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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Michelle Colder Carras, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Frosso Motti-Stefanidi, Alain Labrique, and Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

In August of 2021, China imposed severe restrictions on children’s online gaming time. We argue that such a policy may seem useful on the surface but does not reflect the current evidence concerning prevention of disordered gaming. Videogame play is normal for children worldwide, and like other leisure activities can lead to benefits for the majority and problems for a minority. Problematic or disordered play results from the interaction of multiple risk factors that are not addressed by draconian policy measures. Identifying these factors through stakeholder-engaged research and current evidence will be much more likely to succeed in preventing disordered gaming and promoting youth wellbeing.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Despite problematic pornography use (PPU) being prevalent, no previous study has examined the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for PPU, using rigorous methods. Using a two-armed randomized controlled trial study design, we examined the feasibility and initial effectiveness of a six-week online PPU intervention.

Methods

We recruited 264 participants (3.8% women, M age = 33.2, SD = 10.6) who were randomized and assigned to either the self-help intervention (n = 123) or waitlist control condition (n = 141), and completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after the end of the intervention (six-week follow-up). Multivariable linear regression models were generated and tested on a complete case basis to investigate possible treatment effects. Participants provided quantitative and qualitative feedback regarding the intervention’s content and appearance.

Results

Participants evaluated all modules positively in the intervention in general. There were differential dropout rates (89.4% in intervention vs. 44.7% in control group) with an overall follow-up rate of 34.5%. The intervention group reported significantly lower levels of PPU (P < 0.001, d = 1.32) at the six-week follow-up. Moreover, they reported lower pornography use frequency (P < 0.001, d = 1.65), self-perceived pornography addiction (P = 0.01, d = 0.85), pornography craving (P = 0.02, d = 0.40), and higher pornography avoidance self-efficacy (P = 0.001, d = 0.87) at the six-week follow-up.

Discussion and Conclusions

The present study was only a first step in rigorous treatment studies for PPU, but the findings are promising and suggest that online interventions for PPU might help reduce PPU in some cases, even without the guidance of therapists, by reducing treatment barriers.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Wei-Ran Zhou, Min Wang, Hao-Hao Dong, Zhaojie Zhang, Xiaoxia Du, Marc N. Potenza, and Guang-Heng Dong

Abstract

Background

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by poorly controlled and interfering patterns of game playing. Studies have suggested that the IGD is usually accompanied by increased desire or craving for gaming, suggesting that secondary rewards related to gaming may become more salient than those for primary rewards like food. However, this hypothesis has not been formally tested and potential neural mechanisms remain unclear.

Methods

This is a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Twenty-one IGD subjects and 23 matched individuals with recreational game use (RGU) were scanned when exposed to gaming (secondary rewards), food (primary rewards) and neutral cues. Group-by-cue-type interaction analyses and subsequent within-group analyses for fMRI data were performed and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses explored further potential neural features.

Results

IGD subjects’ subjective craving responses to gaming cues were higher than to food cues, while the opposite was observed in RGU subjects. Group-by-cue interaction effects implicated the precuneus and precuneus-caudate FC. Simple effect analysis showed that for IGD subjects, gaming-related cues elicited higher FC in precuneus-caudate relationships than did food-related cues. In the RGU subjects, the opposite was observed. Significant correlations were found between brain features and craving scores.

Conclusions

These results support the hypothesis regarding imbalances in sensitivities to different types of reward in IGD, and suggest neural mechanisms by which craving for gaming may make secondary rewards more salient than primary ones, thus promoting participation in addictive patterns of gaming.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Joseph Studer, Simon Marmet, Gerhard Gmel, Matthias Wicki, Florian Labhart, Céline Gachoud, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, and Nicolas Bertholet

Abstract

Background and Aims

There are concerns about the potential impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on substance use (SU) and other reinforcing behaviours (ORB). This paper investigates changes in SU and ORB among young men during the COVID-19 crisis (i.e. March–June 2020).

Methods

Before and during the COVID-19 crisis, 2,344 young Swiss men completed questionnaires covering SU (i.e. alcohol, cigarettes, illegal cannabis), ORB (i.e. gaming, watching TV series, internet pornography) and sociodemographic and work-related characteristics (i.e. deterioration in the work situation, change in working hours, change in working hours from home, healthcare workers’ and other professionals’ contacts with potentially infected people, linguistic region, call up to military or civil protection unit, living situation, age).

Results

Latent-change score models showed significant decreases of 17% for drinking volume and frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and a significant increase of 75% for time spent gaming and watching TV series. Subgroups showed greater relative increases. French-speaking participants, those who experienced a deterioration in their work situation and healthcare workers in contact with potentially infected people reported increased cigarette use. Those without children increased gaming, whereas those who worked fewer hours, experienced a deterioration in their work situation or were French-speaking did more gaming and watched more TV series. Those who lived alone or were German-speaking watched more internet pornography.

Conclusion

During the COVID-19 crisis, young Swiss men drank less alcohol and spent more time gaming and watching TV series. Changes in SU and ORB were not homogenous in the young Swiss men population.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Clémence Cabelguen, Bruno Rocher, Juliette Leboucher, Benoît Schreck, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Jean-Benoît Hardouin, and Marie Grall-Bronnec

Abstract

Background and aims

Since June 2018, gaming disorder (GD) has been recognized as a disease. It is frequently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as there are common vulnerability factors and bidirectional interactions between the two disorders. This study aims to evaluate the presence of ADHD symptoms and predictive factors of ADHD among patients with GD.

Methods

Ninety-seven patients ≥16 years old referred to the University Hospital of Nantes between 2012 and 2020 for GD were included. The diagnosis of GD was given a posteriori in accordance with the new ICD-11 GD definition. ADHD was screened using the Adult-ADHD Self-Report Scale and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify explanatory factors for ADHD-GD comorbidity.

Results

The rate of GD patients who screened positive for ADHD was 39%. Predictive factors of ADHD-GD comorbidity were impulsivity (higher score on the negative urgency dimension) and low self-esteem.

Discussion

The rate of ADHD found among patients with GD is consistent with that from the literature on internet GD but higher than that found for other behavioural addictions. The identification of a higher negative urgency score and low self-esteem as predictive factors of AHDH-GD comorbidity indicates that gaming could be considered a dysfunctional way to cope with emotional dysregulation in ADHD or to virtually escape.

Conclusions

Comorbid ADHD must be taken into consideration to minimize its functional impact on GD patients and gaming-related damage. In contrast, the evaluation of gaming habits in patients with ADHD could be useful for both prevention and care.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a grim challenge to adolescents’ daily life, including schooling and learning, which has great impacts on their mental and behavioral health. This study aimed to test the roles of stress related to schooling and online learning during COVID-19 (COVID-19 stress) in depression and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) among adolescents and the potential mediators of social support, academic stress, and maladaptive emotion regulation based on the framework of Conservation of Resources theory. Sex differences in these associations were further examined.

Methods

A school-based survey was conducted among Chinese adolescents in 13 secondary schools in Hong Kong (n = 3,136) from September to November 2020 (48.1% males; mean age = 13.6 years old) using stratified random sampling.

Results

The prevalence of probable depression and IGD was 60% and 15%, respectively. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2/df = 7.77, CFI = 0.92, IFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05). COVID-19 stress was positively and indirectly associated with both depression and IGD through social support, academic stress, and maladaptive emotion regulation. Multi-group analyses identified that the associations between COVID-19 stress and academic stress, between academic stress and depression, and between social support and depression were stronger among females compared to males.

Discussion and conclusions

Findings highlight the roles of academic stress, poor social support, maladaptive emotion regulation, and sex to understand how disruption and stress caused by COVID-19 increases adolescent depression and IGD. Psychosocial interventions based on these factors are highly warranted.

Open access

Evolúciós pszichológia – az elmúlt 30 év

Evolutionary psychology – the last 30 years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Tamás Bereczkei and József Topál

Tanulmányunkban arra teszünk kísérletet, hogy áttekintsük a hazai pszichológiai életben megjelenő és egyre markánsabb szerepet játszó evolúciós megközelítéseket. Bemutatjuk a 30 évvel ezelőtti állapotokat és azokat a neves kutatókat, akik az evolúciós pszichológia magyarországi létrejötte mellett bábáskodtak. Ezt követően részletesen is beszámolunk azokról a kutatásokról, amelyek a két nagy hazai evolúciós kutatóműhelyben jöttek létre, nevezetesen a Pécsi Evolúciós Pszichológia Kutatócsoportban és az MTA–ELTE Összehasonlító Etológiai Kutatócsoportból kinőtt teamekben. Végül röviden bemutatjuk azokat az eredményeket, amelyek e két nagy műhelyen kívül születtek egy-egy pszichológiai jelenség evolúciós értelmezése kapcsán.

In our paper, we make an attempt to overview those evolutionary approaches that have developed and become increasingly influencing in the Hungarian psychological life. We show the conditions 30 years ago, and those gifted scholars who contributed to the development of evolutionary psychology in Hungary. Then, we give a detailed review on the studies that have been fulfilled in the two basic research centers in Hungary: the Evolutionary Psychology Research Group of Pécs, and the MTA-ELTE Comparative Ethological Team. Finally, we describe the scientific results that have been achieved in the interpretation of specific psychological phenomena outside these main research centers.

Open access

A fejlődés-pszichofiziológia 30 éve Magyarországon (1990–2020)

30 years of developmental psychophysiology in Hungary (1990–2020)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Valéria Csépe

A magyarországi fejlődés-pszichofiziológia három évtizedes történetét összefoglaló tanulmány a jelentősebb kutatások eredményeit négy főbb témacsoportban mutatja be. Ezek: a) a fejlődés-pszichofiziológiai módszerekkel végzett kutatások kezdetei, b) a nemzetközi kutatási kapcsolatok főbb területei, c) az eseményhez kötött agyi potenciálok módszerével végzett kutatások hazai főbb eredményei, valamint azok nemzetközi beágyazottsága és trendjei, d) a kognitív fejlődés-idegtudomány önálló területének kialakulása. Az áttekintésben hangsúlyosan jelenik meg a kutatási terület szerves kapcsolódása a pszichológia releváns ágaihoz (fejlődés-, kísérleti, kognitív pszichológia) és vizsgált életkori szakaszaihoz, beleértve a humán fejlődés fiziológiai módszereket alkalmazó pszichológiai kutatásának teljes vertikumát a tipikustól az atipikusig, a csecsemőkortól az öregedésig.

The review summarizes the three-decades history of developmental psychophysiology in Hungary and presents the significant scientific achievements in four thematic domains. These are: a) the first years of research using developmental psychophysiological methods, b) the main areas of international research relations, c) the main results of research using event-related brain potentials, and their international relations and trends, d) the rise of a new independent field called cognitive developmental neuroscience. The review highlights the important links between the research area and the relevant branches of psychology (developmental, experimental, cognitive psychology) as well as the age range studied, including the entire continuum of psychological research on human development using physiological methods, from typical to atypical, and from infancy to aging.

Open access

Fiatal felnőttek egészségcéljainak vizsgálata: A cél megközelítő-elkerülő orientációjának személyes kontextusa és a célokhoz társuló szubjektív tapasztalatok

Health goals in emerging adulthood: the personal context of approach-avoidance goal orientation and subjective experiences accompanying these goals

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Sára Imola Csuka, Orsolya Rosta-Filep, Viola Sallay, and Tamás Martos

Háttér és célkitűzések

Egészséggel kapcsolatos céljaink szoros összefüggést mutatnak egészség-magatartásunkkal, így ennek vizsgálata fiatal felnőtteknél kiemelten fontos, mivel a fiatal ekkor alakítja ki saját életstílusát. A megközelítő célok egy kívánt állapot elérésére, az elkerülő célok valamilyen kellemetlen állapottól való megszabadulásra vonatkoznak. Kutatásunk két fő irányát egyrészt a megközelítő egészségcélok személyes kontextusa, másrészt a céllal kapcsolatos kedvező tapasztalatot övező kontextuális tényezők azonosítása határozta meg.

