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A klinikai pszichológia 30 éve

Clinical Psychology in Hungary for the Last 30 Years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Bernadette Péley

A klinikai pszichológia megalapozása a gyakorlati alkalmazás oldatáról kezdődött, a diagnosztikai módszerek rendszerezésével és adaptálásával. Az elmúlt harminc évben széles területet lefedő kutatások születtek, és maga a klinikai pszichológia is differenciálódott. A fejlődési pszichopatológia új perspektívát jelent a klinikai pszichológiai gondolkodásban, ami jól követhető a különböző pszichopatológiai jelenségek kutatásaiban is.

The foundations of clinical psychology started from professional practice, with the systematization and adaptation ofdia,gnostic methods. Over the last thirty years, research has been carried out in various fields, and clinical psychology has differentiated. Developmental psychopathology represents a new perspective in clinical psychological thinking. This new framework induces recent researches in multiple psychopathological phenomena.

Open access

A környezetpszichológiától az ember-környezet tranzakció tudományig - áttekintés az elmúlt (majdnem) 30 évről

From Environmental Psychology to the Human-Environment Transaction Science - Overview of the Past (Almost) 30 Years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Andrea Dúll

A környezetpszichológia az 1960-70-es években az USA-ban és Kanadában alakult ki. A területnek Magyarországon - a jelen összefoglaló írásának idején - mintegy két és fél évtizedes múltja van. A hazai környezetpszichológia alapés alkalmazott kutatásokkal indult az 1990-es évek közepén a téma transzdiszciplináris, ember-környezet kölcsönhatást hangsúlyozó szemléletéből adódóan folyamatosan szorosan együttműködve az építészettel, illetve a környezettervezéssel és -alakítással, a geográfiával, illetve később a tájépítészettel. Az itthoni környezetpszichológia - a nemzetközi viszonyokhoz hasonlóan - részben önálló pszichológiai terület, részben az építészet és a környezettervező tudományok társtudománya, illetve mediátorként működik a laikus környezethasználók és a tervezők között. Az elmúlt két és fél évtized a terület térnyerésének és megerősödésének folyamata volt Magyarországon, amit az intézményesülés lépései is tükröznek. 2021-ben alakult meg az ELTE Pedagógiai és Pszichológiai Karán az Ember-Környezet Tranzakció Intézet (EKTI), amely feladatának tekinti a magyarországi - immár ember-környezet tranzakció tudománnyá szélesedett - környezetpszichológia oktatását, kutatását és az ezen a területen zajló projektek kezdeményezését, koordinálását a fenntarthatóság, az épített/természeti/virtuális környezetek pszichológiája és az ember és környezete kölcsönkapcsolat mediálása terén. A tanulmányban áttekintjük a hazai környezetpszichológia kialakulásának történetét és néhány kutatási területét (környezeti egészségpszichológia, laikusok és szakértők környezeti kompetenciája, helyjelentés, mentális térképezés, helykötődés és helyveszteség, helyidentitás, pro-environmentális megközelítés a környezetpszichológiában).

Environmental psychology developed in the United States and Canada in the 1960s and 1970s. The area in Hungary - at the time of writing this summary - has a history ofabout two and a half decades. Hungarian environmental psychology started with basic and applied research in the mid-1990s. Due to the transdisciplinary approach of environmental psychology, emphasizing human-environment interaction, it works in continuous cooperation with architecture, environmental design, geography and later with landscape architecture. On one hand, Hungarian environmental psychology, similarly to international situation, is an independent field of psychology. On the other hand, it is a co-science ofarchitecture and environmental design and acts as a mediator in interactions between lay users and designers. The last two and a half decades have been a process of gaining and strengthening of the area in Hungary, which is also reflected in the steps of institutionalization. In 2021, the Institute of Human-Environmental Transaction (EKTI) was established at the Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, which considers its main tasks and missions to teach environmental psychology and doing people-environment transaction research in Hungary. Working on environmental psychological projects, science ofenvironmental psychology has now expanded into the science ofhuman-environment transactions with important aims and tasks to initiate and coordinate projects in the fields ofsustainability, the psychology of built / natural / virtual environments and human-environment interactions. In this review, the history of the development of environmental psychology in Hungary and some of its research areas (environmental health psychology, environmental competence of lay people vs. experts, mental mapping, place attachment and loss of place, place identity, and pro-environmental approach) are presented.

Open access

A tanulmány célja a kulturális összehasonlító pszichológia szakterület elmúlt harminc évének áttekintése, a kutatási területek és az intézményesülés bemutatása. A rendszerváltás előtti tematikák rövid ismertetése után a rendszerváltás utáni, a rendszerváltás társadalmi-kulturális változásait feltárni kívánó kutatások sorozata következik. A rendszerváltás, a nemzetközi szakmai együttműködések felszabadításával lehetővé tette azt, hogy a korábban kutatott tematikák kibővüljenek és egyre több kutatónak nyíljon arra lehetősége, hogy egy-egy kutatás erejéig vagy akár kutatássorozatok formájában kulturális összehasonlító vizsgálatokat végezzen. Az utóbbi évtizedben Magyarország ugyancsak képviselteti magát a nagy, sok országra kiterjedő, kulturális összehasonlító kutatásokban is, így lehetővé válik számos pszichológiai konstruktum esetében a magyar válaszadókra jellemző pszichés működésmódok nemzetközi összehasonlításban történő elhelyezése.

A tanulmány bemutatja azokat az intézményi központokat is, amelyek a kulturális összehasonlító kutatások jelenlegi magyarországi műhelyei, az ott dolgozó kutatókat és a jelenleg kutatott tematikákat.

The aim of the paper is to review the past thirty years in the field of cultural comparative psychology, to present research areas and institutionalization. After a brief description of the topics before the change of regime, a series of post-change studies exploring the socio-cultural cha,nges of the change of regime follow. The change of regime, with the release of international professional collaborations, has made it possible to expand the topics previously researched and to give more and more researchers the opportunity to carry out cultural comparative studies to the extent of a single research or even in the form of a series of research. In the last decade, Hungary has also been represented in large, multi-country, comparative cultural research, thus making it possible to place the psychological functioning of Hungarian respondents in international comparisons in the case of many psychological constructs.

The study also presents the institutional centers that are the current workshops of cultural comparative research in Hungary, the researchers working there and the topics currently being researched.

Open access

Matematikai pszichológia / pszichológiai statisztika / mérés

Mathematical Psychology / Psychological Statistics / Psychometrics

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: András Vargha

A pszichológia matematikai alapokon nyugvó fejlesztése Magyarországon az elmúlt 30 évben elsősorban három intézményhez köthető, ezek: a DE, az ELTE és a KRE Pszichológiai Intézete. A matematikai pszichológia hazai központja a DE Pszichológiai Intézete, ahol az elmúlt évtizedekben jelentős eredményeket értek el a méréselmélet és a strukturális egyenletek modelljeivel kapcsolatban. A pszichológiai statisztikán belül figyelemre méltó, nemzetközi mércével mérve is kiemelkedő hazai eredmények születtek - több kutatóhelyhez kötődve - a statisztikai próbák kritikája, a bayesi statisztika, a paraméteres próbák és robusztus változataik megbízhatósága, a rangsorolásos eljárások, az idősorelemzés, valamint a klasszifikációs eljárások témaköreiben. Az elmúlt 30 évben a mérés, pszichometria témakörében is születtek kiemelkedő hazai eredmények.

The mathematically based development of psychology in Hungary in the past 30 years can be attached primarily to the Institutes of Psychology of three universities: Debrecen University, Eötvös Loránd University, and Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church. The national center of mathematical psychology is the Institute of Psychology of Debrecen University, where substantial results have been obtained in the last decades with regard measurement theory and structural equation modelling. Within psychological statistics, outstanding outcomes have been published - mostly in international journals - in the topics of hypothesis testing, Bayesian statistics, reliability of parametric tests and their robust variants, ordinal methods, time series analysis, and classification analyses. In the last 30 years, some significant results can be due to the topic of psychometrics as well.

Open access

A nem szuicidális önsértés és motivációjának mérése serdülőknél: az Állítások az Önsértés Kapcsán Kérdőív (ISAS-HU) magyar adaptációja

Measuring Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and its Motivation Among Adolescents: Hungarian Adaptation of the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Melinda Reinhardt, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Boglárka Drubina, and Róbert Urbán

Háttér és célkitűzések: A nem öngyilkossági szándékkal végrehajtott szándékos önsértés (pl. a testfelszín direkt megvágása, megütése) élettartam-prevalenciáját a különböző kutatások normatív kamaszpopulációkban 18 és 40% közé teszik. Kevés olyan kérdőív van azonban, mely az önsértést részletesen tárja fel. Kutatásunk célja egy összetett önsértés kérdőív, az Állítások az Önsértés Kapcsán Kérdőív (ISAS-HU) bevezetése volt a magyar tesztállományba.

Módszer: 1015 középiskolás kamasz (66,1%; N = 671 lány; átlagéletkor 16,81 év; szórás = 1,42) töltötte ki a kérdőívcsomagot, mely az önsértés komplex felmérése mellett érzelemszabályozási nehézségekre és pszichés betegségtünetekre kérdezett rá.

