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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Jakob W. Eriksen
,
Anne Fiskaali
,
Robert Zachariae
,
Kaare B. Wellnitz
,
Eva Oernboel
,
Anna W. Stenbro
,
Thomas Marcussen
, and
Marie W. Petersen

Abstract

Background and aims

Increasingly, gambling features migrate into non-gambling platforms (e.g., online gaming) making gambling exposure and problems more likely. Therefore, exploring how to best treat gambling disorder (GD) remains important. Our aim was to review systematically and quantitatively synthesize the available evidence on psychological intervention for GD.

Methods

Records were identified through searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating psychological intervention for GD via six academic databases without date restrictions until February 3, 2023. Study quality was assessed with the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB2). Primary outcomes were GD symptom severity and remission of GD, summarized as Hedges' g and odds ratios, respectively. The study was preregistered in PROSPERO (#CRD42021284550).

Results

Of 5,541 records, 29 RCTs (3,083 participants analyzed) were included for meta-analysis of the primary outcomes. The efficacy of psychological intervention across modality, format and mode of delivery corresponded to a medium effect on gambling severity (g = −0.71) and a small effect on remission (OR = 0.47). Generally, risk of bias was high, particularly amongst early face-to-face interventions studies.

Discussion and conclusions

The results indicate that psychological intervention is efficacious in treating GD, with face-to-face delivered intervention producing the largest effects and with strongest evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy. Much remains to be known about the long-term effects, and investigating a broader range of treatment modalities and digital interventions is a priority if we are to improve clinical practice for this heterogeneous patient group.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Astrid Müller
,
Nora M. Laskowski
,
Tobias A. Thomas
,
Stephanie Antons
,
Nadja Tahmassebi
,
Sabine Steins-Loeber
,
Matthias Brand
, and
Ekaterini Georgiadou

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive buying-shopping disorder (CBSD) is mentioned as an example of other specified impulse control disorders in the ICD-11 coding tool, highlighting its clinical relevance and need for treatment. The aim of the present work was to provide a systematic update on treatment studies for CBSD, with a particular focus on online CBSD.

Method

The preregistered systematic review (PROSPERO, CRD42021257379) was performed in accordance with the PRISMA 2020 statement. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and PsycInfo databases. Original research published between January 2000 and December 2022 was included. Risk of reporting bias was evaluated with the CONSORT guideline for randomized controlled trials. Effect sizes for primary CBSD outcomes were calculated.

Results

Thirteen studies were included (psychotherapy: 2 open, 4 waitlist control design; medication: 2 open, 3 placebo-controlled, 2 open-label phase followed by a double-blind discontinuation phase; participants treatment/control 349/149). None of the studies addressed online CBSD. Psychotherapy studies suggest that group cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing CBSD symptoms. Pharmacological studies with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or topiramate did not indicate superiority over placebo. Predictors of treatment outcome were rarely examined, mechanisms of change were not studied at all. Risk of reporting bias was high in most studies.

Discussion

Poor methodological and low quality of reporting of included studies reduce the reliability of conclusions. There is a lack of studies targeting online CBSD. More high-quality treatment research is needed with more emphasis on the CBSD subtype and mechanisms of change.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Jannis Engel
,
Marie Carstensen
,
Maria Veit
,
Christopher Sinke
,
Jonas Kneer
,
Uwe Hartmann
, and
Tillmann H.C. Kruger

Abstract

Background and aims

Hypersexual disorder is characterized by recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, sexual urges, or sexual behaviors that can lead to clinically relevant levels of distress and adverse consequences for affected individuals. Earlier research has established a connection between sexual phenomena, such as compulsive sexual behavior, and personality features. The aim of the present study was to gain further insights into the associations of personality maladjustment and HD.

Methods

The present study applied the dimensional approach of personality maladjustment presented in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to connect compulsive sexual behavior to personality maladjustment. We investigated 47 men suffering from HD (age: M = 36.51, SD = 11.47) and 38 matched men without HD (age: M = 37.92, SD = 12.33) regarding personality maladjustment using a 100-item version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-BF).

