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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Cody Sykes Gilbert, Mitch Earleywine, Maha N. Mian, and Brianna R. Altman

Abstract

Background

Ayahuasca's effects on symptoms of depression have generated considerable optimism. Clients frequently report more concern about some symptoms than others, and available treatments alter symptoms differentially. Few studies address the symptom specificity of this psychoactive brew.

Aims

We examined self-reported effects of ayahuasca on the individual symptoms of depression assessed by the 10-item short-form of Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression (CESD-10).

Methods

We asked over 120 participants to complete a retrospective assessment of CESD-10 symptoms one month before and one month after using ayahuasca.

Results

Participants indicated that ayahuasca had a larger influence on affective symptoms like hope, depressed mood, and happiness, than cognitive, interpersonal, and somatic symptoms like restless sleep, loneliness, and difficulty focusing.

Conclusions

Potential clients might appreciate identifying if different treatments provide more relief for some depressive symptoms than others. We examined retrospective reports of ayahuasca's potential for differential impact. Those eager to alter hope, happiness, and other affective symptoms will likely find ayahuasca more helpful than those who want an intervention for restless sleep, loneliness, or trouble focusing. This symptom specificity parallels the effects of serotonergic antidepressant medications, suggesting that psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy using ayahuasca might have considerable appeal for those who seek comparable relief but would rather not use prescription serotonergic medications. Jumpstarting psychotherapy with the rapid onset of ayahuasca-induced relief also appears to have potential.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Audun Stubhaug, Bjørn Holmøy, Tor Morten Kvam, and Silje Endresen Reme

Abstract

Background

Psilocybin is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent for a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and clinical trials on psilocybin-assisted treatment are forthcoming in Scandinavian countries. However, little is known about attitudes towards this psychedelic compound among the general public in Nordic countries. This might represent a confound, and reduce the validity of research findings or the overall feasibility of conducting high-quality clinical trials.

Aims

The main objective of this study is to address the knowledge gap surrounding use and attitudes towards psilocybin in Norway.

Methods

We asked a representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 1,078) if they have ever tried psilocybin and if they would be willing to do so as part of medical treatment. These questions were part of a larger online survey on a variety personal preferences and attitudes, and the survey was not presented as a study on psilocybin.

Results

Of the 1,078 respondents, 8% reported previous psilocybin use and 51% were willing to try psilocybin in medical treatment.

Conclusions

Psilocybin use is more common in Norway than the authors hypothesized, and the general public is relatively open to using psilocybin in a medical context. The latter is interpreted as promising with regards to the feasibility of conducting rigorous clinical trials on potential effects and side effects of psilocybin-assisted treatment in Norway.

Open access

Abstract

This article reports on the experiences of four healthy individuals who attended a legal psilocybin truffle retreat in the Netherlands. The study employed a qualitative phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews to gain an understanding of participants' psilocybin experiences and their after-effects. The experiential themes that emerged from these case studies closely match themes that have been identified in previous studies of psilocybin, including variability of the experience, the presence of mystical-type features, significant changes to subjective sense of self, and a generalized sense of connectedness. Participants framed their narrative accounts around moments of key insight, and these insights were related to a sense of connection: to self, others, and to a broader relational ontology. Embodiment, currently an understudied topic in psychedelic research, also emerged as a theme. The case studies presented here provide preliminary evidence to suggest that for healthy individuals in a well-controlled and supportive retreat setting, a high dose of psilocybin can lead to enduring positive after-effects that last up to twelve months.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Astrid Müller, Nora M. Laskowski, Patrick Trotzke, Kathina Ali, Daniel B. Fassnacht, Martina de Zwaan, Matthias Brand, Michael Häder, and Michael Kyrios

Abstract

Background and aims

Consensus in acknowledging compulsive buying-shopping disorder (CBSD) as a distinct diagnosis has been lacking. Before research in this area can be advanced, it is necessary to establish diagnostic criteria in order to facilitate field trials.

Methods

The study consisted of the following phases: (1) operationalization of a broad range of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD, (2) two iterative rounds of data collection using the Delphi method, where consensus of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD was reached by an international expert panel, and (3) interpretation of findings taking into account the degree of certainty amongst experts regarding their responses.

Results

With respect to diagnostic criteria, there was clear expert consensus about inclusion of the persistent and recurrent experience of (a) intrusive and/or irresistible urges and/or impulses and/or cravings and/or preoccupations for buying/shopping; (b) diminished control over buying/shopping; (c) excessive purchasing of items without utilizing them for their intended purposes, (d) use of buying-shopping to regulate internal states; (e) negative consequences and impairment in important areas of functioning due to buying/shopping; (f) emotional and cognitive symptoms upon cessation of excessive buying/shopping; and (g) maintenance or escalation of dysfunctional buying/shopping behaviors despite negative consequences. Furthermore, support was found for a specifier related to the presence of excessive hoarding of purchased items.

Conclusions

The proposed diagnostic criteria can be used as the basis for the development of diagnostic interviews and measures of CBSD severity.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Social media use has become a ubiquitous part of society, with 3.8 billion users worldwide. While research has shown that there are positive aspects to social media engagement (e.g. feelings of social connectedness and wellbeing), much of the focus has been on the negative mental health outcomes which are associated with excessive use (e.g. higher levels of depression/anxiety). While the evidence to support such negative associations is mixed, there is a growing debate within the literature as to whether excessive levels of social media use should become a clinically defined addictive behaviour.

Methods

Here we assess whether one hallmark of addiction, the priority processing of addiction related stimuli known as an ‘attentional bias’, is evident in a group of social media users (N = 100). Using mock iPhone displays, we test whether social media stimuli preferentially capture users' attention and whether the level of bias can be predicted by platform use (self-report, objective smartphone usage data), and whether it is associated with scores on established measures of social media engagement (SMES) and social media ‘addiction’ severity scales (BSNAS, SMAQ).

Results

Our findings do not provide support for a social media specific attentional bias. While there was a large range of individual differences in our measures of use, engagement, and ‘addictive’ severity, these were not predictive of, or associated with, individual differences in the magnitude of attentional capture by social media stimuli.

Conclusions

More research is required before social media use can be definitively placed within an addiction framework.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

A literature exists on the structural characteristics of electronic gambling machines (EGMs), which are design innovations that can promote spending excessive time and money on these games. Fixed-odds sports betting products, where bettors place sports bets against a bookmaker, have also seen significant innovations in recent years. Despite some differences between these gambling products, similar structural characteristics could also be relevant to sports betting. The aim was to review previous research on contemporary fixed-odds sports betting products, and to identify whether structural characteristics from the EGM literature are also relevant to sports betting.

Methods

Structural characteristics uncovered by two influential reviews of EGMs were identified, and their relevance to fixed-odds sports betting products discussed via a narrative review.