Módszer

Keresztmetszeti és kérdőíves vizsgálatunk mintáját 191 fiatal felnőtt alkotta. A célok mérésére a Személyes tervek (Little, 1993; Sheldon és Elliot, 1998; Martos, 2009b) kérdőívet alkalmaztuk. Ennek során a résztvevők maguk sorolták fel három egészséggel kapcsolatos személyes céljukat, majd ezek közül kellett egyet kiválasztaniuk és előre megadott szempontok (pozitív és negatív érzelmek, énkonkordancia, énhatékonyság) szerint értékelniük. Ezt követően történt a célok megközelítő/elkerülő kategóriákba sorolása. A megközelítő célorientáció előrejelzőinek vizsgálatára bináris regresszióelemzést, a célértékeléseket előrejelző kontextuális tényezők meghatározásához pedig három hierarchikus regressziós modellt építettünk fel. Eredmények: A cél személyes kontextusát képező tényezők közül a BMI kategória (túlsúlyos és elhízott) és a dohányzás (ritkán dohányzó és dohányzó) jelzik előre fordítottan a megközelítő egészségcél választásának nagyobb valószínűségét. A céllal együtt járó kedvező tapasztalatokkal (pozitív érzelmek magasabb és negatív érzelmek alacsonyabb gyakorisága, cél magasabb énkonkordanciája, énhatékonyság) a cél megközelítő jellege következetesen együtt jár az egyéb tényezők hatásának kontrollálása mellett is.

Következtetések

Az eredmények afelé mutatnak, hogy a megközelítő orientáció alacsonyabb testtömegindexszel és kevesebb dohányzással jár együtt. Mindezek mellett a célokkal kapcsolatos szubjektív tapasztalatok egyedi összefüggéseket mutatnak a kontextuális tényezőkkel. Eredményeink különféle egészséggel kapcsolatos, fiatal felnőttek számára kialakított intervencióknak is alapjául szolgálhatnak.

Background and aims

As our health goals show significant correspondence to our health behaviour investigation into these goals in emerging adulthood has unique importance as young adults establish their own lifestyle at that age. Approach goals refer to accomplishing a desired state, while avoidance goals refer to disposing an unpleasant state. Our research was built upon two main research questions: exploring the personal context of approach health goals and identifying possible contextual factors predicting advantageous experiences concerning the goal.

Methods

The sample of our questionnaire study consisted of 191 emerging adults. For capturing the goals the Personal Projects Questionnaire (Little, 1993, Sheldon & Elliot, 1998, Martos, 2009b) was used. In the course of assessment, participants formulated their three goals concerning their health, then they had to choose one of these and rate it along some predefined aspects (positive and negative emotions, self-concordance and self-efficacy). Sequentially these goals were categorised into approach/avoidance categories. For predicting approach goal orientation binary logistic regression analysis was used and then three hierarchical regression analyses were built for identifying contextual factors which can be possible predictors of goal evaluations.

Results

Among factors framing the personal context of the goal BMI category (overweight and obese) and smoking (rarely and regular) predicted the odds of chosing an approach goal. Favourable experiences (higher levels of positive and lower levels of negative emotions, higher self-concordance, self-efficacy) accompanying these goals are associated with the approach nature of the goal consistently besides controlling for other factors.

Conclusions

Results indicate that approach orientation is accompanied by lower BMI index and less frequent smoking. Besides these subjective experiences concerning the goals show unique associations with contextual factors. Our findings can serve as starting-points of health-promoting interventions for young adults.

Open access

A fejlődéspszichológia Magyarországon az elmúlt 30 évben

Developmental psychology in Hungary for the last 30 years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Ildikó Király

A Magyarországon folyó fejlődéslélektani kutatások az elmúlt 30 évben jelentős, nemzetközileg is elismert eredményekkel gazdagították ismereteinket. E tanulmány bemutatja a terület aktív kutatóműhelyeit, és összefoglalja a kiemelkedő eredményeiket.

Research in the field of developmental psychology in Hungary has contributed to scientific advancement with significant, internationally recognized findings over the past 30 years. This paper introduces the active research groups in the field and summarizes their outstanding findings.

Open access

Abstract

Trauma exposure across the lifespan produces risks for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, as well as global disability in functioning. This retrospective clinical chart review is the first of its kind to assess the utility of sublingual ketamine-assisted body-centered psychotherapy in trauma-exposed patients in a real world clinic setting. De-identified clinical records data on self-reported symptom measures were retrospectively analyzed for patients (N = 18; M age = 45.22, SD = 12.90) entering ketamine-assisted psychotherapy treatment in an outpatient clinic between 2018 and 2020. Patients who completed six sessions of ketamine therapy reported meaningful (e.g., medium effect size) improvements in PTSD symptoms (P = 0.058; d = −0.48) and global disability in functioning (P = 0.050; d = −0.52) and statistically significant and meaningful improvements in depression (P = 0.019; d = −0.53). There were no improvements in anxiety symptoms. Sublingual ketamine-assisted psychotherapy was associated with heterogenous clinical utility among patients with trauma-exposure in an outpatient setting. This study was underpowered and unrepresentative of the population of ketamine patients in the United States. Replication of these findings is needed with larger and more diverse patient samples.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Linda Lemón, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, and Anders Håkansson

Abstract

Background and aims

Theoretical background and previous data provide some similarities between problematic gambling and eating behaviors, and a theoretically increased clinical severity in individuals suffering from both conditions. However, large datasets are lacking, and therefore, the present study aimed to study, in a nationwide register material, psychiatric comorbidity, age and gender in gambling disorder (GD) patients with or without eating disorder (ED).

Methods

Diagnostic data from a nationwide register were used, including all individuals with a GD diagnosis in specialized health care in Sweden, in the years 2005–2016 (N = 2,099). Patients with GD and an ED diagnosis (n = 57) were compared to GD patients without ED.

Results

Patients with GD+ED were significantly more likely than other GD patients to also have a diagnosis of drug use disorder, depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, other mood disorder, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and neuropsychiatric disorders, when controlling for gender. In logistic regression, a comorbid ED in GD was associated with female gender, younger age, depressive disorder and personality disorders.

Discussion and conclusion

In nationwide register data, despite the low number of GD+ED patients, GD patients with ED appear to have a more severe psychiatric comorbidity than GD patients without ED. The combined GD+ED conditions may require particular screening and clinical attention, as well as further research in larger and longitudinal studies.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Lorenzo Moccia, Maria Quintigliano, Delfina Janiri, Valentina De Martin, Guyonne Rogier, Gabriele Sani, Luigi Janiri, Patrizia Velotti, Vittorio Gallese, Anna Maria Speranza, and Marco Di Nicola

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling Disorder (GD) entails maladaptive patterns of decision-making. Neurophysiological research points out the effect of parasympathetic arousal, including phasic changes in heart rate variability (HRV), and interoceptive accuracy (IA, i.e., the ability to track changes in bodily signals), on decision-making. Nevertheless, scarce evidence is available on their role in GD. This is the first study exploring the impact in GD of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of HRV, and IA on decision-making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

Methods

Twenty-two patients experiencing problems with slot-machines or video lottery terminals gambling and 22 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. A resting ECG was performed before and after the completion of the IGT. IA was assessed throughout the heartbeat detection task. We conducted a MANCOVA to detect the presence of significant differences between groups in RSA reactivity and IA. A linear regression model was adopted to test the effect of factors of interest on IGT scores.

Results

Patients with GD displayed significantly decreased RSA reactivity (P = 0.002) and IA (P = 0.024) compared to HCs, even after controlling for affective symptoms, age, smoking status, and BMI. According to the linear regression model, cardiac vagal reactivity and IA significantly predict decision-making impairments on the IGT (P = 0.008; P = 0.019).

Discussion and conclusions

Although the exact pathways linking HRV and IA to impaired decision-making in GD remain to be identified, a broader exploration relying upon an embodiment-informed framework may contribute to shed further light on the clinical phenomenology of the disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

In the current study we have sought to clarify the contribution of metacognitions concerning smartphone use relative to smartphone use expectancies in the relationship between well-established predisposing psychological factors and problematic smartphone use (PSU). We tested a model where psychological distress, impulsivity, and proneness to boredom predict metacognitions about smartphone use and smartphone use expectancies, which in turn predict PSU.

Methods

A sample of 535 participants (F = 71.2%; mean age = 27.38 ± 9.05 years) was recruited.

Results

The model accounted for 64% of the PSU variance and showed good fit indices (χ 2 = 16.01, df = 13, P = 0.24; RMSEA [90%CI] = 0.02 [0–0.05], CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.03). We found that: (i) when it comes to psychological distress and boredom proneness, negative metacognitions, and both positive and negative expectancies play a mediating role in the association with PSU, with negative metacognitions showing a dominant role; (ii) there is no overlap between positive expectancies and positive metacognitions, especially when it comes to smartphone use as a means for socializing; (iii) impulsivity did not show a significant effect on PSU Direct effects of the predictors on PSU were not found.

Discussion and conclusions

The current study found additional support for applying metacognitive theory to the understanding of PSU and highlight the dominant role of negative metacognitions about smartphone in predicting PSU.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Personal investors decrease their stock market investment returns by trading frequently, which the behavioral finance literature has primarily explained via investors' overconfidence and low levels of financial literacy. This study investigates whether problem gambling can help account for frequent trading in a sample of active gambler/investors, as suggestive of frequent trading being in part driven by a behavioral addiction to gambling-like activities.

Methods

A retrospective cross-sectional study of 795 US-based participants, who reported both being active gamblers and holding stock market investments. Recollected stock trading activity (typical portfolio size, purchases and sales of stocks) was compared with scores on the Problem Gambling Severity Index, a financial literacy scale, and a measure of overconfidence.

Results

Self-reported relative stock portfolio turnover was positively associated with problem gambling scores. This association was robust to controls for financial literacy, overconfidence, and demographics, and occurred equally among investors of all self-reported portfolio sizes.

Discussion and conclusions

This study provides support for the hypothesis that behavioral addiction to gambling-like activities is associated with frequent stock market trading. New investment products that increase the ease of trading may therefore be detrimental to some investors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Vietnam implemented numerous measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 among school students, including study-at-home/self-quarantine. During the study-at-home period, adolescents may engage in more video gaming than usual, potentially contributing to gaming disorder. However, the regionally-representative prevalence of gaming disorder and its association with parenting practice and discipline practice have not been described. We assessed the prevalence of gaming disorder among Vietnamese adolescents during the initial 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associations between gaming disorder and parenting practice and discipline practice.

Methods

We conducted a school-based, self-administered cross-sectional survey of 2,084 students in Hanoi, Vietnam (response rate = 97.1%). The survey included standardized instruments translated from English to Vietnamese. We performed multilevel logistic regressions to assess the associations between parenting practice, discipline practice, and gaming disorder.

Results

The prevalence of gaming disorder among the respondents was 11.6%. Healthy parent-child relationship was protective against gaming disorder (Adj OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.62). Non-supervision, non-discipline, violent discipline were positively associated with gaming disorder.

