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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Background

Problematic social media use (PSMU) has received growing attention in the last fifteen years. Even though PSMU has been extensively studied, its internal structure is not fully understood. We used network analysis to evaluate which symptoms and associations between symptoms are most central to PSMU – as assessed by the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale-2 adapted for PSMU – among undergraduates.

Method

Network analysis was applied to a large gender-balanced sample of undergraduates (n = 1344 participants; M = 51.9%; mean age = 22.50 ± 2.20 years).

Results

The most central nodes in the network were the difficulty of controlling one’s own use of social media, the tendency to think obsessively about going online, the difficulties in resisting the urge to use social media and the preference for communicating with people online rather than face-to-face. This last element was strongly associated with a general preference for online social interactions and the feeling of being more comfortable online. The network was robust to stability and accuracy tests. The mean levels of symptoms and symptom centrality were not associated.

Conclusions

Deficient self-regulation and preference for online communication were the most central symptoms of PSMU, suggesting that these symptoms should be prioritized in theoretical models of PSMU and could also serve as important treatment targets for PSMU interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

To understand the interaction between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and related influencing factors (individual variables, family environment, and school environment) and to determine the most influential factors affecting the use of smartphones by juveniles to implement effective interventions in the future.

Methods

A total of 3,442 children and adolescents (3,248 actual participants (males = 1,638, average age = 12.27 ± 2.36)) were included in the study. This study measured juveniles’ PSU and its influencing factors: individual variables (4 factors), family environments (13 factors), and school environments (5 factors). This study employed a network analysis approach for data assessment.

Results

This study found that there were several central influencing factors (such as self-control ability, loss of control, parent-child relationship, and peer attitudes towards smartphone use) and bridge factors (such as peer attitudes towards smartphone use, peer pressure for smartphone use, and fear of missing out).

Discussion and conclusions

Juveniles’ PSU included several core symptoms and critical influencing factors. Intervention based on these factors may be effective, timely, and inexpensive.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Esports betting is expanding in popularity, yet little is known about who participates in this niche gambling activity. This study aimed to determine whether esports bettors are more vulnerable to harms and problems than gamblers engaged in traditional sports betting.

Methods

Data were collected from 298 regular esports bettors and 300 sports bettors (who regularly bet on traditional sports, but not esports). These groups were compared on demographics, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and gambling-related harms.

Results

Compared to sports bettors, esports bettors were more likely to be younger, university-educated, employed (lower income earners), and speak a non-English language at home. Esports bettors gambled on fewer traditional gambling activities in the last 12 months, but compared to sports bettors, gambled more frequently on some activities, were more likely to meet problem gambler criteria (64.8.% vs 17.3%), and experience at least one gambling-related harm (81.9% vs 45.3%). Being an esports bettor significantly predicted greater problem gambling severity and gambling-related harms. More frequent esports skin betting and skin gambling (on games of chance) were significant predictors of gambling problems amongst esports bettors.

Discussion and conclusion

The results provide preliminary evidence that esports bettors are more likely to experience gambling problems compared to their sports betting counterparts, potentially stemming from their involvement in emerging video-game related gambling products.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Pathological skin-picking (PSP) or excoriation disorder is a destructive behavior that affects 1-2% of the general population. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a computerized behavior modification task on action-tendencies (i.e., approach or avoidance) in adults with PSP. We aimed to modify these action-tendencies by having participants with PSP complete the Approach-Avoidance Training (AAT) task, using a joystick to simulate an approach (=pull) or avoidance (=push) response.

Method

Forty-five participants diagnosed with PSP were randomized to one of three training conditions: (1) Avoidance Training (AvT; n = 15), (2) Approach Training (ApT; n = 15), or (3) Placebo Training (PT; n = 15). We hypothesized that after training, those in the AvT would have the greatest reduction in behavioral approach (i.e., their overall reaction time [RT] to approach pictures of irregular skin stimuli).

Results

Results of the pre-training assessment task revealed a positive correlation between behavioral approach to irregular skin stimuli and skin-picking severity as assessed by the Skin Picking Scale-Revised (SPS-R). After training, a lower behavioral approach and urges to pick were found in the AvT and PT groups, while those in the ApT reported higher behavioral approach and urges to pick. At two-week follow-up, no significant changes on the SPS-R were reported between groups.

Discussion

Our preliminary data suggest that the AAT is a promising avenue of research to develop as a cognitive intervention to address an excessive behavioral approach tendency that characterizes skin-picking problems.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

People can engage in excessive, maladaptive use of social media platforms. This problematic social media use mirrors substance use disorders with regard to symptoms and certain behavioral situations. For example, individuals with substance use disorders demonstrate aberrations in risk evaluations during decision making, and initial research on problematic social media use has revealed similar findings. However, these results concerning problematic social media use have been clouded by tasks that involve learning and that lack a clear demarcation between risky and ambiguous decision making. Therefore, we set out to specifically determine the relationship between problematic social media use and decision making under both risk and ambiguity, in the absence of learning.

Methods

We assessed each participant's (N = 90) self-reported level of problematic social media use. We then had them perform the wheel of fortune task, which has participants make choices between a sure option or either a risky or ambiguous gamble. In this way, the task isolates decisions made under risk and ambiguity, and avoids trial-to-trial learning. Results: We found that the greater an individual's problematic social media use, the more often that individual choses high-risk gambles or ambiguous gambles, regardless of the degree of ambiguity.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings indicate that greater problematic social media use is related to a greater affinity for high-risk situations and overall ambiguity. These findings have implications for the field, specifically clarifying and extending the extant literature, as well as providing future avenues for research.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Andreas M. Bickl, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Johanna K. Loy, Bettina Grüne, Barbara Braun-Michl, Pawel Sleczka, Jenny Cisneros Örnberg, and Ludwig Kraus

Abstract

Background and aim

Evidence on the course of gambling disorder (GD) in clients seeking help from outpatient addiction care facilities is sparse. To close this knowledge gap, this longitudinal one-armed cohort study portrays the development of GD in help-seeking clients over a 3-year timeframe.

Methods

We investigated changes in severity of GD as well as in gambling frequency and intensity in 145 gamblers in outpatient treatment in Bavaria using generalized estimation equations (GEEs). To investigate potentially different trajectories between study participants with and without migration background (MB), additional analyses were applied with time*migration interaction. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, electronic gambling machine (EGM) gambling, MB, GD, related help sought before and treatment status.

Results

Within the entire study population, improvements in severity of GD (reduction of 39.2%), gambling intensity (reduction of 75.6%) and gambling frequency (reduction of 77.0%) were observed between baseline and 36 months of follow-up. The declines were most pronounced between baseline and follow-up 1 and stabilized thereafter. Participants with MB improved consistently less than participants without MB.

Discussion and conclusion

Our study suggests that severity of GD and gambling patterns improve in the context of outpatient treatment. The beneficial results furthermore persist for 36 months after treatment termination. As clients with MB seem to profit less than clients without MB, improvements in outpatient gambling services to the specific needs of this clientele are required.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Casino loyalty programs are marketing strategies designed to foster attitudinal (i.e., identification and satisfaction) and behavioral (i.e., spending) loyalty among gamblers by offering rewards to members. Casino loyalty programs use a tier-based structure to segment members who spend more money into higher tiers, where they receive better rewards (compared to lower tiered members). Tier-based structures may encourage increased expenditure among patrons, especially among players living with a gambling disorder. The current work aimed to examine whether tier status and disordered gambling symptomatology interact to predict attitudinal and behavioral loyalty.

Methods

Study 1 used a cross-sectional design to examine whether tier status and disordered gambling symptomatology interact to predict self-reported loyalty among a sample of American casino loyalty program members (N = 396). In Study 2, archival player account data from Canadian casino loyalty program members (N = 649) were analyzed to examine whether tier status and disordered gambling symptomatology interact to predict objective measures of behavioral loyalty.

Results

The greatest effect of tier status on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty was observed among non-problem gamblers in the highest tiers. Tier status, however, did not influence loyalty among members high in disordered gambling symptomatology.

Discussion

Results suggest that once gambling has become problematic, loyalty programs may not influence player attitudes and behaviors. Non-problem gamblers may be particularly susceptible to the tiered structure of the programs.

Conclusion

Non-problem gamblers may benefit from casino loyalty programs in the short-term but longitudinal research is needed to understand the long-term influence of membership.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Alessandra Lugo, Chiara Stival, Luca Paroni, Andrea Amerio, Giulia Carreras, Giuseppe Gorini, Luisa Mastrobattista, Adele Minutillo, Claudia Mortali, Anna Odone, Roberta Pacifici, Biagio Tinghino, and Silvano Gallus

Abstract

Background and aims

Few preliminary studies have shown an impact of COVID-19 confinement on gambling habits. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of lockdown restrictions on gambling behaviors in Italy.

Methods

Within the project Lost in Italy, a web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 6,003 Italians aged 18–74 years, enrolled during April 27–May 3 2020, and were asked to report gambling activity before the lockdown and at the time of interview.

Results

The prevalence of participants reporting any gambling decreased from 16.3% before lockdown to 9.7% during lockdown. Traditional gambling decreased from 9.9 to 2.4% and online gambling from 9.9 to 8.0%. Among gamblers, median time of gambling grew from 4.5 to 5.1 h/month. Among non-players before lockdown, 1.1% started playing. Among players before lockdown, 19.7% increased gambling activity. Multivariate analysis showed an increase in gambling activity in younger generations (p for trend = 0.001), current smokers (odds ratio, OR 1.48), users of electronic cigarettes (OR 1.63), heated tobacco products (OR 1.82), cannabis (OR 5.16), psychotropic drugs (OR 3.93), and subjects having hazardous alcohol drinking (OR 1.93). Self-reported low quality of life (OR 1.97), low sleep quantity (OR 2.00), depressive symptoms (OR 3.06) and anxiety symptoms (OR 2.93) were significantly related to an increase in total gambling activity during lockdown.

