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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nerilee Hing
,
Matthew Browne
,
Matthew Rockloff
,
Alex M. T. Russell
,
Catherine Tulloch
,
Lisa Lole
,
Hannah Thorne
, and
Philip Newall

Abstract

Background and aims

Smartphones extend the situational characteristics of sports betting beyond those available with land-based and computer platforms. This study examined 1) the role of situational features and betting platforms in harmful betting behaviours and short-term betting harm, and 2) whether people with more gambling problems have preferred situational features, engage more in harmful betting behaviours, and experience more severe short-term betting harm.

Methods

An ecological momentary assessment analysed 1,378 betting sessions on sports, esports or daily fantasy sports, reported by 267 respondents (18–29 years; 50.9% male) over 10 weeks.

Results

Factor analysis revealed five situational features of betting sessions: 1) quick, easy access from home, 2) ability to bet anywhere anytime, 3) privacy while betting, 4) greater access to promotions and betting options, and 5) ability to use electronic financial transactions. Regression models underpinned the analyses. Greater short-term betting harm was significantly associated with the ability to bet anywhere anytime, privacy when betting, and greater access to promotions and betting options. Betting sessions when these features were prioritised were more likely to involve impulsive betting, use of betting inducements, and betting with more operators. Respondents with more gambling problems were more likely to prioritise privacy and the ability to bet anywhere anytime; and to bet on in-game events, use promotional inducements, bet with more operators, and report greater betting harm.

Discussion and conclusions

Certain situational features of sports betting are empirically associated with engagement and subsequent harm. Only smartphone betting combines all three features associated with betting harm.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Resting-state brain activity may be associated with the ability to perform tasks; however, a multimodal approach involving resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) has not been widely used to investigate addictive disorders.

Methods

We explored resting-state fMRI and auditory oddball ERP values from 26 with internet gaming disorder (IGD) patients and 27 age- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs). To assess the characteristics of resting-state fMRI, we calculated regional homogeneity (ReHo), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF); we also calculated the P3 component of the ERPs.

Results

Compared with HCs, the individuals with IGD exhibited significant decreases in ReHo and fALFF values in the left inferior occipital gyrus, increased ReHo and ALFF values in the right precuneus, increased ALFF in the left superior frontal gyrus, and lower P3 amplitudes in the midline centro-parietal area during the auditory ERP task. Furthermore, the regional activity of resting-state fMRI in the right inferior temporal gyrus and the occipital regions were positively correlated with the P3 amplitudes in IGD patients, whereas ReHo values of the left hippocampus and the right amygdala were negatively correlated with P3.

Discussion and conclusions

Our results suggest that IGD patients have difficulty interacting effectively with cognitive function and sensory processing, although its interpretations need some cautions. The findings in this study will broaden the overall understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie IGD pathophysiology.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Psychedelic-assisted therapy (P-AT) has been shown to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms, and is likely to be approved in the United States (US) in the coming years. However, concerns about participant safety in these early trials have surfaced, including allegations of sexual misconduct. This paper aims to illuminate how potential risks have been communicated to P-AT participants via informed consent documents and to suggest how existing policy might be modified given the unique risks involved in P-AT trials.

Methods

Publicly available informed consent forms (ICFs) were gathered by searching clinicaltrials.gov. Queries were applied to filter trials involving the use of a classical psychedelic (psilocybin, LSD) or psychedelic-adjacent substance (MDMA, ketamine) in tandem with psychotherapeutic intervention and those with a status of “completed,” “recruiting,” or “active.”

Results

Nineteen ICFs met inclusion criteria and were reviewed to determine what risks, benefits, and safety protocols were communicated to participants in their respective trials. The primary finding from this review of ICFs from P-AT trials revealed that studies were in compliance with federal regulation. However, there were missing elements related to the vulnerability experienced while under the effects of psychedelics that warrant inclusion in future ICFs in P-AT trials.

Conclusion

Although the ICFs for P-AT trials examined in this study covered several important areas related to risk, benefits, safety, and accountability as required by federal regulations in the US, future research should consider ways to expand this content in order to assure that consent is truly informed prior to enrolling subjects.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

In the digital age, Internet addiction (IA) was deemed an epidemic and few treatments had been effectively developed for it. Here, we proposed a solution-focused group counseling (SFGC) as a potentially solution to reduce Internet addiction among college students. The present study examined the short- and long-term effect of a five-week solution-focused group counseling intervention on Internet addiction.

Methods

Thirty-two participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group, and twenty-six participants completed the whole intervention. The experimental group (n = 14) received the intervention, while control group (n = 12) did not. The revised version of the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Future Time Perspective, and resting-state EEG were administered pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at two follow-up tests (one month and six months after intervention).