Discussion and Conclusions

We found associations between gaming disorder and parent-child relationship, parental supervision, and parental discipline. Future interventional studies should consider assessing the effect of fostering healthy parent-child relationships and appropriate discipline on the occurrence or prognosis of gaming disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Perfectionism, a focused self-concept, and erroneous beliefs have been implicated in the development and maintenance of various disordered behaviors. However, researchers have yet to examine how these factors combine to explain different disordered behaviors. Herein, we addressed this gap and hypothesized a moderated-mediation model whereby perfectionism fosters the development of disordered behaviors through a focused self-concept. Critically, the effect of a focused self-concept on disordered behaviors is specific to people with erroneous beliefs about their disordered behaviors. The model was tested in the contexts of disordered gambling and disordered eating, particularly dietary restraint.

Method

In Study 1, participants were community members who gamble (N = 259). In Study 2, participants were university women (N = 219). In both studies, participants completed self-report measures of all constructs that are both reliable and valid.

Results

In Study 1, as expected, there was a positive association between perfectionism and disordered gambling, which was mediated by financially focused self-concept. This mediation was only observed among participants who scored high on illusion of control and belief in luck. Likewise, in Study 2, there was a positive association between perfectionism and dietary restraint, which was mediated by appearance focused self-concept. The mediation effect was only observed among participants who believed that maladaptive dietary restraint behaviors were safe and efficacious.

Discussion and Conclusions

The findings support the transdiagnostic utility of our model, which may help explain an array of disordered behaviors, including other addictive behaviors as well as behaviors that involve rigid adherence to rules and control.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Małgorzata Draps, Guillaume Sescousse, Mateusz Wilk, Katarzyna Obarska, Izabela Szumska, Weronika Żukrowska, Aleksandra Majkowska, Ewelina Kowalewska, Julia Szymanowska, Urszula Hamerska, Magda Trybuś, Karolina Golec, Iwona Adamska, Karol Szymczak, and Mateusz Gola

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite the inclusion of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases, very little is known about the underlying affective and cognitive processes. To fill this gap, we compared CSBD subjects and Healthy-Controls (HC) across negative/positive valence, cognitive and sensorimotor systems, as proposed by the Research Domain Criteria framework.

Methods

74 heterosexual CSBD and 66 matched HC males were studied with 10 questionnaires and 8 behavioral tasks. Analyses were conducted with frequent and Bayesian statistics.

Results

CSBD individuals showed significantly higher (than HC) punishment sensitivity, anxiety, depression, compulsivity, and impulsivity symptoms. Frequentist statistical analysis revealed significant interaction between subject group and condition in Incentive Delay Task, concerning the strength of motivation and hedonic value of erotic rewards. Bayesian analysis produced evidence for the absence of group differences in Facial Discrimination Task, Risk-Ambiguity Task, and Learning Task. Also, Bayesian methods provided evidence for group differences in the Emotional Stroop Task and the Incentive Delay Task. Sexual Discounting Task, Attentional Network Task, and Stop Signal Task produced mixed results.

Conclusions

Higher punishment sensitivity and impulsivity among CSBD subjects, along with significant interaction between these groups and erotic vs. non-erotic reward processing is in line with previous findings on negative/positive valence alterations in CSBD patients. This result shows that there are similarities to substance and behavioral addictions. The absence of group differences and mixed results related to cognitive and sensorimotor systems raise concerns to what extent CSBD resembles a wide spectrum of impairments observed in disorders, and demand further research.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Matthew Brittain, Nathan Consedine, Kathleen L. Bagot, Natalia Booth, and Simone N. Rodda

Abstract

Background and aims

Sugar is a potentially addictive substance that is consumed in such high levels the World Health Organisation has set recommended consumption limits. To date there are no empirically tested brief interventions for reducing sugar consumption in adult populations. The current study aimed to preliminarily assess the feasibility of recruitment, retention, and intervention engagement and impact of a brief intervention.

Methods

This pre-post study recruited 128 adults from New Zealand to complete a 30-day internet-delivered intervention with in-person and email coaching. The intervention components were derived from implementation intention principles whereby the gap between intention and behaviour was targeted. Participants selected sugar consumption goals aligned with WHO recommendations by gender. To meet these goals, participants developed action plans and coping plans and engaged in self-monitoring. Facilitation was provided by a coach to maintain retention and treatment adherence over the 30 days.

Results

Intervention materials were rated as very useful and participants were mostly satisfied with the program. The total median amount of sugar consumed at baseline was 1,662.5 g (396 teaspoons per week) which was reduced to 362.5 g (86 teaspoons) at post-intervention evaluation (d = 0.83). The intervention was associated with large effects on reducing cravings (d = 0.59) and psychological distress (d = 0.68) and increasing situational self-efficacy (d = 0.92) and well-being (d = 0.68) with a reduction in BMI (d = 0.51).

Conclusion

This feasibility study indicates that a brief intervention delivering goal setting, implementation planning, and self-monitoring may assist people to reduce sugar intake to within WHO recommendations.

Open access

A 15 tételes Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála hazai alkalmazásával szerzett tapasztalatok normatív mintán

Experiences with the usage of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) on a Hungarian sample

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Szekeres Tamás and Hargitai Rita

Bevezetés: Az időskori depresszió gyakran aluldiagnosztizált, noha a vezető pszichés problémát jelenti ebben az életkorban. A Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála (GDS-SF) az időskori depresszió tüneteinek felmérésére alkalmas kérdőív, amelyet gyakran alkalmaznak nemzetközi viszonylatban a klinikumban. Célkitűzés: Jelen tanulmány célkitűzése kettős. Elsődleges célja a 15 tételes Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála (GDS-SF) hazai normatív mintán történő tesztelése és az alkalmazásával szerzett tapasztalatok közreadása. Másodsorban arra a kérdésre keressük a választ, hogy az idősek mintáján van-e protektív szerepe az online tér használatának a depresszió vonatkozásában. Módszerek: A keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves kutatásban 65 éves és afeletti életkorú vizsgálati személyek önkéntesen vettek részt, az adatokat anonim módon, papír–ceruza alapon (n = 142) és online (n = 167) formában gyűjtöttük. A kérdőív validálásához az Egészségügyi Világszervezet Rövidített Életminőség Kérdőívét, a Rövidített WHO Jól-Lét Kérdőívet, valamint a Zung Önértékelő Depresszió Skálát használtuk. A válaszmeghamisító tendenciák szűrésére a Caprara-féle Big Five Kérdőív Szociális Kívánatosság alskáláját alkalmaztuk. Eredmények: A parallel-elemzés eredménye egyfaktoros struktúrát jelez, és az egyetlen faktor az összvariancia 64,8%-át magyarázza. A kérdőív megbízhatósága kiváló (Cronbach-α = 0,95). A GDS-SF az elvárásoknak megfelelő irányú és mértékű korrelációt mutatott a validáláshoz alkalmazott mérőeszközökkel: a GDS-SF és az életminőség alfaktorai közötti korrelációs együttható (r) értéke –0,59 és –0,61 közötti (p < 0,001), a jólléttel –0,71 (p < 0,001), míg a Zung Önértékelő Depresszió Skálával 0,74 (p < 0,001). A papíralapú és az online adatgyűjtésben részt vevő vizsgálati személyek körében nem találtunk szignifikáns különbséget a depreszszió előfordulási gyakoriságában, amennyiben kontroll alatt tartjuk az életkor és az iskolai végzettség hatását. Következtetések: A 15 tételes Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála magyar verziója megbízható és érvényes eszköz az időskori depresszió mérésére normatív mintán, miközben a klinikai minta vonatkozásában további vizsgálatok szükségesek.

Introduction: Geriatric depression is the leading mental disorder among the older population, although it is often underdiagnosed. The Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) (GDS-SF) is a screening tool designed to measure depressive symptoms in older adults and is used by clinicians globally. Objective: The primary objective of the study is the psychometric testing of GDS-SF among pensioners, as well as to present our experiences with using the questionnaire on a Hungarian sample. The secondary objective of the study is to explore whether the use of online space is a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms in this population. Methods: A total of 309 participants took part in this cross-sectional study, all of them above the age of 65, with full anonymity granted to all involved. The questionnaire was available in paper-based (n = 142) and online (n = 167) format as well. For the validation of GDS-SF, the Abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Abbreviated WHO Well-Being Questionnaire, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used. The Social Desirability Scale of the Caprara Big Five Questionnaire was used to filter out response distortion tendencies. Results: The results of the parallel analysis of the questionnaire supported a one-factor structure design, with 64.8% of the variance explained. According to the validity analysis, GDS-SF showed sufficient direction and degree of correlation with the questionnaires used for comparison and was in accordance with our a priori assumed direction and degree of correlation. Upon examination we discovered that the GDF-SF has a correlation coefficient (r) between –0.59 and –0.61 (p < 0.001) with the quality of life subfactors, –0.71 (p < 0.001) with wellbeing, and 0.74 (p < 0.001) with Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The reliability of the survey also proved to be excellent. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression between the two groups (paper-based and online), when controlling for the effects of age and level of education. Conclusions: The Hungarian version of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale is a reliable and valid tool for measuring depressive symptoms in the older normative adult population. Regarding the clinical sample, further exploration is needed.

Open access

Az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív hazai adaptációja

Hungarian adaptation of the Coach Behaviour Questionnaire

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Kovács Krisztina, Kőnig-Görögh Dóra, F. Földi Rita, and Gyömbér Noémi

Háttér és célkitűzések: Jelen tanulmány célja az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív (Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire) magyar változatának pszichometriai vizsgálata, a mérőeszköz reliabilitásának és validitásának ellenőrzése. Módszerek: A kérdőív érvényességét és megbízhatóságát egy 490 fős kényelmi mintán (234 férfi és 256 nő, átlagéletkor = 19,49 év; SD = 5,05 év) ellenőriztük. Az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív mellett felvételre került a Sportkörnyezet Kérdőív, a Sportmotiváció-2 Kérdőív, az Edző-Sportoló Kapcsolat Kérdőív, valamint a Sportverseny Pillanatnyi Szorongás Skála. Eredmények: A megerősítő faktoranalízis eredményeképpen az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív kétfaktoros elméleti modelljének illeszkedési mutatói megfelelőnek bizonyultak (χ 2 = 386,36;df = 89; TLI = 0,90; CFI = 0,91; RMSEA = 0,08 [90% CI = 0,07 – 0,09]; SRMR = 0,07). A kérdőív skáláinak belső megbízhatósága elfogadható (Negatív reakció Cronbach-α = 0,87, Támogatás Cronbach-α = 0,87). A konvergens validitás vizsgálata során a korábbi kutatásokkal megegyező korrelációkat kaptunk a Támogatás alskála és az észlelt autonómiatámogatás, az önbizalom, a sportmotiváció típusai és az edző-sportoló kapcsolat minősége között (r = –0,29 – 0,90; p < 0,001), a Negatív reakció alskála mindezeken a skálákon túl szignifikáns kapcsolatba hozható a sportolói állapotszorongással is (r = 0,21 – 0,25; p < 0,001). Következtetések: Az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív magyarra fordított változata pszichometriailag megfelelő mérőeszköznek tekinthető.

Background and aims: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire and examine the reliability and validity of this questionnaire. Methods: 432 athletes were involved in this study (mean age = 19.49; SD = 5.05; men = 234; women = 256). Besides the above-mentioned questionnaire, the Sport Climate Questionnaire, the Sport Motivation Scale-2, the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 were applied for the validation. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-dimensional theoretical model (χ 2 = 386.36;df = 89; TLI = 0.90; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.08 [90% CI = 0.07 – 0.09]; SRMR = 0.07), that indicated an acceptable fit to the data. Internal consistency of the subscales (Negative activation Cronbach’s α = 0.87, Supportiveness Cronbach’s α = 0.87) proved to be adequate. Examination of construct validity revealed positive relationships among Supportiveness subscale and self-determined motivation, autonomy-supported coach behaviour, self-confidence and coach-athlete relationship (r = – 0.29 – 0.70), and negative relationship among the Negative activation and the trait anxiety in addition to the below mentioned scales (r = 0.21 – 0.25). Discussion: The Hungarian version of the CBQ seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure.

