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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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A szülői értékpreferenciák hatása a kollektív áldozati vélekedések transzgenerációs átadására

The influence of parental value preferences on the transgenerational transmission of collective victim beliefs

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author:
Judith Gabriella Kengyel

Háttér és célkitűzések: Korábbi kutatások alapján a kollektív áldozati vélekedések továbbadásra kerülnek szülők és gyermekeik között. Az értékek számos vizsgálat szerint összefüggenek a politikai preferenciákkal, illetve a nemzeti identitással. Jelen tanulmány összefüggéseket célzott meg feltárni a szülői értékpreferenciák és a fiatal felnőtt gyermekek kollektív áldozati vélekedései között. Módszer: Kérdőíves vizsgálatunk során 114 szülő-gyermek diád szerepelt a mintában. Vizsgálati eszközeink között felhasználtuk a Nemzeti azonosulás magyar kérdőívét, a Kollektív áldozati tudat kérdőívet, illetve a Schwartz motivációs értéktípusai kérdőívet (Portrait Values Questionnaire). Eredmények: Eredményeink szerint kapcsolat van a szülők által vallott értékek, illetve a szülők és gyerekeik nemzeti identitáshoz kapcsolódó kötődés és glorifikáció dimenziói, illetve kollektív áldozati vélekedései között, továbbá vizsgálatunk megerősítette, hogy a szülők, illetve gyermekeik értékei között pozitív együtt járás figyelhető meg, alátámasztva korábbi kutatások eredményeit. Jelen kutatásban a konzervációhoz köthető értékek esetében láthattuk a legerősebb összefüggést, ezek külön-külön is összefüggést mutatnak az exkluzív áldozati vélekedésekkel és az áldozati tudat észlelt fontosságával, illetve a nemzeti azonosulás kötődés és glorifikáció dimenzióival. Következtetések: Eredményeink szerint a szülők értékrendje nem közvetlenül kapcsolódik a gyerekeik nemzeti identitáshoz tartozó nézeteihez, hanem a szülői nemzeti identitással kapcsolatos nézetein, valamint a kollektív áldozati vélekedésen keresztül. A saját csoport felsőbbrendűségét, illetve a saját csoport áldozatiságát illető vélekedések tehát kapcsolatban állnak a szülők által vallott értékekkel.

Open access

Abstract

Though several treatments effectively address the pervasive impact of trauma, they do not achieve complete symptom resolution for all clients, inspiring the search for alternatives. Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy has grown popular, especially in informal psychedelic-assisted treatments (PAT). Compared to stereotypes of empirically validated, exposure-based treatments, IFS has novel facets with widespread appeal. The model encourages improved quality of interactions among multiple, naturally arising “parts” or subpersonalities potentially generated by traumatic experience. The body of IFS literature is extensive, enthusiastic, and thought-provoking. Outcome data for applying the model to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are limited. Attempts to operationalize and falsify the theory's assumptions and proposed mechanisms will likely prove challenging. Nevertheless, the model's popularity underscores a problem with perceptions of the empirically-supported treatments. Contemplating ethical ways to present the IFS approach given the state of relevant research, we note strategies that would apply to recommendations for PAT of any type. These strategies include detailed psychoeducation about empirically-supported treatments, candid description of the experimental nature of alternatives, frequent assessments of improvement, and detailed monitoring of potential iatrogenic effects. Drawing on facets of IFS to improve perceptions of the empirically validated treatments might provide an efficient way to appeal to more clients, decrease drop out, and increase gains as we await results of empirical investigations of IFS-influenced PAT. These steps can allow clients to choose an approach consistent with their own impressions of a credible intervention, potentially leading to better outcomes.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Emerging research indicates that psychedelics may have therapeutic potential by fostering meaningful experiences that act as “inflection points” in people's narratives of personal development. However, psychedelic research has largely failed to address pertinent developmental considerations. We investigated whether attachment-related variables were associated with psychedelic experiences and whether psychedelic experiences moderated expected links between perceived attachment history and current adult attachment orientations.

Methods

We administered an online survey to an international Jewish sample (N = 185) with psychedelic experience. The survey included measures about recollection of attachment interactions with parents (perceived attachment history), adult attachment orientations (anxiety, avoidance), and psychedelic phenomenology (mystical experiences, challenging experiences, emotional breakthrough, ego dissolution, sensed presence) associated with respondents' most memorable psychedelic experiences.

Results

Perceptions of an insecure attachment history were positively linked to all measures of psychedelic phenomenology (r's = 0.19–32, p's mostly < 0.01). In contrast, adult attachment orientations were unrelated to psychedelic phenomenology. Also, psychedelic phenomenology mostly did not moderate the links observed between perceptions of an insecure attachment history and adult attachment orientations.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that perceptions of early attachment experiences may be relevant to psychedelic phenomenology. However, subjective experiences associated with naturalistic psychedelic use do not typically attenuate links between a perceived insecure attachment history and attachment insecurity at present.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Nicholas Spiers
,
Beatriz Caiuby Labate
,
Anna O. Ermakova
,
Patrick Farrell
,
Osiris Sinuhé González Romero
,
Ibrahim Gabriell
, and
Nidia Olvera
Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Pedro Romero
,
Andrea Czakó
,
Wim van den Brink
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Gambling disorder is a severe mental health and behavioural problem with harmful consequences, including financial, relationship and mental health problems. The present paper initiates discussion on the use of psychedelics combined with psychotherapeutic support as a potential treatment option for people living with a gambling disorder. Recent studies have shown promising results using psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) to treat anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and various substance use disorders. Considering the similarities in the underlying psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms of gambling disorder and other addictive disorders, the authors suggest that psychedelic-assisted therapy could be effective in treating gambling disorder. The paper also underscores the need for further research into the viability and effectiveness of psychedelic-assisted therapy for gambling disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Problematic Social Networking Site Use (PSNSU) is not a formally recognised addiction, but it is increasingly discussed as such in academic research and online. Taking a quantitative, exploratory approach, this study aims to (1) determine whether PSNSU is presented like clinically defined addictions by the affected community and (2) address how well measurements of PSNSU fit with the thematic content found within the associated discourse.