Eredmények: A vizsgált serdülők 58,8%-a (N = 597) sohasem folytatott élete során önsértést, míg 41,2%-uk (N = 418) arról számolt be, hogy végzett már legalább egyszer valamilyen önsértő cselekedetet. A teljes minta 31,7%-a (N = 322) mindezt az elmúlt hónapba.n tette. A lányok másfélszer nagyobb eséllyel válnak önsértővé, mint a fiúk, s a sohasem önsértők jellemezhetők a legjobb pszichés egészségmutatókkal. Tanulmányunkban az önsértéshez kapcsolódó attitüdinális komponensek leíró a,datait is közöljük. A kérdőív második egységén, az önsértés hátterében álló lehetséges okok tételein elvégzett, azok kereszttöltéseit is megengedő megerősítő faktorelemzés (Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling) a skála eredeti kétfaktoros szerkezetét igazolta. Az önsértés hátterében egy markáns intraperszonális és egy interperszonális motívumkör rajzolódott ki, kiváló megbízhatósági mutatókkal. Az önsértő lányok almintáján elvégzett validációs elemzések az elvártakat igazolták: az intraperszonális okok miatt elkövetett önsértés rosszabb pszichés állapottal és kifejezettebb érzelemszabályozási nehézségekkel társult. A repetitív önsértők a „kipróbálókhoz ” képest pedig inkább intraperszonális okok miatt folytatnak önsértést.

Következtetések: Az ISAS-HU egy pszichometriailag jól működő, a nem szuicidális önsértést számos szempontból könnyen és gyorsan felmérő komplex mérőeszköz.

Background and aims: Lifetime prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (e.g, direct cutting or hitting the own body) is estimated between 18 % and 40% in community adolescents samples. However, limited number of complex, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior screening questionnaires exist. Therefore, the main aim of our research was to introduce a detailed self-injury questionnaire, the Hungarian version ofthe Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS-HU) into the Hungarian test system.

Methods: High school students (N=1015; 66.1% girls (N=671); mean age was 16.81; SD=1.42) filled out questionnaires on emotion regulation, mental health aspects, and self-injurious behaviours.

Results: Nearly 60% ofthe adolescents (58.8%; N=597) have never, while 41.2% (N=418) have alrea,dy enga.ged in self-harm at least once in their life. Thirty two percent of the whole sample (N=322) engaged in self-harm in the previous month. Girls are at one and a half times greater risk for self-harm than boys. Adolescents who have never engaged in self-harm enjoyed the best psychological health. We provide further descriptives of attitudinal components of self-harm behaviour. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, which allows cross-loadings of the items, strengthened the original two-factor structure of the second part of the ISAS-HU; an intrapersonal and an interpersonal function factor emerged with good reliability. Among girls intrapersonal functions of self-harm associated with poorer mental health and more maladaptive emotion regulation. Repetitive self-harmers, in comparison with occasional self-harmers, engaged in self-harm mainly because of intrapersonal motives.

Conclusions: ISAS-HU is a psychomterically valid tool which can assess non-suicidal self-injury easily, quick and in its complexity.

Open access

A tanulmány bemutatja a pozitív pszichológia (PP) új évezredre datálható színre lépésétől a zászlóbontással szinte egy időben Magyarországon is elinduló térhódításának történetét és a hazai PP dinamikus fejlődésének folyamatát. A mozgalom eszmei előzményeinek feltárásában jelentős hozzájárulásként említi Pléh Csabának a PP eszmetörténetét lefektető elemzéseit, amelyekben rávilágít arra, hogy a modern PP emberképében kiemelt tényezők előképei jól azonosíthatók a 19. század közepétől kezdődően az európai pszichológiában. J. S. Mill, Karl Bühler és W. Stern pozitív pszichológia felé vezető meglátásaira utalva hívja fel a figyelmet arra, hogy az öndeterminált, értékorientált, saját értékrendjének alakításával a pozitív élményállapotok, túlsúlyának megteremtésére a szeretet, a tudásszerzés és az értelemkeresés révén törekvő ember képe nem egy kizárólagos „amerikai termék”. A hazai pozitív pszichológia tablóját bemutatva a tanulmány számba veszi azokat a pozitív pszichológia által fókuszba állított témákat (flow, érzelmi intelligencia, spiritualitás, értelemkeresés, jóllét, mentális egészség, boldogságorientáció, protektív faktorok), amelyek művelése során a magyarországi PP műhelyek (ELTE, Pozitív Pszichológiai Laboratórium, Szegedi Egyetem, Károli Gáspár Református Egyetem, Pécsi Tudományegyetem) nemzetközi kitekintésben is elismerést hozó eredményeket értek el. A PP hazai térhódításának bizonyítékaként a tanulmány kiemeli, hogy a 2012-ben felmért magyar pozitív pszichológiai közlemények száma 2020-ra megháromszorozódott, látványosan nő a PP témákat művelő fiatal kutatók és a PP témákból készült PhD-disszertációk száma. A PP az egyetemi oktatás minden szintjén (BA, MA, Doktori képzés) bekerült a képzés tananyagába. Egyre gazdagabb a magyar szakemberek által írt művekből összeállt könyvkínálat is, amelyből a PP gyakorlati alkalmazását ismerhetjük meg a pszichológia különböző alkalmazotti ágaiban. A tanulmány méltatja Csíkszentmihályi Mihály érdemeit a hazai PP fejlődésének előmozdításában.

The study presents the history of the spread of positive psychology (PP), which dates back to the new millennium, and the process of the dynamic development of the Hungarian PP, which started almost simultaneously with the flag breakdown of PP.

The study highlights Csaba Pléh’s analyzes as a significant contribution to the exploration of the ideological antecedents of the high-hoping movement in which he points out that the precedents ofthe factors highlighted in the human image of modern PP have been well identifiable in European psychology since the middle ofthe 19th century. Referring to the views of J. S. Mill, Karl Bühler and W. Stern towards positive psychology, he draws attention to the fact that the self-determined, value-oriented ima.ge of man is not an exclusive “American product”. Presenting the Hungarian Positive Psychology situation, the study takes stock of the topics brought into focus by positive psychology (flow, emotional intelligence, spirituality, meaning-seeking, wellbeing, mental health, happiness orientation) in the Hungarian PP workshops (ELTE, Positive Psychology Laboratory, Szeged). University, Károli Gáspár Reformed University, University of Pécs) have also achieved results in international recognition. As evidence of the prevalence of PP in Hungary, the study highlights that the number of Hungarian positive psychological publications surveyed in 2012 tripled by 2020, with a spectacular increase in the number of young researchers working on PP topics and PhD dissertations on PP topics. PP at all levels of university education (BA, MA, Doctoral training) has been included in the curriculum. There is also an increasing supply of books compiled from works written by Hungarian experts, from which we can learn about the practical application of PP in various branches of psychology. The study praises the merits of Mihály Csikszentmihalyi in promoting the development of Hungarian PP.

Open access

A pszichológiai szakirodalmi feldolgozás támogatása a hálózatelemzés módszerével: A tanácsadás pszichológiájának lehetséges taxonómiája

Processing Psychological Literature with the Methodology of Network-Analysis: A Potential Taxonomy of Counseling Psychology

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Csaba Czabán and Olivér Nagybányai-Nagy

A pszichológia tudományának vizsgálati területei rendkívül sokszínűek, áttekinthetőségük, belső strukturáltságuk megértése sokszor igen komplex feladat, azonban ennek témakörtől függetlenül megkerülhetetlen lépése a szakirodalom-gyűjtés. Az átfogó jellegű szakirodalmak feldolgozása során alapvetően két fő irányba indulhatunk, egyrészt a kvalitatív jellegű narratív összefoglalók, másrészt pedig a kva.ntitatív jellegű metaanalízisek áttekintését végezhetjük el. A vizsgált terület fogalmi rendszerének feltárását, integrálását az itt bemutatandó hálózatelemzési módszerünk hatékonyan képes támogatni, hiszen nem csak a globális megértés terén, hanem a kutatási fókusz specifikált, új részterületek felé való orientálásában is segítséget nyújthat. Tanulmányunkban a pszichológiai tanácsadás témakörének példáján vezetjük végig ennek folyamatát, egyrészt egy automatizált (web-scraping) adatgyűjtést, másrészt az így kapott adatokon pedig egy hálózatelemzést elvégezve. Eredményként a modularitásalapú közösségdetekció révén a pszichológiai tanácsadás szakirodalmából kirajzolódó hálózatnak a legfontosabb témakörcsoportjait képesek voltunk beazonosítani. Összességében négy fő hálózatfmgmentumot kaptunk, ezek a „földrészek ” képezhetik a pszichológiai tanácsadás világtérképének alapját.

Examining and understanding the different fie lds and areas of psychological science and methodology is a complex, time-consuming task, that invariably requires collecting and processing scientific literature. When deciding on how to process comprehensive scientific literature, we can either choose between (qualitative) narrative reviews or (quantitative) meta-analysis.

The network-analysis methodology is an efficient way of supporting the exploration, research and integration of a specific fiel d’s terminology, not only in terms of global understanding, but also in terms of helping to orient towards new, research-focused subareas.

Our study introduces this methodology using an example from counseling psychology. First it reveals the process of automated data collection (web scraping), then it shows how to process this data by using network-analysis.