Discussion and conclusions

Although gambling substantially decreased during lockdown, time spent in gambling slightly increased. The strong relationship found between compromised mental health and addictive behaviors calls for urgent policies to prevent vulnerable populations from increasing and developing severe gambling addiction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Josephine Savard, Tatja Hirvikoski, Katarina Görts Öberg, Cecilia Dhejne, Christoffer Rahm, and Jussi Jokinen

Abstract

Background and aims

Impulsivity is regarded as a risk factor for sexual crime reoffending, and a suggested core feature in Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder. The aim of this study was to explore clinical (e.g. neurodevelopmental disorders), behavioral and neurocognitive dimensions of impulsivity in disorders of problematic sexuality, and the possible correlation between sexual compulsivity and impulsivity.

Methods

Men with Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (n = 20), and Pedophilic Disorder (n = 55), enrolled in two separate drug trials in a specialized Swedish sexual medicine outpatient clinic, as well as healthy male controls (n = 57) were assessed with the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI) for sexual compulsivity, and with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Connors’ Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II) for impulsivity. Psychiatric comorbidity information was extracted from interviews and patient case files.

Results

Approximately a quarter of the clinical groups had Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Autism Spectrum Disorder. Both clinical groups reported more compulsive sexuality (r = 0.73−0.75) and attentional impulsivity (r = 0.36−0.38) than controls (P < 0.05). Based on results on univariate correlation analysis, BIS attentional score, ADHD, and Commissions T-score from CPT-II were entered in a multiple linear regression model, which accounted for 15% of the variance in HBI score (P < 0.0001). BIS attentional score was the only independent positive predictor of HBI (P = 0.001).

Discussion

Self-rated attentional impulsivity is an important associated factor of compulsive sexuality, even after controlling for ADHD. Psychiatric comorbidity and compulsive sexuality are common in Pedophilic Disorder.

Conclusion

Neurodevelopmental disorders and attentional impulsivity – including suitable interventions – should be further investigated in both disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Maladaptive eating habits are a major cause of obesity and weight-related illness. The development of empirically-based approaches, such as mindfulness training (MT) that target accurate mechanisms of action to address these behaviors is therefore critical. Two studies were conducted to examine the impact of MT on maladaptive eating and determine the involvement of reinforcement learning mechanisms underlying these effects.

Methods

In Study1, maladaptive eating behaviors were assessed using self-report questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks after an app-based MT intervention (n = 46). A novel mindful eating craving tool was embedded in our intervention to assess: eating behaviors (intake frequency/magnitude), and reward (contentment ratings) experienced after eating. Using a well-established reinforcement learning (Rescorla-Wagner) model, expected reward values (EV) were estimated as a function of contentment levels reported after eating. In Study2 (n = 1,119), craving tool assessments were examined in an independent sample using the app in a real-world naturalistic context.

Results

Study 1's results revealed a significant decrease in EV and eating behaviors across craving tool uses. In addition, changes in reward values predicted decreases in eating behaviors. Finally, Study 1's results revealed significant pre-post intervention reductions in self-reported eating behaviors. In Study2, we observed a significant decrease in EV, but not in eating behaviors, across craving tool uses. Study 2 also revealed a predictive relationship between EV and eating behaviors.

Discussion and conclusions

These results support the implementation of MT to prevent and treat maladaptive eating behaviors, which target reinforcement learning processes as mechanisms of action.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous studies have reported that stronger avatar identification and negative self-concept are associated with gaming disorder (GD). This study aimed to examine the value and significance of avatars based on firsthand accounts from regular and problematic gamers, and to identify any potential links between avatar-related experiences and excessive gaming.

Methods

An online survey of 993 adult gamers yielded 3,972 text responses. Qualitative analysis of 59,059 words extracted 10 categories of avatar-related perspectives.

Results

Some problem and non-problem gamers employed sentimental language (e.g., ‘dear friend’, ‘like a child’, ‘part of my soul’) to refer to their avatar. However, most participants perceived avatars as a means of achieving in-game goals and enabling greater interactivity (e.g., socializing). When asked to reflect on hypothetically losing their avatar, participants generally anticipated feeling temporary frustration or annoyance due to lost time and effort invested into the avatar. Although some participants reported that their avatar ‘mattered’, avatars were often considered as superficial (‘just pixels’) and peripheral to the primary reinforcement of achieving in-game rewards and objectives. Some broader psychological and identity issues such as gender dysphoria, rather than ‘addiction’, were cited as motivating persistent avatar-related interactions and attachment.

Discussion and conclusions

Participants reported diverse views on the psychological value and function of avatars, but the relationship between avatars and problematic gaming or GD was largely unclear or inconsistent, and refuted by some participants. Future research with clinical samples may lead to a better understanding of player-avatar processes, including whether avatar-stimuli facilitate the development of maladaptive gaming habits, particularly among psychologically vulnerable players. Future investigations should be mindful of ‘overpathologizing’ avatar-related phenomena and recognize their important role in socializing, storytelling, and creative expression among gamers.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Few studies have assessed the epidemiology of hallucinogenic substance use among racial and ethnic groups of varying age cohorts. Use of psychedelic substances may differ among people of color (POC), due to factors such as stigma and discriminatory drug enforcement practices against POC. The lack of inclusion of POC in psychedelic research further underscores the importance of identifying differences in use among racial/ethnic groups and age cohorts.

Methods

Data from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was used for this analysis (N = 56,313, unweighted), representative of the non-institutionalized U.S. population. Proportions of lifetime hallucinogen use by race/ethnicity were compared. Proportions of past year rates of use were compared to examine differences by race/ethnicity and age cohort.

Results

Approximately 15.9% of the U.S. population over 12 had used a hallucinogen at some point in their lifetime and 2.0% had used in the past year. Lifetime hallucinogen use was most prevalent among non-Hispanic White and multi-racial individuals, while Black/African Americans reported the lowest rates of use. White and multi-racial groups also reported the highest proportions of past year use among 12–34 year olds, and White individuals reported the highest proportions among 35–49 year olds. Hispanic individuals reported higher proportions of use among the 12–17 cohort, but lower proportions among the 26–49 year old cohorts. Black/African Americans reported the lowest rates of past year use among the 12–25 year old cohorts. 50+ and older cohorts reported the lowest rates of hallucinogen use in the past year.

Limitations

Data is cross-sectional and self-reported. “Race” is a social construction is subject to change over time, and NSDUH ethnoracial categories are limited. Institutionalized populations are not included in the study.

Conclusions

Significant differences in hallucinogen use among ethnoracial groups by substance and age cohorts were observed. Findings from this work may inform education, interventions, and therapeutic psychedelic research.

Open access

Abstract

The choice between the subject and the object approaches and their combination is one of the challenges designers of innovation surveys face. Although it is encouraged by the Oslo manual, the combined use of these two approaches is rare. The paper presents a large scale education sector innovation survey using these approaches simultaneously in a matched employer/employee data collection with a special focus on small innovations initiated at grassroots level.

Open access

Abstract

The choice between the subject and the object approaches and their combination is one of the challenges designers of innovation surveys face. Although it is encouraged by the Oslo manual, the combined use of these two approaches is rare. The paper presents a large scale education sector innovation survey using these approaches simultaneously in a matched employer/employee data collection with a special focus on small innovations initiated at grassroots level.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Susumu Higuchi, Yoneatsu Osaki, Aya Kinjo, Satoko Mihara, Masaki Maezono, Takashi Kitayuguchi, Takanobu Matsuzaki, Hideki Nakayama, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, and John B. Saunders

Abstract

Background and Aims

A definition of gaming disorder (GD) was introduced in ICD-11. The purpose of this study was to develop a short screening test for GD, utilizing a reference GD group. It also sought to estimate the prevalence of GD among individuals, representative of the general young population in Japan.

Methods

Two hundred eighty one men and women selected from the general population, aged between 10 and 29 years, and 44 treatment seekers at our center completed a self-reported questionnaire comprising candidate questions for the screening test. The reference group with ICD-11 GD was established, based on face-to-face interviews with behavioral addiction experts, using a diagnostic interview instrument. The questions in the screening test were selected to best differentiate those who had GD from those who did not, and the cutoff value was determined using the Youden index.

Results

A nine-item screening test (GAMES test) was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were both 98% and the positive predictive value in the study sample was 91%. The GAMES test comprised two factors, showed high internal consistency and was highly reproducible. The estimated prevalence of GD among the general young population was 7.6% (95% confidence interval; 6.6–8.7%) for males and 2.5% (1.9–3.2%) for females, with a combined prevalence of 5.1% (4.5–5.8%).

Discussion and Conclusion

The GAMES test shows high validity and reliability for screening of ICD-11 GD. The estimated prevalence of 5.1% among the general young population was comparable to the pooled estimates of young people globally.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Diego Cuppone, Luis J. Gómez Pérez, Stefano Cardullo, Nicola Cellini, Michela Sarlo, Silvia Soldatesca, Sonia Chindamo, Graziella Madeo, and Luigi Gallimberti

Abstract

Background

Several behaviors, besides consumption of psychoactive substances, produce short-term reward that may lead to persistent aberrant behavior despite adverse consequences. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions, such as pathological gambling, internet gaming disorder and internet addiction.

Case presentation

Here, we report two cases of behavioral addictions (BA), compulsive sexual behavior disorder for online porn use and internet gaming disorder. A 57-years-old male referred a loss of control over his online pornography use, started 15 years before, while a 21-years-old male university student reported an excessive online gaming activity undermining his academic productivity and social life. Both patients underwent a high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (l-DLPFC) in a multidisciplinary therapeutic setting. A decrease of addictive symptoms and an improvement of executive control were observed in both cases.

Discussion

Starting from these clinical observations, we provide a systematic review of the literature suggesting that BAs share similar neurobiological mechanisms to those underlying substance use disorders (SUD). Moreover, we discuss whether neurocircuit-based interventions, such as rTMS, might represent a potential effective treatment for BAs.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Social-networks-use disorder is discussed as a potential further type of disorders due to addictive behaviors. Theoretical models assume cue-induced craving and disadvantageous decision making to be relevant mechanisms. This study investigates if the presentation of social-networks-related cues interferes with decision making under ambiguity.

