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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

In recent decades, there have been growing expectations for language teachers to use differentiated instruction (DI) in their classrooms to address the diverse needs of their students. Currently, however, relatively little is known about how teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) working in Hungarian public education view the concept of DI and implement it in practice. The present study sought to explore this question by interviewing eight Hungarian primary and secondary school EFL teachers on their views and practices of DI. More specifically, the study strove to explore the participants' understanding of and attitude towards DI as well as the differentiation strategies they report to use and the challenges and enablers they perceive when implementing DI. The data were subjected to template analysis. Results suggest that teachers have a solid understanding of the goals of DI and show a primarily positive attitude towards the approach but are less conscious about the strategies available to them and tend to differentiate mostly intuitively. They perceive challenges both in planning and delivering differentiated lessons, such as coping with increased preparation time and having to multitask in class. Exchanging good practices in formal and informal training sessions, cooperating with colleagues and parents, and having rearrangeable furniture and digital tools in the classrooms emerged as enablers of DI. Implications point toward the need for professional development opportunities that help teachers conceptualize their intuitive approaches and extend their repertoire of DI strategies. Researching how technology may enhance DI practices also appears to be warranted.

Open access

Egy ikigai elemekkel bővített „legvágyottabb én” típusú online intervenció hatásvizsgálata

Effects of an online best possible self intervention based on the ikigai approach

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
László Pál
and
Nóra Sebestyén

Háttér és célkitűzések

Az utóbbi években a pozitív pszichológiai intervenciók száma nemzetközi viszonylatban növekszik. Magyarországon, a szemlélet népszerűsége ellenére, empirikusan igazolt publikált hatásvizsgálatok nem jellemzőek. Jelen vizsgálat célja egy ikigai elemekkel bővített „legvágyottabb én” típusú intervenció hatásvizsgálata egyetemista mintán.

Módszer

A kutatás egy online megvalósuló randomizált kontrollált vizsgálat volt aktív kontrollcsoporttal, összesen 151 egyetemi hallgató részvételével. A kísérleti csoport (n = 78) egy 20 perces online írásos aktivitásban vett részt, mely egy „ikigai” (személyes erőforrások mobilizálása) és egy „legvágyottabb én” gyakorlatból (vágyott jövőbeli én elképzelése a személyes, szociális és tanulmányi/szakmai célokkal kapcsolatban) állt. A kontrollfeltétel (n = 73) hasonló elrendezést tartalmazott, csupán tartalmában tért el a kísérleti helyzettől (napi tevékenységeket részletező gyakorlatok).

Eredmények

Eredményeink alapján a 20 perces intervenció szignifikáns mértékben növelte az optimizmus, az önértékelés és az énhatékonyság szintjét, valamint eredményes volt a szorongás csökkentésében.

Következtetések

A kutatás hazánkban először igazolta empirikusan a legvágyottabb én típusú intervenció kedvező hatását. Egyrészt támogatja a nemzetközi vizsgálatok eredményeit, másrészt hozzájárul a szakirodalomhoz azáltal, hogy kibővíti a legvágyottabb én beavatkozások hatáskörét, mivel az optimizmuson kívül a pszichológiai tőke egyéb elemeit is vizsgálta (önértékelés, énhatékonyság). A kutatás továbbá jelentős gyakorlati relevanciával bír; az ikigai elemekkel bővített legvágyottabb én típusú intervenciók hatékonyan támogathatják a felsőoktatási diáktanácsadók munkáját, illetve segíthetik a középiskolai pályaválasztással kapcsolatos foglalkozásokat.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Although numerous cultures have used psychoactive substances for spiritual, or entheogenic, purposes, little is known about contemporary entheogenic spirituality, particularly outside of the few traditions that retain sacramental drug use practices.