As a result, we were able to determine and draw patterns between the key topics of counseling psychology in scientific literature in the fiel d of modularity-based community detection. Altogether we obtained four main network fractures, whereas these fig uratively speaking „continents” could build the fundamentals of the counseling psychology world-map.

Open access

A stressz szerepe a szocioökonómiai helyzet és a végrehajtó működések közötti kapcsolat szempontjából gyermekkorban

The Role of Stress in the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Executive Functions in Childhood

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Réka Kassai, Judit Futó, and Zsófia K. Takács

Háttér és célkitűzések: A szocioökonómiai szempontból hátrányos helyzetben felnövő gyermekek az élet számos területén, köztük az olyan kognitív készségek fejlődésében is, mint a végrehajtó funkciók mutatnak elmaradást a magasabb társadalmi osztályú családok gyermekeihez képest. Feltételezhető, hogy ezen jelenség hátterében álló egyik mechanizmus az, hogy ezek a gyermekek fokozottabb káros stresszhatásoknak vannak kitéve az életük során. Jelen ta.nulmány célja az volt, hogy magyarországi mintán tanulmányozzuk a szocioökonómiai helyzet egyes komponenseinek és a végrehajtó funkcióknak a kapcsolatát óvodás korú gyermekek esetében, illetve a kortizolhormonszint (mint a stressz indikátora) ezen kapcsolatban játszott szerepét.

Módszer: A kutatás során négy különböző óvodából toboroztunk szocioökonómiai szempontból heterogén mintát. Az elemzéseket 76 résztvevő (45 fiú, 31 lány, életkoruk 52-83 hó, átlag életkoruk 70,85 hó) adatai alapján végeztük: A szocioökonómiai státuszra vonatkozó információkat szülőktől gyűjtöttük kérdőíves módszerrel, a gyerekek végrehajtó funkcióit számítógépen végzett neuropszichológiai tesztekkel (Corsi-kocka, Go/ No-Go, Hearts and Flowers) vizsgáltuk, a gyerekek stresszszintjére pedig a kortizolhormonszintjük (reggeli nyálminta, ELIZA-módszerrel történő elemzés) alapján következtettünk.

Eredmények: Az eredményeink összhangban vannak a korábbi szakirodalmak következtetéseivel, miszerint az általunk mért szocioökonómiai helyzet komponensei közül csak a szülői iskolázottság mutat szignifikáns kapcsolatot a gyermek végrehajtó működéseivel, a csaád bevétele nem. Továbbá a kortizolhormonszint részleges mediáló hatással van ezen változók kapcsolatára.

Következtetések: Megalapozottan feltételezhetjük tehát, hogy a fokozott stressz az egyik tényező, amelyen keresztül a szocioökonómiai helyzet befolyással van a gyermekek kognitív készségeire, azonban további faktorok is meghatározóak lehetnek.

Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged children lag behind in several areas of life, including the development of cognitive skills like executive functions, as compared to children living in higher social classes. It can be assumed that one ofthe underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon is that these children are exposed to an increased amount of adverse stress throughout their lives. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the components of socioeconomic status and executive functions in a Hungarian sample of preschool children, and the role ofcortisol hormone levels (as an indicator of stress) in this regard.

Methods: We recruited a socioeconomically diverse sample of children from four different preschools. The analyses reported in the present study were performed based on data from 76 participants (45 male, 31 female, a.ge mnge 52-83 months, mean age 70,85 months). Information regarding the socioeconomic status was collected from parents by questionnaires, children’s executive functions were measured by computerized neuropsychological tests (Corsi Block, Go/No-Go, Hearts and Flowers), and their stress level was assessed by cortisol hormone levels from saliva samples (morning sampling, measured by ELISA method).

Results: Our results are in line with previous findings showing that it is only parental education that has a significant relationship with the executive functions ofchildren, while family income does not. In addition, cortisol hormone levels were found to partially mediate the relationship between parental educational level and children’s executive function capacities.

Conclusions: We can conclude that increased stress is one of the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences children’s cognitive skills, but other factors may also be determinants.

Open access

A szociálpszichológia utóbbi három évtizede a kutatás és a publikációk határozott irányaival jellemezhető hazánkban. 1) Az első tárgykör a szociális identitás különböző (generációs, nemzeti, kulturális és nemi) aspektusait, ezen makrostrukturális csoportok viszonyait, a működő sztereotípiákat és a multikulturális nevelést öleli fel. Ezen a széles szaktudományos területen a különböző egyetemeken és kutatóintézetben folytonos fejlődés ment végbe, az elméleti megközelítések és módszertani megoldások gazdag változatossága mellett. 2) A második nagyobb tematikus egység a változások szociálpszichológiája volt, mind a „kommunizmus bukását” követő társadalmi-politikai változásokra, mind az internet és általában a kommunikációs technológia forradalmi hatásaira kitekintve. 3) A hatékony kutatómunka harmadik fontos területe a személyközi és szervezeti viselkedés dinamikája, kitüntetett figyelemmel az együttműködés és versengés kontinuumára. 4) A negyedik témakör a személyes értékekhez, ezeknek az egyéni világképben játszott szerepéhez és a nevelés révén végbemenő értékátadáshoz kötődött. Ebben az időszakban jelentős kutatásmódszertani fejlődés ment végbe, és erősödtek a szociálpszichológia és más társadalomtudományok (a nevelés-, közgazdaságés jogtudomány) közötti kapcsolatok.

The last three decades of social psychology can be characterised by specific thematic directionsin Hungary. The first direction includes different aspects of social identity (generational, national, cultural, gender), intergroup relationships between these macrostructural social groups, stereotypes and the mechanisms of the multiculturial education. The second major thematic unite encompasses the social psychology of change, both the societal-political change after the „fall ofcommunism”, and the revolutionary effects of the internet, and the technology of communcation in general. The third important field is the dynamics of the interpersonal and organizational behavior, with a special regard to the cooperation-competion continuum. The fourth trend involves the personal values, their role in the individuals’ world views, and the transmission of values via education. During this period a significant methodolodical development took place and the interdisciplinary relations strengthened among social psychology and other social sciences (especially educational science, economy and law).

Open access

A transzlációs tudomány a laboratóriumi megfigyelések lefordítását jelenti a gyakorlati területekre. A kutatás és az élet között akkor valósul meg a kapcsolat, ha erre szándékosan törekszenek a tudományág művelői. Magyarországon, csakúgy, mint a nemzetközi gyakorlatban, ez a szándék elsősorban az orvosi területeken jelent meg expliciten, a transzlációs megközelítést nevükben is hordozó intézményekben. Cikkünkben az orvosi gyakorlattal párhuzamosan kialakuló, kísérleti és klinikai pszichológiai alapokra épülő transzlációs törekvéseket mutatjuk be.

Translational science involves the translation of laboratory results to the applied fields. Research and real life can only be related in any sense if the scientists are aware of the need to translate their findings. This kind of awareness and the institutionalization of the translational idea has been apparent especially in the medical fields internationally as well as in the Hungarian practice. In this paper, we introduce those translational efforts that are built upon experimental and clinical psychological research and have been developed in parallel to the medical translational practice.

Open access

Abstract

Tanzania’s education system has been passing through different changes in its policies and strategic implementation plans. As a result, improvements in various areas, such as increased students’ enrolment rate, improved pass rates, and improved infrastructure at all levels have been realized. This pilot study aimed at understanding the awareness and perception of policymakers, employers, instructors, and students of the importance of policies in integrating workplace learning and technical higher education. With the main question being, how stakeholders in the education sector perceive the importance of policies in integrating workplace learning and technical higher education. In order to answer the above question, a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was conducted with policymakers, employers, instructors, and students. Most of the interviewees stated that policies have significant roles in ensuring the smooth integration and implementation of these two learning modes. On the other side, several challenges were mentioned in policy implementation and realization of the strategic plans. These challenges were categorized as those related to the public’s and students’ awareness and readiness, financial constraints, educational institutes’ readiness, and operationalization of the organizations and educational institutes. From this pilot study, insightful information is gained on the importance of having policies that take into account all main stakeholders in higher education.

Open access

Abstract

Serotonergic (or “classic”) psychedelics have struck many researchers as raising significant philosophical questions that, until recently, were largely unexplored by academic philosophers. This paper provides an overview of four emerging lines of research at the intersection of academic philosophy and psychedelic science that have gained considerable traction in the last decade: selfless consciousness, psychedelic epistemology, psychedelic ethics, and spiritual/religious naturalism. In this paper, we highlight philosophical questions concerning (i) psychedelics, self-consciousness, and phenomenal consciousness, (ii) the epistemic profile of the psychedelic experience; (iii) ethical concerns about the appropriate use of psychedelics; and (iv) whether spiritual or religious dimensions of psychedelic use are compatible with a naturalistic worldview.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Recently, there has been significantly increased participation in online gaming and other addictive behaviors particularly in adolescents. Tendencies to avoid social interaction and become more involved in technology-based activities pose the danger of creating unhealthy addictions. Thus, the presence of relatively immature cognitive control and high risk-taking properties makes adolescence a period of major changes leading to an increased rate of emotional disorders and addiction.