Results

The men with HD showed higher levels of personality maladjustment regarding all PID-5-BF domains (negative affect, detachment, psychoticism, antagonism, and disinhibition) and significantly differentiated from men without HD in the level of subordinate facets. However, no domain of personality differentiated significantly between groups using a binary stepwise logistic regression analysis.

Discussion and conclusions

In sum, the findings of the study underline the extent of personality maladjustment in men with HD. Interpersonal difficulties which men with HD frequently experience can contribute to clinically relevant levels of distress and adverse consequences reported by affected individuals.

Open access

Abstract

While applying a diagnostic approach (i.e., comparing “clinical” cases with “healthy” controls) is part of our methodological habits as researchers and clinicians, this approach has been particularly criticized in the behavioral addictions research field, in which a lot of studies are conducted on “emerging” conditions. Here we exemplify the pitfalls of using a cut-off-based approach in the context of binge-watching (i.e., watching multiple episodes of series back-to-back) by demonstrating that no reliable cut-off scores could be determined with a widely used assessment instrument measuring binge-watching.

Open access

A vizuális tulajdonságok mentén kiugró ingerek hatása az inger- és célvezérelt figyelmi folyamatokra: szisztematikus áttekintés

The effect of visually salient stimuli on stimulus-driven and goal-driven attentional processes: a systematic review

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Diána Tünde Pakai-Stecina
and
N. András Zsidó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A figyelmi megragadás ingervezérelt és célvezérelt folyamatok által szabályozott működése a mai napig számos kérdést vet fel. A kiugró ingerek szerepe a figyelmi mechanizmusokban egyértelműen fontos, de továbbra is vitatott jelenség, az ingervezérelt és célvezérelt figyelmi mechanizmusok működéséről ellentmondásos elméletek és eredmények születtek az elmúlt évtizedekben. Szisztematikus áttekintő tanulmányunk célja a témában megjelenő kutatási eredmények rendszerezése és áttekintése, illetve az eredmények alapján a figyelmi folyamatokkal kapcsolatos megfelelő következtetések levonása.

Módszer

Kutatásunk során az APA PsycNet keresőprogram segítségével 14 angol nyelvű cikket gyűjtöttünk össze, melyek 33 vizsgálatot tartalmaztak. Az alábbi feltételek számítottak bekerülési kritériumnak: (1) tudományos (lektorált) folyóiratcikk, (2) empirikus tanulmány (nem áttekintés vagy metaanalízis), (3) fiatal felnőtt (18–30 éves) humán minta, (4) átlagos, egészséges minta, (5) a vizsgálatok viselkedéses és/vagy pszichofiziológiás adatokat közöltek a témában.

Eredmények

A szisztematikus áttekintő tanulmányunk eredményei szerint a figyelmi folyamatok alakulásában számos tényező mediálhatja az ingervezérelt és célvezérelt folyamatok interakcióját, mint például a kiugró ingerek színe, a bemutatásuk ideje és helye, a célingerrel egy időben megjelenő zavaró ingerek száma.

Következtetések

A célvezérelt figyelmi kontroll megvalósulása ugyan lehetséges, de számos feltételnek teljesülnie kell hozzá. Ha az egyszerre bemutatott ingerek száma meghaladja a négyet, illetve a célingerrel megegyező színű, vagy ahhoz hasonló zavaró inger is megjelenik a keresési mezőben, az ingervezérelt folyamatok gátlása nem lehetséges.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The present study investigated processing bias for game-related cues in problematic mobile gamers (PMGs) under or above the threshold of conscious awareness.

Methods

In Experiment 1, all participants (20 PMGs and 23 casual players (CPs)) finished a masked visual probe task during a brief (17ms) masked exposure condition. In Experiment 2, an unmasked visual probe task was conducted by an additional forty participants (20 PMGs and 20 CPs) at two exposure durations (200 and 500ms).