Method

To better conceptualize contemporary patterns of entheogenic drug use, an international, online study of entheogenic drug users was conducted (n = 684). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore entheogenic drug use in relation to measures of spiritual seeking (importance of spirituality in life, mediation practice, openness to experience), self-transcendent experiences (awe-proneness, mystical experiences), psychological well-being (psychological distress, subjective and eudaimonic well-being), and psychospiritual development (quiet ego, self-transcendence/wisdom, and spiritual development). ANOVA was used to compare entheogenic drug users with non-entheogenic drug users and non-drug users to assess differences across these psychospiritual variables.

Results

Of the 12 drug categories assessed, the classic psychedelics were most commonly used as entheogens. Entheogenic classic psychedelic use was associated with all of the assessed psychospiritual variables; entheogenic classic psychedelic users showed higher levels of spiritual seeking, self-transcendence, psychological well-being, and psychospiritual development compared to non-entheogenic classic psychedelic users and non-users.

Conclusion

Entheogenic spirituality may be conceptualized as a practice of spiritual seeking or implicit mysticism–the quest for self-transcendence and personal growth.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Damian van der Neut
,
Margot Peeters
,
Meyran Boniel-Nissim
,
Helena Jeriček Klanšček
,
Leila Oja
, and
Regina van den Eijnden

Abstract

Background and aims. The popularity of playing games among adolescents has increased during the last decades, possibly affecting the prevalence of problematic gaming behavior. The current study aimed to compare country-level prevalence rates of adolescents' problematic gaming behavior in five countries and identify cross-cultural similarities and differences in the relationship between problematic gaming and well-being (life satisfaction, psychological complaints, and peer support). Methods. Cross-national data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were used. The sample comprised 14,398 gamers (61% boys) aged 11 to 16 (average age between 13.31 and 13.85) from Azerbaijan, England, Serbia, Slovenia, and the Netherlands. Results. The findings showed that the prevalence of problematic gaming differs between countries. The highest prevalence of problematic gaming was seen in Azerbaijan (16.1%) and the lowest in the Netherlands (4.3%). In contrast, Azerbaijan reported the lowest gaming intensity, whereas the Netherlands and England showed the highest gaming intensity. Additional analyses revealed that problematic gaming was associated with lower life satisfaction, more psychological complaints, and lower peer support in all countries, although the strength of these associations varied between countries. Discussion and conclusions. The current study's results are consistent with the assumption that problematic gaming negatively affects adolescents' social and mental well-being. These findings are further discussed in light of the normalization theory which suggests that cultural gaming norms (i.e., the percentage of gamers per country) would influence the strength of the relationship between problematic gaming and adolescents' well-being. The present findings highlight the need for adequate prevention strategies aiming at problematic gaming among youngsters.

Open access

Abstract

Incels, also known as “involuntary celibates,” are an online subculture comprised of mostly heterosexual men who describe themselves as unable to obtain a sexual partner despite their desire and effort to do so. The group often externalizes the reasons for this failure, blaming societal structures and ideals as well as feminist movements. In recent years, some within this subculture have become radicalized. The violent ideologies of Incels have been linked to several mass shootings, including those committed by Elliot Rodger and Jake Davison. Although some Incels have attempted to use evolutionary psychology to justify their anger and ideology, this paper aims to turn the evolutionary lens back on Incels to explore Incels' core features of misogyny, group identity, suicidality and violence. Incels attempt to establish and maintain a social “in-group,” strive to eliminate sexual competition, and attempt to bypass female mate choice. The paper explores how Incels use of evolutionary psychology principles and highlights the benefits that studying Incels, both in general and through an evolutionary lens, can yield.