Aims

The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits in addiction have become the primary focus associated with reward in the striatum and cognitive control in the PFC. Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and nicotine addiction are currently becoming more and more serious.

Methods

In the light of neuroimaging, the similarity between brain mechanisms causing substance use disorder (SUD) and IGD have been described in previous literature.

Results

In particular, two distinct brain systems affect the way we act accounting for uncharacteristic neural function in addiction: the affective system comprises of the striatum driven by emotional, reward-related, and internal stimuli, and a cognitive system consisting of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) supporting the ventral affective system's actions via inhibitory control.

Discussion and Conclusion

Therefore, as a novel concept, we focused on the implication of frontostriatal circuits in nicotine addiction and IGD by reviewing the main findings from our studies compared to those of others. We hope that all of these neuroimaging findings can lead to effective intervention and treatment for addiction especially during this critical period.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

Problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) is prevalent and increases the risk for a variety of health problems. However, few studies have explored the neural mechanisms that might render adolescents more or less vulnerable. Here, we aimed to identify whether PMPU is associated with depressive symptoms and whether this relationship is moderated by intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) which is associated with PMPU.

Methods

In this longitudinal study, we included 238 students (mean age = 19.05, SD = 0.81) that came from a university in Hefei, China. They all finished MRI scans at baseline and completed questionnaires both at baseline and 1 year later. A self-rating questionnaire for adolescent problematic mobile phone use and depression anxiety stress scale-21 were used to assess PMPU and depressive symptoms. We first assessed the relationship between PMPU and depressive symptoms using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Then, we detected the brain regions that were associated with PMPU. Moreover, the neuroimaging results were extracted to explore whether the iFC of these brain regions moderated the relationship between PMPU and depression.

Results

Consistent with our hypotheses, PMPU was positively associated with depressive symptoms, and the relationship between PMPU and depressive symptoms was moderated by iFC of the left parahippocampal gyrus-right middle temporal gyrus both at baseline and after 1 year (β = 0.554, P = 0.003; β = 0.463, P = 0.016, respectively).

Conclusions

These results advance the understanding of PMPU and suggest that iFC of the left parahippocampal gyrus-right middle temporal gyrus may be a neurobiological contributor to its relationship with depressive symptoms.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Research recognizes the extent of harm experienced by concerned significant others (CSOs) of gamblers. This systematic review’s aims are to examine the interventions for CSOs, evaluate potential benefits, and thematically describe treatment processes. The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support model (SSCS) served as the theoretical framework.

Methods

Database searches were conducted in: MEDLINE, CINAHL Complete, Web of Science Core Collection, Social Services Abstracts, Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and APA PsycInfo (between 01/Jan 2011–10/Jun 2021). Other search methods were also utilized. Inclusion criteria: interventions for CSOs with CSO specific outcomes. The Evidence Project Risk of Bias Tool was used for assessment.

Results

19/768 records were included. Nine interventions were utilized: 3 CSO directed, 4 for couples, and 2 low threshold online interventions. A quantitative synthesis (N = 7 studies) of effect size estimates for depression and anxiety measures didn’t indicate any intervention to have better outcomes than others. Core themes in the treatment process identified in the qualitative synthesis (N = 7) included: information and understanding, social support, coping skills, communication, and strain. Limitations in the evidence related to sampling, control-conditions and outcome measurements.

Discussion and conclusion

Several interventions were identified, yet no specific interventions appeared more beneficial than others. Using the SSCS model, commonalities and differences in intervention content were identified, along with themes that influence treatment processes. The need for tailored interventions is discussed. Future treatment efficacy research should carefully select study designs and outcome measurements. PROSPERO (CRD42021229408).

Open access

Abstract

Background

Addictive behaviors share clinical, genetic, neurobiological and phenomenological parallels with substance addictions. Despite the prevalence of compulsive sexual behaviors, particularly problematic pornography use (PPU), how neuroendocrine systems relate to PPU is not well understood. Preclinical studies demonstrate alterations in oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) function in animal models of addiction, but no human study has tested their involvement in PPU.

Method

Participants included 122 males; 69 reported PPU, and 53 were demographically-matched participants without PPU. Plasma oxytocin and AVP levels and oxytocin-to-AVP balance were measured at baseline. Salivary oxytocin was assessed at baseline and in response to four videos depicting neutral/positive social encounters. Participants reported on empathy and psychiatric symptoms.

Results

Baseline plasma AVP levels were elevated in men with PPU, and the ratio of oxytocin-to-vasopressin suggested AVP dominance. Men with PPU reacted with greater oxytocin increases to presentation of neutral/positive social stimuli. Decreased empathic tendencies were found in men with PPU, and this reduced empathy mediated links between oxytocin and pornography-related hypersexuality. Structural equation modeling revealed three independent paths to pornography-related hypersexuality; two direct paths via increased AVP and higher psychiatric symptoms and one indirect path from oxytocin to pornography-related hypersexuality mediated by diminished empathy.

Conclusions

Findings are among the first to implicate neuropeptides sustaining mammalian attachment in the pathophysiology of pornography-related hypersexuality and describe a neurobiological mechanism by which oxytocin-AVP systems and psychiatric symptomatology may operate to reduce empathy and lead to pornography-related hypersexuality.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Romina Miranda-Olivos, Zaida Agüera, Roser Granero, Rhianna R. Vergeer, Carlos Dieguez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Ashley N. Gearhardt, and Fernando Fernández-Aranda

Abstract

Background and aims

Food addiction (FA) and substance use (SU) have frequently been reported in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Our study aimed to assess the prevalence rates of FA and/or lifetime problematic alcohol and illicit drug use among patients with specific ED, such as: bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorder (OSFED). We sought to identify clinical, psychopathological, and personality profiles involved in these addictive behavior-based phenotypes.

Methods

The total sample was 527 patients (176 BN, 115 BED, and 236 OSFED). FA was assessed through the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0. To determine lifetime SU, a semi-structured clinical interview was carried out.

Results

Patients with BN had the highest rates of FA both with and without SU. No gender differences were obtained for the prevalence of current FA and/or lifetime SU. Patients reporting at least one addictive-related behavior exhibited increased clinical severity compared to those who reported none. Increased impulsivity (such as high lack of premeditation, sensation seeking, and positive urgency) and low self-directedness were differentiating factors for presenting one or two addictive behaviors.

Discussion and Conclusions

Overall, patients presenting with at least one addictive-like behavior reported a poorer clinical status than those without. Also, patients with FA and SU exhibited a more dysfunctional profile characterized by high impulsivity and low self-directedness. These findings would support the need for targeted treatments to reduce impulsivity and increase self-directedness, especially in patients with any addictive-related behavior, as a step towards improving their treatment outcome.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the relationship between compulsive sexual behavior (CSB), religiosity, and spirituality. This review summarizes research examining the relationship CSB has with religiosity and spirituality, clarifying how these constructs inform the assessment and treatment of this syndrome.

Methods

The present paper reviews research published through August 1, 2021, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Only studies providing quantitative analyses were included.

Results

This review identified 46 articles, subsuming 59 studies, analyzing the relationship between CSB and religiosity or spirituality. Most studies used cross-sectional designs with samples primarily composed of heterosexual White men and women. Generally, the studies found small to moderate positive relationships between religiosity and CSB. Studies considering the mediating or moderating role of moral incongruence identified stronger, indirect relationships between religiosity and problematic pornography use (PPU), a manifestation of CSB. Few studies examined the association between spirituality and CSB, but those that did either reported negative relationships between indicators of spiritual well-being and CSB or positive relationships between CSB and aspects of spiritual struggles.

Discussion and conclusions

Although research examining CSB and religiosity has flourished, such growth is hampered by cross-sectional samples lacking in diversity. Moral incongruence assists in explaining the relationship between religiosity and PPU, but future research should consider other manifestations of CSB beyond PPU. Attention should also be given to examining other religiosity and spirituality constructs and obtaining more diverse samples in research on CSB, religiosity, and spirituality.

Open access

Abstract

Background

With the continued spread of smartphones and development of the internet, the potential negative effects arising from problematic smartphone use (PSU) in adolescents are being reported on an increasing basis. This study aimed to investigate whether altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is related to the psychological factors underlying PSU in adolescents.

Methods

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 47 adolescents with PSU and 46 healthy control adolescents (the CON group). Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were then performed to compare the two groups with respect to rsFC in the right inferior frontal gyrus, associated with various forms of self-control, and rsFC in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Results

Compared to the CON group, the PSU group exhibited a reduction in rsFC between the right inferior frontal gyrus and limbic areas, including the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the left amygdala, and the right hippocampus. In addition, a reduction in fronto-limbic rsFC was associated with the severity of PSU, the degree of self-control, and the amount of time the subjects used their smartphones.

Conclusion

Adolescents with PSU exhibited reduced levels of fronto-limbic functional connectivity; this mechanism is involved in salience attribution and self-control, attributes that are critical to the clinical manifestation of substance and behavioral addictions. Our data provide clear evidence for alterations in brain connectivity with respect to self-control in PSU.