Results

Structural characteristics of payout interval and potential betting frequency (in-play betting), multiplier potential (accumulators, complex bets, multis), win probability and payout ratio (all bets), bettor involvement (custom sports betting products, cash out), skill required (all bets), and near-misses (accumulators, complex bets, multis) were all identified in modern fixed-odds sports betting products.

Discussion and conclusions

Fixed-odds sports betting products have increasingly incorporated structural characteristics previously found in EGMs. Future research could further assess the extent to which these structural characteristics contribute to fixed-odds sports bettors spending excessive amounts of time and money while betting. These findings can help guide further sports betting research, contribute to an improved understanding of the potential universality of gambling product design, and inform policy.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The use of pornography, while unproblematic for the majority, can grow into addiction-like behavior which in its extreme form is labeled as compulsive sexual behavioral disorder in the ICD-11 (WHO, 2018). The aim of this study was to investigate the addiction-specific reactivity to cues in order to better understand underlying mechanisms in the development of this disorder.

Methods

We have used an optimized Sexual Incentive Delay Task to study brain activity in reward associated brain areas during an anticipation phase (with cues predicting pornographic videos, control videos or no videos) and a corresponding delivery phase in healthy men. Correlations to indicators of problematic pornography use, the time spent on pornography use, and trait sexual motivation were analyzed.

Results

The results of 74 men showed that reward-related brain areas (amygdala, dorsal cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus, and insula) were significantly more activated by both the pornographic videos and the pornographic cues than by control videos and control cues, respectively. However, we found no relationship between these activations and indicators of problematic pornography use, time spent on pornography use, or with trait sexual motivation.

Discussion and conclusions

The activity in reward-related brain areas to both visual sexual stimuli as well as cues indicates that optimization of the Sexual Incentive Delay Task was successful. Presumably, associations between reward-related brain activity and indicators for problematic or pathological pornography use might only occur in samples with increased levels and not in a rather healthy sample used in the present study.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims: The aim of the present systematic review was to identify psychometric tools developed to assess problematic exercise in order to identify and compare their theoretical conceptualisations on which they are based. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases Web of Science, Scielo, PsychINFO, PsycTEST and SCOPUS from their inception to January 2020. Results: Seventeen assessment instruments met the eligibility criteria to be included in the present review. The instruments were classified according to their conceptualisation into five groups: (i) problematic exercise as an end of an exercise continuum, (ii) problematic exercise as a means of regulating body size and weight, (iii) problematic exercise as dependence, (iv) problematic exercise as a behavioural addiction and (v) no clear conceptualisation. Discussion: The results suggest that the conceptualisations of the assessment instruments have resulted in a strong dichotomy in relation to the primary or secondary character of the problematic exercise that might be limiting the capacity of the instruments to adequately capture the multidimensionality of this construct. Conclusions: Given the interest in understanding the complexity surrounding the problematic exercise, future research should develop more comprehensive definitions of this construct. This would allow a greater conceptual consensus to be reached that would allow progress to be made in the study of the problematic exercise.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Marie Grall-Bronnec, Morgane Guillou-Landreat, Julie Caillon, Caroline Dubertret, Lucia Romo, Irène Codina, Isabelle Chereau-Boudet, Christophe Lancon, Marc Auriacombe, JEU-Group, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, and Gaëlle Challet-Bouju

Abstract

Background and Aims

Few studies have been conducted on the long-term evolution of gambling disorder (GD). The aim of this study was to identify factors that could predict GD relapse.

Methods

Data were part of a dataset from a large 5-year cohort of gamblers who were assessed at inclusion and each year thereafter. Participants were recruited from an outpatient addiction treatment center, from various gambling places and through the press. For this specific study, inclusion criteria included (i) transitioning from GD to recovery at a follow-up time and (ii) undergoing at least one follow-up visit afterwards. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview and self-report questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, gambling and clinical characteristics. “Relapse” was defined as the presence of GD (according to the DSM-5) at the N+1th visit following the absence of GD at the Nth visit. A Markov model-based approach was employed to examine predictive factors associated with relapse at a subsequent follow-up visit.

Results

The sample consisted of 87 participants, aged 47.6 years (sd = 12.6), who were predominantly male (65%). Among the participants, 49 remained in recovery, whereas 38 relapsed. Participants who reported not having experienced at least one month of abstinence and those with a low level of self-directedness at the previous follow-up visit were more likely to relapse.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest the existence of factors that are predictive of relapse in individuals with GD who had previously achieved recovery. These results can inspire the development of measures to promote long-term recovery.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Nicki A. Dowling, Christopher J. Greenwood, Stephanie S. Merkouris, George J. Youssef, Matthew Browne, Matthew Rockloff, and Paul Myers

Abstract

Background and aims

Problem gambling severity and gambling-related harm are closely coupled, but conceptually distinct, constructs. The primary aim was to compare low-risk gambling limits when gambling-related harm was defined using the negative consequence items of the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI-Harm) and the Short Gambling Harms Scale items (SGHS-Harm). A secondary aim was compare low-risk limits derived using a definition of harm in which at least two harms across different domains (e.g. financial and relationship) were endorsed with a definition of harm in which at least two harms from any domain were endorsed.

Methods

Data were collected from dual-frame computer-assisted telephone interviews of 5,000 respondents in the fourth Social and Economic Impact Study (SEIS) of Gambling in Tasmania. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyse were conducted to identify low-risk gambling limits.

Results

PGSI-Harm and SGHS-Harm definitions produced similar overall limits: 30–37 times per year; AUD$510–$544 per year; expenditure comprising no more than 10.2–10.3% of gross personal income; 400–454 minutes per year; and 2 types of gambling activities per year. Acceptable limits (AUC ≥0.70) were identified for horse/dog racing, keno, and sports/other betting using the PGSI definition; and electronic gaming machines, keno, and bingo using the SGHS definition. The requirement that gamblers endorse two or more harms across different domains had a relatively negligible effect.

Discussion and conclusions

Although replications using alternative measures of harm are required, previous PGSI-based limits appear to be robust thresholds that have considerable potential utility in the prevention of gambling-related harm.

Open access

Abstract

Backround and aims

Having entered the recent public and research zeitgeist, microdosing involves consuming sub-perceptual doses of psychedelic drugs, allegedly to enhance performance, creativity, and wellbeing. The results of research to date have been mixed. Whereas most studies have reported positive impacts of microdosing, some microdosers have also reported adverse effects. In addition, research to date has revealed inconsistent patterns of change in personality traits. This prospective study explored the relationship between microdosing, personality change, and emotional awareness.

Methods

Measures of personality and alexithymia were collected at two time points. 76 microdosers participated at baseline. Invitations to a follow-up survey were sent out after 31 days, and 24 participants were retained.

Results

Conscientiousness increased, while neuroticism decreased across these time points (n = 24). At baseline (N = 76), neuroticism was associated with alexithymia. In addition, neuroticism correlated negatively with duration of prior microdosing experience, and extraversion correlated positively with both duration of prior microdosing experience and lifetime number of microdoses.