Open access

Közös szülőség a válás után: szakirodalmi áttekintés

Coparenting after divorce: A literature review

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Pilinszki Attila and Gyetvai Anna

Tanulmányunk célja áttekintést nyújtani a válás utáni közös szülőségre, a szülők együttműködésére és konfliktusaira vonatkozó főbb kutatási eredményekről. A közös szülőség fogalma a szülők közötti interakciókat, kapcsolatot jelenti, amit a válást követően is szükséges fenntartani. Tanulmányunkban egyrészt kitérünk a közös szülőség egyes aspektusaira (szülői kommunikáció, egymás támogatása–aláásása, konfliktusok és konfliktuskezelés), másrészt a vonatkozó vizsgálatokban leggyakrabban megjelenő háttérváltozókra (válási folyamat, elhelyezés típusa). A válás következményei, az új helyzethez való alkalmazkodás sikeressége mind a szülők, mind a gyerekek részéről jelentős társadalmi fontossággal bír, ennek ellenére a válás utáni közös szülőség témája csak egy-egy hazai publikációban jelenik meg. Jelen tanulmánnyal célunk ennek a hiánynak a pótlása, valamint a kérdéskör hazai kutatásának inicializálása. A vizsgált szakirodalom alapján elmondható, hogy a párkapcsolat felbomlása után kiemelten fontos egy új egyensúlyi állapot kialakítása, mivel a közös szülőség minősége összefüggést mutat a gyermekek és a felnőttek jóllétével is. A vonatkozó empirikus szakirodalom egy része azokra a preventív képzési programokra irányul, amelyek a válás utáni közös szülőség minőségének fejlesztését tűzték ki célul. Említést teszünk ezért több ilyen programról, röviden ismertetve a sajátosságaikat és a kapcsolatos empirikus eredményeket. Következtetésként elmondható, hogy a válást követő közös szülőség komplex témaköre és a szülők sokszor eltérő narratívája miatt olyan diádikus kutatási megközelítés választása indokolt, amellyel ez az összetettség megragadható. Felhívjuk továbbá a figyelmet arra, hogy hazánkban hiányoznak az elvált szülőknek kínált edukációs programok, pedig a szülők és gyermekek jóllétének érdekében fontos lenne ezek kifejlesztése, hatékonyságuk vizsgálata és a megfelelő hatékonyságú programok rendszerszintű elterjesztése.

This study aims to provide a review of the main research findings on coparenting after divorce, parental cooperation and conflicts. The concept of coparenting refers to the interactions and relationship between parents which must be maintained even after divorce. In our paper, we cover some aspects of coparenting (parental communication, mutual support, undermining, conflicts and conflict management) and the most common background variables in the relevant studies (divorce process, type of custody). The consequences of divorce and the success of adapting to the new situation are of significant importance for both parents and children, however, the topic of coparenting after divorce appears in few Hungarian publications. With the present study, we aim to fill this gap and to initialize domestic research on the issue. Based on the examined literature, it can be stated that the formation of a new state of equilibrium after the dissolution of the relationship is of great importance, as the quality of coparenting is related to the well-being of children and adults as well. Some of the relevant empirical literature relates to preventive training programs aimed at improving the quality of coparenting after divorce. We, therefore, mention several such programs, briefly describing their specifics and related empirical results. In conclusion, due to the complex topic of coparenting after divorce and the often different narratives of parents, it is justified to choose a dyadic research approach that can capture this complexity. We would also like to draw attention to the fact that there is a lack of educational programs for divorced parents in Hungary, although it would be important to develop and disseminate them widely for the well-being of parents and children.

Open access

A Pszichopátiás Önértékelő Skála rövid változatának (SRP-SF) magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian version of the short version of Self Rated Psychopathy (SRP-SF)

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Kovács Dóra Csilla, Mészáros Veronika, Tanyi Zsuzsanna, Ferenczi Andrea, Jakubovits Edit, Smohai Máté, and Kövi Zsuzsanna

Bevezetés: A pszichopátia kutatásának története hosszú múltra tekint vissza a mentális egészségtudományokban. Ez idő alatt több megközelítés is született, melyekhez kapcsolódóan kérdőíveket is kidolgoztak a kutatók. Cél: Jelen tanulmány a Pszichopátiás Önértékelő Skála rövid változatának (Self Report Psychopathy Short Form; SRP-SF) magyar nyelvű adaptálását tűzi ki célul. A tanulmányban elemezzük a kérdőív faktorszerkezetét, belső konzisztenciáját, valamint konvergens validitását a nárcizmussal, a machiavellizmussal, a szenzoros élménykereséssel, a neuroticizmussal, az agresszióval, valamint konkurens validitását a pszichopátiát mérő mérőeszközzel. Módszerek: Keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves vizsgálatunkat 605 fős heterogén mintán folytattuk le. A kapcsolatrendszer elemzésére az SRP-SF mellett a fent említett konstruktumok mérésére alkalmas mérőeszközöket is használtunk, úgymint a Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja személyiség-kérdőív 80 itemes rövid változatát, a Rövid Sötét Triád tesztet, illetve a Patológiás Nárcizmus kérdőívet. Eredmények: A megerősítő faktorelemzés eredménye rámutatott arra, hogy az általunk alkalmazott mintán a kérdőív háromfaktoros modellje illeszkedik a legjobban (illeszkedési mutatók: χ 2(164) = 817,741, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,930; TLI = 0,919; RMSEA [90% CI] = 0,081 [0,075–0,087]), a bűnügyi tendenciák skála jelenléte a jelen mintán nem megerősíthető. Az SRP-SF belső konzisztenciája megfelelőnek bizonyult (Cronbach-α = 0,659– 0,774). A kérdőív más mérőeszközökkel mutatott kapcsolataiból pedig arra lehet következtetni, hogy az állítások inkább az elsődleges pszichopátiát mérik, és a kérdőívben elkülönülnek a pszichopátia interperszonális és életmódbeli aspektusai. Következtetés: az SRP-SF egy olyan könnyen és gyorsan felvehető kérdőív, amely megfelelő pszichometriai mutatókkal rendelkezik és a bűnügyi tendenciák skálától eltekintve alkalmazható nem klinikai mintán is.

Introduction: The research history of psychopathy has a long history in the mental health sciences. During this time, several approaches were developed, and in connection with the theories the researchers also developed questionnaires. Aim: The aim of the study is the Hungarian adaptation of the Self-Reporting Psychopathy Short Form (SRP-SF). We have analyzed the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency, and convergent validity of the questionnaire with narcissism, Machiavellianism, sensation seeking, neuroticism, aggression, and other measure of psychopathy. Methods: The study included 605 individuals, who were heterogeneous by profession. In addition to SRP-SF, an 80-item short version of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja Personality Questionnaire, the Short Dark Triad test, and the Pathological Narcissism questionnaire were also administered to analyze the relationships of psychopathy. Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model of the questionnaire fits best in the sample we used (fit indicators: χ 2(164) = 817.741, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.930; TLI = 0.919; RMSEA [90% CI] = 0.081 [0.075–0.087]) , the presence of the scale of crime trends in the present sample cannot be confirmed. The internal consistency of SRP-SF was found to be adequate (Cronbach’s α = 0.659–0.774). And from the relationships of the questionnaire with other measures, it can be concluded that the statements tend to measure primary psychopathy, and the interpersonal and lifestyle aspects of psychopathy are separated in the questionnaire. Conclusion: Except for the Crime trends scale, SRP-SF is an easy and quick to take test that has appropriate psychometric indicators and can be applied to a non-clinical sample

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Dominic Sagoe, Mark. D. Griffiths, Eilin Kristine Erevik, Turid Høyland, Tony Leino, Ida Alette Lande, Mie Engen Sigurdsson, and Ståle Pallesen

Abstract

Background and aims

The effect of internet-based psychological treatment for gambling problems has not been previously investigated by meta-analysis. The present study is therefore a quantitative synthesis of studies on the effects of internet-based treatment for gambling problems. Given that effects may vary according to the presence of therapist support and control conditions, it was presumed that subgroup analyses would elucidate such effects.

Methods

A systematic search with no time constraints was conducted in PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Two authors independently extracted data using a predefined form, including study quality assessment based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was indexed by Cochran’s Q and the I 2 statistics. Publication bias was investigated using trim and fill.

Results

Thirteen studies were included in the analysis. Random effects models at post-treatment showed significant effects for general gambling symptoms (g = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.43–1.03), gambling frequency (g = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.14–0.45), and amount of money lost gambling (g = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.11–0.27). The corresponding findings at follow-up were g = 1.20 (95% CI = 0.79–1.61), g = 0.36 (95% CI = 0.12–0.60), and g = 0.20 (95% CI = 0.12–0.29) respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that for general gambling symptoms, studies with therapist support yield larger effects than studies without, both post-treatment and at follow-up. Additionally, on general gambling symptoms and gambling frequency, there were lower effect sizes for studies with a control group compared to studies without a control group at follow-up. Studies with higher baseline severity of gambling problems were associated with larger effect sizes at both posttreatment and follow-up than studies with more lenient inclusion criteria concerning gambling problems.

Discussion and conclusions

Internet-based treatment has the potential to reach a large proportion of persons with gambling problems. Results of the meta-analysis suggest that such treatments hold promise as an effective approach. Future studies are encouraged to examine moderators of treatment outcomes, validate treatment effects cross-culturally, and investigate the effects of novel developments such as ecological momentary interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Mobile phone addiction (MPA) has recently aroused much attention due to its high incidence and considerable health hazards. Although some existing studies have documented that physical activity is negatively associated with MPA, it is little known about the potential effects underlying this relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and MPA among undergraduates in China, and to further examine the moderating effect of exercise type in the relation between them.

Methods

By the quota sampling, a total of 650 participants engaged in this survey and completed relevant measurements including physical activity rating scale-3 (PARS-3) and mobile phone addiction tendency scale (MPATS).

Results

Gender (β = 0.271, P < 0.05) and major (β = −0.169, P < 0.05) could significantly predict MPA, respectively, and physical activity was an imperative protective factor to decrease MPA (β = −0.266, P < 0.001). While the physical activity level enhanced from none exercise to medium exercise, an optimum dose-response relationship would emerge between physical activity and MPA (F (3,604) = 4.799, P < 0.01). Most important, the relation between physical activity and MPA can be moderated by exercise type. Especially in terms of aerobic endurance exercise, the higher level of physical activity the undergraduates performed, the lower degree of MPA would be suffered by them (β = −0.266, P < 0.001).

Discussion

These findings could be conducive to better understand the positive and potential effects of physical activity on the intervention in MPA, and served as a persuasive evidence that as for university students, actively engaging in aerobic endurance exercise with the medium activity level would be a practicable exercise strategy to deal with MPA in daily lifestyle behavior.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Gamblers engage in a range of “soft” financial options to limit access to money or cash for gambling (e.g., family looks after cash). Such barriers are easily overturned, resulting in a demand for financial systems and tools that offer “hard” restrictions on access to money and cash in a gambling context. The aim of this scoping review was to determine the attitudes and preferences of gamblers and their families on systems or tools to restrict access to money and cash, as well as the effectiveness of systems and tools that can be used to accomplish that goal.

Methods

A systematic search of articles related to financial restrictions and gambling was conducted. Eligibility criteria included samples of gamblers or affected others and interventions targeted at money or cash restrictions in a gambling context. Soft financial barriers such as family involvement were excluded, as were limit-setting systems which focused on gambling expenditure in gambling venues.