Methods

Craving was induced with a cue-reactivity paradigm and assessed with a visual analogue scale. Participants (N = 146) played a modified Iowa Gambling Task with social-networks-related cues and neutral cues presented on the advantageous and disadvantageous decks respectively, or vice versa. Symptoms of social-networks-use disorder were measured with a modified version of the short Internet Addiction Test.

Results

Overall, participants chose options with neutral cues more often than those with social-networks-related cues, even if it was disadvantageous. There was a significant interaction between decision-making performance and Iowa Gambling Task condition in predicting symptom severity. The results indicate that choosing decks with social-networks-related cues even if it was disadvantageous is associated with higher tendencies towards a social-networks-use disorder. The interaction with cue-induced craving did not explain further variance.

Discussion and Conclusions

The results highlight the relevance of cue reactivity, decision making, and their interaction as potential mechanisms explaining tendencies towards a social-networks-use disorder. Decision making was influenced by affective responses, which could result in a higher risk of a potential addictive behavior. This is consistent with the findings from addiction research and with theoretical approaches assuming an imbalance between affective and cognitive processes in addictive behaviors.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sarah E. Nelson, Timothy C. Edson, Eric R. Louderback, Matthew A. Tom, Alessandra Grossman, and Debi A. LaPlante

Abstract

Background and aims

Online sports wagering is a popular and still growing gambling activity around the world. Like other types of gambling, it can lead to problems that include devastating financial, social, and health-related harms. The first analysis of actual online sports wagering activity (LaBrie et al., 2007) suggested that levels of financial and time involvement were more moderate than anticipated from earlier self-report studies. However, these findings are now more than a decade old.

Methods

The current study examined actual online sports wagering activity of a similar cohort of 32,262 gamblers who subscribed to a European online betting platform in February 2015 to understand how sports betting might have changed in ten years. Measures included subscriber characteristics, betting activities, and transactional activities.

Results

Players placed a median of 15 bets during the 8-month study period, made a median of 2.5 bets per betting day, had a median bet size of 6.1 euros, and experienced a median net loss of 25 euros. We were able to distinguish highly involved bettors in the top 2% of total wagered, net loss, and number of bets, whose behavior differed from that of the rest of the sample.

Discussion and Conclusions

Sports wagering behavior has remained relatively stable over time despite legislative changes and an increase in popularity, with a small subset of subscribers exhibiting disproportionately high engagement, transactional activity, and in-game betting. Further investigation of individual trajectories of wagering behavior and engagement with different types of sports wagering products is merited.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Social determinants are closely related to addiction, both as a cause and a consequence of substance use and other addictive behaviors. The present paper examines prosocialness (i.e. the tendency to help, empathize, and care for others) among a population of young males. We compared prosocialness across different types of addiction and examined whether prosocialness varied according to the presence of multiple addictions.

Methods

A sample of 5,675 young males, aged 19–29 years old (Mean = 21.4; Median = 21), completed a questionnaire that included screening tools to identify addictive behaviors with regards to alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, gambling, and gaming. The questionnaire also included a scale to measure prosocialness.

Results

Compared to a no-addiction control group, the subgroups of young men suffering from behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling and gaming) reported the lowest levels of prosocialness. Respondents with an alcohol addiction also showed lower prosocialness compared to no-addiction controls. By contrast, no significant differences in prosocialness were found between respondents with nicotine disorder or cannabis disorder and the no-addiction controls. Furthermore, the number of addictions had no clear, observable effects on prosocialness. Significant differences were found between the no-addiction control group and the groups reporting one or more addictions, but not between the separate groups reporting one, two, and three or more addictions.

Discussion and conclusions

A better understanding of the social dimension affecting young males with addiction, particularly gambling and gaming addictions, may be useful for their prevention and treatment.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

It has been argued that similar to addictive behaviors, problematic Social Network sites use (PSNSU) is characterized by sensitized reward processing and cue-reactivity. However, no study to our knowledge has yet investigated cue-reactivity in PSNSU. The present study aims at investigating cue-reactivity to Social Network sites (i.e., Facebook)-related visual cues in individuals identified as problematic vs. non-problematic Facebook users by the Problematic Facebook Use Scale.

Methods

The Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the passive viewing of Facebook-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures in 27 problematic and 26 non-problematic users. Moreover, craving for Facebook usage was collected using a Likert scale.

Results

Despite problematic users were more likely to endorse higher craving than non-problematic ones, Facebook-related cues elicited larger ERP positivity (400–600 ms) than neutral, and comparable to unpleasant stimuli, in all Facebook users. Only in problematic users we found larger positivity (600–800 ms) to pleasant than unpleasant cues and higher craving to be related with lower later positivity (800–1,000 ms) to pleasant and unpleasant cues.

Discussion

Regardless of whether Facebook usage is problematic or non-problematic, Facebook-related cues seem to be motivationally relevant stimuli that capture attentional resources in the earlier stages of “motivated” attentional allocation. Moreover, our results support the view that in higher-craving problematic users, reduced abilities to experience emotions would be the result of defective emotion regulation processes that allow craving states to capture more motivational/attentional resources at the expense of other emotional states.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Crypto-currency trading is a rapidly growing form of behaviour characterised by investing in highly volatile digital assets based largely on blockchain technology. In this paper, we review the particular structural characteristics of this activity and its potential to give rise to excessive or harmful behaviour including over-spending and compulsive checking. We note that there are some similarities between online sports betting and day trading, but also several important differences. These include the continuous 24-hour availability of trading, the global nature of the market, and the strong role of social media, social influence and non-balance sheet related events as determinants of price movements.

Methods

We review the specific psychological mechanisms that we propose to be particular risk factors for excessive crypto trading, including: over-estimations of the role of knowledge or skill, the fear of missing out (FOMO), preoccupation, and anticipated regret. The paper examines potential protective and educational strategies that might be used to prevent harm to inexperienced investors when this new activity expands to attract a greater percentage of retail or community investors.

Discussion and conclusions

The paper suggests the need for more specific research into the psychological effects of regular trading, individual differences and the nature of decision-making that protects people from harm, while allowing them to benefit from developments in blockchain technology and crypto-currency.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The sports betting market has been growing rapidly over the last years, as have reports of problematic gambling behavior associated with betting. Due to the well-documented gambling problems of famous athletes and the betting supportive nature of many sports-related environments, athletes have been highlighted as a potential group at-risk for problematic sports betting. However, there currently remains a lack of research on individual-level athlete-specific risk-factors or mechanisms that might contribute to the development and perpetuation of betting-related problems. Here, we examine the influence of two potential risk-factors on sports betting behavior and problems: erroneous beliefs and athletes' emotional involvement.

Methods

201 athletes with different levels of expertise completed a newly developed scale to assess both factors. Participants were sampled from the general German population, predominantly male (83.08%) and on average 29.52 (SD = 11.05) years old. We use principal components analysis to detect patterns of covariation, potentially due to the proposed underlying latent factors, and regression analyses to test associations of these factors with betting behavior and problems.

Results

We find that athletes' emotional involvement was strongly associated with betting problems whereas erroneous beliefs were not. However, distorted cognitions/beliefs were associated with higher volumes and more frequent betting activities.

Discussion and Conclusions

This might contribute to betting problems in the long run. These results highlight athletes' emotional involvement and erroneous beliefs as potential targets for future intervention and prevention efforts.

Open access

Az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála hazai validálása

Hungarian validation of the Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Borostyánkői Zsófia, Takács Szabolcs, and Szabó-Bartha Anett

Elméleti háttér: A Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála) magyar változatának köszönhetően az önkritikusság jelensége Magyarországon is mérhetővé vált. Cél: Jelen vizsgálat során bemutatásra kerül az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála magyar mintán történő alkalmazhatósága, és az önegyüttérzéstől való félelem mellett a depresszióval, valamint az élettel való elégedettséggel vizsgált öszszefüggése. Módszerek: A kutatásban összesen 434 fő vett részt: 107 férfi és 327 nő, átlagéletkoruk 30,2 (SD = 12,15) év. Eredmények: A feltáró faktoranalízis az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála (FSCRS-HU) esetén az eredetihez hasonló háromfaktoros struktúrát jelzett: a magyar mintán is megjelentek az alkalmatlan én (inadequate self), a megerősített én (reassured self) és a gyűlölt én (hated self) dimenziói. Ezt a struktúrát a konfirmatív faktoranalízis is megerősítette (RMSEA = 0,056; CFI = 0,945) és az alskálák belső megbízhatósága megfelelőnek bizonyult (Cronbach-α = 0,9; 0,87, 0,83, sorrendben). Az FSCRS-HU mind a depresszióval (r = 0,62 – 0,68; p < 0,01), mind az önegyüttérzéstől való félelemmel (r = 0,65 – 0,68; p = 0,01) és az élettel való elégedettséggel (r = [–0,51] – [–0,52]; p = 0,01) is szignifikáns, közepes erősségű együttjárást mutatott. Az életkor gyenge, az alkalmatlan én esetében pedig közepes mértékű szignifikáns hatása mindhárom alskálánál megjelent. A nemek közt azonban egyedül az alkalmatlan én esetén volt szignifikáns különbség (Z = –2,109; p = 0,040; rang Cohen-d = –0,229). Következtetések: Összességében az Önkritikusság és Önmegerősítés Skála megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyult hazai mintán is.

Background: Due to the Hungarian version of the Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale, the phenomenon of self-criticism has become measurable in Hungary as well. Aims: In the present study we present the applicability of the Self-Criticism and Self-Reassuring Scale on a Hungarian sample and its relationship to depression, life satisfaction, and fear of self-compassion. Methods: A total of 434 people participated in the research: 107 men and 327 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (SD = 12.15) years. Results: The exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure similar to the original version of the Self-Criticism and Self- Reassuring Scale, the Hungarian sample also showed the dimensions of the inadequate self, the reassured self and the hated self. This structure was also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (RMSEA = 0.056, CFI = 0.945) and the internal reliability of the subscales proved to be adequate (Cronbach's α = 0.9, 0.87, and 0.83, respectively). The FSCRS-HU showed a significant, moderate association with both depression (r = 0.62 – 0.68; p < 0.01) and fear of self-compassion (r = 0.65 – 0.68, p < 0.01) and life satisfaction (r = [–0.51] – [–0.52], p = 0.01). Age had a weak and, in the case of an inadequate self, a moderately significant effect on all three subscales. There was a significant difference between the sexes only in the case of the inadequate self (Z = –2.109, p = 0.040, rank Cohen’s d = –0.229). Conclusions: Overall, the Self-Criticism and Self- Reassuring Scale proved to be a reliable and valid measurement tool in the Hungarian sample as well.