Methods

Four corpora were created for this study: a corpus concerning PSNSU and three control corpora concerning established addictions, including Alcohol Use Disorder, Tobacco Use Disorder and Gaming Disorder. Keywords were identified, collocates and concordances were explored, and shared themes were compared.

Results

Findings show broad thematic similarities between PSNSU and the three control addictions as well as prominent interdiscursive references, which indicate possible confirmation bias among speakers.

Conclusions

Scales based upon the components model of addiction are suggested as the most appropriate measure of this emerging disorder.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nerilee Hing
,
Alex M.T. Russell
,
Vijay Rawat
,
Gabrielle M. Bryden
,
Matthew Browne
,
Matthew Rockloff
,
Hannah B. Thorne
,
Philip Newall
,
Nicki A. Dowling
,
Stephanie S. Merkouris
, and
Matthew Stevens

Abstract

Background and aims

COVID-19 lockdowns limited access to gambling but simultaneously elevated psychosocial stressors. This study assessed the relative effects of these changes on gambling risk status during and after the Australian COVID-19 lockdown from late-March to late-May 2020.

Methods

The study administered three surveys to people who had gambled within the past year at T1. Wave 1 asked about before (T1, N = 2,125) and during lockdown (T2, N = 2,125). Subsequent surveys focused on one year (T3; N = 649) and two years after lockdown (T4, N = 458). The dependent variable was changes in reporting any problem gambling symptoms (PGSI 0 vs 1+). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression tested for significant associations with: demographics, psychosocial stressors (perceived stress, psychological distress, loneliness, health anxiety about COVID, financial hardship, stressful life events), gambling participation and gambling frequency.

Results

Gambling participation and at-risk gambling decreased between T1 and T2, increased at T3, with little further change at T4. When gambling availability was curtailed, decreased gambling frequency on EGMs, casino games, sports betting or race betting, and lower psychosocial stress, were associated with transitions from at-risk to non-problem gambling. When gambling availability resumed, increased EGM gambling frequency, decreased online gambling frequency, and higher psychosocial stress were associated with transitions from non-problem to at-risk gambling.

Discussion and conclusions

Gambling availability appears a stronger influence on gambling problems, at the population level, than psychosocial risk factors. Reducing the supply of high-risk gambling products, particularly EGMs, is likely to reduce gambling harm.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Decisions and learning processes are under metacognitive control, where confidence in one's actions guides future behaviour. Indeed, studies have shown that being more confident results in less action updating and learning, and vice versa. This coupling between action and confidence can be disrupted, as has been found in individuals with high compulsivity symptoms. Patients with Gambling Disorder (GD) have been shown to exhibit both higher confidence and deficits in learning.

Methods

In this study, we tested the hypotheses that patients with GD display increased confidence, reduced action updating and lower learning rates. Additionally, we investigated whether the action-confidence coupling was distorted in patients with GD. To address this, 27 patients with GD and 30 control participants performed a predictive inference task designed to assess action and confidence dynamics during learning under volatility. Action-updating, confidence and their coupling were assessed and computational modeling estimated parameters for learning rates, error sensitivity, and sensitivity to environmental changes.

Results

Contrary to our expectations, results revealed no significant group differences in action updating or confidence levels. Nevertheless, GD patients exhibited a weakened coupling between confidence and action, as well as lower learning rates.

Discussion and conclusions

This suggests that patients with GD may underutilize confidence when steering future behavioral choices. Ultimately, these findings point to a disruption of metacognitive control in GD, without a general overconfidence bias in neutral, non-incentivized volatile learning contexts.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Haishan Tang
,
Yuanyuan Li
,
Wanglin Dong
,
Xiajun Guo
,
Sijia Wu
,
Chaoran Chen
, and
Guangli Lu

Abstract

Objective

Many studies have explored the relationship between childhood trauma and internet addiction from different theoretical perspectives; however, the results have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and internet addiction.

Methods

The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP electronic databases were searched to identify studies examining the correlation between childhood trauma and adolescent internet addiction. The databases were searched from inception to December 31, 2022. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias of the included studies. Then, Stata 17.0 software was used to perform meta-analysis.

Results

This study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42023388699). A total of 19 studies involving 21,398 adolescents were included in this meta-analysis. The random effects model was used for pooled analysis, and the results revealed a strong positive association between childhood trauma and internet addiction (r = 0.395, 95% CI [0.345, 0.442]). The relationship between childhood trauma and internet addiction was moderated by sample size, survey area, and internet addiction measurement tools. There were significant differences between the associations based on the various child trauma measurement tools and study quality scores. However, interstudy heterogeneity was not significantly affected by study year, sample source, or participant age.

Conclusion

Internet addiction is positively correlated with childhood trauma. Therefore, it is extremely important for parents to provide a good growth environment during childhood to enhance the physical and mental development of adolescents. A warm family atmosphere helps individuals develop a healthy personality, thereby reducing or preventing the occurrence of internet addiction. Due to the limited number and low quality of the included studies, the above conclusions need to be verified by additional high-quality studies.

Open access