Results

Nine studies met the eligibility criteria, with three focused on financial systems (e.g., ban on credit betting) and six focused on removal of cash machines from gambling venues. The included literature was generally of low quality, with just two pre-post studies and seven cross-sectional or qualitative ones.

Conclusions

The included studies provided strong support for financial mechanisms to support gamblers and their families. Future studies need to involve multiple stakeholders to provide this type of support as well as to evaluate the holistic impact that such hard barriers can have on gambling and gambling-related harms.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Mónika Koós, Léna Nagy, Shane W. Kraus, Marc N. Potenza, and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Background and aims

Limitations of research into sexuality and compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) include the use of simplistic methodological designs and the absence of quality and unified measurements, empirically supported theoretical models, and large, collaborative studies between laboratories. We aim to fill these gaps with the International Sex Survey (ISS, http://internationalsexsurvey.org/).

Methods

The ISS is a large-scale, international, multi-lab, multi-language study using cross-sectional survey methods, involving more than 40 countries. Participants responding to advertisements complete a self-report, anonymous survey on a secure online platform. Collaborators from each country collect a community sample of adults with a minimum sample size of 2,000 participants with a gender ratio of approximately 50–50% men and women, including diverse individuals with respect to sexuality and gender. The ISS includes a wide range of sociodemographic questions and scales assessing a diverse set of sexual behaviors, pornography use, psychological characteristics, and potential comorbid disorders. Analyses are conducted within a structural equation modeling framework, including variable (e.g., measurement invariance tests) and person-centered approaches (e.g., latent profile analysis).

Discussion and conclusions

The ISS will provide well-validated, publicly available screening tools, helping to eliminate significant measurement issues in the field of sexuality research and health care. It will provide important insights to improve the theoretical understanding of CSBD as well as help to identify empirically supported treatment targets for prevention and intervention programs. Following open-science practices and making study materials open-access, the ISS may serve as a blueprint for future large-scale research in addiction and sexuality research.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Irene Montiel, Jéssica Ortega-Barón, Arantxa Basterra-González, Joaquín González-Cabrera, and Juan Manuel Machimbarrena

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite its illegality among adolescents, online gambling is a common practice, which puts their mental health and well-being at serious risk. This systematic review summarises international scientific literature from the last 20 years on problematic online gambling among adolescents (11–21 years old) to determine its prevalence and to analyse related measurement issues.

Methods

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed and a protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO, IC: CRD42020162932). Five academic databases were consulted, which resulted in an initial sample of 658 papers.

Results

Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. All studies were cross-sectional and targeted students from elementary school, secondary school or university. Most followed a convenience sampling procedure. The primary measurement instruments used were the DSM-IV-MR-J and SOGS-RA. Between 0.77% and 57.5% of adolescents present some degree of problematic online gambling (problem, pathological or disordered) depending on the instruments used, the study samples and the timeframe analysed. Between 0.89% and 1% of adolescents exhibited an online gambling disorder.

Discussion and conclusion

There is a great heterogeneity in the methodology of the reviewed studies (samples, measurement instruments, cut-off points and criteria applied). The limited number of studies and the limited generalizability of their results suggest the need for further research and for development of specific instruments to assess different levels of problematic online gambling in representative samples of adolescents based on clinical ‘gold standard’ criteria and more accurate cut-off points.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Daniela Röttinger, Gallus Bischof, Dominique Brandt, Anja Bischof, Svenja Orlowski, Bettina Besser, Elisa Wegmann, Matthias Brand, and Hans-Jürgen Rumpf

Abstract

Background and aims

An increasing number of people experience negative consequences from the excessive use of different Internet applications or sites (e.g., Instagram, League of Legends, YouTube). These consequences have been referred to as specific Internet Use Disorders (IUDs). The present study aims to examine the Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) on rewarding experiences with respect to specific Internet activities. FoMO has been found to mediate the link between psychopathology and symptoms of Internet Communication Disorder (ICD). However, the role of FoMO in other IUDs is controversial.

Methods

The current study (N = 7,990) consecutively screened in vocational schools) analyzed the associations between online-specific state-FoMO, general trait-FoMO, mental health, and IUD symptoms in a structural equation model. After testing the model for the entire sample of Internet users, it was analyzed separately for the two main user groups: Social Networking Site (SNS) users and gamers.

Results

The proposed model explained 42.0% of the variance in IUD symptoms in the total sample, 46.8% for SNS users, and 32.8% for gamers. Results suggest that impaired mental health and high trait-FoMO predict IUD symptoms. For both SNS users and gamers, trait-FoMO mediated the link between low mental health and IUD, whereas state-FoMO mediated the link between trait-FoMO and IUD in both user groups.

Discussion

Our results partly support the theoretical model of specific IUDs, highlighting trait-FoMO as a predisposing fear of disconnection related to general mental health. Online-specific FoMO appears to contribute to problematic Internet use mainly because of its link to the general fear of disconnection. Moreover, the described mechanism seems to be comparable for both females and males.

Conclusions

FoMO is a multidimensional construct underlying IUD symptoms related to the use of socially gratifying, but distinct Internet applications. FoMO and psychopathology should be targeted together in prevention and treatment plans of IUDs.

Open access

Abstract

Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is an emerging psychiatric treatment that is attracting significant scientific, medical, and public attention. Whilst preliminary results from empirical studies are promising, the medical use of these compounds is highly controversial. Surprisingly, and despite the current controversies caused by the re-medicalisation of psychedelics, bioethicists have remained mysteriously silent. This paper aims to stimulate further bioethical reflection regarding the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. The current paper aims to do this by applying a normative phenomenological lens of analysis. Namely, this paper applies Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology, and Fredrik Svenaeus' extension of this critique, to the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. I argue that when this critique of modern technology is applied several normative issues become apparent. Specifically, it becomes apparent that the re-medicalisation of psychedelics risks turning the ecological sources, cultural contexts, and experiences induced by psychedelics into resources to be exploited for human goals; all of which risks endangering ecosystems, appropriating traditional knowledge, and reducing the therapeutic effects of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Furthermore, I suggest that preserving non-reductionist, non-instrumentalising traditional ways of understanding psychedelic compounds is essential in mitigating these consequences. More discussion by bioethicists is necessary as these consequences represent important global challenges for the psychedelic renaissance that require immediate addressing.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: I-Hua Chen, Chao-Ying Chen, Chieh-hsiu Liu, Daniel Kwasi Ahorsu, Mark D. Griffiths, Yu-Pin Chen, Yi-Jie Kuo, Chung-Ying Lin, Amir H. Pakpour, and Shu-Mei Wang

Abstract

Background and aims

The present longitudinal study examined the changes in problematic internet use (problematic smartphone use, problematic social media use, and problematic gaming) and changes in COVID-19-related psychological distress (fear of COVID-19 and worry concerning COVID-19) across three time-points (before the COVID-19 outbreak, during the initial stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, and during the COVID-19 outbreak recovery period).

Methods

A total of 504 Chinese schoolchildren completed measures concerning problematic internet use and psychological distress across three time-points. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify participants into three groups of problematic internet use comprising Group 1 (lowest level), Group 2 (moderate level), and Group 3 (highest level).

Results

Statistical analyses showed that as problematic use of internet-related activities declined among Group 3 participants across the three time points, participants in Group 1 and Group 2 had increased problematic use of internet-related activities. Although there was no between-group difference in relation to worrying concerning COVID-19 infection, Groups 2 and 3 had significantly higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than Group 1 during the COVID-19 recovery period. Regression analysis showed that change in problematic internet use predicted fear of COVID-19 during the recovery period.

Conclusion

The varied levels of problematic internet use among schoolchildren reflect different changing trends of additive behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak and recovery periods.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Cited in over 100 articles, the interactional model of exercise addiction (Egorov & Szabo, 2013) forms the theoretical foundation of many studies on the risk of exercise addiction. Still, the inclusion of previously omitted determinants could make it more useful. Therefore, this review presents the expanded version of the original model.

Method

We added ‘self-concept’ as another determinant in the ‘personal factors’ domain and ‘attractive alternatives’ to the ‘situational factors’ domain. Further, we doubled the reasons for exercise in the ‘incentives for exercise domain.’ Last, we added a new domain, the ‘exercise-related stressors,’ to illustrate that exercise itself might be a source of stress.

Results

The expanded model is more inclusive and accounts for a greater combination of interactions playing roles in exercise addiction. Overlooking the eventuality that stress resulting from exercise might also fuel the dysfunction was a significant omission from the original model, rectified in the current update. Finally, the new expansions make the model more applicable to competitive situations too

Conclusion

The expanded interactional model of exercise addiction is more comprehensive than its original version. It also accounts for the exercise or sport-related stress as possible fuel in addictive exercise behavior.

Open access

Abstract

The recently published Imperial College study of a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing psilocybin-assisted therapy to a six-week titration of escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) should raise concerns for this illness category as a target of early psychedelic research given a goal of FDA approval. There are three reasons why MDD is the wrong target at this stage of research development. Firstly, the psychiatric category of MDD is heterogeneous, vaguely-defined, and overdiagnosed in a way that will problematize finding a reliable signal with psychedelic interventions (or any intervention), particularly within non-severe cases. Secondly, current rating scales for MDD (QIDS used in the Imperial College trial, but also HAM-D) are limited in approximating the kinds of things we ultimately care most about with depressive states, namely functional status, quality of life, and well-being: measures that seem more salient for psychedelic interventions and which are not adequately captured by these rating scales used in a majority of clinical trials. And thirdly, there are inherent conflicts between psychiatric conceptualizations of MDD (and its symptom amelioration) and the kinds of perspectives on one’s suffering often occasioned by psychedelic experiences themselves: while these kinds of psychedelic-catalyzed openings may lead to a form of acceptance or equanimity with regards to one’s life circumstances this could be in many ways orthogonal to reductions in HAM-D scores. We argue that for these reasons MDD is a non-ideal target at this stage of the science and propose alternative directions.

Open access

A Diák Kiégés Kérdőív szerkezetének vizsgálata magyar mintán

Exploring the student burnout scale using hungarian sample

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Balázs Jagodics, Kitti Kóródi, and Éva Szabó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A felnőttek munkahelyi kiégésének vizsgálata mellett egyre nagyobb szerepet kap a problémakör iskolai vonatkozásának feltárása is. Tanulmányunk célja a Salmela-Aro és munkatársai (2008, 2009) által kidolgozott Diák Kiégés Kérdőív hazai változatának tesztelése volt.

Módszer

Magyar általános és középiskolás, 13–18 éves (M = 15,3 év; SD = 2,01) diákokból álló mintán (Náltalános iskola = 337; Nközépiskola = 738) ellenőriztük a kérdőív szerkezetét, belső konzisztenciáját, illetve a diák kiégés kapcsolatát demográfiai és pszichológiai jellegű változókkal.