Open access

A szülői nevelői stílus azonosítására alkalmas Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire hazai alkalmazásával szerzett tapasztalatok

Measurement experience with Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire developed for identifying parenting styles

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Hadházi Éva, Takács Szabolcs, Csikós Gábor, Homoki Adél, Czinkóczki Annamária, Törő Krisztina, Kövesdi Andrea, and F. Földi Rita

Elmélet: A gyermekek egészséges testi, lelki fejlődésének támogatása a szülői vágyakon túlmutató társadalmi érdek. Az 1950-es évektől kezdve élénk kutatási érdeklődés övezi a szülői nevelői stílusnak a gyermek fejlődésére gyakorolt hatásvizsgálatát, ám a szülői nevelői stílust befolyásoló tényezőkről kevesebb eredmény áll a rendelkezésünkre. A tanul­ mány célja: a Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) kérdőív magyar mintán történő kipróbálása, és a szülői nevelői stílus lehetséges szociodemográfiai, párkapcsolati és pszichoszociális összefüggéseinek vizsgálata volt. Módszerek: 711 fős (113 férfi, 598 nő, átlagéletkor 34,8 [SD = 10,91] év) önbeszámolós, keresztmetszeti vizsgálatunkban a PSDQ 32 tételes kérdőív mellett felvettük az Intim Kötődés Mérésére kidolgozott kérdőívet, a Kapcsolati Elégedettség Skálát, a Közvetlen Kapcsolatok Élményei kérdőívet, a STAI Vonásszorongás, a Zung-féle Önértékelő Depresszió Skálát, valamint a MOS Társas Támasz Kérdőívet. Eredmények: a konfirmatív faktorelemzés a PSDQ-HU önmagára és párjára vonatkoztatott változatának megbízható faktorstruktúráját igazolta (Saját – Self: SRMR = 0,065, RMSEA = 0,059, TLI = 0,796, CFI = 0,818; Másik – Other: SRMR = 0,066, RMSEA = 0,063, TLI = 0,890, CFI = 0,902). A Tekintélyelvű és Irányító skálák belső reliabilitása megfelelő (Cronbach-α = 0,73 – 0,95), a nemzetközi tapasztalatokhoz hasonlóan a Megengedő skála Cronbach-α értéke alacsonyabb (0,64). Az alskálák: Testi fenyítés, Verbális ellenségesség, Indokolatlan büntetés, Melegség, Érvelés, Demokratikus részvétel Cronbach-α értéke 0,54 – 0,93 között mozog. A nem, a családi állapot, valamint az, hogy valaki egyedüli gyermekként nő-e fel, szerepet játszhat a szülői nevelői stílu sában. A PSDQ-HU több kérdőívvel mutatott szignifikáns (p < 0,05) együttjárást. A párkapcso lati intimitás (r = –0,38 — 0,62), a felnőtt kötődés biztonsága (r = –0,31 — –0,57), a párkapcsolattal való elégedettség (r = –0,39 — 0,58) együtt jár azzal, hogy milyen szülőnek észleli valaki a párját. A vonásszorongás és a Zung-féle depresszió kérdőíven elért pontok a pár szülőként való negatívabb észlelésével korrelálnak (r = –0,33 — –0,38). A minél erősebb társas támasz észlelete a párra vonatkoztatott pozitívabb szülői percepcióval jár együtt (r = 0,36 — 0,46). Az önmagára vonatkoztatott szülői nevelői stílus nem mutat szignifikáns összefüggést egyetlen vizsgált skálaváltozóval sem, csak a nemmel és a testvér nélküli felnövekedéssel. Következtetések: A PSDQ-HU kérdőív az önmagunk szülőként való észlelése mellett alkalmas a párunk szülőként való észlelésének a monitorozására, s bár nem párokat vizsgáltunk, eredményeink felhívják a figyelmet a mentális állapot, a párkapcsolat minőségének percepciója és a pár szülői nevelői stílusának észlelete kö zötti kapcsolatra, amely a pszicho- edukációban és a családokkal, párokkal dolgozó szakemberek számára nyújthat hasznos támpontot.

Background: Promoting the healthy physical and mental development of children is a social interest that goes beyond parental desires. Since the 1950s, there has been a strong research interest in assessing the impact of parents’ parenting style on their children’s development, while we have more modest research findings on the factors influencing parental style. Aim: testing the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) developed by Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen and Hart (2001) on a Hungarian sample and examining the possible sociodemographic, relationship, and psychosocial contexts of the Parenting Style. Method: In our 711-person (113 fathers, 598 mothers, mean age 34.8 [SD = 10.91] years) self-report cross-sectional study, we checked the structure and internal reliability of the PSDQ 32-item questionnaire and its subscales correlation with relationship intimacy (IBM-HU), adult attachment (ECR-RS), relationship satisfaction (RAS-H), social support (MOSS SSS), and mental well-being (STAI-T, ZUNG). Results: Due to the confirmatory factor analysis a reliable factor structure of the self- and pair-version of PSDQ-HU was confirmed (Self: SRMR = 0.065, RMSEA = 0.059, TLI = 0.796, CFI = 0.818; Other: SRMR = 0.066, RMSEA = 0.063, TLI = 0.890, CFI = 0.902). The internal reliability of the Authoritarian and Authoritative scales (Cronbach-α = 0.73 – 0.95) is adequate. Similar to international experience, the Cronbach-α value of the Permissive scale is lower (0,635). The Physical Coercion, Verbal Hostility, Non-Reasoning, Warmth, Reasoning and Democratic Participation subscales Cronbach-α is between 0.54 – 0.93 values. Gender, marital status, and whether someone grows up as an only child can influence the parenting style. PSDQ-HU showed significant association with multiple questionnaires (p <0.05). Relationship intimacy (r = –0.38 — 0,62), adult attachment security (r = –0.31 — –0.57), and relationship satisfaction (r = –0.39 — 0.58) shows correlation with the way parents perceive their partners. The scores obtained on the trait anxiety and Zung depression questionnaires correlates with the perception of the couple as more negative parents (r = –0.33— –0.38). Perception of stronger social support is associated with more positive parental perception of the couple (r = 0.36— 0.46). Self-referenced parenting style does not show a significant correlation with any of the scale variables examined. Conclusions: The questionnaire is suitable for monitoring the perception of our couple as a parent, as well perceiving ourselves as a parent. Although we examined single persons, not couples, our results draw attention to the relationship between mental state, perception of the quality of the relationship, and perception of the couple’s parenting style. Our findings can provide a useful reference point for professionals working with families and couples, and in psychoeducation as well.

Open access

Validation of the Hungarian version of the short form of Spiritual Connection Questionnaire (SCQ-14)

A Spirituális Kapcsolat Kérdőív rövid változatának (SCQ-14) magyar validálása

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Barbara Csala and Ferenc Köteles

Background: Spirituality is a human specific phenomenon associated with positive mental and physical health outcomes. From a scientific point of view, it is a complex construct which can be investigated in various ways. The Spiritual Connection Questionnaire (SCQ) measures spirituality independently from religiousness thus it appears to be an appropriate measure to assess religious and non-religious aspects of spirituality. Aim: The present study aimed to develop and validate the Hungarian version of the short form of the Spiritual Connection Questionnaire (SCQ-14). Furthermore, it aimed to investigate spirituality’s association with affect and thinking style. Methods: Participants of two non- representative community samples (n = 387 and n = 145) completed the following questionnaires online: short form of the Spiritual Connection Questionnaire, Spiritual Transcendence Scale, Rational–Experiential Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results: The Hungarian SCQ-14 showed an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.94 and 0.97 on Sample 1 and 2, respectively). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated inappropriate fit with the theoretically assumed one-factor model (χ 2 = 435.848, df = 77, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; NFI = 0.886; RMSEA = 0.110 [90% CI = 0.100–0.120] on Sample 1, and χ 2 = 247.132, df = 77, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.917; NFI = 0.885; RMSEA = 0.123 [90% CI = 0.106–0.141] on Sample 2). In contrast, results of exploratory factor analyses indicated a one-factor structure on both samples. The SCQ-14 was positively associated with spiritual transcendence, experiential thinking style, and partly with positive affect. No significant correlations with rational thinking style and negative affect were found. Results of the multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis on both samples revealed a significant contribution of experiential thinking style and spiritual transcendence to spiritual connection after controlling for gender, age, educational qualification, and positive affect. Conclusions: The Hungarian version of the Spiritual Connection Questionnaire (SCQ-14) is a valid, psychometrically sound measure. Spiritual transcendence and experiential thinking style independently contribute to spiritual connection.