Conclusion

These results suggest that microdosing might have an impact on otherwise stable personality traits.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Lucero Munguía, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Roser Granero, Isabel Baenas, Zaida Agüera, Isabel Sánchez, Ester Codina, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Giulia Testa, Janet Treasure, and Fernando Fernández-Aranda

Abstract

Background and aims

Difficulties in Emotion Regulation (ER) are related to the etiology and maintenance of several psychological disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED) and Gambling Disorder (GD). This study explored the existence of latent empirical groups between both disorders, based on ER difficulties and considering a set of indicators of personality traits, the severity of the disorder, and psychopathological distress.

Methods

The sample included 1,288 female and male participants, diagnosed with ED (n = 906) and GD (n = 382). Two-step clustering was used for the empirical classification, while analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used for the comparison between the latent groups.

Results

Three empirical groups were identified, from the most disturbed ER profile (Subgroup 1) to the most functional (Subgroup 3). The ER state showed a linear relationship with the severity of each disorder and the psychopathological state. Different personality traits were found to be related to the level of emotion dysregulation.

Discussion and conclusion

In this study, three distinct empirical groups based on ER were identified across ED and GD, suggesting that ER is a transdiagnostic construct. These findings may lead to the development of common treatment strategies and more tailored approaches.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Sheng Zhang, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, and Xiao-Yi Fang

Abstract

Background and aims

Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts.

Methods

Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal – P(Stop) – a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop).

Results

The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC.

Discussion and conclusions

These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly impacted aspects of human life globally. Playing videogames has been encouraged by several organizations to help individuals cope with the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures. This longitudinal study was the first to examine gaming in the context of the pandemic and its association with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

Methods

The sample comprised 1,778 children and adolescents (50.7% male) who were part of the Project of School Mental Health in Southwest China. Data were collected at two-time intervals: before the COVID-19 pandemic (October to November 2019 – [T1]) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (April to May 2020 – [T2]). Data were collected on perceived COVID-19 impacts, videogame use, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Cross-lagged panel models were computed to examine longitudinal relationships.

Results

The results indicated that both videogame use and IGD increased significantly for adolescents at T2. The cross-lagged panel model results suggested that depressive and anxiety symptoms at T1 positively predicted IGD and videogame use at T2 (especially for boys), but not inversely. Perceived COVID-19 impacts mediated the relationship between depressive and anxiety symptoms at T1 and IGD at T2.

Conclusion

Children and adolescents both increased videogame use at T2, but only adolescents significantly increased IGD severity at T2. The findings supported the compensatory hypothesis, and are consistent with the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution model as individual responses to COVID-19 may function as a mediator between personal predisposing variables and IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Although previous studies have revealed gender-related differences in executive function in internet gaming disorder (IGD), neural mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear, especially in terms of brain networks.

Methods

Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 78 subjects with IGD (39 males, 20.8 ± 2.16 years old) and 72 with recreational game use (RGU) (39 males, 21.5 ± 2.56 years old). By utilizing graph theory, we calculated participation coefficients among brain network modules for all participants and analyzed the diagnostic-group-by-gender interactions. We further explored possible causal relationships between networks through spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) to assess differences in between-network connections.

Results

Compared to males with RGU, males with IGD demonstrated reduced modular segregation of the frontal-parietal network (FPN). Male IGD subjects also showed increased connections between the FPN and cingulo-opercular network (CON); however, these differences were not found in female subjects. Further spDCM analysis indicated that the causal influence from CON to FPN in male IGD subjects was enhanced relative to that of RGU males, while this influence was relatively reduced in females with IGD.

Conclusions

These results suggest poor modular segmentation of the FPN and abnormal FPN/CON connections in males with IGD, suggesting a mechanism for male vulnerability to IGD. An increased “bottom-up” effect from the CON to FPN in male IGD subjects could reflect dysfunction between the brain networks. Different mechanisms may underlie in IGD, suggesting that different interventions may be optimal in males and females with IGD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ricardo B. Viana, Rodrigo L. Vancini, Wellington F. Silva, Naiane S. Morais, Vinnycius N. de Oliveira, Marília S. Andrade, and Claudio A. B. de Lira

Abstract

Although significant increases in gaming may not always be beneficial, exergames (a new generation of video games also known as exergaming or active video games) appear as an alternative, feasible, attractive, and safe way to perform physical exercise for most clinical and nonclinical populations. Therefore, it is important to recognize that exergames can be considered a useful tool for coping with the COVID-19 outbreak and the recommended social distancing period.

Open access

Abstract

Ibogaine is a psychoactive alkaloid contained in the West African plant Tabernanthe iboga. Although preliminary, evidence suggests that ibogaine could be effective in the treatment of certain substance use disorders, specifically opioid use disorder. This narrative review concentrated on the pharmacological, cultural and psychological aspects of ibogaine that contribute to its reputed effectiveness with a specific focus on the ibogaine state of consciousness. Although the exact pharmacological mechanisms for ibogaine are still speculative, the literature highlighted its role as an NMDA antagonist in the effective treatment of substance use disorders. The cultural aspects associated with the use of ibogaine pose questions around the worldview of participants as experienced in the traditional and western contexts, which future research should clarify. From a psychological perspective, the theory that the ibogaine state of consciousness resembles REM sleep is questionable due to evidence that indicated ibogaine supressed REM sleep, and contradictory evidence in relation to learning and memory. The suggested classification of the ibogaine experience as oneirophrenic also seems inadequate as it only describes the first phase of the ibogaine experience. The ibogaine experience does however present characteristics consistent with holotropic states of consciousness, and future research could focus on exploring and potentially classifying the state of consciousness induced by ibogaine as holotropic.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Mónica Giménez, Roser Granero, Hibai López-González, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Laura Moragas, Isabel Baenas, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Ester Codina, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza, Bernat Mora-Maltas, Susana Valero-Solís, Sandra Rivas-Pérez, Elías Guillén-Guzmán, José M. Menchón, and Fernando Fernández-Aranda

Abstract

Background and aims

Sports betting has been barely explored independently from other gambling behaviors. Little evidence is available regarding the factors affecting its severity in a clinical sample. The current study explores new determinants for sports betting severity in Spain by the inclusion of psychopathological distress and personality factors.

Methods

A sample of 352 Spanish sports bettors undergoing treatment for gambling disorder was recruited. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables, the age of onset of gambling behavior, the global psychopathological distress (SCL-90R GSI) and the personality profile (TCI-R) on sports betting severity and their influence over frequency (bets per episode) and debts due to gambling.

Results

We found that older age, higher psychopathological distress, lower self-directedness level, and higher novelty seeking level were predictors of gambling severity in Spanish sports bettors. The highest betting frequency was found in men, with the lowest education levels but the highest social status, the highest psychopathological distress, reward dependence score, and self-transcendence trait and the lowest persistence score. Debts were also associated to higher score in cooperativeness as well as older age.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings call for further exploration of factors affecting sports betting severity regarded as a separate gambling entity subtype, as some of the traditional factors typically found in gamblers do not apply to sports bettors or apply inversely in our country. Consequently, sports bettors might deserve specific clinical approaches to tackle the singularities of their gambling behavior.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) and exercise addiction (ExAdd) are two phenomena believed to overlap. We conducted a meta-analysis exploring the link between ON and (addictive) exercise behaviors.

