasexual competitiveness attitude, i.e., an important variable reflecting the potential threat or the extent to which one perceives other individuals of the same sex as social or mating rivals. In this study, we investigated the relationship between self-perceived mate value, a construct usually linked to intersexual selection, and intrasexual competitiveness attitude. We postulated that those psychological traits that increase mate value are related to psychological traits underlying intrasexual competitiveness attitude. The results obtained from a sample of 711 young participants of both sexes (M = 16.93 years ± SD = 0.86) indicated that mate value was positively related to intrasexual competitiveness attitude. Specifically, the subscales of Fear of Failure, Wealth, and Looks were positive predictors of intrasexual competitiveness attitude. Moreover, the Looks subscale was more relevant in determining intrasexual competitiveness attitude in women than in men. These three subscales were part of the same factorial structure that appears to be indicative of a self-promoting strategy based on the ostentation of traits through attitudes. As a conclusion, we argue that the individual differences in intrasexual competitiveness attitudes are associated with the differences in psychological features usually associated with intersexual selection.

Open access

Laypeople hold beliefs about economics and policy issues—so-called folk-economic beliefs (FEBs)—that are often wrong or misleading according to professional economists. Here, I critically discuss a recent evolutionary–cognitive approach to understanding folk-economic beliefs. According to this approach (), some economic beliefs are more prevalent than others, because such beliefs (i.e., folk-economic beliefs) resonate with evolved features of the human mind. I refer to this as the “FEB hypothesis”. A central challenge to the FEB hypothesis, with its heavy reliance on universal cognitive features, is to explain individual and cultural differences in economic beliefs and behavior. This challenge is the starting point for the discussion. Overall, the conclusion of this paper is that the FEB hypothesis relies on unnecessarily strong and controversial theoretical assumptions (e.g., “massive modularity” and the “Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness”), and that it overlooks important findings from adjacent fields, but that the FEB hypothesis, following some modifications inspired by Dual Inheritance Theory, can be integrated with robust findings from the rest of the evolutionary, cognitive, and anthropological sciences, as well as standard political psychology. Based on this discussion, the paper ends with brief reflections on how to correct inaccurate folk-economic beliefs.

Open access

Background

Understanding gender-related differences is important in recovery processes. Previous studies have investigated gender-related differences in factors associated with gambling disorder (GD), but none to date have considered both positive and negative resources related to recovery. Using a recovery capital (RC) framework that considers multiple resources available during recovery, this study examined gender-related similarities and differences in associations between positive resources (RC, spirituality) and negative experiences and states (stressful life events, depression, and anxiety) and GD symptom improvement.

Method

One hundred and forty individuals with lifetime GD (101 men) were assessed using DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for GD (past-year and lifetime prior to past-year), the Brief Assessment of RC, the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, the Stressful Life-events Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 for depression. Multiple linear regression and Bayesian statistical analyses were conducted.

Results

RC was positively and significantly associated with GD symptom improvement in women and men. Stressful life events were negatively associated with GD symptom improvement only in men.

Conclusions

RC is an important positive resource for men and women recovering from GD and should be considered in treating both women and men. Understanding specific RC factors across gender groups and stressors, particularly in men, may aid in developing improved interventions for GD.

Open access

Background and aims

Smartphone use has increased markedly over the past decade and recent research has demonstrated that a small minority of users experience problematic consequences, which in extreme cases have been contextualized as an addiction. To date, most research have been quantitative and survey-based. This study qualitatively examined the components model of addiction for both “addicted” and “non-addicted” users.

Methods

A screening tool comprising 10 dichotomous items was administered to 40 college students. Of these, six addicted and six non-addicted participants were identified on the basis of their score on the screening tool and were asked to participate in a semi-structured interview. The interview questions were based on the components model of addiction comprising six domains (i.e., salience, withdrawal, conflict, relapse and reinstatement, tolerance, and mood modification). Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed data and subthemes as well as emerging themes for the study as a whole were established.

Results

There was some evidence of demarcation between smartphone addicts on the dimensions of salience, tolerance, withdrawal, and conflict. Mood modification was not much different in either group, and no participant reported relapse.

Conclusions

The non-addicted group had much greater control over their smartphone usage than the addicted group on four (of six) aforementioned dimensions of behavioral addiction. Consequently, the main findings of this study provided good support for the components model of behavioral addiction.

Open access

Background and aims

Spirituality is an important component of 12-step programs for behavioral and substance addictions and has been linked to recovery processes. Understanding the neural correlates of spiritual experiences may help to promote efforts to enhance recovery processes in behavioral addictions. We recently used general linear model (GLM) analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to examine neural correlates of spiritual experiences, with findings implicating cortical and subcortical brain regions. Although informative, the GLM-based approach does not provide insight into brain circuits that may underlie spiritual experiences.

Methods

Spatial independent component analysis (sICA) was used to identify functional brain networks specifically linked to spiritual (vs. stressful or neutral-relaxing) conditions using a previously validated guided imagery task in 27 young adults.