Elméleti háttér: A spiritualitás humánspecifikus jelenség, amelynek pozitív hatása a testi és mentális egészségre nézve bizonyított. Tudományos szempontból a spiritualitás meglehetősen összetett fogalom, számos különböző mérőeszközzel vizsgálható. A Spirituális Kapcsolat Kérdőív (Spiritual Connection Questionnaire, SCQ) vallástól függetlenül értékeli a spiritualitás szintjét, így vallásos és nem vallásos személyek körében egyaránt alkalmazható. Cél: Jelen kutatás célja Spirituális Kapcsolat Kérdőív rövid változatának (SCQ-14) magyar nyelvű validálása volt. További cél volt a spiritualitás gondolkozási stílussal és affektivitással való összefüggésének vizsgálata. Módszerek: A kutatás két nem reprezentatív mintából áll (n = 387 és n = 145), amelynek résztvevői a Spirituális Kapcsolat Kérdőív rövid változatát, a Spirituális Transzcendencia Kérdőívet, az Észszerűség–Megérzés Kérdőívet, valamint a Pozitív és Negatív Affektivitás Skálát töltötték ki online formában. Eredmények: Az SCQ-14 magyar változata kiváló belső konzisztenciát (Cronbach-α = 0,94 az első, és 0,97 a második mintán) jelzett. A konfirmatív faktoranalízis nem mutatott megfelelő illeszkedést az eredeti egyfaktoros modellhez képest (χ 2 = 435,848, df = 77, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,904; NFI = 0,886; RMSEA = 0,110 [90% CI = 0,100– 0,120] az első mintán, és χ 2 = 247,132, df = 77, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,917; NFI = 0,885; RMSEA = 0,123 [90% CI = 0,106–0,141] a második mintán). Ezzel szemben a feltáró faktoranalízis eredménye egyfaktoros modellt mutatott mindkét minta esetén. Az SCQ-14 továbbá pozitív irányú összefüggést mutatott a spirituális transzcendenciával, a tapasztalati gondolkodási stílussal, valamint részben a pozitív affektivitással is. A spirituális kapcsolat és negatív affektivitás, valamint a racionális gondolkodási stílus között nem jelentkezett szignifikáns korreláció. A mindkét mintán lefuttatott többszörös hierarchikus lineáris regresszió eredményei szerint a tapasztalati gondolkodás és a spirituális transzcendencia a nem, a kor, az iskolai végzettség és a pozitív affektivitás kontrollálása után is szignifikáns kapcsolatban maradt a spirituális kapcsolat pontszámmal. Következtetések: A Spirituális Kapcsolat Kérdőív rövid változatának magyar verziója valid, jó pszichometriai mutatókkal bíró mérőeszköz. A spirituális transzcendencia és a tapasztalati gondolkodás egymástól függetlenül is hozzájárulnak a spirituális kapcsolathoz.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Parental depressive symptoms may aggravate the effects of children’s emotional problems on risks for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Here we examined the joint effects of children’s emotional problems and parents’ depressive symptoms on the incidence of IGD.

Methods

A large prospective, population-based cohort tested potential interactions between children’s emotional problems, parents’ depressive symptoms, and incidence of high risk of IGD (HRIGD). Family dyads (n=2,031) that included children who were non-HRIGD at baseline completed assessments of childhood and parental affective symptomatology. HRIGD was assessed at baseline and 12 months. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) estimated the magnitudes of interactions.

Results

In terms of risk for the development of IGD, parental depression was 1.8 times greater, children’s emotional problems were 2.9 times greater, and both risk factors together were 6.1 times greater than the background risk, with the last two findings reaching statistical significance. The expected risk for the development of HRIGD was RR=3.7.

Discussion and conclusions

Children’s emotional problems demonstrated a particularly strong relationship with HRIGD. Joint effects of children’s emotional problems and depressive symptoms in parents on the incidence of HRIGD were stronger than the sum of the independent effects of each factor. The findings suggest that combining interventions for the treatment of children’s emotional problems and parents’ depressive symptoms may have extra risk reduction effects on preventing IGD in children and adolescents.

Open access

Az adaptív és maladaptív perfekcionizmussal együtt járó motivációs mintázatok feltáró vizsgálata

Exploratory Research of Motivational Patterns Related to Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfecionism*

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Tímea Olajos, Ágnes Hőgye-Nagy, Katalin Héjja-Nagy, and Mária Dávid

Aims

To validate Hewitt and Flett’s Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and to develop its Hungarian version for the purpose of talent counselling. To map motivational patterns attached to adaptive and mal-adaptive perfectionism, moreover, to uncover dimensions of perfectionism among pupils studying in different educational levels and with a regular or gifted and talented curriculum.

Method

self-report questionnaire study, confirmatory factor analysis, non-parametric statistical tests. Sample: 446 subjects participated in the study. Number of students aged between 16 and 19: 265 (59,4%), from which 123 (27,6% of the total sample) were studying with gifted and talented curriculum; number of higher education students: 181 (40,6%).

Instruments

We used the following self-report questionnaires: Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Lang and Fries’s (2006) Revised Achievement Motives Scale and Gifted and Talented Self-Definition Motivation Scale (David et al., 2010).

Results

Results of the Hungarian sample are congruent with international standards. Gifted and talented students are characterized by significantly higher level of perfectionism, and gender differences are verified, too. Socially prescribed (maladaptive) perfectionism correlated positively with failure-avoidance and negatively with motivational factors will, persistence and general activity. Self-oriented (adaptive) perfectionism positively correlated with high demand level, success-seeking, and in addition, with motivational factors will, persistence, interest and general activity. Therefore, we verified the different patterns of motivational correlates and differences regarding subscales of perfectionism between subgroups and educational levels as well.

Open access

Az erősségközpontú tehetségazonosítás alapelvei a Magyar Templeton Program beválogatási folyamatában

Principles of Strength-Focused Talent Identification in the Hungarian Templeton Program

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Szilvia Fodor and Balázs Klein

Backround and goals

One of the main achievements of the Hungarian Templeton Program (2015-17) was to develop a complex and unique talent identificational system. The goal of this study is to introduce this methodology, through which the principles of a strength-focused talent identificational approach are presented.

Methodology

In the first round of the identificational process of the Program four cognitive abilities were assessed by online tests in 17.007 10-19 year-old students: fluid intelligence (adaptive test of intelligence by Mensa Hungariqa), vocabulary (adaptive NoVo test), working memory (n-back) and complex problem solving. In the study the selectional process is analysed acccording to the principles of strength-focused identification, then some test result are shown to illustrate these principles.

Results

The principles of strength-focused identification show up int the identificational process of the Templeton program. Differentiation in the higher ranges of cognitive abilities seems to be crucial, the correlation between ability domains is decreasing by age and in the higher ability ranges. In addition it seems to be reasonable to take only outstanding abilities and test scores into account in the evaluational algorithm.

Conclusion

In the selectional process of the Hungarian Templeton Program, test results of a high number of students were analysed in a unique, complex and strength-focused way. The detailed investigation of the process itself allows to draw general conclusions about effective identification.

Open access

Globális tendenciák a tehetségnevelésben - Tehetséggondozó programok

Global Tendencies in Gifted Education: Gifted Development Programs

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: János Gordon Győri

According to Gagné (2018), talent development programs and mixed talent development activities (provisions) are universally used tools in talent education. While the former are long-term talent development activities that comprehensively support the development of learners through several age and developmental stages, typically organized around one or a few basic concepts in talent development, the latter are short-term developmental activities, based on a smaller theme or activity element, and they are mosaically selected by the students. The present study focuses on talent development programs. The author presents two-two talent development programs in each of four areas, giving examples of leadership talent development, public and higher education talent education, offline and online talent management, and talent management for minority students. Although one example of the article shows the changes that are taking place in talent management as a result of globalization, as we understand it today, it can be said in general that today’s talent management is moving towards becoming increasingly global at the international level: no suitable opportunity for talent identification, no person there, no social group, no training opportunity should be left out of the possibilities of talent management, rejecting many features of the previous, rather elitist lines. Analyzing the new developments, at the end of the study, the author formulates his opinion that after the current rapid development in the field of talent management, the emergence of artificial intelligence will bring a truly Copernican turn in talent management.

Open access

A hazai tehetséggondozás programjai, változások az elmúlt három évtizedben

The Programs of Hungarian Gifted Education, The Changes of the Last Thirty Years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: László Balogh

Thirty years ago important changes emerged in gifted education in Hungary. In the first part of the present study the author analyses the main reasons of it in the society and in the official system of gifted education. In the second part we can read about the individual developmental programs of the gifted education: what we have to do to develop on a higher level in this work? The author presents a new process-modell, made by himself which gives points of views to plan and to realize systematical individual gifted developmental programs. Finally we get picture of the „big gifted education programs” – financed by the Hungarian State last ten years – and about the main results of these programs.

Restricted access

A tanórán és iskolán kívüli tanulási elfoglaltságok motivációjának kvalitatív vizsgálata kiemelkedő kognitív képességű tanulóknál

Qualitative Analysis of the Motivation of Extracurricular and Outside School Learning Activities in Students with High Cognitive Abilities

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Szilvia Fodor, Judit Páskuné Kiss, János Máth, and Ágota Fehér

Background and goals

Learning and mastery motivation are basic drives of talent development. Therefore qualitative analysis of motivation is essential, although rarely used methodology in talent research. Our goal is to explore the understressed subjective aspects of learning motivation and to support optimal talent development.

Method

During the identificational phase of the Hungarian Templeton Program, motivation of students with high cognitive abilities (N=2132) was assessed by several tools, including a semi-structured written interview focusing on the motivational aspects of students’ extracurricular and outside school activities. The question ’Why do you like it?’ was asked to explore their characteristic personal motivational dispositions behind the choices. These answers we examined by content analysis.

Results

Studying the number and content of extracurricular and outside school activities it was revealed that even among cognitively outstandig students there is a significant number of outside school activites that are not related to academic fields: the most frequent answer was doing sport. Content analysis showed that competence and interest are the main motives for these activites, and the role of identification and interest decreases, while competence and ego-related goals grow with age. Concerning the invested time, success and affiliation seems to be the most relevant motivational factors, however the characteristics of the learning environment are also significant.

Discussion

It can be stated that the individual motivational patterns cannot be seperated from the permanent characterisitcs of the learning context (eg. challenging tasks, creative climate, social inspiration), and autonomy, eagerness to grow and the need for relation are determining elements of the intrinsic motivation in extracurricular learning activities.

Open access

Tehetség a munkahelyen 1. A tehetség elméleti megközelítése munkahelyi kontextusban

Talent at Work 1. A Theoretical Approach to Talent in a Workplace Context

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Dóra Klajkó, Bonnie Bakurecz, Gyöngyvér Csapó, Nikoletta Fejes, Szilvia Kázmér-Mayer, and Andrea Czibor

Background and objective

The field of Talent Management (TM) is not only a practical but also a theoretical challenge for researchers due to the complexity of the concept. Our theoretical summary focuses on the organizational psychological aspects of thinking about talent. We review the organizational features of thinking about talent(s), theoretical approaches running in parallel and the historical roots of TM at work.

Method

We processed and synthesized Hungarian and international pieces of literature.

Results and conclusions

Based on the international literature review we considered that the topic of workplace TM appears mostly in economics and HR-focused research. The purpose of our study is to present the points at which (organizational) psychology can contribute to a more thorough, in-depth understanding of this field and the development of effective corporate TM programs in the long run.