Methods

A systematic review of major databases and gray literature was carried out for studies reporting on ON and (addictive) exercise behaviors. Random effects meta-analyses were undertaken calculating correlations between ON and (addictive) exercise behaviors. A sub-group analysis investigated gender differences.

Results

Twenty-five studies with 10,134 participants (mean age = 25.21; 56.4% female) were included. Analyses showed a small overall correlation between ON and exercise (21 studies, r = 0.12, 95% CI |0.06–0.18|) and a medium overall correlation between ON and ExAdd (7 studies, r = 0.29, 95% CI |0.13–0.45|). Gender differences were negligible.

Conclusions

Orthorexic eating correlated slightly and moderately with exercise and ExAdd, respectively, expressing some unique and shared variance of these behaviors. While this does not suggest ON and addictive exercising to be independent, it does not indicate substantial comorbidity. Future research should focus on clinical relevance, underlying mechanisms, vulnerability, and risk factors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Impulsiveness is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and regional brain functions can be different depending on the level of impulsiveness. This study aimed to demonstrate that different brain mechanisms are involved depending on the level of impulsiveness among patients with IGD.

Methods

Resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 23 IGD patients with high impulsivity, 27 IGD patients with low impulsivity, and 22 healthy controls, and seed-based functional connectivity was compared among the three groups. The seed regions were the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and amygdala.

Results

Connectivity of the vmPFC with the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and NAcc-left insula connectivity were significantly decreased in the patients with high impulsivity, compared with the patients with low impulsivity and healthy controls. On the other hand, amygdala-based connectivity with the left inferior frontal gyrus showed decreases in both patient groups, compared with the healthy controls.

Conclusion

These findings may suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity and deficits in reward-related social cognition processes in patients with IGD. In particular, certain interventions targeted at vmPFC-TPJ connectivity, found to be impulsivity-specific brain connectivity, are likely to help with addiction recovery among impulsive patients with IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Loot boxes are a common feature in video games where players win, buy or are gifted a virtual box or other container that is unwrapped to reveal virtual items of value, such as skins, weapons, in-game currency or special abilities. The current study aimed to relate the use of loot boxes to gambling problems and harm.

Methods

An online survey was conducted with 1,954 adolescents and young adults from NSW Australia, 59.9% female (aged 12–24), recruited by online panel aggregator, Qualtrics.

Results

Buying and selling loot boxes was associated with higher 12-month gambling frequency and gambling problems in young adults, aged 18–24 (Problem Gambling Severity Index). Young adults who bought loot boxes additionally had more gambling-related harms (Short Gambling Harms Screen). Young women, aged 18–24, who opened, bought and/or sold loot boxes spent more money in the last 12 months on gambling. In adolescents, aged 12–17, buying loot boxes was similarly associated with gambling problems (DSM-IV-MR-J). Furthermore, adolescent girls who bought and/or sold loot boxes viewed gambling more positively than other girls (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale). There was no evidence, however, that longer-term experience in opening or purchasing loot boxes, a differentiating feature of the survey, is associated with current gambling problems.

Discussion and conclusions

This study suggests that loot boxes may be attractive to people who are already predisposed to engage in other gambling, and females who use loot boxes may have unique vulnerabilities to gambling problems that could be explored in future research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a global health problem. The self-regulation model noted that a shift to reward system, whether due to overwhelming reward-seeking or impaired control, can lead to self-regulation failures, e.g., addiction. The present study focused on the reward processing of IGD, aiming to provide insights into the etiology of IGD. Reward processing includes three phases: reward anticipation, outcome monitoring and choice evaluation. However, it is not clear which phases of reward processing are different between individuals with IGD and healthy controls (HC).

Methods

To address this issue, the present study asked 27 individuals with IGD and 26 HC to complete a roulette task during a functional MRI scan.

Results

Compared with HC, individuals with IGD preferred to take risks in pursuit of high rewards behaviorally and showed exaggerated brain activity in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate) during the reward anticipation and outcome monitoring but not during the choice evaluation.

Discussion

These results reveal that the oversensitivity of the reward system to potential and positive rewards in college students with IGD drives them to approach risky options more frequently although they are able to assess the risk values of options and the correctness of decisions properly as HC do.

Conclusions

These findings provide partial support for the application of the self-regulation model to the IGD population. Moreover, this study enriches this model from the perspective of three phases of reward processing and provides specific targets for future research regarding effective treatment of IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Due to the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), policies based on the nature of “spatial distancing” have been implemented and have resulted in school suspensions and online learning among schoolchildren. In order to examine the impact of such policies on schoolchildren, the aims of the present study were to (i) assess changes in the level of engagement in three internet-related activities (smartphone use, social media use, and gaming) before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, including prolonged and problematic engagement in these activities; (ii) investigate the differences of psychological distress before and after COVID-19 outbreak; and (iii) to use structural equation modeling to investigate the mediating roles of problematic internet-related behaviors in the causal relationships of psychological distress and time spent on internet-related activities.

Methods

Self-report measures were used to assess internet-related activities and psychological distress. Time spent on internet-related activities, problematic use of internet-related activities, and psychological distress were collected from primary school students (N = 535; 265 boys; M age = 10.32 years [SD = 0.84]). The data were first collected before the COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., early November 2019) and then collected again during the school suspension due to COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., end of March 2020) for comparisons of changes.

Results

Schoolchildren spent significantly more time on the smartphone (increased 1.02 h daily; P < 0.001) and social media (increased 0.73 h daily; P < 0.001) but not gaming (increased 0.14 h daily; P = 0.07) during the school suspension compared to the baseline. Schoolchildren who increased by 15 or 30 min daily on internet-related activities showed an increased level of psychological distress. The association between problematic use of social media and psychological distress was stronger during the school suspension (β = 0.584) than at the baseline (β = 0.451; P < 0.001).

Conclusion

Increased problematic use of internet-related activities among schoolchildren was associated with greater psychological distress. Parents should therefore monitor internet-related activities and psychological distress of their children to support their mental health.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Even though the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) was added to the ICD-11 under the impulse control category in 2019, its neural mechanisms are still debated. Researchers have noted its similarity both to addiction and to Obssesive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of our study was to address this question by investigating the pattern of anatomical brain abnormalities among CSBD patients.

Methods

Reviewing 39 publications on Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) we have identified main abnormalities specific for addictions and OCD. Than we have collected DTI data from 36 heterosexual males diagnosed with CSBD and 31 matched healthy controls. These results were then compared to the addiction and OCD patterns.