Results

The results showed that the scores of the CIAS-R in the experimental group were significantly decreased after intervention, and these effects could be sustained for one month and six months follow-ups. Additionally, the intervention conducted an increase in future time perspective. EEG results further suggested that the alpha, beta, and gamma absolute power decreased after the intervention.

Conclusion

These results from the pilot-study primarily suggested that solution-focused group counseling could be an effective intervention for Internet addiction.

Open access

Abstract

Community-based literacy teaching workshops attend to the learning needs of new students who have not been able to benefit from enrollment as children in the public school system. The following report from the field calls attention to the special circumstances of this heterogeneous group of literacy learners. The workshop described here engages learners who are literacy learners as well as second language learners of the national language, in this case Spanish. Literacy learning proceeds in parallel with second language learning. The report summarizes a series of informal interviews with students and their teacher and observation of their adult literacy program, during a period of approximately ten years. As such it provides preliminary findings for better understanding the problems of community literacy programs in bilingual communities in general. The tasks of learning to read and write present themselves in a special situation of language contact, that of community language and national language.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Vasileios Stavropoulos
,
Daniel Zarate
,
Maria Prokofieva
,
Noirin Van de Berg
,
Leila Karimi
,
Angela Gorman Alesi
,
Michaella Richards
,
Soula Bennet
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Background and aims

Gaming disorder [GD] risk has been associated with the way gamers bond with their visual representation (i.e., avatar) in the game-world. More specifically, a gamer's relationship with their avatar has been shown to provide reliable mental health information about the user in their offline life, such as their current and prospective GD risk, if appropriately decoded.

Methods

To contribute to the paucity of knowledge in this area, 565 gamers (M age = 29.3 years; SD =10.6) were assessed twice, six months apart, using the User-Avatar-Bond Scale (UABS) and the Gaming Disorder Test. A series of tuned and untuned artificial intelligence [AI] classifiers analysed concurrently and prospectively their responses.

Results

Findings showed that AI models learned to accurately and automatically identify GD risk cases, based on gamers' reported UABS score, age, and length of gaming involvement, both concurrently and longitudinally (i.e., six months later). Random forests outperformed all other AIs, while avatar immersion was shown to be the strongest training predictor.

Conclusion

Study outcomes demonstrated that the user-avatar bond can be translated into accurate, concurrent and future GD risk predictions using trained AI classifiers. Assessment, prevention, and practice implications are discussed in the light of these findings.

Open access

Abstract

The present paper deals with a research methodology issue. After an introductory literature review, it presents a novel model developed to study the diffusion of educational innovations. This model does not focus on the time course, phases, or characteristics of diffusion, which can be described by various innovation indicators, but on persistent structural elements such as the actors, their relationships, and the territorial, organizational, or other entities that host the actors. The latter, which separate the actors from each other or even constitute a common space for them are called containers. The presented actor-container model (ACM) was developed to help interpret empirical data in the context of a larger research, named Innova project, dealing with the emergence, diffusion, and system-shaping impact of bottom-up innovations initiated by teachers or other local actors in the education sector. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of ACM by analyzing the responses of educational institutions (organizations) at different levels of public and higher education in Hungary, based on the 2018 online questionnaire survey database (N = 2042). The examples presented show that ACM provides a unique perspective for research on innovation diffusion by shedding new light on actors and containers, opening up new possibilities for data analysis and results interpretation. We believe that ACM can be applied not only in the context of educational innovations but also in other innovation fields.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Chih-Hung Ko
,
Orsolya Király
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Mark D. Griffiths
,
Takahiro A. Kato
,
Masaru Tateno
, and
Ju-Yu Yen

Abstract

Background

The eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) defines the three key diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder (GD). These are loss of control over gaming, gaming as a priority over daily activities, and impaired functioning due to gaming. While this definition has implications for the prevention and treatment of GD, there is significant heterogeneity in the symptoms and etiology of GD among individuals, which results in different treatment needs. Cognitive control, emotional regulation, and reward sensitivity are three critical dimensions in the etiology model for GD. Aspects such as gender, comorbidity, motivation for gaming, stage or severity of GD, and risk factors all contribute to the heterogeneity of etiology among individuals with the disorder.

Method

On the basis of clinical symptoms and comorbidity characteristics among approximately 400 patients with gaming disorder, the present paper proposes a clinical typology of patients with GD based on the authors' clinical experience in treating individuals with GD.

Results

The findings indicated three common types of patients with GD: (i) impulsive male patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (ii) dysphoria patients with dysfunctional coping skills, and (iii) isolated patients with social anxiety. The paper also discusses the presentation and treatment priority for these patients.

Conclusion

Personalized treatments for patients with GD should be developed to fit their individual needs. Future studies should examine the heterogeneity of GD and confirm these types, as well as obtain evidence-based information that can help in the development of personalized treatment. Treatment resources should be developed, and professionals should be trained to provide integrated individualized treatment.

Open access