Open access

Abstract

As a consequence of the unprecedented labor market circumstances that the prolonged Covid-19 pandemic brought about, organizations have faced challenges never seen before. One such challenge was the sudden ubiquity of working from home, which resulted in an intensive learning experience for employees and employers alike. While there is an increasing body of research on working from home in general, the perceived effectiveness of this mode of working is still under-researched. This niche provided the inspiration for us to investigate what factors might influence employees' self-efficacy in working from home arrangements. We conducted a mixed-methods case study by collecting both qualitative and quantitative data from 24 employees of a division of the Hungarian subsidiary of a chemical and consumer goods multinational. The purpose of our investigation was to gain a deeper understanding of perceived self-efficacy and self-regulation during the learning processes that the participants experienced under the new circumstances. Results suggest that the perceived high level of work-efficiency among the employees of the examined division was based on the firmly controlled work-division, trusting managers, as well as supportive and clear communication, which created space for autonomy in the adaptation process. The findings also revealed that self-reflection acted as a predictor of perceived work self-efficacy.

Open access

Abstract

This paper is an exploratory review of selected literature that focused on adult learning facilitators' professional identity. We employed the snow-ball technique for selection and followed the review protocol by Beijaard, Meijer, and Verloop (2004) to explore empirical studies that discussed how professional identity is defined, what constructs encompass professional identity, which methodologies are relevant when studying professional identity and what are adult learning facilitators' common characteristics as professionals. Our review shows that the studies included have a common understanding of professional identity: it is conceived of as a dynamic construct which encompasses job motivation and future vision as well. Narrative interview with biographical perspectives was used as the main research method in all the reviewed studies. This exploratory review offers a set of perspectives which could be considered as entry points into an in-depth (empirical) study of adult learning facilitators' identity formation in various regional and national contexts.

Open access

Abstract

As networking and collaboration become the essential source for knowledge sharing and creation, one has to cross boundaries for new experiences and to learn from them. In teacher education, boundary crossing and collaboration can be enhanced by school-university partnerships which may provide rich learning opportunities that none of the partners can provide alone (Cochran-Smith, 1991). This paper aims to examine and understand the current school-university collaboration practices in teacher education in Myanmar and their impact on teachers' learning. Mixed method research was applied in this study. Survey data were collected from 56 participants (school teachers and student teachers) and four participants were interviewed. The findings revealed that participants consider such collaboration essential and beneficial for their learning and knowledge creation. On the other hand, different perspectives and opinions between the two entities is a common obstacle for successful and trustful collaboration. Both partners declared the impact of collaboration positive as it enhanced their reflection on their teaching/learning and gave them new ideas. Interestingly, collaboration between schools and university focusing on new curriculum development appears to be the most advantageous form of learning and knowledge-creation for school teachers.

Open access

Abstract

In Myanmar, according to the National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) 2016–2021, the four-year Education College curriculum has been developed and implemented, in line with the pre-service teacher education reform. In the new curriculum, the Lesson Study (LS) model is integrated into the practicum. LS is an effective teacher professional development practice that originated in Japan and is becoming popular all over the world today, suited to both pre-service and in-service teacher education. The LS concept has been introduced to the Myanmar context since 2011 through international training projects and there are two LS research projects which focus on the impacts of the training. However, there is no follow-up research which explores teacher educators’ understanding of LS and their LS practices after the training projects and there is no research related to the integration of LS into pre-service teacher education. This study explores the LS experiences and perspectives of teacher educators who have to take the responsibility of integrating LS into pre-service teacher education with the aim of assessing their readiness for that. Eight teacher educators from six Education Colleges in Myanmar participated in this qualitative research project. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for data collection. The results reveal that teacher educators are already familiar with the term “LS” through the former LS projects. Moreover, the findings show two dimensions of teacher educators’ lesson study experiences; namely, lesson study experiences as a tool of professional development and as a tool of teacher training. They have positive perceptions about the integration of LS into the practicum but it is still challenging for them.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Mehdi Akbari, Mohammad Seydavi, Sara Palmieri, Giovanni Mansueto, Gabriele Caselli, and Marcantonio M. Spada

Abstract

Background and aims

FoMO has been considered a predisposing factor toward excessive internet use, and a great deal of literature has investigated the link between FoMO and internet use. However, there is still a lack of cohesion in the literature.

Methods

The current study have been conducted and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).

Results

In the current systematic review and meta-analysis of 86 effect-sizes, representative of 55,134 participants (Mean age = 22.07, SD = 6.15, females = 58.37%), we found that the strength of the trait FoMO- internet use association significantly varies from r = 0.11 to r = 0.63. In some populations, FoMO appears to increase with age and it is reverse in other populations. Facebook use was unrelated to FoMO in some populations, and higher FoMO was linked with stopping Instagram use for some individuals. The FoMO- internet use association was independent of their severity, as the interaction was not significant, and this association was neither linear nor curvilinear. The FoMO-internet use association does not appear to be associated with depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms or level of life satisfaction. The COVID-19 pandemic was the only significant moderator of the FoMO-internet use association, strengthening this relationship.

Discussion and Conclusions

FoMO demonstrates a considerable role in internet use; however, there is no evidence of interaction or bi-directional association between the mentioned. Overall, we still don’t know what factors contribute to individuals exhibiting distinct patterns in the FoMO-internet use association.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the mediating effect of stress based on the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

Methods

The 2017 survey data from one community addiction management center in South Korea were analyzed. A sample of 3,593 adolescents (mean age = 13.75 years, SD = 2.22) were recruited from 23 elementary, middle and high schools and 11 local children’s centers. The mediating effect was analyzed by the three-step analysis method.

Results

Our study found that ACEs had a significant effect on the stress score (B = 1.420, P < 0.001) and the stress scale score had a significant effect the IGD score (B = 0.127, P < 0.001). After adjusting for the stress score in the model, ACEs had a significant effect on the IGD score (B = 0.328, P < 0.001), and the stress score had partial mediating effects (B = 0.1802, 95% C. I: 0.131–0.239).

Discussion

We found that ACEs directly affect IGD and that ACEs directly affect IGD through stress in support of the I-PACE model. In the sensitivity analysis, the mediating effect of stress in the low-risk IGD group was significant, but the mediating effect of stress in the high-risk IGD group was not significant. Prior ACEs should be considered when interviewing IGD clients. In addition, enhancing stress management skills would be beneficial to IGD clients with a history of ACEs, and actions reducing exposure to ACEs in childhood are necessary.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Holotropic breathwork (Grof ® Breathwork), was developed by Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof as a ‘non-drug’ alternative technique to evoke altered states of consciousness (ASC). Interestingly, although HBW has been anecdotally reported to evoke experiences and mental health effects corresponding to those of psychedelic substances, the scientific literature on the matter is scarce.

Aims

The objective of this study was to assess the (sub)acute and long-term effects of HBW on satisfaction with life, and whether these depend on the depth of the experience evoked by the HBW session.

Methods

A naturalistic observational design was employed in the present study. Between January 2019 and July 2020, 58 Czech-speaking participants who had an experience with HBW were assessed using three separate anonymous online-surveys created and hosted on Qualtrics. Assessments of mindfulness, satisfaction with life, depression, anxiety, and stress were made once prior to (baseline), and two times following (sub-acutely and 4-weeks) the participants’ experience with HBW. The ego dissolution inventory and the 5-dimensional altered states of consciousness scale was used to quantify the HBW experience.

Results

Despite low ratings of the psychedelic experience (mean range of 0–34% out of 100%), ratings of non-judgement significantly increased sub-acutely following the HBW session and persisted for 4-weeks. Stress-related symptoms significantly decreased while satisfaction with life significantly increased at 4-weeks after HBW.

Conclusion

An experience with HBW may be associated with improvement in non-judgement, satisfaction with life, and reductions of stress-related symptoms.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

In this study we aimed to assess multiple potentially addictive behaviours simultaneously for an extended period of time during the Covid-19 pandemic and their relation to distress.

Methods

Data were collected every three days from Amazon’s MTurk between 26.03.2020 and 02.10.2020 in repeated cross-sectional samples of 25 participants resulting in a total sample of 1430 US adults (60% men, mean age 36.6 years, SD = 11). General distress and Covid-19 related fear were assessed as well as self-reported frequency of eight potentially addictive behaviours: shopping (compulsive buying), alcohol, smoking, legal substances, illegal substances, gambling, gaming and overeating.

Results

We found a positive relationship between time and the frequency of each self-reported potentially addictive behaviour (τ = 0.15–0.23, all P < 0.001), and their frequency is linearly related to the intensity of (Covid-19-related and general) distress (τ = 0.12–0.28, all P < 0.001). Most popular activities were gaming and compulsive buying, and the relative frequency of the behaviours remained about the same during the data collection period.

Discussion

It is possible that people seek other maladaptive substitutes when other coping mechanisms (e.g. social recreation) are hindered depending on their level of distress.

Conclusion

Given the evidence for the increasing frequency of potentially addictive behaviours and their relevance to distress, special attention needs to be paid to reduce potential harmful effects of maladaptive coping during and after this demanding period.