Results

Compared to controls, CSBD individuals showed significant fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in the superior corona radiata tract, the internal capsule tract, cerebellar tracts and occipital gyrus white matter. Interestingly, all these regions were also identified in previous studies as shared DTI correlates in both OCD and addiction.

Discussion and conclusions

Results of our study suggest that CSBD shares similar pattern of abnormalities with both OCD and addiction. As one of the first DTI study comparing structural brain differences between CSBD, addictions and OCD, although it reveals new aspects of CSBD, it is insufficient to determine whether CSBD resembles more an addiction or OCD. Further research, especially comparing directly individuals with all three disorders may provide more conclusive results.

Open access

Énkép egyértelműség mérése és korrelátumai

Adaptation of the Self-Concept Clarity scale in Hungary

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Hargitai Rita, Rózsa Sándor, Hupuczi Ernő, Birkás Béla, Hartung István, Hartungné Somlai Eszter, Tiringer István, Martin László, and Kállai János

Elméleti háttér

A Campbell és munkacsoportja (1996) által kidolgozott Énkép Egyértelműség Skála (Self-Concept Clarity Scale; SCCS) az énkép egyik strukturális jellemzőjének, önfogalmunk világosan és határozottan defi niált jellegének mérésére alkalmas eszköz.

Cél

A tanulmányban bemutatjuk a kérdőív magyar változatát, és értékeljük annak pszichometriai jellemzőit. Módszer: Önbeszámolón alapuló, kérdőíves, keresztmetszeti vizsgálatban 1205 fő (245 férfi , 960 nő; átlagéletkor 27,05 év, SD = 9,8 év) vett részt. Az SCCS mellett a Rosenberg Önbecsülés Skálát (RSES-H), a Szorongásérzékenység Indexet (ASI), a Bizonytalansággal Szembeni Intolerancia (IUS) és a Szkizotípia Személyiség Kérdőívet (SPQ-BH) vettük fel.

Eredmények

A feltáró faktoranalízis egy faktort jelez, amely a variancia 50,8%-át magyarázza. Ezen egydimenziós modell illeszkedése elfogadhatónak bizonyult (CFI = 0,939; TLI = 0,925; RMSEA = 0,079; CI90 = 0,072–0,085). A skála belső konzisztenciája jó (Cronbach-alfa: 0,88). A validitásra vonatkozó eredmények igazolták a nemzetközi adatokat: az önértékelés és az énkép egyértelműség egymással közepesen erősen, pozitívan kapcsolódó, ugyanakkor egymást nem helyettesíthető konstruktumok. Az énkép egyértelműsége közepesen erős mértékben, negatív módon asszociálódik a szorongáshoz kötődő szomatikus és kognitív tünetekkel (ASI), valamint a bizonytalan, kétértelmű helyzetekre/eseményekre vonatkozó negatív reagálási módokkal (IUS). A szorongáson alapuló személyiségvonások mellett igazoltuk az SCCS szkizotípiás érintettség mértékével (SPQ) való negatív kapcsolatát is. Következtetések: Az SCCS magyar verziója az énkép egyértelműségének, világosan artikulált jellegének megbízható és érvényes mérőmódszere, amely általános, pszichés sebezhetőséget, sérülékenységet jelző mérőeszközként támpontul szolgálhat pszichopatológiai tárgyú kutatások mellett a terápiás hatékonyság megítélésében.

Theoretical background

The Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) developed by Campbell et al. (1996) is suitable for measuring one structural feature of the self-concept, its clearly and fi rmly defi ned nature. Purpose: In this study we present the Hungarian version of the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS-H) and evaluate its psychometric characteristics. Method: 1205 persons (245 men, 960 women; average age 27.05 years, SD = 9.8 years) participated in a cross-sectional, self-reporting questionnaire-based research. Besides SCCS, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-BH) were also administered. Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed one factor, which explained 50.8% of the total variance. The fi t of our one-dimensional model was acceptable (CFI= 0.939; TLI=0.925; RMSEA=0.079; CI90=0.072-0.085). The reliability analysis indicated good internal consistency for the instrument (α=0.88). Construct-validity results are consistent with the literature: self-concept clarity moderately positively correlated with self-esteem, however they are not replaceable constructs. Self-concept clarity is moderately negatively associated with anxiety-based somatic and cognitive symptoms (ASI) and with negative responses to uncertain, ambiguous events/situations (IUS). In addition to anxiety-based personality traits we also verifi ed the negative correlation of SCCS with the degree of schizotypic involvement (SPQ). Conclusion: The Hungarian version of Self-Concept Clarity Scale can be considered a reliable and valid measurement tool for the clear and confi dent nature of self-concept. Being an indicator of general, psychological vulnerability, SCCS may serve both as a reference point for psychopathological research and as a screening tool for mental patients, furthermore for assessing psychotherapeutic effi cacy too.

Open access

Jellemző megküzdési módok és a társadalmi problémák kezelése

Typical Coping Styles and Handling Social Problems

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Nagy Luca and Balázs Katalin

Háttér és célkitűzés

A vizsgálat célja a társadalmi problémák megoldására vonatkozó viselkedéses szándékok felmérése, a vizsgálati személyek megküzdési stílusának és szociálisprobléma-megoldó képességeinek függvényében. A vizsgálat elméleti alapjául az attitűdök és a viselkedéses szándékok kapcsolatát tárgyaló Tervezett Viselkedés Elmélete (TVE, Ajzen, 1991), valamint a megküzdés és a szociálisprobléma-megoldás irodalma szolgál; korábbi kutatási eredményeink a vizsgálat empirikus előzményeinek tekinthetők (pl. Nagy és Balázs, 2018a).

Módszer

A vizsgálat kérdőíves módon zajlott, a személyek online felületen vagy papíralapon jelölték meg válaszaikat, célcsoportunk a felnőtt korosztály volt. A vizsgálati személyek a szociálisprobléma-megoldás felmérésére alkalmas SPSI-R (Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, D’Zurilla, Nezu és Maydeu-Olivares, 2002, adaptálta Kasik, Nagy és Fűzy, 2009) skála, illetve a megküzdési stílusokat felmérő CISS-48 (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Endler és Parker, 1994) kérdéseit válaszolták meg. Továbbá, a klímaváltozás, a természetes élőhelyek védelme, a diabétesz, az egészséges életmód, a nélkülöző gyermekek megsegítése és a családon belüli erőszak megelőzése kapcsán a problémák kezelésére irányuló viselkedéses szándékukról nyilatkoztak. A mintát 275 fő, 109 férfi és 166 nő alkotja; átlagéletkoruk 30 év, többségében gimnáziumi és felsőfokú végzettséggel rendelkeznek.