Open access

Tehetség a munkahelyen 2. A tehetségmenedzsment gyakorlati szempontjai

Talent at Work 2. Practical Aspects of Talent Management

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Dóra Klajkó, Szilvia Kázmér-Mayer, Nikoletta Fejes, Gyöngyvér Csapó, Bonnie Bakurecz, and Andrea Czibor

Background and objective

Talent management (TM) is becoming increasingly relevant in the context of digitalization, demographic change and the economic and economic impact of COVID-19, both at a regional and organizational level. “Talent dependency” is increasingly prevalent in innovation-and knowledge-oriented advanced societies and in times of recession. In such a situation, the chances of the turnover of most talented professionals increase. TM is not only a practical but also a theoretical challenge for researchers due to the complexity of the concept. Our theoretical summary focuses on the organizational psychological aspects of thinking about talent. We review the standard toolkit of organizational TM and the main changes and future trends of the last decades.

Method

We processed and synthesized domestic and international pieces of literature.

Results and conclusions

We considered based on the international literature review, that the topic of workplace TM appears mostly in economics and HR-focused research. The purpose of our study is to present the points at which (organizational) psychology can contribute to a more thorough, in-depth understanding of this field and the development of effective corporate TM programs in the long run. We present the effective methods, acceptable practices, effects of the organization TM on the organization and the individual, as well as possible psychological risk factors.

Open access

Tehetség és idegtudomány: Adatok a kreativitás és a matematika területéről

Giftedness and Brain Research: Creativity and Mathematics

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: István Czigler, Petra Csizmadia, Boglárka Nagy, and Zsófia Anna Gaál

We reviewed neuroscience-oriented research on two subfields of giftedness: creativity and mathematical giftedness. In both fields the early studies focused on hemisphere differences, using methods of frequency analysis of electroencephalography. However, gradually the analysis of network activity became the main issue of research. These investigations applied various methods of electrophysiology and brain imaging. A central theoretical problem of the field is the ill-defined concept of creativity. In the field of mathematical giftedness performance measurement is available, but studies using highly gifted participants are rather rare.

Open access

A tehetség változó koncepciói

Changing Concepts Of Giftedness

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Rebeka Jávor, György Révész, László Séra, and János Szabó

Our study revolves around the concept of giftedness and the various factors that influence it, in a socio– historical and current context, following the definition of the phenomenon from ancient cultures to the present day, the consequences of its existence, its measurement possibilities and development. We explain the impact of intelligence, creativity, motivation, performance needs and other factors, how these processes and skills contribute (or not) to the development of giftedness. In the end, we will talk about a group of talents -the twice-exceptional talents -who need a great deal of help in getting their skills to the surface and consolidating in the most effective way.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

This article presents a mixed methods study of challenging psychedelic experiences or “bad trips”, with the aim of exploring the nature and characteristics of such experiences. While challenging psychedelic experiences have been studied in previous research, the article posits that the focus of this research has been overly narrow in terms of the characteristics and etiology of these experiences, and that it would be helpful to broaden our understanding of what a challenging psychedelic trip might be and how it affects users.

Methods

In the first study, respondents (N = 38) were recruited at various online fora for individual anonymous interviews via private messaging. The Cannabis and Psychedelics User Survey used for the second study was constructed on the basis of the knowledge obtained from interviews, and recruited 319 participants (median age 33; 81% male) from seven different online communities. Respondents were asked to characterize both a typical and their worst psychedelic experience, allowing for comparisons between the two and for regression analyses of associations between challenging experiences and other factors.

Results

Both in interviews and in the survey, respondents reported a broader range of characteristics for challenging psychedelic experiences than what has previously been recognized in the research literature. Despite the often dramatic narratives, they were convinced that the experience had positive long-term consequences.

Conclusions

The two studies found that challenging psychedelic experiences have a greater thematic range than what has previously been identified. Besides the near ubiquity of fear in these experiences, confusion was also identified as an important aspect. Meditation practice had paradoxical effects on challenging psychedelic experiences, appearing as a fruitful area for further research.

Open access

In this paper, two aspects of talent are analyzed. On the one level, I am looking for an answer to what hereditary factors would be responsible for the development of talent. In the light of the current studies, no specific genes have been found to prescribe talent. However, possible genetic effects with an emergent property of their mutual relationships may create the basis of formation of genius – obviously interacting with the environmental effects. On the other level of analysis I am focusing on the evolutionary background of talent. Four human specific cognitive abilities are analyzed that play important roles in the formation of intellectual excellence: mind reading, flexible thought, language, and creativity. The explanations to the evolution of these abilities include Social Intelligence Hypothesis, Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis, Sexual Selection Theory, and Fluid Intelligence Hypothesis. The confirmation of these explanations requires further studies.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

During the COVID-19 lockdown, problematic Internet use (PIU) has become a serious issue among residential college students, who remain physically isolated from off-campus society. This study constructs an integrated model to investigate the influencing mechanisms of internal locus of control (LOC) and objective peer effects.

Methods

Residential college students (n = 494) were surveyed from a single department of a Chinese university. An item from the World Value Survey was employed to measure internal LOC, while objective peer effects were assessed via friends’ mutual nominations. Finally, PIU was measured using Young’s Internet Addiction Tests, while a social network analysis and logit regression were combined to estimate various factors’ effects on PIU.

Results

In our sample, the prevalence rate of PIU was 30.6%, and while internal LOC was a protective factor for PIU, its protective role was diluted when exposed to a peer environment with high PIU prevalence. Furthermore, indegree performed contrasting roles on PIU under various network conditions. It acted as a protective factor when exposed to a low prevalence of PIU in a peer environment; however, it became a risk factor when PIU peers were prevalent. Lastly, the protective efficacy of betweenness was activated when individuals had more than one PIU friend.

Discussion and conclusions

Further intervention studies focusing on individuals with a weak internal LOC are recommended during the lockdown. Additionally, interventions that consider the network structures carefully, may enhance the prevention of PIU.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Tao Luo, Lixia Qin, Limei Cheng, Sheng Wang, Zijun Zhu, Jiabing Xu, Haibo Chen, Qiaosheng Liu, Maorong Hu, Jianqin Tong, Wei Hao, Bo Wei, and Yanhui Liao

Abstract

Objective

Social media disorder (SMD) is an increasing problem, especially in adolescents. The lack of a consensual classification for SMD hinders the further development of the research field. The six components of Griffiths’ biopsychosocial model of addiction have been the most widely used criteria to assess and diagnosis SMD. The Bergen social media addiction scale (BSMAS) based on Griffiths’ six criteria is a widely used instrument to assess the symptoms and prevalence of SMD in populations. This study aims to: (1) determine the optimal cut-off point for the BSMAS to identify SMD among Chinese adolescents, and (2) evaluate the contribution of specific criteria to the diagnosis of SMD.

Method

Structured diagnostic interviews in a clinical sample (n = 252) were performed to determine the optimal clinical cut-off point for the BSMAS. The BSMAS was further used to investigate SMD in a community sample of 21,375 adolescents.

Results

The BSMAS score of 24 was determined as the best cut-off score based on the gold standards of clinical diagnosis. The estimated 12-month prevalence of SMD among Chinese adolescents was 3.5%. According to conditional inference trees analysis, the criteria “mood modification”, “conflict”, “withdrawal”, and “relapse” showed the higher predictive power for SMD diagnosis.

Conclusions

Results suggest that a BSMAS score of 24 is the optimal clinical cut-off score for future research that measure SMD and its impact on health among adolescents. Furthermore, criteria of “mood modification”, “conflict”, “withdrawal”, and “relapse” are the most relevant to the diagnosis of SMA in Chinese adolescents.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Elodie Hurel, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Marion Chirio-Espitalier, Malory Vincent, and Marie Grall-Bronnec

Abstract

Background

Social communication disorder (SCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that includes communication difficulties. Literature linking SCD and addictions is scarce, and there are only a few case reports regarding the co-occurrence of addiction and autism disorder spectrum, and only one of them addressed behavioural addictions.

Case presentation

We report MC’s case, who displayed an SCD and sexual addiction (SA). Clinical and neuropsychological evaluations suggested an alteration of social cognition, especially of affective theory of mind. This article also presents the adaptation made of the usual treatment.

Discussion

This case report illustrates the importance of social cognition abilities in the development and maintenance of behavioural addictions, and specifically SA. It also highlights the possible comorbidity of these two disorders and the possibility to work on social cognition as an alternate therapy in the treatment of behavioural addictions.

Conclusions

The co-occurrence of SCD and a behavioural addiction triggered clinical adaptations and implications that may affect a patient’s treatment presenting one of these disorders.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Federico Cavanna, Carla Pallavicini, Virginia Milano, Juan Cuiule, Rocco Di Tella, Pablo González, and Enzo Tagliazucchi

Abstract

Background and aims

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences represent a major challenge to the mental health and well-being of the general population. Building on previous work on the potential long-term benefits of psychedelics, we hypothesized that lifetime use of these drugs could be linked to better mental health indicators in the context of the ongoing pandemic.

Methods

Two anonymous online surveys were conducted between April and June 2020, including questions about lifetime experience with psychedelics and other psychoactive drugs, and psychometric scales designed to measure personality traits, anxiety, negative, and positive affect, well-being, and resilience. Principal component analysis was applied to divide the sample into groups of subjects based on their drug use reports.

Results

Five thousand six hundred eighteen participants (29.15 ± 0.12 years, 71.97% female) completed both surveys and met the inclusion criteria, with 32.43% of the sample reporting at least one use of a psychedelic drug. Preliminary analyses showed that certain psychedelics were linked to improved mental health indicators, while other psychoactive drugs exhibited the opposite behavior. Lifetime psychedelic use was linked to increased openness and decreased conscientiousness, and to higher scores of positive affect. The reported number of past psychedelic experiences predicted higher scores of the secondary personality trait beta factor, which has been interpreted as a measure of plasticity. No significant associations between lifetime use of psychedelics and indicators of impaired mental health were observed.