Open access

Barátságfunkciók serdülőkorban – a McGill Friendship Questionnaire magyar változatának pszichometriai mutatói

Functions of friendship among adolescents – the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of McGill Friendship Questionnaire

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Kasik László, Tóth Edit, Jámbori Szilvia, and Gál Zita

Elméleti háttér: Akárcsak más társas kapcsolat, a barátság is értelmezhető funkciók mentén, amelyek megléte és működése alapvetően meghatározza a baráti viszony alakulását. A barátság 13–14 éves kortól már érzelmi biztonságot, intimitást nyújtó kapcsolat is, ami nagy-mértékben segíti a másik melletti elköteleződést. Cél: A keresztmetszeti kérdőíves vizsgálat célja az azonos és az ellentétes nemű baráti viszony funkcióinak feltárása volt 12–13 és 16–17 évesek körében (n = 304). A barátságfunkciókról való vélekedés feltárásához magyar nyelvre adaptáltuk a McGill Friendship Questionnaire-t (MFQ; McGill-féle Barátság Kérdőív), amit eddig elsősorban azonos nemű barátok jellemzőinek vizsgálatára használtak. Módszerek: A barátságfunkciók mérésére az MFQ-t használtuk. Az eredeti 30 tétel hat faktorba csoportosul: serkentő együttlét, segítségnyújtás, bensőségesség, kitartás, elismertség és érzelmi biztonság. Eredmények: A megerősítő faktorelemzés nem támasztotta alá az MFQ elméleti struktúráját (6. évfolyamazonos nemű: χ 2 = 668,95, df = 390, p < 0,001; RMSEA = 0,08; CFI = 0,79; TLI = 0,78; SRMR = 0,08; 6. évfolyamellentétes nemű: χ 2 = 658,52, df = 390, p < 0,001; RMSEA = 0,08; CFI = 0,81; TLI = 0,78; SRMR = 0,08; 10. Évfolyamazonos nemű: χ 2 = 683,89, df = 390, p < 0,001; RMSEA = 0,07; CFI = 0,81; TLI = 0,79; SRMR = 0,07; 10. évfolyamellentétes nemű: χ 2 = 699,08, df = 390, p < 0,001; RMSEA = 0,07; CFI = 0,86; TLI = 0,85; SRMR = 0,06). A feltáró faktorelemzés eredményei alapján az MFQ 26 tételes magyar változata alkalmazható serdülők mérésére, ám az ellentétes nemű baráti viszony esetében további faktorelemzésre lesz szükség nagyobb mintán. A kérdőívváltozatok (azonos és ellentétes nemű) belső megbízhatóságának mutatói megfelelőek (Cronbach-α: 0,69–0,88). Az eredmények alapján az idősebbekre szignifikánsan jellemzőbb a barát teljesítményének, pozitívumainak elismerése (elismertség) azonos és ellentétes nemű barát esetében egyaránt (azonos nemű barát: 6. évfolyam: M = 5,94, SD = 1,23, 10. évfolyam: M = 6,28, SD = 1,28, MWU = 7994, p < 0,001; ellentétes nemű barát: 6. évfolyam: M = 5,71, SD = 1,61, 10. évfolyam: M = 6,29, SD = 1,28, MWU = 3889, p < 0,001), valamint az ellentétes nemű barátnál a bensőségesség is (6. évfolyam: M = 6,24, SD = 1,88, 10. évfolyam: M = 6,79, SD = 1,43, MWU = 4515, p < 0,044). Szintén az idősebbek körében azonosítottunk több szignifikáns (p < 0,05) nem szerinti különbséget: a lányok számára a barátságban jelentősebb szereppel bír mindegyik funkció, kivéve az elismertséget az azonos nemű baráti viszonyban. Az ellentétes nemű kapcsolatnál a lányok csak a serkentő együttlétet és a kitartást tartják jellemzőbbnek. Következtetések: Az eredmények a korábbi kutatásokból ismert életkor és nem szerinti sajátosságok megerősítése mellett felvetik annak lehetőségét, hogy a barátságfunkciók az életkor előrehaladtával egymásra épülnek, erősítik egymást. Ennek, valamint néhány módszertani kérdés vizsgálatára a longitudinális kutatás második (2021) és harmadik (2022) évében lesz lehetőségünk.

Background: Like other social relationships (e.g., parental, sibling), friendship can also be interpreted along functions, the existence and functioning of which fundamentally determine the development of a friendship. Based on the previous research (e.g., Zimmermann, 2004) from the age of 13-14, friendship also means a relationship that provides emotional security and intimacy for young people, which greatly helps commitment to the other. Aim: The aim of the empirical study was to explore the functions of same-sex and opposite-sex friendship among 12-13- (Year 6) and 16-17-year-olds (Year 10) (N = 304). To explore perceptions of friendship functions, we adapted an English-language questionnaire (McGill Friendship Questionnaire, MFQ, Mendelson & Aboud, 2014), which has so far been used primarily to examine characteristics of same-sex friends. This questionnaire has not analyzed the friendship of adolescents in Hungary. Methods: The MFQ was adapted to measure friendship functions. The 30 statements are grouped into six factors: stimulating companionship, help, intimacy, emotional security, reliable alliance, self-validation. Results: Based on the results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (Year 6same-sex: χ 2 = 668.95, df = 390, p < .001, RMSEA = .08, CFI = .79, TLI = .78, SRMR = .08; Year 6opposite-sex: χ 2 = 658.52, df = 390, p < .001, RMSEA = .08, CFI = .81, TLI = .78, SRMR = .08; Year10same-sex: χ 2 = 683.89, df = 390, p < 0.001, RMSEA = .07, CFI = .81, TLI = .79, SRMR = .07; Year 10opposite-sex: χ 2 = 699.08 , df = 390, p < .001, RMSEA = .07, CFI = .86, TLI = .85, SRMR = .06), the Hungarian version of the MFQ (26-items) can be used to measure adolescents, but in the case of opposite-sex friendships, further factor analysis will be required on a larger sample. The reliability indices of the MFQ variants are adequate (Cronbach-α: .69–.88). According to the hypotheses formulated based upon previous research, among the functions measured by MFQ, 16-17-year-olds are significantly (p < .05) more characterised by friend’s performance and positives frequent recognition of both same- and opposite-sex friends (same-sex: Year 6: M = 5.94, SD = 1.23, Year 10: M = 6.28, SD = 1.28, MWU = 7994, p < 0.001; opposite-sex: Year 6: M = 5.71, SD = 1.61, Year 10: M = 6.29, SD = 1.28, MWU = 3889, p < 0.001), and the older adolescents are characterized by intimacy in the case of opposite-sex friends (opposite-sex, Year 6: M = 6.24, SD = 1.88, Year 10: M = 6.79, SD = 1.43, MWU = 4515, p = 0.044). We also identified several gender differences among the elder ones (p < .05): for girls, all functions play a more significant role in friendship, except for recognition in the case of same-sex friendship, but in the case of opposite-sex relationships, girls only stimulate coexistence and endurance was rated as more characteristic. Conclusions: In addition to confirming the age and gender-associated peculiarity known from previous research, the results raise the possibility that the functions are organized hierarchically along with age. We will have the opportunity to examine this, as well as some other methodological issues, in the second (2021) and third (2022) years of the longitudinal study.

Open access

Introducing the brief version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-14) based on a large clinical sample

A Diszfunkcionális Attitűd Skála rövidített változatának (DAS14) pszichometriai jellemzőinek vizsgálata nagy klinikai mintán

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Dóra Perczel-Forintos, Veronika Mészáros, Barbara Kulig, Dóra Antal-Uram, and Sándor Rózsa

Theoretical background: The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) is a measurement tool that is commonly used to detect dysfunctional beliefs contributing to the emergence and onset of depressive symptoms. Although it has been primarily used for testing clinical populations, and various forms of the scale have been created, only a small body of literature has proved its psychometric adequacy on a clinical sample. Goals: Therefore, the current study aims to construct an updated, reliable and brief version of the DAS. Methods: For this purpose, besides the normal samples of adolescents (n = 195) and adults (n = 270), a heterogeneous clinical sample (n = 1077) was involved in cross-sectional research. Results: The overall results of parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis suggested a bifactor structure with a general factor and three extracted subfactors (Dependence, Perfectionism and Entitlement), comprising 14 items altogether (χ 2 = 157.26, DF = 63, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.970, TLI = 0.957, RMSEA = 0.036, RMSEA CI90 = 0.029–0.044). Convergent validity was tested by correlations with Beck Depression Inventory (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study was based on the largest clinical sample in the field of psychometric analysis of the DAS so far. The findings suggest that DAS14 as a brief version of the original DAS has good psychometric properties, and it can be widely used as a measurement tool in the assessment of mood disorders.

Elméleti háttér: A Diszfunkcionális Attitűd Skála (DAS) egy olyan pszichológiai kérdőíves eljárás, amely azon diszfunkcionális hiedelmek mérésére alkalmas, amelyek hozzájárulnak a depresszív tünetek kialakulásához és fennmaradásához. Annak ellenére, hogy már számos változata létezik és elsődleges használati területét a klinikai populáció jelenti, pszichometriai mutatóit klinikai mintán a kutatások szűk köre vizsgálta. Cél: Jelen tanulmány célja a DAS aktualizálása, rövidítése, megbízhatóságának és validitásának vizsgálata. Módszer: Keresztmetszeti kérdőíves vizsgálatunk keretében egészséges serdülő (n = 195) és felnőtt (n = 270) minta mellett heterogén klinikai mintát (n = 1077) alkalmaztunk. Eredmények: A parallelelemzés és a feltáró faktoranalízis eredményei a bifaktoros struktúrát igazolják. A 14 itemre egy általános és három alfaktor (Dependencia, Perfekcionizmus és Elvárások) illeszthető (χ 2 = 157,26, DF = 63, p < 0.001; CFI = 0,970; TLI = 0,957; RMSEA = 0,036, RMSEA 90% CI = 0.029 – 0.044). A skála konvergens validitását a Beck Depresszió Kérdőívvel való korrelációja alátámasztja (r = 0,36;p < 0,001). Konklúzió: A DAS pszichometriai vizsgálatai közül ez idáig alkalmazott legnagyobb klinikai elemszámú vizsgálatát mutatja be a ta nulmány. Az eredmények alapján a DAS rövidített változata, a DAS-14 megfelelő pszicho metriai tulajdonságokkal rendelkezik alkalmazható a hangulatzavarok diagnosz tikájában.