Results

Results showed that PMGs, but not CPs, had an attentional bias for game-related cues which had been presented with two exposure durations (17 and 200ms).

Discussion and conclusion

In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that bias in PMGs could be observed both preconsciously and consciously. The results are discussed with reference to incentive sensitization theory and automatic action schema theory.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Gambling disorder is associated with increased suicidality, especially in women who also are more likely to have psychiatric comorbid disorders and more often have experiences of traumatic life events. Although suicidality is increased and several risk factors have been identified, knowledge of the suicidal process is lacking, especially for women.

Aim

To explore the lived experiences of suicidality in women with gambling disorder and to investigate potential factors involved in the development of suicidality.

Method

Semi-structured interviews were held with seven women with experiences of gambling disorder and suicidality in Malmö, Sweden between November 2021 and June 2022, when saturation was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded in NVivo. Qualitative content analysis was used to build categories and themes.

Results

Several women had experienced suicidality before developing gambling disorder and gambling-related suicidality. However, for some, suicidality had appeared seemingly only due to the gambling disorder. Suicidality ranged from ideation to severe suicide attempts. Three themes of factors modulating suicidality related to gambling were found; a) guilt shame and self-stigmatization, b) loss of control/chaotic life circumstances, and c) social consequences/fear of guilt and shame from others.

Conclusion

More research on the experience of suicidality in women with gambling disorder is needed. Attempts to address self-stigmatization, guilt, and shame in women with gambling disorder and society at large as well as aiding women to regain a sense of control over their economy and gambling may be ways to reduce suicidality.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Beáta Bőthe
,
Mónika Koós
,
Léna Nagy
,
Shane W. Kraus
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Marc N. Potenza
,
Aurélie Michaud
,
Rafael Ballester-Arnal
,
Dominik Batthyány
,
Sophie Bergeron
,
Joël Billieux
,
Peer Briken
,
Julius Burkauskas
,
Georgina Cárdenas-López
,
Joana Carvalho
,
Jesús Castro-Calvo
,
Lijun Chen
,
Giacomo Ciocca
,
Ornella Corazza
,
Rita Csako
,
David P. Fernandez
,
Elaine F. Fernandez
,
Loïs Fournier
,
Hironobu Fujiwara
,
Johannes Fuss
,
Roman Gabrhelík
,
Ateret Gewirtz-Meydan
,
Biljana Gjoneska
,
Mateusz Gola
,
Joshua B. Grubbs
,
Hashim T. Hashim
,
Md. Saiful Islam
,
Mustafa Ismail
,
Martha C. Jiménez-Martínez
,
Tanja Jurin
,
Ondrej Kalina
,
Verena Klein
,
András Költő
,
Chih-Ting Lee
,
Sang-Kyu Lee
,
Karol Lewczuk
,
Chung-Ying Lin
,
Liverpool John Moores University's research team † Liverpool John Moores University's research team
,
Christine Lochner
,
Silvia López-Alvarado
,
Kateřina Lukavská
,
Percy Mayta-Tristán
,
Ionut Milea
,
Dan J. Miller
,
Oľga Orosová
,
Gábor Orosz
,
Sungkyunkwan University's research team †† Sungkyunkwan University's research team
,
Fernando P. Ponce
,
Gonzalo R. Quintana
,
Gabriel C. Quintero Garzola
,
Jano Ramos-Diaz
,
Kévin Rigaud
,
Ann Rousseau
,
Marco De Tubino Scanavino
,
Marion K. Schulmeyer
,
Pratap Sharan
,
Mami Shibata
,
Sheikh Shoib
,
Vera L. Sigre Leirós
,
Luke Sniewski
,
Ognen Spasovski
,
Vesta Steibliene
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Julian Strizek
,
Aleksandar Štulhofer
,
Berk C. Ünsal
, and
Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite its inclusion in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, there is a virtual paucity of high-quality scientific evidence about compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), especially in underrepresented and underserved populations. Therefore, we comprehensively examined CSBD across 42 countries, genders, and sexual orientations, and validated the original (CSBD-19) and short (CSBD-7) versions of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale to provide standardized, state-of-the-art screening tools for research and clinical practice.