Results

Using sICA, engagement of a ventral frontotemporal network was identified that was engaged at the onset and conclusion of the spiritual condition in a manner distinct from engagement during the stress or neutral-relaxing conditions. Degree of engagement correlated with subjective reports of spirituality in the scanner (r = .71, p < .001) and an out-of-the-magnet measure of spirituality (r = .48, p < .018).

Discussion and conclusion

The current findings suggest a distributed functional neural network associated with spiritual experiences and provide a foundation for investigating brain mechanisms underlying the role of spirituality in recovery from behavioral addictions.

Open access

Background and aims

This systematic review analyzes and summarizes gambling-related findings from the nationally representative US National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data.

Methods

Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 51 eligible studies that met inclusion criteria. Eight studies utilized both Waves 1 and 2 NESARC data, and selection of sample sizes varied from 185 to 43,093 individuals, consistent with specified research objectives of each study.

Results

The prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling was 0.42% (0.64% among men, 0.23% among women), while past-year prevalence was 0.16%. Pathological gambling rates were generally higher in populations with substance-use disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. Rates of adverse childhood experiences and suicidal attempts were higher among individuals with problem or pathological gambling. Early-onset gamblers were more likely to be male, be never married, have incomes below $70,000, belong to younger cohorts and have Cluster B personality disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders. While pathological gambling was related to obesity, increased stress, and poorer physical health among general age groups, recreational gambling was linked with improved physical and mental functioning in older adults.

Conclusions

The NESARC has provided important information on the correlates of pathological gambling and subdiagnostic patterns of gambling behaviors. Additional studies should examine these relationships in the current gambling environment and longitudinally with aims of implementing policies to improve the public health.

Open access

A reziliencia fogalma az utóbbi években a pszichológiai diskurzus egyik „sláger” kifejezésévé vált. Ennek is köszönhetően számos értelmezés jelent meg, amelyek egymással átfedésben vannak, hasonló tartalmakra refl ektálnak. Oktatási kontextusban azokat a gyermekeket tekintik reziliensnek, akik hátrányos helyzetük ellenére tanulmányaikban sikeresek. A külföldi szakirodalmat áttekintve relevánsnak tűnik a fogalom kiterjesztése az átlagtól eltérő gyermekekre is (tanulási nehézséggel küzdők, tehetségesek). A tanulmány áttekinti a reziliencia meghatározásának és a fogalom operacionalizálásának nehézségeit, majd bemutatja a tanulmányi reziliencia relevanciáját, mérésének lehetőségeit. Megemlít néhány külföldi és hazai jó gyakorlatot, amelyek közvetve a reziliencia fejlesztését célozzák, ugyanakkor rámutat a programok továbbfejlesztésének szükségességére is. Végül javaslatokat fogalmaz meg a tanulmányi reziliencia kutatásának koncepciójára.

Open access

Background and aims

Chasing is a behavioral marker and a diagnostic criterion for gambling disorder. Although chasing has been recognized to play a central role in gambling disorder, research on this topic is relatively scarce. This study investigated the association between chasing, alcohol consumption, and mentalization among habitual gamblers.

Method

A total of 132 adults took part in the study. Participants were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, and a laboratory task assessing chasing behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions (Control, Loss, and Win). To deeply investigate chasing behavior, participants were requested to indicate the reasons for stopping or continuing playing at the end of the experimental session.

Results

Logistic regression analysis showed that the choice to stop or continue playing depended on experimental condition and alcohol use. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that chasing propensity was affected by experimental condition, alcohol consumption, and deficit in mentalization. The results of path analysis showed that hypermentalizing predicts chasing not only directly, but also indirectly via alcohol consumption.

Conclusions

Overall, these results for the first time showed that hypermentalization plays a key role in chasing behavior over and above gambling severity. Since these findings support the idea that chasers and non-chasers are different subtypes of gamblers, clinical interventions should consider the additive role of chasing in gambling disorder.

Open access

Background and aims

Behavioral addictions (BAs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) tend to co-occur; both are associated with mental health problems (MHPs). This study aimed to estimate the proportion of variance in the severity of MHPs explained by BAs and SUDs, individually and shared between addictions.

Methods

A sample of 5,516 young Swiss men (mean = 25.47 years old; SD = 1.26) completed a self-reporting questionnaire assessing alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use disorders, illicit drug use other than cannabis, six BAs (Internet, gaming, smartphone, Internet sex, gambling, and work) and four MHPs (major depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, social anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder). Commonality analysis was used to decompose the variance in the severity of MHPs explained (R 2) by BAs and SUDs into independent commonality coefficients. These were calculated for unique BA and SUD contributions and for all types of shared contributions.

Results

BAs and SUDs explained between a fifth and a quarter of the variance in severity of MHPs, but individual addictions explained only about half of this explained variance uniquely; the other half was shared between addictions. A greater proportion of variance was explained uniquely or shared within BAs compared to SUDs, especially for social anxiety disorder.

Conclusions

The interactions of a broad range of addictions should be considered when investigating their associations with MHPs. BAs explain a larger part of the variance in MHPs than do SUDs and therefore play an important role in their interaction with MHPs.