Eredmények

A feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzés szerint az eredetivel megegyező, háromfaktoros struktúra jellemző a kérdőívre, amelyet az érzelmi kimerülés, a cinizmus és az alkalmatlanságérzés alskálák alkotnak. A kiégés kérdőíven a nemek között nem találtunk különbséget, iskolatípus tekintetében pedig csak a cinizmus alskálán különböztek az általános és középiskolás diákok pontszámai. A tanulmányi eredmény negatív összefüggést mutatott a kiégéssel, hasonlóan az önértékeléshez, az iskolai kötődéshez és a közelítő-elsajátító célorientációhoz. Az elkerülő célorientáció gyenge pozitív együtt járást mutatott a kiégéspontszámmal. A hierarchikus regresszióelemzés szerint a Diák Kiégés Kérdőív alskálái a célorientációs kérdőív dimenzióival együtt az önértékelés varianciájának 50,3%-át képesek megmagyarázni.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján kialakított nyolctételes kérdőív alkalmasnak tűnik a diák kiégés mérésére, illetve azon belül az érzelmi kimerülés, a cinizmus és az alkalmatlanságérzés tüneteinek elkülönítésére. Ugyanakkor a Cronbach-alfa-mutatók alapján utóbbi két alskála belső megbízhatósága csak elfogadható mértékű, emiatt a kérdőívet egydimenziós skálaként ajánljuk használni. A kérdőív alkalmas lehet további feltáró kutatásokban való alkalmazásra, illetve hasznos segédeszköz lehet az iskolapszichológiai gyakorlat számára is.

Background and goals

Due to the prevalence of burnout-syndrome, research on this phenomenon is becoming increasingly important. As a result, beside examining the burnout-syndrome among adults, it is also important to explore the problem in the schools. The aim of our research is exploring the structure of the Hungarian version of the Student Burnout Inventory (Salmela-Aro et al., 2008, 2009).

Methods

The participants were Hungarian primary (N = 337) and secondary school students (N = 738), between the age 13 and 18 (M =15,3 years, SD= 2,01). We checked the structure of the questionnaire, the internal consistency and the connections between student burnout and other demographic and psychological factors.

Results

According to the exploratory and the confirmatory factor analysis, the three-factor structure of the questionnaire is the same as the original, which consists of three subscales: emotional exhaustion, cynicism and sense of inadequacy. There was no difference between the the boys and the girls in the overall burnout score, and in the case of school-type the scores of primary and secondary school students differed only on the subscale of cynicism. The academic achievement correlated negatively with the burnout, as well as the self-esteem, school attachment and mastery-approach goal orientation. The avoidance goal orientation showed positive correlation with the overall burnout score. The hierarchical regression analysis established that the subscales of the Student Burnout Inventory and the dimensions of the goal orientation could predict the level of the self-esteem, with 50,3% of the explained variability.

Conclusion

Based on the results, the Hungarian version of the Student Burnout Inventory with 8 items is appropriate for measuring student burnout, and for separating the symptoms of emotional exhaustion, cynism and sense of inadequacy. Based on the Cronbach-alfa indicators, the reliability of two of the sub-scales are only acceptable. Therefore we advise to use the questionnaire as a unidimensional scale. The questionnaire may be suitable for further exploratory research or can be an useful tool for school psychologist as well.

Open access

A helyidentitás mérése identitásorientációként

Measuring place identity as identity orientation

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Iván Zsolt Berze and Andrea Dúll

A helyidentitás környezetpszichológiai fogalmát új megközelítésként személyiségpszichológiai szinten vizsgáló kutatássorozatunk második lépésében azt feltételeztük, hogy az egyetemista vizsgálati személyekkel elvégzett első mérés eredményeire (Berze és Dúll, 2018) alapozva létrehozott kérdőívünkkel felnőtt mintán is megbízhatóan mérhető a helyidentitás identitásorientációként (tehát az egyéni különbségek abban, hogy a helyekkel kiépített kapcsolat milyen mértékben fontos a személyek számára önmaguk meghatározásában), továbbá hogy az új kérdőívünk a korábbi változatnál megbízhatóbban méri az eredeti angol nyelvű kérdőívben (AIQ-IV, Cheek, Smith és Tropp, 2002) szereplő négy (személyes, társas/nyilvános, kollektív és kapcsolati) identitásorientációt is.

Módszer:

Feltételezésünk vizsgálatához az AIQ-IV kérdőív magyarra fordított, a helyidentitásra vonatkozó, általunk megfogalmazott tételekkel bővített, előző kutatási lépésünkben használt második változatán végeztünk módosításokat annak eredményeire épülő szakmai és módszertani megfontolások alapján. A kérdőívet jelen kutatásban két változatban felnőtt mintákon (n = 177, 432) teszteltük, majd mindkét esetben faktoranalízist végeztünk. A második kérdőívváltozat az ebben a kutatásban használt első verzió eredményei alapján elvégzett módosítások nyomán született.

Eredmények:

A helyidentitás identitásorientációként történő mérésének helytállóságát a felnőtt mintán felvett módosított kérdőív adatai és azok statisztikai elemzése igazolta, továbbá az előző kutatási lépés kérdőívén végzett módosítások nagyrészt elérték céljukat, hiszen – bár nem tökéletesen, de – igen nagy részben fedi a jelen kutatásban kapott faktorstruktúra az eredeti kérdőív skáláit.

Következtetések:

A kapott eredmények újabb lépést jelentenek a helyidentitás fogalmának árnyaltabb értelmezéséhez. További lépésekben megkezdtük a második változat angliai felnőtt mintán történő felvételét, továbbá tervezzük a magyar változat további pontosítását, valamint a finomított változat felvételét a helyidentitás aspektusait a személyiség szintjén mérő kérdőív mellett kiegyenlítettebb nemi és életkori eloszlású felnőtt hazai mintán.

In the second stage of our research series examining the environmental psychology’s concept of place identity, as a new approach, in personal psychological framework, we hypothesized that our questionnaire developed based on the results of the first measurement with undergraduate subjects (Berze, & Dúll, 2018) can reliably measure place identity as identity orientation (i.e., the individual differences in the extent to which the relationship with places is important for the individuals to their sense of who they are) in an adult sample, in addition, that the four (personal, social/public, collective and relational) identity orientations of the original US questionnaire (AIQ-IV, Cheek, Smith, & Tropp, 2002) can be more effectively measured with our new questionnaire than with our previous one in the sample of this study.

Methods:

We modified the second version of AIQ-IV translated into Hungarian and extended with the items relating to place identity, which we used in our previous step, based on professional and methodological considerations followed from its results. We tested two versions of the modified questionnaire in adult samples (n=177, 432), and we conducted factor analysis in both cases. We developed the second version after the revision of the first version used in this research, based on the results.

Results:

The adequateness of measuring place identity as identity orientation was confirmed by the statistical analysis of the modified questionnaire’s data collected in the adult sample. In addition, with the modifications of the questionnaire used in the previous research stage we largely achieved our aims, since the factor struct70ure of the second version of this research more exactly fit to the scale structure of the original questionnaire.

Discussion:

The results represent another step towards a more subtle interpretation of the concept of place identity. We started to test this second version in UK adult sample. Our future aim is to refine the Hungarian version, and to test the refined version together with a questionnaire measuring the aspects of place identity in personal psychological framework in age- and gender-balanced adult sample.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Abdullah Murhaf Al-Khani, Juliann Saquib, Ahmad Mamoun Rajab, Mohamed Abdelghafour Khalifa, Abdulrahman Almazrou, and Nazmus Saquib

Abstract

Background and aims

The prevalence of internet addiction (IA) varies widely in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (4%–82.6%). We aimed to assess the quality of IA studies from the GCC and pool their data to get an accurate estimate of the problem of IA in the region.

Methods

A systematic review of available studies was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials were systematically searched; studies conducted in GCC countries (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) with a validated instrument for internet addiction assessment were eligible. Ten studies were eligible for the systematic review, all of which were included in the meta-analysis. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale was used for quality assessment.

Results

Nine out of ten of the included studies had either adolescent and/or young adult participants (age < 25). Two studies were of ‘good’ quality, six were of ‘satisfactory’ quality, and two were of ‘unsatisfactory’ quality. The pooled internet addiction prevalence was 33%; it was significantly higher among females than males (male = 24%, female = 48%, P = 0.05) and has significantly increased over time (P < 0.05).

Discussion and conclusions

One in every three individuals in GCC countries was deemed to be addicted to the internet, according to Young's Internet Addiction Test. A root cause analysis focusing on family structure, environment, and religious practices is needed to identify modifiable risk factors.

Open access

A kognitív idegtudomány elmúlt 30 éve

Cognitive neuroscience in Hungary: 30 years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Czigler István

A kognitív idegtudomány klasszikus területei közül a szerző összefoglalja az észlelés, figyelem, tanulás és emlékezés területének hazai idegtudományi vizsgálatait, főként az agyi elektromos működések módszerére koncentrálva. Külön területként mutatja be az öregedéssel kapcsolatos eredményeket.

Concentrating on electrophysiological studies the author reviews Hungarian neuroscience research on the fields of perception, attention, learning and memory. As a specific topic, he reviews results on human aging.

Open access

Moore-paradoxonos mondatok és a logikai inkonzisztencia kapcsolata kétnyelvű gyermekeknél

The development of understanding moore-paradox sentences and logical inconsistencies

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Krisztina Bartha

Háttér és célkitűzések:

A vélekedések megértése kulcsszerepet játszik a tudatelmélet fejlődésében. Ezek olyan propozicionális attitűdök, amelyek két részből állnak, egy propozícióból és egy attitűdből. Moore szerint paradox a következő állítás: Esik az eső, de nem hiszem, hogy esik az eső. Az abszurditásnak az az oka, hogy amikor valaki egy propozíciót fogalmaz meg, abban implicit módon megjelenik az állításával szembeni attitűd, ez a kettő pedig nem állhat ellentmondásban egymással. A kutatás célja, hogy megismerje a Moore-paradoxonos mondatok megértésének sajátosságait kétnyelvű gyermekek esetében, és összevesse az eredményeiket a logikai inkonzisztenciák megértésének eredményeivel.

Módszer:

Kiss, Jakab és Szenetes-Hajler (2019) kísérleti anyagával dolgoztam, melyben Moore-paradoxonos mondatokat kellett a résztvevőknek felismerniük, illetve négy történet konzisztens és inkonzisztens változataiból ez utóbbit kellett kiválogatniuk. A kutatásban 129 magyar–román kétnyelvű, 5–8 év közötti gyermek vett részt, akiket két csoportra osztottunk kétnyelvűségi jellemzőik alapján.

Eredmények: Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy az 5 és a 6 éves gyermekek nehezen azonosítják be a Moore- paradoxos mondatokat, a 7 és 8 évesek túlnyomó többsége megfelelően választja ki őket. Szignifikánsan jobb eredményeket értek el a kiegyensúlyozott kétnyelvű csoportba tartozó gyermekek, ahol már a 6 évesek többsége képes volt felismerni a paradoxonos mondatokat. A kísérlet második részének eredményei szerint a kiegyensúlyozott kétnyelvű gyermekek 7 éves kortól felismerték a logikailag inkonzisztens történeteket, míg a domináns kétnyelvűek csak 8 éves koruk körül.

Következtetések:

A kiegyensúlyozott kétnyelvűeknél előnyöket találtunk mind a paradox mondatok, mind a logikai következetlenségek megértésében. Nincs egyértelmű bizonyíték arra, hogy a logikai inkonzisztencia előfeltétele a paradoxonok megértésének.

Background and objectives.

Understanding beliefs plays a key role in the development of mindreading. Beliefs are propositional attitudes that consist of two parts, a proposition and an attitude. Moore considers the following statement paradoxical: It’s raining, but I don’t think it’s raining. This sounds absurd because when someone formulates a proposition, an attitude towards his claim appears implicitly in it, and the two cannot contradict each other. The aim of the research is to get to know the characteristics of understanding Moore paradoxical sentences in bilingual children and to compare their results with the results of understanding logical inconsistencies.

Methods.

I worked with the experimental material of Kiss, Jakab and Szenetes-Hajler (2019), in which participants had to recognize Moore-paradoxical sentences and select the inconsistent version of four stories. The research involved 129 Hungarian-Romanian bilingual children aged 5–8 years, who were divided into two groups based on their bilingual characteristics.