Method

Using data from the International Sex Survey (N = 82,243; M age = 32.39 years, SD = 12.52), we evaluated the psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 and CSBD-7 and compared CSBD across 42 countries, three genders, eight sexual orientations, and individuals with low vs. high risk of experiencing CSBD.

Results

A total of 4.8% of the participants were at high risk of experiencing CSBD. Country- and gender-based differences were observed, while no sexual-orientation-based differences were present in CSBD levels. Only 14% of individuals with CSBD have ever sought treatment for this disorder, with an additional 33% not having sought treatment because of various reasons. Both versions of the scale demonstrated excellent validity and reliability.

Discussion and conclusions

This study contributes to a better understanding of CSBD in underrepresented and underserved populations and facilitates its identification in diverse populations by providing freely accessible ICD-11-based screening tools in 26 languages. The findings may also serve as a crucial building block to stimulate research into evidence-based, culturally sensitive prevention and intervention strategies for CSBD that are currently missing from the literature.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling in adolescents is a public health concern. This study sought to examine patterns of gambling among Connecticut high-school students using seven representative samples covering a 12-year period.

Methods

Data were analyzed from N = 14,401 participants in cross-sectional surveys conducted every two years based on random sampling from schools in the state of Connecticut. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires included socio-demographic data, current substance use, social support, and traumatic experiences at school. Chi-square tests were used to compare socio-demographic characteristics between gambling and non-gambling groups. Logistic regressions were used to assess changes in the prevalence of gambling over time and effects of potential risk factors on the prevalence, adjusted for age, sex, and race.

Results

Overall, the prevalence of gambling largely decreased from 2007 to 2019, although the pattern was not linear. After steadily declining from 2007 to 2017, 2019 was associated with increased rates of gambling participation. Consistent statistical predictors of gambling were male gender, older age, alcohol and marijuana use, higher levels of traumatic experiences at school, depression, and low levels of social support.

Discussion and conclusion

Among adolescents, older males may be particularly vulnerable to gambling that relates importantly to substance use, trauma, affective concerns, and poor support. Although gambling participation appears to have declined, the recent increase in 2019 that coincides with increased sports gambling advertisements, media coverage and availability warrants further study. Our findings suggest the importance of developing school-based social support programs that may help reduce adolescent gambling.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Kevin J Byrne
,
Spencer Lindsay
,
Nicholas Baker
,
Christian Schmutz
, and
Ben Lewis

Abstract

Background and aims

Most modern modalities of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) aim to minimize harm and maximize support by utilizing close, formalized supervision for a single participant per session. However, these substances are used naturalistically in a wide variety of settings. Our goal was to evaluate the perceived benefits and harms of naturalistic psychedelic use in diverse settings, with and without guidance/supervision.

Methods

An anonymous survey was distributed over Internet forums to solicit responses from English-speaking adults, with questions regarding the setting and perceived mental health-related outcomes of classic psychedelics. Data were analyzed to compare effects of group versus solo setting on perceived outcomes.

Results

For the goal of improving mental health, use in a solo setting was more common than in a group setting (COR 0.37 (0.20–0.68), p = 0.03) and was associated with more subjective symptom improvement (COR 0.22 (0.11–0.42), p = 0.0002). However, there was no significant difference in perceived overall mental health benefit between use in group and solo settings (p = 1). Subjective negative outcomes on mental health were rare and not associated more so with psychedelic use in any particular setting. A majority of naturalistic psychedelic use took place in an informal setting, with no significant difference between solo or group users (95% vs 91%, p = 0.3).

Conclusions

Naturalistic psychedelic users are as likely to report an overall positive outcome and no more likely to report adverse events in group settings than in solo settings. This supports further research into PAP in group settings.

Open access