Open access

Although studies consistently show gender differences in emotional vs. sexual jealousy, a substantial part of variance in jealousy is left unexplained. Here, we present two studies with aim to explore other correlates of jealousy, aside from gender. In the first online study (n = 2970), we found that participants who reported being more upset by the emotional infidelity scenario were older and more educated and had a higher income than those who reported being more upset by the sexual infidelity scenario. Those who expressed greater sexual jealousy gave higher ratings of importance of potential partner's mate value. Heterosexual women were more likely to report emotional jealousy than non-heterosexual women. Among men, sexual orientation did not predict type of jealousy. As the role of reproductive status was largely neglected in previous research, in the second study, we used a continuous measure to explore jealousy as a function of age (reproductive vs. post-reproductive; n = 199). We found that the older participants were less jealous overall, and that the previously reported gender differences disappeared in the post-reproductive group. These results provide further support for the notion that jealousy is a context-specific, adaptive response, which diminishes in both intensity and specificity as the threat that it was designed for wanes.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Abraham Hafiz Rodriguez, Sarah Nath Zallek, Michael Xu, Jean Aldag, Lori Russell-Chapin, Tobias A. Mattei, and N. Scott Litofsky

Abstract

Background

Music has been associated with therapeutic properties for thousands of years across a vast number of diverse regions and cultures. This study expands upon our current understanding of music’s influence on human neurophysiology by investigating the effects of various music genres on cerebral cortex activity using electroencephalography (EEG).

Methods

A randomized, controlled study design was used. EEG data were recorded from 23 healthy adults, ages 19–28, while listening to a music sequence consisting of five randomized songs and two controls. The five studied music genres include: Classical, Tribal Downtempo, Psychedelic Trance (Psytrance), Goa Trance, and Subject Choice.

Results

Controls were associated with lower percentages of beta frequencies and higher percentages of alpha frequencies than the music genres. Psytrance was associated with higher percentages of theta and delta frequencies than the other music genres and controls. The lowest percentages of beta frequencies and highest percentages of alpha frequencies occurred in the occipital and parietal regions. The highest percentages of theta and delta frequencies occurred in the frontal and temporal regions. Subjects with prior music training exhibited increased percentages of delta frequencies in the frontal region. Subject gender and music preference did not have a significant influence on frequency band percentages.

Conclusions

Findings from this study support those of previous music therapy studies and provide novel insights regarding music’s influence on human neurophysiology. These findings also support the hypothesis that music may promote changes in cerebral cortex activity that have similarities to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, while the listener remains awake.

Open access

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has implications for clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Disposition to CSB has been shown to influence adolescence sexual behaviors, but the development of adolescents’ disposition toward CSB has yet to be examined in the family context. In this study, we investigated whether parent–adolescent communication mediates the links between parental characteristics and adolescents’ CSB.

Methods

The sample included 275 Israeli families [triad of mothers (age = 34–63 years, M = 45.48, SD = 5.46), fathers (age = 36–83 years, M = 48.33, SD = 6.63), and one adolescent (48.2% boys, 51.1% girls; age = 14–18 years, M = 16.23, SD = 1.18)]. Parents completed measures of psychopathology, parental self-esteem, and parental self-efficacy, and adolescents completed measures of quality of sex-related communication and CSB.

Results

The results indicate that, for girls, higher maternal self-esteem and lower psychopathology were linked with better sex-related communication and so with lower CSB. For boys, only parental religiosity was linked with the quality of sex-related communication and CSB, with religious parents having better communication than secular ones.

Discussion

The findings provide an opportunity for researchers to gain a better insight into the dynamics of familial factors in the development of CSB among adolescents.

Open access

Background and aims

The broadcast of wagering advertisements during televised sports matches has been associated with various adverse outcomes. In order to counter these effects, legislative bodies require wagering operators to include responsible gambling messages in their advertisements; however, the effectiveness of these messages is unclear. This study sought to examine the extent to which responsible gambling messages are looked at, in the wider context of gambling advertisements.

Methods

Forty-nine regular sports bettors and 10 non-gamblers viewed a series of sports betting advertisements, while an eye-tracker recorded the number of fixations placed on responsible gambling messages, as well as other text-based wagering content.

Results

Responsible gambling messages were, generally, presented in a non-conspicuous manner. Eye-tracking data revealed that significantly fewer fixations were placed on responsible gambling messages, compared to wagering information (p < .001); however, this effect did not differ according to level of gambling risk (p = .169). The number of fixations placed on the different types of responsible gambling messages was found to vary, based on gambling risk (p = .006), as well as, what appears to be, the physical characteristics of these messages.

Discussion

Very few fixations were placed on, or near, responsible gambling messages, compared to other wagering information, meaning that, in their current form, they are unlikely to be effective in protecting against gambling harm. Preliminary evidence shows that presenting messages on a high-contrast/block-color background increases the number of fixations on these.