Eredmények

A vizsgálat eredményei alapján a különböző társadalmi problémák kezelésére vonatkozó viselkedéses szándékaik alapján a személyek három csoportja képezhető, mely csoportok életkoruk, megküzdési stílusaik és szociálisprobléma-megoldási képességeik tekintetében egyértelműen elkülönülnek. Következtetések: Habár a társadalmi problémák megoldására vonatkozó viselkedéses szándékok alakulását egyéb tényezők is befolyásolhatják, eredményeink alapján mindenképpen hatással van rájuk az életkor, a jellemző megküzdési stílus, valamint a szociálisprobléma-megoldás képessége.

Background and purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the behavioral intentions toward social problem-solving in line with coping styles and social problem-solving abilities. Attitudes and behavioral intentions of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Ajzen, 1991), and the literature of coping and of social problem-solving give the basis of the research. The empirical antecedents are our studies.

Method

The target group of the study was adults’ age group. Respondents fi lled out questionnaires online or paper-pencil forms and answered the items of SPSI-R (Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, D’Zurilla, Nezu and Maydeu-Olivares, 2002, adapted by Kasik, Nagy and Fűzy, 2009) that investigate social problem-solving and CISS-48 (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Endler and Parker, 1994) that measures coping styles. After that, they indicated their intentions regarding the solution of climate change, protection of natural habitat, diabetes, healthy lifestyle, donation to indigent children and prevention of violence. The sample of the study consisted of 275 participants, consisting 109 men and 166 women. The mean age was 30 years. Most of the participants had fi nished secondary education or had a college degree.

Results

According to the results, three groups of participants can be identifi ed based on their behavioral intentions, and these groups can be characterized by different mean age, variant patterns of coping styles and social problem-solving abilities.

Conclusion

Although there are other factors which can affect behavioral intentions toward social problem-solving, coping and social problem-solving abilities could infl uence them together with the variable of age.

Open access

Kognitív kontroll folyamatok nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató egynyelvű és tipikusan fejlődő kétnyelvű gyermekek körében

Cognitive Control Functions in Monolingual Children with Developmental Language Disorder and in Typically Developing Bilingual Children

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Rohár Alexandra and Dr. Marton Klára

Célkitűzés

Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy bemutassa a kognitív kontrollal kapcsolatos elméleti koncepciókat, kiemelve azokat a fő komponenseket, amelyek szoros összefüggést mutatnak a nyelvi folyamatokkal. Rámutatunk többek között arra, hogy a nyelvi kompetencia és performancia egyes faktorai milyen összefüggést mutatnak a kognitív kontroll funkciókkal.

Módszer

Tanulmányunkban egynyelvű nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató és tipikusan fejlődő kétnyelvű gyermekek kognitív kontroll teljesítményét elemezzük a legújabb kutatási eredmények alapján. Az áttekintésbe bevont tanulmányok kiválasztása során a következő szempontokat vettük fi gyelembe: a célcsoportot iskoláskorú, egynyelvű nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató gyermekek vagy iskoláskorú, tipikus fejlődésű kétnyelvű gyermekek alkossák; a használt vizsgálóeljárások a válaszgátlás, az interferenciával szembeni ellenállás, a munkamemória-frissítés és a kognitív fl exibilitás fejlettségéről nyújtsanak információkat.

Eredmények

Összességében elmondható, hogy a két vizsgált csoport heterogenitásának és az eltérő módszertani megközelítéseknek köszönhetően a szakirodalomban számos ellentmondással találkozhatunk. Mégis az általunk vizsgált kognitív kontroll funkciók tekintetében az a tendencia fi gyelhető meg, hogy míg az interferenciával szembeni ellenállás, a munkamemória-frissítés és a kognitív fl exibilitás gyengébb a nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató gyermekeknél egynyelvű, tipikusan fejlődő társaikhoz képest, addig a kétnyelvű gyermekek ezekben a funkciókban többnyire jobb teljesítményt nyújtanak az egynyelvűekhez viszonyítva, kivéve a válaszgátlást.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján elmondható, hogy az interferenciával szembeni ellenállás és a kognitív fl exibilitás szorosabb összefüggést mutat a nyelvi fejlettséggel, mint a válaszgátlás. Ez az interakció azonban eltérő irányt mutat a fenti két nyelvi csoportban. Míg a nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató gyermekek gyengébb kognitív kontroll teljesítménye hozzájárul az alacsonyabb szintű nyelvi teljesítményeikhez, addig a kétnyelvű gyermekek előnye e kognitív funkciók terén a speciális nyelvhasználati szokásoknak és a két nyelv közötti folyamatos versengésnek köszönhető.

Purpose

The goal of this study is to present the theoretical conceptions related to cognitive control, highlighting those main components that show a close relationship with language processing. Further, our goal was to review these functions in two distinct language groups: children with developmental language disorders and typically developing bilingual children. Specifi cally, we were interested in the way certain factors of language competence and performance interact with the cognitive control functions.

Method

We compared the cognitive control functions between monolingual children with developmental language disorders and their typically developing peers, as well as between bilingual children and their monolingual peers. The following aspects were considered for our review: the target population - school-age monolingual children with developmental language disorders or school-age typically developing bilingual children; studies that employed tasks that measure response inhibition, resistance to interference, working memory updating and cognitive fl exibility.

Results

Overall, there are many confl icting results in the literature due to the heterogeneity of the groups and the differences across methodological approaches. Despite these inconsistencies, children’s cognitive control functions are highly associated with their language skills; while the children with developmental language disorders show defi cits in resistance to interference, working memory updating, and cognitive fl exibility compared to their typically developing peers, the bilingual children show superior performance in these functions compared to their monolingual peers. Response inhibition was the only function that did not differ across groups.

Conclusions

Based on the above, language development shows a close relationship with a number of cognitive control functions. The interaction between cognitive control and language, however, indicates different directions in the two target groups. Whereas poor cognitive control in children with developmental language disorders may contribute to their lower level of language skills, the cognitive advantage of bilingual children is the result of their bilingual language use and practice across different social contexts.

Open access

Prospektív emlékezet és traumás agysérülés: szakirodalmi áttekintés

Prospective Memory and Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Lencsés Anita and Demeter Gyula

Jelen tanulmány tudomásunk szerint az első magyar nyelvű áttekintés a prospektív emlékezet (prospective memory, PM) témájában, melynek kettős célja van. Egyrészt összefoglalja a PM legfontosabb fogalmait, elméleteit, kísérleti és idegtudományi eredményeit, ismertetve a kutatások klinikai relevanciáját. A PM a jövőbeli szándékokra irányuló emlékezet, egy olyan összetett kognitív képesség, amely alapvető a mindennapi feladataink ellátása során. Működése a prefrontális kéreghez és kapcsolataihoz köthető, így számos, a frontostriatális rendszert érintő kórkép esetén sérülést mutat. Áttekintésünk fókuszában egy gyakori neurológiai kórkép, a traumás agysérülés áll. E személyek hétköznapjait a leginkább megnehezítő, gyakori és tartós kognitív zavar a PM sérülése. Ennek ellenére kevés kutatás foglalkozott a csökkent PM-működést meghatározó tényezőkkel ebben a betegcsoportban, az eredmények pedig ellentmondásosak.