Results.

The results show that children aged 5 and 6 find it difficult to identify Moore paradoxical sentences, while the vast majority of children aged 7 and 8 select them appropriately. Children in the balanced bilingual group achieved significantly better results. They were able to recognize the paradoxical sentences already at the age of 6. In the second part of the experiment balanced bilingual children recognized logically inconsistent stories from the age of 7 years, while dominant bilinguals only recognized them at the age of 8 years.

Conclusions.

We found advantages in understanding both paradoxical sentences and logical inconsistencies in balanced bilinguals. There is no clear evidence that logical inconsistency is a prerequisite for understanding paradoxes.

Restricted access

Az egészségromlás és az egészségmagatartás-változás kvalitatív vizsgálata munkafüggők körében

Deterioration of health and change in health behavior among individuals at risk of work addiction: a qualitative study

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Bernadette Kun, Anna Hamrák, Viktória Kenyhercz, Zsolt Demetrovics, and Zsuzsa Kaló

Háttér és célok

Egyre több kutatás irányul a munkafüggőség rizikófaktorainak és következményeinek feltárására. Bár az elméleti modellek feltételezik, hogy a túlzott munkavégzés többek között az egészségi állapotra is negatív hatással van, a kutatások alapvetően kvantitatív módszerekkel vizsgálták-e kérdést; kvalitatív vizsgálatok, amelyek a munkafüggő személyek saját élményeit elemzik, alig születtek. Célunk az volt, hogy munkafüggő személyek egészségi állapotának, egészség-magatartásának, és ezek munkavégzési szokásokkal való összefüggéseit elemezzük.

Módszer

Egy korábbi kutatásunk alapján a munkafüggőség szempontjából rizikócsoportba tartozó személyeket kértünk fel a kutatásban való részvételre, és összesen 29 fővel (15 férfi és 14 nő) készítettünk félig strukturált interjúkat. Az interjúk kitértek a személyek pályaorientációjára, munkavégzési szokásaikra, munkamotivációikra, munkafüggőséggel kapcsolatos élményeikre, testi és lelki egészségükre. Az interjúkból készült átiratok elemzése deduktív és induktív szinten is zajlott, Braun és Clarke (2006) hatlépéses módszerét követve kvalitatív témaelemzéssel történt.

Eredmények

Az interjúalanyok a túl sok munkavégzés következtében számos szempontból tapasztalták az egészségromlás jeleit. Az általános egészségromlás mellett mozgásszervi és autoimmun betegségek kialakulásáról, kardiovaszkuláris és gyomorbetegségekről, túlsúlyról, alvászavarokról és kiégésről is beszámoltak. Az egészség-magatartásuk mentén is negatív irányú változásokat tapasztaltak: az egészségtelen táplálkozás és a kevés fizikai aktivitás mellett az alvás önmaguktól való megvonása is jellemző volt.

Következtetések

Kutatásunk rámutatott arra, hogy az érintettek a fizikai egészségi állapotukban megjelenő panaszaikat a túlzott munkavégzés és munkafüggőség következményeként írták le. Az eredményeink arra utalnak, hogy a munkafüggőség nem „pozitív addikció”, sőt, a jelenséget addiktológiai megközelítésből érdemes tárgyalni, mivel a munkafüggőség tünettanában is rokonságot mutat más függőségekkel.

Background and aims

An increasing amount of studies examine the risk factors and outcomes of work addiction. Several theories posited that work addiction associates not only to negative psychological and social consequences but work addiction leads to deterioration of health status. Most of the studies explore the relationship between work addiction and physical health by using cross-sectional quantitative methods and only a few amounts of qualitative studies analyzed the personal experiences of individuals with work addiction. The aim of the current study was to explore and analyze the associations between working habits, physical health status, and health behaviors among individuals at risk of work addiction.

Methods

In our previous study, applying a valid work addiction measure, we have identified a group of individuals who showed a high risk of work addiction and we asked them to participate in the current study. Finally, 29 individuals (15 males and 14 females) have been asked by a semi-structured interview. Topics of career orientation, working habits, work motivations, experiences of work addiction, and physical and mental health have been involved in the interviews. The texts of the interviews have been analyzed by qualitative content analysis, by using both deductive and inductive methods. We applied the six steps of thematic analysis by Braun and Clarke (2006).

Results

Individuals with a high risk of work addiction have reported several negative signs of deterioration of physical health as a consequence of excessive work, such as motoric diseases, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, sleep disorders, and burnout. They have experienced negative changes in their health behavior too: unhealthy eating behaviors, lack of physical activity, and a lower need for sleep have been reported.

Conclusion

Our results have indicated that at-risk population considered physical health symptoms as consequences of excessive work and work addiction. Considering our results, work addiction is not a “positive addiction”, moreover, the problem has to be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction because the negative consequences of overwork have been experienced by these individuals.

Open access

Faktorok, magyarázatok a sikeres és sikertelen felsőoktatási tanulmányok hátterében •

A pszichológiai tényezők szerepe a lemorzsolódásban

Factors and Explanations of Successful and Unsuccessful Academic Performance in Higher Education

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Judit Kőrössy, Balázs Jagodics, Tamás Martos, and Éva Szabó

Célkitűzés

Az utóbbi évtizedek egyik legjelentősebb felsőoktatási problémája a nagyarányú hallgatói lemorzsolódás vagy a diploma nélküli kilépés. A jelenség megértéséhez többféle elméleti és módszertani megközelítést használtak a kutatók. Tanulmányunk célja, hogy áttekintést nyújtson a lemorzsolódás témában megjelenő cikkek szemléletmódjáról, fókuszpontjáról és néhány eredményéről. A különböző megközelítésmódok bemutatása segítheti a meglévő ismeretek integrálását, a további kutatások megtervezését és a beavatkozás programjainak kialakítását.

Módszertan

A lemorzsolódást vizsgáló magyar és angol nyelvű tanulmányok kiválasztása online adatbázisokból történt maghatározott kulcsszavak alkalmazásával. A tanulmányokat a kutatási módszerek (változó és személyorientált módszer) és a vizsgálatok fókuszában álló kérdések (lemorzsolódás okai, működési modellek, változók csoportjainak súlya, hallgatók alkalmazkodási mintázata) alapján soroltuk csoportokba. Eredmények: A témával foglalkozó szakirodalmi anyag áttekintése során négyféle csoport rajzolódott ki. Ezek közül három a változóorientált elemzést alkalmazta, míg a negyedik a személyorientált vizsgálatok csoportját alkotta. A tanulmány részletesen bemutatja e négy témacsoportot: 1. Befolyásoló vagy okozó faktorok csoportosítása; 2. A lemorzsolódást magyarázó modellek; 3. Pszichológiai változók és ezek súlyának azonosítása; 4. Különböző változók mintázata alapján kialakított hallgatói csoportok tanulmányi alkalmazkodása.

Következtetések

A megvitatás kiemeli az egyes megközelítésmódok előnyeit és gyenge pontjait a lemorzsolódás jelenségével kapcsolatban. A tanulmány utolsó fejezete azokat az új szempontokat emeli ki, amelyek a további lemorzsolódáskutatásban és az intervenciós programokban is alkalmazhatók.

Goals

The most significant challenge of higher education is dropout from college or leaving universities without degree in the last decades. In order to understand dropout phenomenon different theoretical and methodological approaches have been applied. The aim of our study is to overview the approaches, the focuses and the results of different studies concerning the student attrition. The description of different approaches can help to integrate existing information, to plan research proposals and to design intervention programs focusing on dropuot.

Methods

The studies about dropout in English and Hungarian languages have been selected from online database using relevant keywords. Papers were grouped according to their methods (variable- or person-oriented), topics and issues (causes of dropout, models, weight of variables, adjustment patters of students). Results: Four groups have been formed based on the approaches of articles during the review. Three of them use variable-oriented analysis, and the fourth group consists of studies applying person-oriented approach. The four topic groups are analysed in detail: 1. Grouping of causal and influential factors, 2. Explanatory models of dropout, 3. Identifying psychological variables and its weight, 4. Academic adjustment of student groups formed by patterns of different variables.

Conclusions

The discussion highlights the advantages and weaknesses of different approaches concerning the dropout phenomenon. The last chapter of the paper emphasizes those new aspects which can be applied in further research on dropout and intervention programs.

Open access

A magyar kognitív pszichológia 30 éve (1990–2020)

30 years of hungarian cognitive psychology (1990–2020)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Csaba Pléh and Mihály Racsmány

Az áttekintő írás a magyar kognitív pszichológia és kognitív tudomány utóbbi 30 évét mutatja be. Intézményesen sokat jelentett a ’90-es években a Soros Alapítvány támogatása az egyetemi kognitív programokban, melynek egyik következménye, hogy ma Budapesten három kognitív tanszék működik. Az intézményes fejlődés második oldala a sok szakmát érintő konferenciák (MAKOG) sorozata és a bekapcsolódás a nemzetközi kognitív oktatási programokba. Tudományos tartalmában a magyar kognitív kutatás is elmozdult a lehorgonyzatlan tiszta kognitív modellektől az idegrendszeri, fejlődési, szociális és evolúciós értelmezés irányába, részben hazai hagyományokat is folytatva. Fontosabb sikeres területei az észlelés, elsősorban a látás és hallás fejlődésének vizsgálata (Kovács, Winkler), az emlékezeti gátlás és az implicit emlékezeti rendszerek neuropszichológiai értelmezése (Racsmány, Németh), a pszicholingvisztikában a magyar mondatszerkezet és az alaktan megértési modellekbe illesztése (Pléh, Lukács, Gergely), a magyar téri nyelv fejlődési és patológiás jellemzése (Pléh, Lukács), a képes beszéd elemzése pszichopatológiai folyamatokban (Schnell), és a metaforikusság és gyakoriság neuropszichológiai szétválasztása (Forgács). A fejlődési pszicholingvisztika legfontosabb eredményei a korai tudatelmélet nyelvelsajátítási szerepével kapcsolatosak (Kovács, Téglás, Király, Forgács). Tisztázták azt is, hogy a nyelvi fejlődés zavarai Williams-szindrómában és az ún. specifikus nyelvi zavarban (Lukács, Racsmány, Ladányi) a munkaemlékezeti rendszer moduláló szerepével, illetve általános tanulási zavarokkal kapcsolatosak, különös tekintettel a procedurális rendszerek zavaraira ( Lukács, Racsmány, Ladányi). Az utóbbi érintettségét számos neurológiai nyelvi zavarban is kimutatták (Janacsek, Németh, Lukács).

The review paper surveys the last 30 years of Hungarian cognitive psychology. Institutionally, support by the Soros foundation in the 90s for the university cognitive programs had as one consequence that three departments of cognition are active in Budapest today. Another aspect of insitutional development was the series of multidisciplinary conferences in Hungary (MAKOG), and Hungarian involvement in international graduate training programs in cognitive science. In its scientific substance, Hungarian cognitive research, like elsewhere in the world, moved from unanchored pure cognitive models towards neural, developmental, social, and evolutionary interpretations, partly also influenced by Hungarian traditions. Some of the most important domains of Hungarian cognitive research are perception, especially studies on the development of vision and hearing (Kovács, Winkler), neuropsychological interpretation of memory inhibition and implicit memory systems (Racsmány, Németh). In psycholinguistics, issues of Hungarian morphology and sentence processing were integrated in models of understanding (Pléh, Lukács, Gergely), alongside with a developmental and clinical characterization of Hungarian spatial language (Pléh, Lukács). Figurative language use was extensively studied in psychopathological contexts (Schnell), and a model was developed towards a neuropsychological separation of metaphoricity and frequency issues (Forgács). The most important results of developmental psycholinguistics are related to the role of ToM in early language acquisition (Kovács, Téglás, Király, Forgács). Contrastive studies also clarified that problems with language development in Williams syndrome, and the so called SLI (Lukács, Racsmány, Ladányi) are related to the modulating role of the working memory system and to general learning disturbances, with a special regard to disorders of procedural systems (Lukács, Racsmány, Ladányi). The involvement of this later system in several neurologically conditioned language disturbances was also observed (Janacsek, Németh, Lukács).