Conclusion

Further research is needed to identify ways of increasing the effectiveness of responsible gambling initiatives in the sports betting context.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Laura Badenes-Ribera, Maria Rubio-Aparicio, Julio Sánchez-Meca, Matteo Angelo Fabris, and Claudio Longobardi

Background and aims

Research shows inconsistent findings about the link between muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. The aim of this study is to synthesize the scientific evidence available on this topic, the researchers conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods

The literature search enabled us to identify 39 published articles, which provided 36 independent estimations of the correlation between the two variables.

Results

Our analysis found a positive association between MD and ED symptoms (r + = .36; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.41). Moderator analyses showed that the type of sample and the tools for assessing MD and ED were statistically associated with the MD–ED effect sizes. The methodological quality of the studies exhibited a positive, statistically significant association with the MD–ED effect sizes.

Conclusions

Higher levels of MD were related to greater ED symptomatology, but several study characteristics may moderate the association between the two variables. In this study, we discuss limitations and implications for clinical practice and future research.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Arundhuti Das, Luca Pagliaroli, Andrea Vereczkei, Eszter Kotyuk, Banrida Langstieh, Zsolt Demetrovics, and Csaba Barta

Background and aims

Some form of gambling can be observed in nearly every society, as the gratification felt upon winning in uncertain conditions is universal. A culturally distinct form of gambling, associated with a traditional sporting event of archery known as “teer,” is innate to the province of Meghalaya, India. The objective of this study was to find genetic variants underlying this unique form of behavioral addiction. To better understand game-based gambling, we studied genetic variants related to dopaminergic pathways and other genes previously linked to various psychological disorders.

Methods

This study was carried out on a sample of 196 Indo-Aryan adults from Shillong, Meghalaya. Genotyping of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) polymorphisms was carried out using real-time PCR. We further investigated 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the 3′ UTR of additional genes of interest using an OpenArray® real-time PCR platform.

Results

Case–control analysis revealed a significant association between GDNF variant rs2973033 (p = .00864, χ2 = 13.132, df = 2) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) variant rs2530311 (p = .0448, χ2 = 13.132, df = 2) with gambling.

Discussion and conclusions

Association of the GDNF gene with gambling could be attributed to its involvement in the development and survival of dopaminergic neurons. Our result is in good agreement with previous data indicating the role of GDNF in certain substance addictions. Several rare variants in the CNTNAP2 gene were also implicated in alcohol addiction in a previous study. This pilot study provides further support for the role of GDNF and CNTNAP2 in addiction behaviors.

Open access

Background and aims

Few studies have investigated the effects of problematic smartphone use (PSU) in the family context. We studied the association of PSU as a predictor with family well-being and the potential mediating role of family communication in Hong Kong Chinese adults.

Methods

We analyzed data of 5,063 randomly selected adults [mean age (SD) = 48.1 (18.2) years; 45.0% men] from a dual landline and mobile telephone survey in 2017. PSU was assessed by the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version with higher scores indicating higher levels. Family well-being was assessed by three questions on perceived family health, harmony, and happiness (3Hs) with higher scores indicating greater well-being. Perceived sufficiency and quality of family communication were rated. Multivariable regression analyses examined (a) associations of PSU with family 3Hs and well-being and (b) mediating role of family communication, adjusting for sociodemographic variables.

Results

PSU was negatively associated with perceived family health (adjusted β = −0.008, 95% CI = −0.016, −0.0004), harmony (adjusted β = −0.009, 95% CI = −0.017, −0.002), happiness (adjusted β = −0.015, 95% CI = −0.022, −0.007), and well-being (adjusted β = −0.011, 95% CI = −0.018, −0.004). Perceived family communication sufficiency (adjusted β = −0.007, 95% CI = −0.010, −0.005) and quality (adjusted β = −0.009, 95% CI = −0.014, −0.005) mediated the association of PSU with family well-being, with 75% and 94% of total effects having mediated, respectively.

Discussion and conclusions

PSU was negatively associated with family well-being, which was partially mediated by family communication. Such findings provide insights for health programs to prevent PSU and improve family well-being.

Open access

Background and aims

A single nucleotide polymorphism of A118G (SNP; rs1799971) in the opioid receptor μ-1 (OPRM1) gene is a missense variant that influences the affinity of μ-opioid receptors. This study aimed to investigate the associations among the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene, psychiatric symptoms, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) findings in patients with gambling disorder.

Methods

Fifty-five male patients with gambling disorder aged between 18 and 65 years old participated in the study. The A118G polymorphism was genotyped into the AA, GA, and GG groups by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Resting-state qEEG was recorded with the eyes closed, and the absolute power of the delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), and beta (12–30 Hz) frequency bands was analyzed. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, impulsivity and severity of gambling, were assessed by a self-rating scale.

Results

There were no significant differences in psychiatric symptoms among the three genotype groups (AA, GA, and GG). However, the frequency band power of qEEG showed significant differences among the three genotype groups. The absolute power of the beta and theta bands in the frontal lobe was higher in G allele carriers.

Discussion and conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene might affect the neurophysiological process in patients with gambling disorder.