Tanulmányunk további célja, hogy összefoglalja a traumás agysérült személyek PM-teljesítményével kapcsolatos empirikus kutatásokat. Szakirodalmi áttekintésünkben 25 empirikus tanulmányt azonosítottunk, amelyekben traumás agysérült felnőtt személyek PM-teljesítményét hasonlították össze egészséges kontrollszemélyekével. Az eredmények alapján megállapítható, hogy traumás agysérülést követően jellemző a PM diszfunkciója. Azonban számtalan tényező befolyásolhatja a PM-teljesítményt ebben a populációban: a sérülés súlyossága, lokalizációja, a kómában és a poszttraumás amnéziában töltött idő, a sérülés óta eltelt idő, a hangulatzavarok és a komorbid kognitív zavarok; valamint az olyan feladatjellemzők, mint a mérőeszköz típusa, a PM összetevői, illetve a prospektív kulcsinger és a folyamatban lévő feladat jellegzetességei. Elgondolásunk szerint e kutatási eredmények nemcsak a PM működésének megértésével kapcsolatban szolgálnak fontos következtetésekkel, hanem támpontokat adhatnak a rehabilitációs, terápiás munkára nézve is, megteremtve egy jövőbeli hatékony, a PM-funkciókra fókuszáló kognitív tréning kidolgozását traumás agysérült személyek számára.

To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the fi rst review in Hungarian on the topic of prospective memory (PM), and it has a dual objective. On the one hand, it summarizes the most important concepts, theories, experimental and neuroscientifi c results of PM, describing the clinical relevance of the research. PM refers to the memory for future intentions, and it is a complex cognitive ability that is essential in performing our day-to-day tasks. PM function is related to the prefrontal cortex and its connections, and its dysfunction is well-documented in several diseases affecting the frontostriatal system. This review focuses on traumatic brain injury, a common neurological disorder. Patients with traumatic brain injury experience PM dysfunction, which is a common and persistent cognitive disorder making their everyday life the most diffi cult. Nevertheless, little research has investigated the factors contributing to decreased PM performance in this patient population, and the results are contradictory.

Another goal of our study is to summarize empirical research on PM performance after traumatic brain injury. In this literature review, we identifi ed 25 empirical studies comparing the PM performance of adults with traumatic brain injury with those of healthy controls. Based on these empirical results, PM dysfunction is a common fi nding after traumatic brain injury. However, a number of factors can affect PM performance in this population: the severity and localization of injury, time spent in coma, length of posttraumatic amnesia, time since injury, mood disorders and comorbid cognitive disorders, and task characteristics, such as the type of measurement, the components of the PM task, and features of the PM cue and the ongoing task. In our opinion, these fi ndings not only provide essential conclusions about understanding the functioning of PM, but they can also establish the foundation for rehabilitation and therapeutic work, and contribute to the creation of an effective cognitive training focused on PM for traumatic brain injury patients.

Open access
Restricted access

A pszichológiai tőke skála (PCQ) adaptációja magyar mintán

Hungarian Adaptation of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Kádi Anna, Mittich Boglárka, Sessler Judit, and Faragó Klára

Háttér és célkitűzések

A pszichológiai tőke (PsyCap) az egyén pozitív pszichológiai állapota, amely befolyásolja személyes és munkahelyi közérzetét, magas szintje hozzájárul egyéni és munkahelyi jóllétéhez és teljesítményéhez (Luthans, Avey, Avolio és Peterson, 2010). Kutatásunkban a pszichológiai tőke Luthans által kidolgozott 24 itemes kérdőívének (PCQ) magyar adaptációjára vállalkoztunk. Kutatásunkban kidolgoztuk a skála magyar verzióját, elvégeztük belső és külső validitásának és megbízhatóságának vizsgálatát, teszteltük fogalmi érvényességét (construct validity), valamint az egyes alskálák diszkriminációs érvényességét (discriminant validity), megbízhatóságát és külső érvényességét.

Módszer

A pszichológiai tőke fogalmának és mérőeszközének hazai adaptálása érdekében kérdőíves kutatást folytattunk hazai szervezetek körében. A vizsgálatra több szervezet bevonásával, kényelmi mintavétellel került sor, amelyben 583 munkaviszonyban dolgozó személy vett részt. A belső validitásvizsgálatok elvégzése mellett a skála külső validitását Allen és Meyer (1991) háromfaktoros szervezeti elkötelezettség modelljével vizsgáltuk.

Eredmények

Kutatásunk eredménye a szakirodalomban található megállapításokkal összhangban egyértelműen alátámasztotta a pszichológiai tőke négyfaktoros modelljét, ugyanakkor a diszkriminanciaelemzés a faktorok függetlenségét nem támasztotta egyértelműen alá. Feltáró faktorelemzésünk eredménye szerint a magyar mintán a pszichológiai tőke a szerzők által létrehozott négy komponenssel szemben két faktorra, egy érzelmi-motivációs és egy kognitív komponensre válik szét. A kétfaktoros modell érvényességét a validitásvizsgálatok megerősítették.

Következtetések

Eredményeink szerint a pszichológiai tőke skála magyar változata érvényes mérőeszköz. Eredményeink fényében fontosnak tartjuk a pszichológiai tőke kétfaktoros modelljének érvényességét további vizsgálatokban is tesztelni, más kulturális közegben és egyéb szervezeti jellemzők tükrében is elemezni.

Background and Objectives

Psychological capital (PsyCap) is a positive psychological condition infl uencing personal and workplace well-being and makes a valuable contribution to organizational performance. It highly contributes to individual and workplace well-being and performance (Luthans és mtsai, 2010). The objective of our study is the Hungarian adaptation of the 24-item Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) developed by Luthans. In our study we translated the PCQ and assessed its internal and external validity and reliability. We also tested each subscale’s construct and discriminant validity, reliability, and external validity as well.

Method

The Hungarian version of the questionnaire was completed in several organizations involving 583 employees. Respondents were gathered by convenience sampling. External validity of PCQ was assessed by comparing the answers with that of an organizational commitment scale by Allen and Meyer (1991).

Results

The results of our confi rmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model of PsyCap in as with the fi ndings in other published literature, however, in the discriminant analysis the independence of the factors was not supported. According to our exploratory factor analysis, psychological capital is divided into only two factors in the Hungarian sample, an emotional and a cognitive factor. The validity of the two-factor model was confi rmed by validity tests.

Conclusions

The Hungarian version of PCQ is a valid measurement tool for the Hungarian population. Based on our results, it would be useful to test the validity of the two-factor model of PsyCap, in relation to other organizational variables and in different cultural contexts.