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A Magyar pszichológiatörténeti vizsgálódás 30 éve (1990–2020)

30 years of Hungarian studies on the history of psychology (1990–2020)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Csaba Pléh

Az áttekintő dolgozat a magyar pszichológiatörténeti munkálatokat mutatja be az utóbbi 30 évben. Intézményesen a Magyar Pszichológiai Társaság szekciója és az egyetemi kurzusok ezen munkálatok megjelenítői. A történeti tudatosságot magyar nyelvű gyűjteményes kötetek és tankönyvek képviselik. A magyar pszichológiatörténetírás képviselői ugyanakkor jelen vannak a nemzetközi nyilvánosságban is, amit a négy magyarországi ESHHS konferencia is mutat. A hazai általános trendek angol nyelvű bemutatásán túl a legtöbb releváns, filológiai munkát és kulturális beágyazást használó munka a magyar pszichoanalízis történetével, ezen belül a kényszerű emigrációval és elnyomatással (Mészáros), Ferenczi jelentőségével (Erős, Mészáros), a pszichoanalízis pedagógiai és nőmozgalmi vonatkozásaival (Vajda, Borgos) és a hazai kognitív kutatás nemzetközi beágyazásával (Pléh) kapcsolatos.

This review paper surveys Hungarian studies on the history of psychology during the last 30 years. Institutionally, the section of the Hungarian Psychological Association, and university courses represent these efforts. Historical self-consciousness is served by Hungarian language collective volumes and by textbooks. At the same time, representatives of Hungarian history of psychology are present on the international scene as well, shown among others by the 4 ESHHS conferences organized in Hungary. Besides English language presentations of general Hungarian trends, most of the relevant works involving both philological research and cultural embedding deal with the history of Hungarian psychoanalysis, including the forced emigration and oppression (Mészáros), with the importance of Ferenczi (Erős, Mészáros), with the relations of psychoanalysis to education and feminist movements (Vajda, Borgos), and the international embedding of Hungarian cognitive research (Pléh).

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A mentális betegeket célzó szolgáltatások hatékonyságának fejlesztési lehetőségei két komplex nemzetközi program tükrében

Possibilities for Improving the Efficiency of Mental Health Services in the Light of Complex International Programs

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Léna Nagy and Gergő Túri

Háttér és célkitűzések

A súlyos mentális betegségek és a betegség során előforduló relapszusok terhei és költségimplikációi egyéni és társadalmi szinten is jelentősek. A mentálhigiénés szolgáltatások elérhetősége és színvonala, a kliensek egészségkimenetele és a hagyományos pszichiátriai és addiktológiai ellátás költségei azonban egyszerre javíthatók innovatív kezelési, szolgáltatásszervezési és finanszírozási technikák együttes használatával. Tanulmányunk célja, hogy áttekintse a pozitív és a közösségi pszichiátriai szemléletmód, az integrált ellátásszervezés és a sikeralapú kifizetés mint innovatív finanszírozási technika alkalmazási lehetőségeit két, súlyos mentális betegek gondozásával és egészségfejlesztésével foglalkozó program bemutatásán keresztül.

Módszer

A pozitív pszichiátria, közösségi pszichiátria, az integrált ellátásszervezés és az innovatív szolgáltatásfinanszírozás koncepcióival kapcsolatban gyűjtöttünk hazai és nemzetközi szakirodalmat.

Eredmények

A pozitív pszichiátria, a közösségi pszichiátria és az integrált ellátásszervezés tehermentesíthetik a költséges pszichiátriai és addiktológiai fekvőbeteg-ellátást, és elősegíthetik a szolgáltatások színvonalának fejlesztését egy integrált ellátási folyamat részeként. A sikeralapú kifizetés modellje új típusú magánbefektetők megjelenését eredményezi, elősegíti a teljesítménymérés és -értékelés kultúrájának terjedését, és újfajta kockázatmegosztási mechanizmust alkalmaz az interszektoriális együttműködések megvalósításakor.

Következtetések

A közösségi pszichiátria, a pozitív pszichiátria, az integrált ellátásszervezés és a sikeralapú kifizetés számos eszközt biztosít a mentális betegeket célzó szolgáltatások fejlesztéséhez, egyúttal elősegítve az interszektoriális együttműködések és a hosszú távú komplex programok kialakítását. A jelen közleményben ismertetett nemzetközi példák elősegíthetik a mentális betegeket célzó hazai programok fejlesztését.

Background and Objectives

The burden and cost implications of serious mental illness and related relapses affect significantly both the individual and society. Access to and quality of mental health services, along with clients’ health outcomes and the costs of traditional hospital-centered mental health services can be improved by the use of innovative treatment, coordination of service delivery and financing techniques. Our objective is to explore the potential uses of positive psychiatric innovation, community-based psychiatry, integrated service delivery and the “pay for success” financing model, through presenting two mental health programs delivered to clients with serious mental illness.

Methods

Literature related to positive psychiatry, community psychiatry, integrated service delivery and innovative financing have been searched and reviewed.

Results

Positive psychiatry and community-based approaches to mental health care and service can further ease the costs of inpatient care and improve the quality of services as an integrated part of a service process. The “pay for success” model enables new types of private investors, promotes rigorous measurement and assessment of performance and uses an innovative risk-sharing mechanism in the implementation of intersectoral cooperations.

Conclusion

Community psychiatry, positive psychiatry, integrated service delivery and the pay for success model of financing provide various tools to improve mental health services while enabling intersectoral cooperations and long-term, complex programs. Our objective is to support the development of local mental health programs by presenting international examples.

Open access

Abstract

Backgrounds and aims

Internet addiction (IA) is a common internet-related addictive behavior. An enormous amount of previous research on IA disorders (IADs) have paid attention to the neural basis of abnormalities, while few studies have elucidated the neural distinctions of IA tendency in general population.

Methods

The current study examined the neural basis of IA tendency combining with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) from the average student body (N = 244).

Results

As the results presented, the gray matter density (GMD) of the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) was positively correlated with Internet Addiction Test (IAT) score. Further analysis revealed that critical thinking moderated the path between GMD in the TPJ and IA tendency. Specifically, the correlation between GMD in the TPJ and IA tendency was weaker for those with a higher critical thinking disposition.

Discussion and conclusion

Higher critical thinking show a hindering effect in susceptibility to IA based on the neural basis of temporal-parietal junction differences.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the psychedelic plant tea, ayahuasca, holds therapeutic potential. Uthaug et al. (2018) demonstrated that a single dose of ayahuasca improved mental health sub-acutely and 4-weeks post-ceremony in healthy participants. The present study aimed to replicate and extend these findings. A first objective was to assess the sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on mental health and well-being in first-time and experienced users. A second aim was to extend the assessment of altered states of consciousness and how they relate to changes in mental health.

Method

Ayahuasca ceremony attendants (N = 73) were assessed before, the day after, and four weeks following the ceremony.

Results

We replicated the reduction in self-reported stress 4-weeks post ceremony, but, in contrast, found no reduction in depression. Also, increased satisfaction with life and awareness the day after the ceremony, and its return to baseline 4 weeks later, were replicated. New findings were: reduced ratings of anxiety and somatization, and increased levels of non-judging 4-weeks post-ceremony. We replicated the relation between altered states of consciousness (e.g., experienced ego dissolution during the ceremony) and mental health outcomes sub-acutely. The effects of ayahuasca did not differ between experienced and first-time users.

Conclusion

Partly in line with previous findings, ayahuasca produces long-term improvements in affect in non-clinical users. Furthermore, sub-acute mental health ratings are related to the intensity of the psychedelic experience. Although findings replicate and highlight the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, this needs to be confirmed in placebo-controlled studies.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is characterized by increased reactivity to erotic reward cues. Cue-encoded reward parameters, such as type (e.g. erotic or monetary) or probability of anticipated reward, shape reward-related motivational processes, increase the attractiveness of cues and therefore might enhance maladaptive behavioral patterns in CSBD. Studies on the neural patterns of cue processing in individuals with CSBD have been limited mainly to ventral striatal responses. Therefore, here we aimed to examine the cue reactivity of multiple key structures in the brain's reward system, taking into account not only the type of predicted reward but also its probability.

Methods

Twenty Nine men seeking professional help due to CSBD and 24 healthy volunteers took part in an fMRI study with a modified Incentive Delay Task with erotic and monetary rewards preceded by cues indicating a 25%, 50%, or 75% chance of reward. Analyses of functional patterns of activity related to cue type and probability were conducted on the whole-brain and ROI levels.

Results

Increased anticipatory response to cues predictive of erotic rewards was observed among CSBD participants when compared to controls, in the ventral striatum and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (aOFC). The activity in aOFC was modulated by reward probability.

Discussion and conclusions

Type of anticipated reward (erotic vs monetary) affects reward-related behavioral motivation in CSBD more strongly than reward probability. We present evidence of abnormal aOFC function in CSBD by demonstrating the recruitment of additional subsections of this region by erotic reward cues.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Esports betting is an emerging gambling activity where individuals place bets on an organized video gaming competition. It represents only one of several gambling activities commonly endorsed by adolescents. To date, limited research has explored the relationship between esports betting and mental health among adolescents and its convergence with both problem gambling (PG) and problem video gaming (PVG). The present study examined the relation between esports betting, PG and PVG, and both externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescents while accounting for adolescents' video gaming intensity (i.e., how often they play 2 h or more in a day) and engagement in other gambling activities.

Methods

Data was collected from 6,810 adolescents in Wood County, Ohio schools. A subset of 1,348 adolescents (M age = 14.67 years, SD = 1.73, 64% male) who had gambled and played video games during the past year were included in the analyses.

Results

Approximately 20% (n = 263) of the included sample had bet on esports during the past year. Esports betting was positively correlated with other forms of gambling, both PG and PVG, and externalizing behaviors. Mediation analyses revealed esports betting was associated to both internalizing and externalizing problems through PVG and not PG.

Conclusions

Esports betting may be particularly appealing to adolescents who are enthusiastic video gamers. As such, regulators must be vigilant to ensure codes of best practices are applied to esports betting operators specifically for underaged individuals.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Mehdi Akbari, Mohammad Seydavi, Marcantonio M. Spada, Shahram Mohammadkhani, Shiva Jamshidi, Alireza Jamaloo, and Fatemeh Ayatmehr

Abstract

Online gaming has become an essential form of entertainment with the advent of technology and a large sway of research has been undertaken to understand its various permutations. Previous reviews have identified associations between the Big Five personality traits and online gaming, but a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between these constructs has yet to be undertaken. In the current study we aimed to fill this gap in the literature through a systematic review and meta-analysis comprising of 17 studies and 25,634 individuals (AgeMean = 26.55, males = 75%). The findings showed that agreeableness, extraversion, openness to experience, and neuroticism were not ubiquitously associated with online gaming. The findings showed that only conscientiousness, across samples, had a protective role in online gaming. Furthermore, there were non-significant variations in the Big Five personality traits associations with online gaming when comparing gamers to the general population, younger versus older participants, casual versus ‘hardcore’ gamers, and high versus low traits (with the exception of neuroticism). As a result of our observations, the underlying mechanisms of individual differences in online gaming remain unclear. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed.

Open access