Open access

Az önelfogadás kihívásaitól a testpozitív mozgalmakig – a pozitív pszichológia testképei

From the challenges of self-acceptance to body positive movements: body image in positive psychology

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Márta Csabai

Despite body image and self-image are basic determinants of our connections to ourselves and to the world, the earlier studies had focused mainly on negative body image. The positive body image, as an independent construct appeared with a relative delay also in positive psychology. The researches in recent years have proved that positive body image is not the mirroring of negative body image, but a unique and independent dimension. It is related to several factors influencing subjective well-being and other factors related to positive orientation. One of the emerging components is self-acceptance. The paper gives a summary about the international development of the body image concept and also explains how the positive body image construct represents the basic principle of positive psychology, that positivity is not a mere absence of disfunction or negative states. The questions and dilemmas of positive body image, related to control and autonomy, are vividly highlighted by the body positivity movement. This movement is a suitable case example to help us to think over some of the most important contemporary challenges of positive psychology both from the perspectives of theory and practice.

Open access

Boldogságmérés az iskolában

Measuring school happyness

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: András Vargha, Regina Török, Karola Diósi, and Attila Oláh

Subjective well-being (SWB) and mental health have been studied amongst adults using a variety of self-reported methods. However, there are available relatively few tests of SWB for children. Measuring SWB is also important in the school environment, but there is no valid and reliable Hungarian scale for elementary schoolchildren. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to adapt the School Children's Happiness Inventory (Ivens, 2007) to Hungarian, and to adapt the Mental Health Test developed for adults and based on five pillars (well-being, savoring, creative-executive effectiveness, self-regulation and resilience) for schoolchildren aged 10 to 14. Above the age of 10, the psychometric properties of both tests confirmed their structural reliability and supported their validity. An interesting result is that SWB is in a negative relationship with age among school children.

Open access

Background and aims

People from the community seeking treatment in frameworks such as Sexaholics Anonymous (SA) and sex offenders are preoccupied with sex, sexual fantasies, and behaviors. The rates of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), however, are reported to be substantially lower among sex offenders than SAs. In this study, we examined differences between SAs and sex offenders in CSBD and in processes that might be at the core of CSBD – maladaptive schemas about the self and others, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

Methods

The study comprised 103 sex offenders, 68 SAs, and 81 violence offenders who served as controls aged 18–74 years, who completed self-report measures regarding CSBD, maladaptive schemas, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

Results

SAs were higher on CSBD, maladaptive schemas, impulsivity, and sensation seeking than sex offenders. Sex offenders were higher on CSBD and impulsivity than violence offenders. Among all groups, maladaptive schemas were linked with higher CSBD.

Conclusions

High rates of CSBD among SAs might partially be accounted by differences in maladaptive schemas. We discuss the implication of the study to the understanding of CSBD, sexual offences, and therapy for CSBD and sexual offending.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Farah Ben Brahim, Stephane Rothen, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, Robert Courtois, and Yasser Khazaal

Background and aims

Cybersex is increasingly associated with concerns about compulsive use. The aim of this study was to assess the roles of motives and sexual desire in the compulsive use of cybersex.

Methods

The sample consisted of 306 cybersex users (150 men and 156 women). The participants were assessed using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) adapted for cybersex, the Cybersex Motives Questionnaire (enhancement, coping, and social motives), and the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (dyadic and solitary sexual desire).

Results

For both genders, coping motive was associated with CIUS score. For women, an additional association with social motives was found whereas an association with sexual desire was found for men.

Conclusion

The study showed gender differences in the contributors to sex-related CIUS scores.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Megan E. Cowie, Hyoun S. Kim, David C. Hodgins, Daniel S. McGrath, Marco D. T. Scanavino, and Hermano Tavares

Background and aims

Gambling disorder (GD) and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) may commonly co-occur. Yet, the psychiatric correlates of these co-occurring disorders are an untapped area of empirical scrutiny, limiting our understanding of appropriate treatment modalities for this dual-diagnosed population. This study examined the demographic and clinical correlates of CSB in a sample of treatment-seeking individuals with GD (N = 368) in São Paulo, Brazil.

Methods

Psychiatrists and psychologists conducted semi-structured clinical interviews to identify rates of CSB and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire was administered to assess additional addictive behaviors. The TCI and BIS-11 were used to assess facets of personality. Demographic and gambling variables were also assessed.

Results

Of the total sample, 24 (6.5%) met diagnostic criteria for comorbid CSB (GD + CSB). Compared to those without compulsive sexual behaviors (GD − CSB), individuals with GD + CSB were more likely to be younger and male. No differences in gambling involvement emerged. Individuals with GD + CSB tended to have higher rates of psychiatric disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and bulimia nervosa) and engage in more addictive behaviors (problematic alcohol use, drug use, and exercise) compared to GD − CSB. Those with GD + CSB evidenced less self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, and greater motor impulsivity. Logistic regression showed that the predictors of GD + CSB, which remained in the final model, were being male, a diagnosis of bulimia, greater gambling severity, and less self-transcendence.

Discussion and conclusion

Given those with GD + CSB evidence greater psychopathology, greater attention should be allocated to this often under studied comorbid condition to ensure adequate treatment opportunities.