Open access

Model fit and reliability of the Hungarian version of the Revised Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI-R-HU)

A módosított Testedzésfüggőség Kérdőív (EAI-R-HU) magyar változatának modellillesztése és megbízhatósága

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Author: Attila Szabo

The Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) is a brief validated instrument adopted by many to assess the risk of exercise addiction. Its revised version (the EAI-R) has been recently validated in English with a predominantly male sample. The current work examined the model fit, validity and reliability of the Hungarian version of the EAI-R (EAI-R-HU). This cross-sectional study was conducted online. A convenience sample of regular exercisers (n = 253) completed the EAI-R-HU and answered demographic questions. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good model fit for the Hungarian version of the instrument. The internal reliability of the EAI-R-HU was (Cronbach’s α) .71. Considering the top 20% of the EAI-R-HU scores, 5.1% of the sample was at risk of exercise addiction. Team exercisers did not differ from individual exercisers in the risk of exercise addiction. Age and exercise characteristics predicted weakly but statistically significantly the risk of exercise addiction. The EAI-R-HU possesses a good model fit, and its internal reliability is acceptable. These findings complement the original revision of the EAI-R, based on a largely (87.7%) male sample compared to the current research primarily based on female participants (76.7%). While cultural differences might exist, the present results encourage the use of the EAI-R with women too and with Hungarian samples, in general.

A Testedzésfüggőség Kérdőív (EAI) egy rövid, validált eszköz, amelyet a testedzésfüggőség kockázatának felmérésére használnak. Az angol nyelvű módosított változatát (EAI-R) nemrégiben egy többségében férfiakból álló mintán validálták. Jelen kutatás a magyar változat (EAI-R-HU) egyfaktoros elméleti struktúrájának illeszkedését, validitását, és a kérdőív belső megbízhatóságát vizsgálta. A hozzáférhetőségi mintavétellel zajló adatgyűjtés online történt. Rendszeresen edző önkéntesek (n = 253) kitöltötték a módosított EAI-t (EAI-R-HU) és megválaszolták a demográfiai kérdéseket. A megerősítő faktoranalízis jó modellillesztést mutatott, a skála belső megbízhatósága (Cronbach-α) pedig 0,71 volt. Az EAI-R-HU pontszámok felső 20%-át figyelembe véve, a jelen minta 5,14%-a volt feltételezhetően a testedzésfüggőség kockázatának kitéve. A csoportban edzők nem különböztek az egyéni edzést végzőktől a testedzésfüggőség kockázatát illetően. Az életkor és a testmozgás egyes jellemzői gyengén, de statisztikailag szignifikánsan prognosztizálták a testedzésfüggőség kockázatát. Az eredmények alapján az EAI-R-HU jó modellalkalmazással rendelkezik és a belső megbízhatósága elfogadható. Ezek a megállapítások kiegészítik az angol EAI-R változatát, amely nagyrészt (87,7%) férfi minta alapján jött létre, szemben a jelen kutatással, amely elsősorban női résztvevőkön alapszik (76,7%). Bár létezhetnek kulturális különbségek, a jelenlegi eredmények ösztönzik az EAI-R alkalmazását a nőknél is és az EAI-R-HU felhasználását magyar kutatásokban.

Open access

A Szelekció–Optimalizáció–Kompenzáció Rövid Kérdőív magyar adaptációja

Hungarian Adaptation of the Short Version of the Selection Optimization and Compensation Questionnaire

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Kaszás Beáta and Tiringer István

Elméleti háttér: A szelekció–optimalizáció–kompenzáció modell rugalmas alkalmazkodási folyamatokat feltételez, amelyekkel az idősek képesek pozitív egyensúlyt elérni életkoruk nyereségei és veszteségei között. Ezen stratégiák mérésére alkották meg a Szelekció– Optimalizáció–Kompenzáció Kérdőívet, majd annak rövid változatát (SOC-12). Cél: Kutatásunk egyik célja a SOC-12 kérdőív magyar nyelvre történő adaptálása és pszichometriai jellemzőinek vizsgálata volt. Módszerek: Keresztmetszeti kérdőíves kutatásunkat 155 fős, 60 éves és afeletti, kognitív zavarban nem szenvedő mintán végeztük el (átlagéletkor: 74,6 év, SD = 7,9 év, terjedelem: 60–98 év; nemi megoszlás: 125 [81%] nő és 30 [19%] férfi). Mérőeszközök: SOC-12 kérdőív, Connor–Davidson Reziliencia Skála, Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála. Eredmények: A teljes SOC-12 kérdőív illeszkedési mutatói a megerősítő faktorelemzésben messze elmaradnak az elfogadhatótól. Feltáró faktorelemzéssel kétfaktoros szerkezet rajzolódott ki. A SOC-12 skála egészét reprezentáló (mind a négy alskála tételeiből tartalmazó) 1. faktor tételei jó megbízhatóságú skálát képeznek (McDonald-ω [95% CI]: 0,83 [0,79–0,87]. A 2. faktoron töltődő tételekből létrehozott alskála esetén az ω [95% CI]: 0,57 [0,43–0,69], így megbízhatósága elmarad a kívánatostól. Az általunk módosított, 7-tételes SOC-kérdőív konvergens és diszkriminatív validitása egyaránt optimális, alátámasztja a skála által mért erőforrás-felhasználási stratégiák érvényességét. Következtetések: Kutatásunk alapján a módosított SOC-12 kérdőív a magyar idős populációban jó pszichometriai mutatókkal rendelkezik. Eredményeink alátámasztják, hogy segítségével az időskori alkalmazkodási folyamatok összességében jól mérhetők. A szelekciós stratégiák önálló mérése azonban az alacsony megbízhatóságú tételek miatt nem lehetséges. A kérdőív használhatóságát elősegíti, hogy a kitöltés és az értékelés egyaránt rövid időt vesz igénybe.

Background: The selection-optimization-compensation model assumes flexible adaptation processes by which the elderly are able to achieve a positive balance between gains and losses of their lives. The Selection-Optimization-Compensation (SOC-12) questionnaire was developed to measure these strategies. Aim: The aim of our research was to adapt the SOC-12 questionnaire to Hungarian language and to establish its psychometric properties. Methods: Our cross-sectional research was conducted on a sample of 155 people aged 60 and over (mean age: 74.6 years, SD = 7.9 years, range: 60–98 years; gender distribution: 125 (81%) women and 30 (19%) male). Measures: SOC-12 Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form. Results: Based on our results, the fit of the original 4 factor structure of the SOC-12 questionnaire very weak. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure. The items of factor 1, which represent the whole of the SOC-12 scale (containing items from all subscales), form a scale with good reliability (McDonald’s ω [95% CI]: 0,83 [0,79–0,87]. In the case of the subscale created from the items loading on the factor 2, the ω-value [95% CI] is 0.56 [0.43–0.69], so its reliability is less than acceptable. Both convergent and divergent validity of the modified SOC questionnaire is optimal, supporting the validity of the resource use strategies measured by the scale. Conclusions: Based on the current study, the original SOC-12 questionnaire had to be modified. Our results support that the modified questionnaire makes measurable adaptation processes in old age. Independent measurement of selection strategies is not possible due to low reliability items. The scale provides a short, easy response to measure these strategies, and both completion and evaluation take a short time.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

Attentional bias is a key factor in addictive behavior maintenance. However, whether attentional bias has a similar effect on cybersex addiction is unclear. We investigated differences in the attentional processing of sexually explicit images between individuals with high tendencies toward cybersex addiction (TCA) versus low tendencies using behavioral and electrophysiological indices.

Methods

Twenty-eight individuals with high TCA and 29 with low TCA performed an addiction Stroop task comprising sexual and neutral images in colored frames. Participants were asked to respond to the frame color and not the image contents, and behavioral and event-related potentials were recorded.

Results

Behaviorally, an addiction Stroop interference effect was found in the high TCA group, as shown by the longer reaction times to judge the frame colors of sexual images. Electrophysiologically, a P200 (150–220 ms) enhancement was present in response to sexual images compared with neutral ones, which was absent in the low TCA group. The event-related potential correlates with the addiction Stroop interference effect, indicating that the attentional bias underlying the addiction Stroop interference operates at an automatic level. A general, sexually related bias was found in the late positive potential (300–700 ms) amplitude, although between-group differences were insignificant.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings indicate that sexual stimuli grab the attentional resources of individuals with high TCA at early automatic stages of attentional processing. Increased cue reactivity to sexual stimuli may contribute to pornographic consumption and play a crucial role in sustaining problematic excessive use of online pornography.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Stress is a common experience among college students with problematic Internet use, and it may exacerbate their cue-induced Internet craving. This study aimed to examine the influence of stress on cue-induced craving for the Internet among subjects with problematic Internet use and the buffering effect of mindfulness.