Open access

Abstract

In humans, the allocation of resources, such as parental care and attention, is vital to offspring survival. Life history strategies are influenced by cues in the environment, particularly those that signal the availability of resources. What has yet to be determined is how individuals allocate resources to infants as a function of perceived ecological harshness and life history strategy. In the current research we hypothesized that perceived ecology would influence infant ratings (Study 1), and that visual attention to infant phenotypes would be associated with life history strategies (Study 2). Study 1 investigated the effect of ecological conditions (control vs. harsh) on preferences to infant phenotypes (i.e., underweight, average weight, overweight). Participants (N = 246) were less likely to rate infants favorably under a harsh ecological condition. Study 2 investigated visual perception in processing infant images. Using an eye-tracking task, participants (N = 239) viewed images of infants while their eye movements were recorded. Participants displayed an early attentional bias (i.e., first fixation duration) to the head of the infant and focused most of their visual attention to the torso of infants (i.e., total visit duration). The results of the both studies indicate that ecological factors play an important role in rating infants, and data from eye-tracking demonstrates that phenotypes influence the amount of attention given to infants.

Open access

Abstract

Individual danger and collective danger have very different effects according to the predictions of a theory called regality theory, based on evolutionary psychology. This study explores the effects of different kinds of danger on 37 different indicators of psychological and cultural responses to danger based on data from two waves of the World Values Survey, including 173,000 respondents in 79 countries.

The results show that individual danger and collective danger have very different – and often opposite – psychological and cultural effects. Collective dangers are positively correlated with many indicators related to authoritarianism, nationalism, discipline, intolerance, morality, religiosity, etc. Individual dangers have neutral or opposite correlations with many of these indicators. Infectious diseases have little or no effects on these indicators. Many previous studies that confound different kinds of danger may be misleading.

Several psychological and cultural theories are discussed in relation to these results. The observed effects of collective danger are in agreement with many of these theories while individual danger has unexpected effects. The findings are not in agreement with terror management theory and pathogen stress theory.

Open access

Abstract

Low fertility is a growing concern in modern societies. While economic and structural explanations of reproductive hindrances have been informative to some extent, they do not address the fundamental motives that underlie reproductive decisions and are inadequate to explain why East Asian countries, in particular, have such low fertility rates. The current paper advances a novel account of low fertility in modern contexts by describing how modern environments produce a mismatch between our evolved mechanisms and the inputs they were designed to process, leading to preoccupations with social status that get in the way of mating and reproductive outcomes. We also utilize developed East Asian countries as a case study to further highlight how culture may interact with modern features to produce ultralow fertility, sometimes to the extent that people may give up on parenthood or even mating altogether. Through our analysis, we integrate several lines of separate research, elucidate the fundamental dynamics that drive trade-offs between social status and reproductive effort, add to the growing literature on evolutionary mismatch, and provide an improved account of low fertility in modern contexts.

Open access
Restricted access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Marianne Balem
,
Anna Karlsson
,
Carolina Widinghoff
,
Bastien Perrot
,
Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
, and
Anders Håkansson

Abstract

Background and aims

The lockdown of sports and gambling venues during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a fear of increased gambling on other online gambling types, with a risk for transfer to more addictive gambling than otherwise. This study aimed to estimate changes in gambling activity during COVID-19-affected periods among all gamblers at a Swedish state-owned gambling operator and to analyse observable sex differences.

Methods

This study included gambling tracking data from the Swedish state-owned gambling operator Svenska Spel Sports & Casino (sports betting, online bingo, casino and poker). All individuals (n = 616,245) who gambled at least once from February 10 to July 19, 2020, were included. The study period was divided into four periods according to their expected level of COVID-19 impact on gambling opportunities: one pre-COVID period and three COVID-affected periods (sports cancellation, emerging return of sports, substantial return of sports).

Results

Sports betting experienced an apparent decrease, followed by a gradual normalization and an end level substantially below prepandemic levels. For online bingo, gambling levels increased upon sports interruption and then decreased with the return to normality in sports events but remained higher than baseline levels. We observed a similar trend for online poker during the interruption of sports, but with a lower level than baseline levels when sports events normalized. We noticed a trend favouring online casinos during the sports interruption period regarding gambling intensity but not wagering levels.

Discussion and conclusions

Dramatic changes in the content of the gambling market may divert some gamblers to other gambling types, but maintained effects could not be demonstrated.

Open access