Open access

Background and aims

Responsible gambling (RG) tools and initiatives have been introduced by social RG operators as a means to help prevent problem gambling. One such initiative is the use of mandatory play breaks (i.e., forced session terminations). Recommendations by RG experts for gambling operators to implement mandatory play breaks appear to be intuitively sensible but are not evidence-based.

Methods

The present authors were given access by the Norwegian gambling operator Norsk Tipping to data from 7,190 video lottery terminal (VLT) players who gambled between January and March 2018. This generated 218,523 playing sessions for further analysis. Once a gambling session reaches a 1-hr play duration, a forced session termination of 90 s comes into effect. This study evaluated the effect of mandatory play breaks on subsequent gambling.

Results

Compared to similar sessions identified using a matched-pairs design, results demonstrated that there was no significant effect of the forced termination regarding the amount of money staked in the subsequent gambling session or on the time duration of the subsequent gambling session.

Conclusions

Although expenditure was higher in the subsequent 24 hr for terminated sessions, this is likely due to higher intensity gamblers being more likely to trigger mandatory breaks. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Open access

Background and aims

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a prevention intervention on French adolescents’ Internet and video games use and on their beliefs concerning gaming and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), in order to adjust prevention programs further.

Methods

The study comprised a prevention intervention group (PIG) and a control group assessed at three times – baseline, post-test, and 4-month follow-up. At baseline, a total of 434 junior high adolescents from five secondary schools were assessed (M age = 13.2 years; SD = 0.5). The main outcome measures were adolescents’ gaming and Internet use (amount of time spent during the week and the weekend), the number of adolescents with IGD, and beliefs about gaming and IGD.

Results

The results showed significant effects of the prevention intervention on Internet and gaming use (at T2, time spent was significantly lower in the PIG), an important increase of IGD prevalence between baseline and follow-up in the control group, and decreased rates of IGD among adolescents in the PIG between post-intervention and follow-up. Between baseline and follow-up, the control group showed a more significant increase of minutes per day during the week and the weekend on Internet versus during the week on video games. The impact of the prevention intervention on adolescents’ beliefs varied according to gender. Girls had a better understanding generally of the potential dangers of and reasons for IGD.

Discussion

Implications for future research and prevention approaches are discussed in this study.

Open access

Érzelemszabályozás – a megküzdés és az érzelmi intelligencia tükrében: Három független, de mégis átfedő elméleti és kutatási tradíció

Emotion regulation – in the context of coping and emotional intelligence literature: Three distinct yet overlapping theoretical and empirical traditions

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Gyöngyi Kökönyei and Natália Kocsel

Properly managed emotional processes have crucial role in the adaptation to environmental demands and in the maintenance of optimal everyday functioning. For this reason, it is important to determine those methods, situations, strategies, abilities or skills by which a person could effectively manage his/her emotions. The aim of this theoretical paper is to investigate the associations and differences of emotional regulation with coping and emotional intelligence literature from the perspective of the Process Model of Emotion Regulation. Beyond the description of the theoretical models, we demonstrate the different processes and strategies through concrete examples; and we deal with the issues of adaptive-maladaptive emotion regulation and positive emotion regulation. Finally, we cite some current empirical results and highlight the importance of ecological validity in emotion regulation research.

Open access

Érzelmi regulációs változások krízisben és traumában – a helyreállítást segítő, pszichológiai tanácsadás során alkalmazható módszerek és gyakorlatok

Changes of emotion regulation in crisis and trauma – useful techniques and practices in counselling that support restoration

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Author: Zsuzsanna Mogyorósy-Révész

This study is focusing on emotion regulation, one of the basic processes of self-regulation. The review of some of the concepts of emotion regulation and its basic neurophysiological mechanisms is followed by the presentation of the acute and chronic stress effects and the related adaptive physiological responses, with special respect to the changes in the arousal processes. Although it has a crucial importance, the relation between the activation level modifications as a result of chronic stress and the attachment attributes as well as the subsequent psychopathology is only outlined. The most important aim of this paper is the systematic review of techniques and practices – applicable also in counselling – which can assist clients to restore their self-regulation processes. The review, that follows the categorization (hyper- and hypo-arousal) developed based on the changes identified in the arousal continuum provides some guidance on how to support clients in the development of a more adequate stress management and emotion regulation strategy along with a habit system, constituting to a tailor made “self-care plan”. The starting point of the “counselling focus” supporting emotion regulation is the analysis of the stress management strategies, followed by an education and training process, during which the client is able to acquire and turn into habits the emotion regulation techniques and practices that fit the most to her/his actual state of mind. In addition to the summary of practical experiences, our results are illustrated by two case vignettes as well.

Open access

Background and aims

Theoretical models of morbid exercise behavior (MEB) suggest that it may emerge as a result of complex interactions between a range of psychosocial factors. However, in spite of fitness-related self-conscious emotions involving such factors, their relationship with the risk of MEB has never been investigated. Consequently, this study had two objectives. First, to explore the relationship that fitness-related self-conscious emotions have with (a) symptoms reflecting MEB as assessed by the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) and (b) exercise frequency. Second, to examine whether these relationships might vary according to disordered eating symptoms.