Methods

Sixty-eight college students with problematic Internet use were assigned to groups with a 2 (stress vs. no-stress) × 2 (high vs. low mindfulness) between-subject design.

Results

It was deduced that stress could significantly enhance cue-induced craving for the Internet, and mindfulness could buffer this effect. Specifically, the effect of stress on cue-induced craving for the Internet was weaker among subjects with high mindfulness as compared to subjects with low mindfulness.

Discussion and Conclusions

These findings contribute to understanding of the factors influencing problematic Internet use and how such factors interact. It also provides recommendations on how to prevent the progression of problematic Internet use and suggests possible interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Internet Use Disorders (IUD) cover a range of online-related behavioral addictions, which are acknowledged and strengthened by the inclusion of (online) gaming disorder in the ICD-11 by the World Health Organization. Internet-based telemedicine interventions offer the possibility to reach out for individuals with IUD where the disorder emerges, in order to enhance their motivation to change their Internet use behavior.

Methods

In the course of the short-term telemedicine motivation-based intervention, adult participants took part in two webcam-based counselling sessions based on Motivational Interviewing techniques. Two weeks after the first webcam-based counselling session the second took place. Participants completed questionnaires regarding the motivation to change their Internet use behavior (iSOCRATES) and symptoms of IUD (s-IAT) at three times of measurement: t0 (pre-intervention), t1 (mid-intervention) and t2 (post-intervention).

Results

73 affected individuals (83.6% male, average age 35 years (SD = 12.49) took part in the whole intervention including the questionnaire-based post intervention survey (t2). Over the course of the telemedicine intervention, a significant increase in the motivation to change with regard to the own Internet use behavior as well as a significant reduction in the symptom severity of an IUD and duration of Internet use (reduction of 2 hrs/d) were shown.

Conclusion

The telemedicine pilot study shows that online-based consultation can be effective and helpful for individuals with IUD. Therefore, such a telemedicine intervention may be a suitable extension to the already existing analogous care system.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The convergence of gaming and gambling may pose a risk for adolescents. Thus, it is important to find out how these behaviours are associated with other addictive behaviours in order to develop efficient preventive measures for youth. The aim of this study was to examine 1) whether problematic gaming and money used for gaming activities are risk factors for gambling, and 2) what kind of impact adolescents’ substance use along with other factors related to friends and parents have on this association.

Methods

The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs data, 2019 of Finnish adolescents aged 15 to 16 (N = 4595). Cross-tabulations with Rao-Scott’s chisquare tests were applied to study the associations of the background factors with gambling in the past 12 months. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted for the outcome variable (gambling in the past 12 months) adjusted for all independent and background variables.

Results

Problematic gaming alone was not associated with gambling participation, whereas using money for digital games increased the risk of gambling. Boys gamble more than girls. The use of alcohol and drugs increased the risk of gambling. Parental monitoring reduced the risk of gambling, whereas hanging around weekly with friends increased the risk.

Discussion and conclusions

Using money on gaming sites may put some adolescents at risk of developing problems with either gaming or gambling. The link between using money in digital games and gambling participation calls for preventive measures, intervention and regulatory acts.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Excessive time and money spent on gambling can result in harms, not only to people experiencing a gambling problem but also to their close family and friends (“concerned significant others”; CSOs). The current study aimed to explore whether, and to what extent, CSOs experience decrements to their wellbeing due to another person’s gambling.

Methods

We analysed data from The Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (HILDA; N = 19,064) and the Canadian Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS; N = 3,904). Participants either self-identified as CSOs (QLS) or were identified by living in a household with a person classified in the problem gambling category by the PGSI (HILDA). Subjective well-being was measured using the Personal Wellbeing Index and single-item questions on happiness and satisfaction with life.

Results

CSOs reported lower subjective wellbeing than non-CSOs across both countries and on all three wellbeing measures. CSO status remained a significant predictor of lower wellbeing after controlling for demographic and socio-economic factors, and own-gambling problems. There were no significant differences across various relationships to the gambler, by gender, or between household and non-household CSOs.

Discussion and Conclusions

Gambling-related harms experienced by CSOs was reliably associated with a decrease in wellbeing. This decrement to CSO’s wellbeing was not as strong as that experienced by the person with the first-order gambling problem. Nevertheless, wellbeing decrements to CSOs are not limited to those living with a person with gambling problems in the household and thus affect many people.

Open access

Abstract

Background & aims

Special Operations Forces Veterans (SOFV) have unique treatment needs stemming from multiple repeated forms of combat exposure resulting in a complex sequela of problems including alcohol misuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Current approved pharmacologic treatments for alcohol misuse and PTSD are lacking in adherence and efficacy, warranting novel treatment development. The current study examined the correlations between psychedelic treatment and changes in alcohol misuse among trauma exposed United States SOFV.

Method

An anonymous internet-based survey was conducted among SOFV who completed a specific psychedelic clinical program in Mexico. Retrospective questions probed alcohol use and post-traumatic stress symptoms during the 30-days before and 30-days after the psychedelic treatment. A total of 65 SOFV completed treatment and were eligible for contact. Of these, 51 (78%) completed the survey, and 27 (42%) reported alcohol misuse (≥4 on the AUDIT-C) in the 30 days prior to treatment and were included in analyses (Mean Age = 40; male = 96%; Caucasian/White = 96%).

Results

There were significant and very large reductions in retrospective reports of alcohol use (P < 0.001; d = –2.4) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (P < 0.001; d = –2.8) and a significant and large increase in psychological flexibility (P < 0.001; d = –1.8), from before-to-after the psychedelic treatment. In the 30 days after treatment, 85% reduced their alcohol consumption to non-risky levels (33% abstinent; 52% non-risky drinking). Increases in psychological flexibility were strongly associated with reductions in alcohol use and post-traumatic stress symptoms (rs range 0.38–0.90; ps < 0.05).

Conclusion

Rigorous longitudinal studies should be conducted to determine whether psychedelic-assisted therapy holds promise as an intervention in this population.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Multiple laboratories have proposed measures of subjective effects of psychedelics as potential mediators of their therapeutic impact. Other work has identified individual differences that covary with subjective responses in informative ways. The range of potential measures of responses, traits, and outcomes is vast. Ideas for new measures are likely numerous. The field will progress efficiently if proposed new scales can add incremental validity. Semantic Scale Network analyses identify conceptual overlap among scales based on items (rather than participant ratings), which could help laboratories avoid putting effort into measures that are unlikely to account for unique variance. Semantic Scale Network analyses can also reveal links to constructs from disparate research literatures, potentially helping investigators generate novel hypotheses and explain connections among disparate findings. The results of Semantic Scale Network analyses have the potential to improve as more investigators enter their scales into the corpus.

Method

Example analyses using the revised Mystical Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) underscore the uniqueness and discriminant validity of the MEQ subscales.

Results

Findings dovetail with published theorizing and suggest potentially novel links with different therapeutic effects. The MEQ total or subscales overlap with measures of awe, inspiration, regret, dissatisfaction, transcendence, depression, fatigue, and spirituality. Links with measures of stress, alexithymia, and gender identity suggest lines of further work.

Conclusions

This analytic approach might suggest unique applications for psychedelic-assisted treatments and provide perspectives on phenomena outside the field. As psychedelic researchers enter their scales to the corpus for Semantic Scale Network analyses, the field will benefit.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Nerilee Hing, Alex M. T. Russell, Gabrielle M. Bryden, Philip Newall, Daniel L. King, Matthew Rockloff, Matthew Browne, and Nancy Greer

Abstract

Background and aims

Skin gambling uses in-game items (skins) acquired in video games, to gamble on esports, games of chance, other competitive events and privately with friends. This study examined characteristics of adolescent skin gamblers, their engagement in monetary gambling, and relationships between skin gambling and at risk/problem gambling.

Methods

Two samples of Australian adolescents aged 12–17 years were recruited to an online survey through advertisements (n = 843) and an online panel provider (n = 826).

Results

In both samples, past-month skin gamblers (n = 466 advertisements sample; n = 185 online panel sample) were more likely to have lower wellbeing, score as having an internet gaming disorder on the IGD, engage in more types of monetary gambling, and meet criteria for problem gambling on the DSM-IV-MR-J. Past-month skin gambling uniquely predicted problem gambling when controlling for past-month gambling on 11 monetary forms and the total number of monetary gambling forms.

Discussion and conclusions

Underage participation in skin gambling is a growing concern. The strong convergence between engagement in skin gambling and monetary gambling suggests common risk factors may increase the propensity of some adolescents to gamble on these multiple forms. Nonetheless, past-month skin gambling predicted problem gambling even when controlling for past-month monetary gambling, indicating its unique contribution to gambling problems and harm. While the study was based on non-probability samples, its results strengthen the case for regulatory reforms, age restrictions and public health education to prevent underage skin gambling and its potentially harmful consequences for children and young people.

Open access