Conclusion

We did not find evidence of an association between lifetime use of psychedelics and poor mental health indicators. Conversely, experience with psychedelic drugs was linked to increased positive affect and to personality traits that favor resilience and stability in the light of the ongoing crisis.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

Subjective symptoms of Internet addiction (IA), such as interpersonal and health-related problems (IH-RP), do not correlate with objective physiological parameters. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular reactivity after physical exercise in 15–16-year-old adolescents showing different severities of symptoms of health-related problems due to Internet overuse.

Methods

This study included 20 healthy adolescents (boys, 15–16 years) with different risks of IA (by the Chen internet addiction scale [CIAS]). The physical exercise test was to perform a standing broad jump three times. The arterial blood pressures and heart rates were recorded before, immediately after, and at 4 minutes of rest after exercise.

Results and discussion

The total sample of adolescents was divided into two groups, that is, those with IH-RP scores of 12 or less (Group I, n = 12) and those scoring more than 12 points (Group II, n = 8). The diastolic blood pressure significantly increased after exercise in group II, whereas it remained stable in group I. The heart rate in group I tended to increase, but the changes were not statistically significant. Group II adolescents showed significant increases in heart rate, and at rest, this parameter was significantly higher than the baseline value.

Conclusions

Adolescents with a risk of IA and severe symptoms of interpersonal and health-related problems had increased sympathetic activity during and after speed-strength physical exercise compared to those without the aforementioned symptoms.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Chang Liu, Kristian Rotaru, Rico S. C. Lee, Jeggan Tiego, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, and Lucy Albertella

Abstract

Background

Researchers are only just beginning to understand the neurocognitive drivers of addiction-like eating behaviours, a highly distressing and relatively common condition. Two constructs have been consistently linked to addiction-like eating: distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility. Despite a large body of addiction research showing that impulsivity-related traits can interact with other risk markers to result in an especially heightened risk for addictive behaviours, no study to date has examined how distress-driven impulsivity interacts with cognitive inflexibility in relation to addiction-like eating behaviours. The current study examines the interactive contribution of distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility to addiction-like eating behaviours.

Method

One hundred and thirty-one participants [mean age 21 years (SD = 2.3), 61.8% female] completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, the S-UPPS-P impulsivity scale, and a cognitive flexibility task. A bootstrap method was used to examine the associations between distress-driven impulsivity, cognitive inflexibility, and their interaction with addiction-like eating behaviours.

Results

There was a significant interaction effect between distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive flexibility (P = 0.03). The follow-up test revealed that higher distress-driven impulsivity was associated with more addiction-like eating behaviours among participants classified as cognitively inflexible only.

Conclusion

The current findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying addiction-like eating behaviours, including how traits and cognition might interact to drive them. The findings also suggest that interventions that directly address distress-driven impulsivity and cognitive inflexibility might be effective in reducing risk for addiction-like eating and related disorders.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is growing rapidly among teens. It has similar presentations as other behavioral addictions in terms of excessive use, impulse control problems, and negative consequences. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain undiscovered. We hypothesized that structural changes in the striatum might serve as an important link between alteration in glutamate signaling and development of PSU.

Methods

Among 88 participants, twenty (F:M, 12:8; age 16.2 ± 1.1) reported high scores in the smartphone addiction proneness scale (SAPS) with a cut-off score of 42; the other 68 (F:M, 19:49; age 15.3 ± 1.7) comprised the control group. Sociodemographic data and depression, anxiety, and impulsivity traits were measured. Striatal volumes (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) were estimated from T1 imaging data. Serum glutamate levels were estimated from peripheral blood samples. Group comparisons of each data were performed after controlling for age and gender. Mediation analyses were conducted to test the indirect effects of glutamate level alteration on PSU through striatal volumetric alteration.

Results

The PSU group showed a decrease in both caudate volumes than the control group. Left caudate volume was positively correlated with serum glutamate level, and negatively with impulsivity traits and SAPS scores. The mediation model revealed a significant indirect effect of serum glutamate on SAS scores through the reduced left caudate volume.

Discussion and conclusions

This study suggests that altered glutamatergic neurotransmission may be associated with PSU among teens, possibly through reduced left caudate volume. Current findings might support neural mechanisms of smartphone addiction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Philip Nielsen, Maxwell Christensen, Craig Henderson, Howard A Liddle, Marina Croquette-Krokar, Nicolas Favez, and Henk Rigter

Abstract

Background and aims

Social variables including parental and family factors may serve as risk factors for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in adolescents. An IGD treatment programme should address these factors. We assessed two family therapies – multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and family therapy as usual (FTAU) – on their impact on the prevalence of IGD and IGD symptoms.

Methods

Eligible for this randomised controlled trial comparing MDFT (N = 12) with FTAU (N = 30) were adolescents of 12–19 years old meeting at least 5 of the 9 DSM-5 IGD criteria and with at least one parent willing to participate in the study. The youths were recruited from the Centre Phénix-Mail, which offers outpatient adolescent addiction care in Geneva. Assessments occurred at baseline and 6 and 12 months.

Results

Both family therapies decreased the prevalence of IGD across the one-year period. Both therapies also lowered the number of IGD criteria met, with MDFT outperforming FTAU. There was no effect on the amount of time spent on gaming. At baseline, parents judged their child’s gaming problems to be important whereas the adolescents thought these problems were minimal. This discrepancy in judgment diminished across the study period as parents became milder in rating problem severity. MDFT better retained families in treatment than FTAU.

Discussion and Conclusions

Family therapy, especially MDFT, was effective in treating adolescent IGD. Improvements in family relationships may contribute to the treatment success. Our findings are promising but need to be replicated in larger study.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN 11142726.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Romina Miranda-Olivos, Trevor Steward, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Asier Juaneda-Seguí, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, José A. Fernández-Formoso, Nuria Vilarrasa, Misericordia Veciana de las Heras, Nuria Custal, Nuria Virgili, Rafael Lopez-Urdiales, José M. Menchón, Roser Granero, Carles Soriano-Mas, and Fernando Fernandez-Aranda

Abstract

Background and aims

Increased delay discounting is associated with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Although BED and obesity frequently co-occur, the neural mechanisms underlying delay discounting in these conditions remain poorly understood.

Methods

Thirtyfive women with obesity, including 10 participants with obesity and BED and 31 controls completed a monetary delay discounting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Results

We identified that increased discounting rates were associated with decreased activity in the left anterior insula in participants with obesity compared to controls when choosing immediate rewards over delayed rewards (P FWE < 0.05). An exploratory analysis comparing the BED subsample to the other groups did not detect significant differences.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings suggest decreased activity in the anterior insula may underlie heightened delay discounting in individuals with obesity, contributing the probability of choosing immediate rewards over delayed rewards based on emotional states. Future studies including larger, more diverse samples are required to confirm these effects.

Open access

A Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála rövidített változatának magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian Adaptation of the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Zsidó N. András, Arató Nikolett, Inhóf Orsolya, Budai Timea, Stecina T. Diána, and Labadi Beatrix

Bevezetés: A bizonytalanságintolerancia egy egyén alapvető képtelenségét jelenti a negatív események előfordulásának, valamint az ilyen események be nem jósolhatóságának elvi­ selésére. Az ebből fakadó állandósult stressz és túlzott aggodalom súlyos fizikai és men­ tális problémákhoz vezethet. Korábbi tanulmányok eredményei szerint a jelenség a szo­ rongásos és a depresszív pszichiátriai zavarok alapja lehet. Célkitűzés: A jelen tanulmány célja a Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála rövidített változatának pszichometriai elemzése egy megfelelően nagy és az életkor szempontjából diverz magyar anyanyelvű mintán. Módszer: A keresztmetszeti kutatás keretében összesen 1297 fő (300 férfi és 993 nő, 4 fő nem válaszolt) töltötte ki a kérdőívcsomagot. A résztvevők átlagéletkora 44,6 év (SD = 22,44 év; terjedelem: 18–83 év). A rövidített Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála mellett a résztve­ vők kitöltötték a World Health Organization Jól-lét Indexet, valamint a Beck Depresszió Leltár és a Spielberger-féle Vonásszorongás Skála rövidített változatát. A Bizonytalanság­ intolerancia Skála pszichometriai mutatóit klasszikus és modern tesztelméleti mód­ szerekkel is ellenőriztük. Eredmények: A Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála megfelelő pszichometriai mutatókkal rendelkezik a vizsgált magyar mintán (McDonald­ω = 0,82 és 0,84). A kérdőív tételei jól diszkriminálnak a látens változó különböző szintjeivel rendel­ kező kitöltők között, és a kérdőív összességében megbízhatóan mér meglehetősen nagy szórástartományban (±2 szórás); tehát a bizonytalanságtűrés képességéről a populáció hozzávetőlegesen 95%-án képes információt szolgáltatni. A kérdőív skálái és összpontszáma az elvártak szerint összefüggést mutatnak rokon konstruktumokkal, mint pl. szorongás (r = 0,22–0,36; p < 0,001) és depresszió (r = 0,26–0,40; p < 0,001). Következtetések: Összességében a Bizonytalanságintolerancia Skála rövid változata magyar mintán is megbízható és érvényes kérdőív. Alkalmazható lehet a mentális egészség fejlesztése, a szorongás és a depresszió prevenciójára, valamint terápiás hatékonyságvizsgálat so­ rán is.

Introduction: Intolerance of uncertainty refers to an individual’s fundamental inability to tolerate the occurrence of negative events as well as the unpredictability of such events. The resulting constant stress and excessive worry can lead to severe physical and mental problems. Previous studies suggest that it can serve as the root of anxiety and depression related psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of the present study was to present the psychometric properties of the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale in a sufficiently large and age­diverse Hungarian sample. Method: A total of 1297 respondents (300 men and 993 women, 4 chose not to answer) completed the survey. The mean age of the participants was 44.63 years (SD = 22.44 years; range = 18–83 years). In addition to the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, participants completed the World Health Organization Well-Being Index, and the short versions of the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale. The psychometric properties of the shortened Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale were tested using classical and modern test theory methods. Results: The shortened Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale has appropriate psychometric indicators on a Hungarian sample (McDonald’s ω = 0.82 and 0.84). The items of the questionnaire discriminated well between respondents with different levels of the latent variable, and the questionnaire measured well over a large deviation of scores (±2 SD); thus, it is able to provide information on the ability to tolerate uncertainty in approximately 95% of the population. The subscales and total score of the questionnaire correlated with related constructs as we previously expected, for instance anxiety (r = 0.22–0.36, p < 0.001) and depression (r = 0.26–0.40, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Overall, the short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale is also a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Hungarian sample. It can be used for efficacy testing of mental health promotion, anxiety and depression prevention, or therapeutic intervention.