Methods

A sample of 646 undergraduate students (59% males; M age = 21.25; SD age = 2.94) completed a self-reported questionnaire.

Results

After controlling for age, sex, and disordered eating symptoms, it was found that shame, hubristic pride, and authentic pride positively explained MEB; for their part, guilt (negatively) and authentic pride (positively) explained exercise frequency. The positive relationships between pride and MEB were weaker (in the case of the hubristic facet) or stronger (in the case of the authentic facet) under higher levels of disordered eating symptoms. The independent variables explained 29% (EAI), 28% (EDS-R), and 27% (exercise frequency) of the variance in dependent variables.

Discussion

Tempering fitness-related emotions of shame, guilt, hubristic pride, and authentic pride may contribute to healthier exercise behavior.

Open access

Introduction

Once thought a rarely used drug, LSD use is steadily increasing among US adults. A greater understanding of social factors and psychological determinants leading to lifetime LSD use can assist health educators and professionals in treating this growing problem. This study analyzed psychosocial factors related to LSD use among a national sample of adults.

Methods

A secondary data analysis of the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed.

Results

Results from the final multivariate logistic regression revealed that those who were male, African American or Hispanic, used alcohol, ecstasy, marijuana, inhalants, cocaine, and cigarettes before the age of 21 years, thought about suicide, got a kick out of doing things risky, and tested oneself to do risky things were more likely to use LSD.

Conclusions

This suggests that psychodynamic processes, for example, possible activation of emotional conflicts – can take place spontaneously – during ayahuasca intake in this particular setting. Some participants attributed symbolic meaning to the visionary content, which was more likely to take place in psychotherapeutically motivated clients. The specific setting influence as well as corresponding expectations of the participants in native wisdom could have considerable influence on experiences and interpretations, such as communication with entities as well as receiving personal teachings.

Open access

A gyermekpszichodráma módszere Magyarországon

Kamasz technikák a módszeren belül

The method of psychodrama with children in Hungary

Adolescent techniques inside of the method
Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Author: Viola Szebeni

The academic background of my article is Kende B. Hanna's psychodrama training with children. This method keystone relies on Moreno psychodrama. I cover those techniques in detail that change in the presented method, which are the coordinates of the psychodrama with children. The purpose of my comprehensive essay is to introduce the data of the past five years: how many of such kind of groups operated, how many children played in each team, how old they are and what kind of contents a rise regarding their problems. Meanwhile I introduce the groups I consider it essential to review the nature of each groups: to schematize the age groups, furthermore put emphasis on the special, original group features, such as take an example; the adolescent group. The International Conference for Psychodrama with Children and Youth – the same language – symbolic game was held in Budapest (28-30/09/2018; in organization of Kende Hanna Gyermekpszichodráma Egyesület). During the conference the common playing and thinking with Alfons Aichinger formulated the importance of spreading the psychodrama among all children across Hungary. One of the reasons is because it has already gained international fame and nowadays the interest of Kende B. Hanna's method is getting more and more reputed. This essay also presents well-known techniques from conferences, they are proved and played by adolescences. This psychodrama techniques with children are going to be introduced and shared in details. International collaboration also shows the popularity of the techniques. According to data reports the spreading of psychodrama with children as well as the number of new trainers and psychodrama groups are increasing all over the country. However, I signify some missing parts, highlighting that adolescent groups not yet gained satisfactory amount. It occurs quite often that specialized ambulances operate without group therapy. I expand the power equipment and those forums, where the psychodrama with children can be used in the future. We can introduce our techniques and I would like to search new fields where it has not been used yet. In conclusion my aim is to spread Kende B. Hanna's old-established method and introduce it to a wider audience. This essay describes those techniques – how to play with adolescent – which had been already put into practice, but it is high-time to popularize them. However those techniques are used in practice, they are still barely known. Therefore they need to be promoted.

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Background and aims

Gambling education programs typically focus on promoting gambling as a high-risk activity with harmful effects; however, these programs demonstrate limited effects on the prevention of gambling problems. This paper proposes a clear theoretical framework to inform the content and delivery of gambling education initiatives and draws on psychological and pedagogical research to address some of the practical issues associated with its implementation.

Methods

Literature was reviewed across fields of psychology, public health, and pedagogy to provide key recommendations to improve the outcomes of gambling education.

Results

Four key recommendations were made for the development of future gambling education programs centering on theoretical approach, specialized content, and delivery.

Discussion and conclusions

Recommended advancements are as follows: (a) evidence suggests shifting away from messages about gambling harms and instead applying a cognitive-developmental framework of problem gambling that may improve youth engagement by increasing personal relevance. (b) The cognitive model of problem gambling suggests that misconceptions about the profitability of gambling games (e.g., the gambler’s fallacy) play an important role in the development of problems and should be a key target for education. However, exposing such misconceptions requires the challenge of teaching the mathematical principles that underpin them. (c) The pedagogical field provides valuable insights into teaching complex concepts. Research that applies the conceptual change model to science education suggests misconceptions also facilitate learning new complex information, such as gambling-related mathematical concepts (i.e., randomness and statistics). (d) In addition, improvements in computer-assisted teaching methods provide opportunities to use simulations and visualizations to help teach abstract concepts and correct such misconceptions.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Avery Sapoznikow, Zachary Walsh, Kenneth W. Tupper, Earth Erowid, and Fire Erowid

Background and aims

Ayahuasca is a psychedelic decoction prepared from two (or more) plants containing monoamine oxidase inhibitors, N, N-dimethyltryptamine, and other chemicals. Ayahuasca has apparently been used for centuries in the Amazon basin of South America, and in recent years has increasingly been used internationally in diverse contexts. This study aims to elucidate differences between cross-cultural ceremonial and psychonautic contexts of ayahuasca use.

Methods

This study systematically examines subjective differences across contexts for contemporary ayahuasca-drinking practices. User reports of ayahuasca experiences were subjected to textual analysis to compare use in cross-cultural ceremonial contexts that attempt to include elements of traditional Amazonian practices, with psychonautic use that does not formally integrate traditional ceremonial aspects. The experience reports were collected from an online database.

Results

The use of ayahuasca in a cross-cultural ceremonial context is associated with prominence of affective and motivational features, whereas psychonautic use was associated with an emphasis on cognitive processes.

Conclusions

The beneficial effects of ayahuasca may operate via affective processing and integration and as such, cross-cultural ceremonial use may have advantages relative to psychonautic use. Findings are considered in light of the importance of context on experiences with ayahuasca and other psychedelic substances.

Open access

Background and aims

Smartphone use is becoming commonplace and exerting adequate control over smartphone use has become an important mental health issue. Little is known about the neurobiology underlying problematic smartphone use. We hypothesized that structural abnormalities in the fronto-cingulate brain region could be implicated in problematic smartphone use, similar to that has been reported for Internet gaming disorder and Internet addiction. This study investigated fronto-cingulate gray matter abnormalities in problematic smartphone users, particularly those who spend time on social networking platforms.

Methods

The study included 39 problematic smartphone users with excessive use of social networking platforms via smartphone and 49 normal control male and female smartphone users. We conducted voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm. Region of interest analysis was performed on the fronto-cingulate region to identify whether gray matter volume (GMV) differed between the two groups.

Results

Problematic smartphone users had significantly smaller GMV in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) than healthy controls, and there were significant negative correlations between GMV in the right lateral OFC and the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) score, including the SAPS tolerance subscale.

Conclusions

These results suggest that lateral orbitofrontal gray matter abnormalities are implicated in problematic smartphone use, especially in social networking platform overuse. Small GMV in the lateral OFC was correlated with an increasing tendency to be immersed in smartphone use. Our results suggest that orbitofrontal gray matter abnormalities affect regulatory control over previously reinforced behaviors and may underlie problematic smartphone use.

Open access
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Márta Fülöp, Róbert Urbán, Henriett Nagy, and Tímea Magyaródi

Oláh Attila, az Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem Pedagógiai és Pszichológiai Karának egyetemi tanára nyolc éven át volt a Magyar Pszichológiai Társaság elnöke (2008–2016). A Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle a Magyar Pszichológiai Társaság lapja, ezért a 70. születésnap alkalmából a lap örömmel tiszteleg munkássága előtt kollégáinak és tanítványainak tematikusan összegyűjtött, a folyóirat szabályainak megfelelően referált tudományos cikkeivel, amelyeket a szám vendégszerkesztői, Urbán Róbert, Nagy Henriett és Magyaródi Tímea felügyeltek. A lap főszerkesztője a szerkesztőség nevében is boldog születésnapot kíván Oláh Attilának.

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Background and aims

Video game live-streaming platforms are widely used by gamers. However, the excessive use of such services has rarely been examined. Although psychosocial well-being and motivations for use have been demonstrated to play major roles in online addiction, understanding the moderating mechanism of these two factors is warranted. Video game live-streaming platforms are an ideal context for studying the moderating role of both informational and escapism motivations, because viewers on such platforms can learn gaming strategies or escape from the reality.

Methods

This study collected survey data from 508 users of the highly popular game-streaming service Twitch. The sample was divided into two groups based on the respondents’ use motivations. Regression models with interaction terms were fitted, followed by a simple slope test, to verify the hypotheses.

Results

For the escapism-oriented group, a moderating effect of escapism on the relationship between loneliness and negative outcomes was found; the relationship was positive for low and moderate levels of escapism, but it was non-significant for individuals with high levels of escapism. For the information-oriented group, information seeking was observed to exert a moderating effect on the relationship between stress and negative outcomes; the relationship was negative for low and moderate levels of information seeking, but it was non-significant for individuals demonstrating high levels of information seeking.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings promote understanding regarding how individuals using similar Internet-related coping strategies to deal with problems differ in their propensity for experiencing negative consequences when motivation levels and online environments are considered.

Open access