Open access

Ideálok testközelből – A fehérneműreklámok megítélése a saját testtel való elégedettség és az életkor tükrében

Ideals up close – Female judgement of lingerie advertisements corresponding to body image and age

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Németh Adrienn Réka, Jambrik Máté, Franczia Nóra, John Balázs, Horváth Julia, Hámornik Balázs Péter, Illés Eszter, Pintér Gabriella Márta Anna, Szirtes Lili, Tóth Ágnes, Zákányi Zsófia, and Csenki Laura

Elméleti háttér: Fogyasztói kultúránkat jelentős mértékben meghatározza, hogy az emberi testnek központi szerepet tulajdonít. Ezen túlmenően a fiatalságot és szépséget tekinti az ideális és kívánt állapotnak. A női test kitüntetett helyet foglal el ebben a rendszerben. A fehérneműreklámokban jellemzően egysíkú nőábrázolással találkozhatunk, amely figyelmen kívül hagyja a fogyasztók életkori heterogenitását, eltérő életciklusát, testalkatát és igényeit. Azt, hogy kire milyen módon hatnak a reklámok, számos tényező befolyásolja. Cél: A 20 és 65 év közötti nők fehérneműreklámokhoz fűződő asszociációinak vizsgálata, továbbá annak körüljárása, hogy a fehérneműmodellek megítélése hogyan függ össze a nők saját testükkel kapcsolatos elégedettségével. Módszer: A feltáró kutatásban 95 nő (átlagéletkor: 40,9 [SD = 12,6] év) vett részt, a népességi adatoknak megfelelő korosztályi arányban. A papír-ceruza teszteken túl a résztvevőkkel készült fehérneműreklámokról szóló interjúkat és reklámképekre adott reakcióikat tartalomelemzéses módszerrel értékeltük. Eszközök: Emberalakrajzok Tesztje, Sziluett-teszt, Képasszociációs feladat, Szituációs feladat, gondolattérkép készítése. Eredmények: A nők 66,3%-a utalt rá, hogy az átlagos nőktől eltérőek a fehérneműreklámokban szereplő modellek. Jelentős együttjárás van abban, hogy milyen testalkatot tartanak a nők ideálisnak saját maguk és a fehérneműmodellek számára (r = 0,56; p < 0,001). A testtömegindex bejósló hatású (ß = –0,16; p < 0,001) a saját testtel (centrális területtel) való elégedettségre. A legtöbben (59%) a bokájukkal voltak elégedettek, míg a legnagyobb számban (37%-ban) a csípőjükkel kapcsolatban fejezték ki elégedetlenségüket. A megkérdezett nők 53,7%-a fejezte ki aktuális testalkatával való elégedettségétől, életkorától, iskolázottságától függetlenül, hogy változatosabb testalkatú nők megjelenítésére vágyik a fehérneműreklámokban. Jelentős arányban (41,1%) jelent meg a változatosabb életkorú modellek megjelenítésére való igény is. A modell testalkatának változására vonatkozó igényt előre jelzi a diszkrepancia élményének kifejezése (OR = 1,95; p = 0,003), a modell életkorának változására vonatkozó igény mértéke, továbbá bejósolható a válaszadó életkora (OR = 1,05; p = 0,008), illetve a diszkrepancia említésének gyakorisága alapján (OR = 1,71; p = 0,009). A modell változatosabb testalkata iránti igény jelentősen összefügg a modell életkorának változását sürgető válaszokkal (rs = 0,58; p < 0,001). Következtetés: A nők jelentős százaléka szóvá teszi, hogy különbséget lát a modellek és a hétköznapi nők testalkata között. A résztvevők nagyobb része nem tartja ideálisnak jelenlegi testalkatát. Többen voltak teljesen elégedettek a „perifériás” testrészeikkel, mint a „centrális” területekkel. A modellek és a hétköznapi nők ideális testalkatának együttjárása utalhat arra is, hogy a modellek által megjelenített testideál fontos a nők saját ideális testalkatának meghatározásában, de az is lehetséges, hogy a nők testalkat tekintetében magukhoz hasonló modelleket szeretnének viszontlátni a reklámokban. A résztvevők jelentős része kifejezte igényét a reklámokban megjelenő fehérneműmodellek változatosabb megjelenítésére mind a testalkatot, mind az életkort tekintve, ami a fehérneműreklámokban megjelenített nőkép újragondolásának igényére hívja fel a figyelmet, különös tekintettel az ideáltól való eltérés esetleges negatív pszichés következményeire.

Background: Our consumer culture is largely defined by the central role it attributes to the human body. Moreover, it views youth and beauty as the ideal and desirable state. Female bodies play a prominent role in this system. Representation of women in lingerie advertisements typically ignores the heterogeneous ages, life stages, body types, and needs of women. How individuals are affected by advertising is influenced by multiple factors. Purpose: Examining the associations of women between the ages of 20 and 65 on lingerie advertisements, and exploring the interaction between the judgement of lingerie models, and women’s body satisfaction. Methods: The pilot study had 95 female participants (mean age: 40.9 [SD = 12.6] years) whose ages reflect a similar age distribution to that of the broader population of Hungary. In addition to analysis of questionnaires, content analysis was applied to interviews and reactions to advertisements. Measures: Fallon-Rozin body shape figure scale (1985), Silhouette-test, Picture association exercise, Situational exercise, Mind Map. Results: 66.3% of women indicated that models featured in lingerie advertisements do not reflect average women. The body size that women saw as ideal for themselves and for lingerie models correlate significantly (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). Body mass index is predictive (ß = –0.16, p < 0.001) of satisfaction with the central areas of the body. Most participants were satisfied with their ankle (59%), and dissatisfaction with hips was most common (37%). 53.7% of participants expressed a desire to have more diverse body types featured in lingerie advertisements. This is independent of their current body satisfaction, body mass index, age or level of education. A significant amount (41.1%) of participants expressed their demand for more diversity in the age of models as well. The frequency of mentioning the demand for changing the body type of models can be predicted based on the expression of discrepancy (OR = 1.95; p = 0.003), and the extent of the demand for changing the age of models can be predicted based on the age of the participant (OR = 1.05, p = 0.008) and the frequency of referring to the discrepancy between models and other women (OR = 1.71, p = 0.009). The demand for more diverse body types strongly correlate with the responses demanding a change of the age of lingerie models (rs = 0.58, p < 0.001). Discussion: A considerable percentage of women point out perceiving a difference between the body types of models and everyday women. Most participants do not regard their current body type as ideal. More women were satisfied with their ‘peripheral’ than their ‘central’ areas. The correlation between the ideal body type that women identify for themselves and for models may indicate that the body ideal represented by models is important in defining women’s body ideals, but it is also possible that women are expressing a wish to see models that are more similar to themselves. A significant number of women expressed a need for more diversity among lingerie models regarding both body type and age, which highlights a need to reconsider the image of women represented in lingerie advertising, especially considering the potential adverse psychological effects of differing from the ideal.

Open access

Kognitív epidemiológia – Az intelligenciaszint prospektív összefüggése a szomatikus és pszichiátriai betegségrizikóval

Cognitive epidemiology – the prospective relationship between intelligence and somatic/psychiatric disease risk

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Author: Ujma Przemyslaw Péter

A kognitív epidemiológia az intelligencia és az egészségi állapot összefüggésének tudo- mánya. A modern, sokszor több százezer fős, teljes populációkon végzett kognitív epide- miológiai vizsgálatok eredményei alapján a magasabb premorbid intelligencia gya- korlatilag valamennyi mentális betegség, illetve pszichiátriai probléma alacsonyabb kockázatával függ össze. A magasabb premorbid intelligencia a halálozás, a szív- és ér- rendszeri betegségek, a metabolikus betegségek, a rossz egészség-magatartás és számos kisebb népegészségügyi jelentőségű betegség előfordulásával is negatívan függ össze; a légzőszervi betegségekkel és a dohányzáshoz nem köthető daganatokkal azonban gyen- ge vagy hiányzik az összefüggés. A mentális betegségekkel való összefüggést nem, a szo- matikus betegségekkel és a mortalitással való összefüggést azonban részben mediálják a felnőttkori szocioökonómiai státusz mutatói. A speciális vizsgálati elrendezések – úgymint ikerkontroll-vizsgálatok, pszeudoexperimentális vizsgálatok, valamint a mendeli ran- domizáció módszerét használó molekuláris genetikai vizsgálatok – eredményei arra utal- nak, hogy az intelligencia és az egészség közötti kapcsolat jelentős részét genetikai ténye- zők közvetítik, de a szomatikus egészségre a magasabb intelligencia következményeként elérhető jobb szocioökonómiai státusz is szerény hatást gyakorol.

Cognitive epidemiology is the science of the relationship between intelligence and health. Modern studies of cognitive epidemiology, often with samples of several hundreds of thousands of individuals, have revealed that higher premorbid intelligence is associated with a lower risk of virtually all of mental illnesses and psychiatric problems. Higher premorbid intelligence is also associated negatively with the incidence of mortality, circulatory illness, metabolic illness, poor health behavior and many diseases of lower epidemiological significance, but its relationship to respiratory illness and non-smoking related cancers is weaker or non-existent. Indicators of adult socioeconomic status do not mediate the association between intelligence and mental illness, but they do partially mediate the relationship with somatic illness and mortality. Studies with special designs -twin control studies, pseudo-experimental studies and molecular genetic studies using Mendelian randomization – suggest that the relationship between intelligence and health is heavily mediated by genetic factors, but somatic health may be modestly but causally improved by better social status as a consequence of higher intelligence.

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