Open access

A szakmai elkötelezettség és a munkahelyről való kilépési szándék összefüggései az életpálya előrehaladtával

The Relationship between Professional Commitment and Turnover Cognitions in the Light of Career Progress

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Koltói Lilla and Kiss Paszkál

Háttér

A mai karrierutakra a töredezettség, szekvenciák sora jellemző, ami együtt jár a szakmai célok, attitűdök és az identitás újrafogalmazásával (Wehmeyer és mtsai, 2019; Ashforth és Saks, 1995). Másrészt a szakmai identitás, a szakmával való azonosulás hosszú távú, stabilabb tényező (Colarelli és Bishop, 1990), kevésbé hat rá negatívan a munkahelyváltás, ha az egyén nem pályaelhagyó.

Cél

Kutatásunkban az idői tényezők tükrében vizsgáljuk a szakmához és a munkatevékenységhez való viszonyulást. Arra keressük a választ, hogy az életkor, a szakmában és a munkahelyen eltöltött idő mennyire határozza meg a pálya alakulása szempontjából fontos tényezőket, a szakmai elkötelezettséget, a munkába való bevonódást, a szubjektív pályasikerességet, és ezek együtt milyen kapcsolatban vannak a munkahelyről való kilépési szándékkal.

Módszer

Az online kutatásban (N = 1172) állandó munkaviszonnyal rendelkező munkavállalók vettek részt. A változók közötti összefüggéseket egy útmodell segítségével, valamint a korcsoportok összehasonlításával ellenőriztük.

Eredmények

Az eredmények alapján az mondható, hogy a kilépési szándékot az idői tényezők nem befolyásolják közvetlenül, csak más tényezőkön (a munkába való bevonódás, szakmai elkötelezettség, szubjektív pályasikeresség) keresztül, míg a szakmai elkötelezettséget és a munkába való bevonódást befolyásolja a szakmában eltöltött idő és az életkor. A korcsoportok összehasonlítása arra mutat rá, hogy az életkorral növekszik a bevonódás és elkötelezettség mértéke, ugyanakkor a kilépési szándék csak a negyvenes korosztályig mutat csökkenő tendenciát, a legidősebb korosztálynál a harmincasok szintjére emelkedik ez az érték.

Background

Recent career paths are typically fragmented, consisting of sequences, so redefi nition of work values, work attitudes and professional identity is necessary (Wehmeyer et al., 2019; Ashforth & Saks, 1995). On the other hand, professional identity and commitment is of long perspective, and more stable factor (Colarelli & Bishop, 1990), so change of workplace will more moderately affect it, if the individual stays I his profession.

Purpose

The goal is to explore the impact of time factors on attitudes to profession and work. We would like to explore that in what extent the career relevant factors such as professional commitment, work engagement, and subjective career are infl uenced by age, years spent in profession and at recent workplace, and how these constructs relate to turnover cognitions.

Methods

Employees with active permanent employment were examined in an online survey (N = 1172). Hypothesis were tested by path analysis and comparing age groups.

Results

According to our results, time factors do not infl uence turnover cognitions in a direct way, just through variables of work engagement, professional commitment and subjective career success, while they affect the professional commitment and work engagement directly. The results of generational analysis reveal that the degree of work engagement and professional commitment increases with age, but the degree of the willingness of turnover decreases until the age of 40s, while it increases in the oldest group to the level of age of 30s.

Open access

Abstract

The paper aims to investigate Hungarian senior language learners’ motivational profile with a special attention to factors influencing their motivational intensity. We focused on the significant features of Hungarian senior language learners’ motivational behaviour and conducted a survey with thirty senior Hungarian students learning English as a Foreign Language (FL). This instrument was constructed based on Gardner’s socio-educational model and Tremblay and Gardner’s model of second language (SL) motivation. We performed a series of statistical analyses on the data. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the most influential factors regarding motivational behaviour of older language learners in this context are attitude towards leaning the SL and goal specificity.

Open access

Abstract

The paper aims to investigate Hungarian senior language learners’ motivational profile with a special attention to factors influencing their motivational intensity. We focused on the significant features of Hungarian senior language learners’ motivational behaviour and conducted a survey with thirty senior Hungarian students learning English as a Foreign Language (FL). This instrument was constructed based on Gardner’s socio-educational model and Tremblay and Gardner’s model of second language (SL) motivation. We performed a series of statistical analyses on the data. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the most influential factors regarding motivational behaviour of older language learners in this context are attitude towards leaning the SL and goal specificity.

Open access

Abstract

The present study was conducted by using mixed methods design to investigate the role of language aptitude in second language acquisition (SLA). The quantitative method involved Hungarian adults (N = 27) of two kinds of schools: a technical school and three different universities. These adults participated in completing the aptitude test called Hungarian Language Aptitude Test (HUNLAT). The qualitative part included an in-depth interview, which was conducted with six participants mainly focussing on their learning habits in order to examine if there is any correspondence between aptitude and language learning habits in this sample. Within this sample, males achieved significantly higher scores on the Grammar analysis task and older students scored significantly higher on three tasks; additionally, they scored significantly higher on the total score of the HUNLAT. Furthermore, those students who scored high on the aptitude test regard themselves to be successful and those who scored low regard themselves less successful language learners. The major pedagogical implication that can be drawn from this particular research is that there are many constructs that may influence language aptitude including language learning habits, motivation, and language learning strategies; thus, EFL teachers may reconsider the role of this construct in SLA.

Open access

Abstract

The present study was conducted by using mixed methods design to investigate the role of language aptitude in second language acquisition (SLA). The quantitative method involved Hungarian adults (N = 27) of two kinds of schools: a technical school and three different universities. These adults participated in completing the aptitude test called Hungarian Language Aptitude Test (HUNLAT). The qualitative part included an in-depth interview, which was conducted with six participants mainly focussing on their learning habits in order to examine if there is any correspondence between aptitude and language learning habits in this sample. Within this sample, males achieved significantly higher scores on the Grammar analysis task and older students scored significantly higher on three tasks; additionally, they scored significantly higher on the total score of the HUNLAT. Furthermore, those students who scored high on the aptitude test regard themselves to be successful and those who scored low regard themselves less successful language learners. The major pedagogical implication that can be drawn from this particular research is that there are many constructs that may influence language aptitude including language learning habits, motivation, and language learning strategies; thus, EFL teachers may reconsider the role of this construct in SLA.

Open access

Abstract

We sought to estimate the prevalence of lifetime psilocybin use among a national sample of US adults ages 18 and older and associated demographic/substance use correlates. Pooled data from the 2015–2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were utilized among 168,650 individuals 18 years or older. An estimated 9.68% of individuals reported lifetime use of psilocybin. Differences were found among demographics, drug use, and sexual identity, with bisexual identification being associated with greater lifetime use. Nearly two-thirds of individuals who have ever used Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), methamphetamine, and/or heroin also reportedly used psilocybin. Findings from the present study can inform harm reduction efforts and behavioral health messaging.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The World Health Organization included gaming disorder (GD) in the eleventh revision of International Classification of Diseases in 2019. Due to the lack of diagnostic tools for GD, a definition has not been adequately applied. Therefore, this study aimed to apply an operationalized definition of GD to treatment-seekers. The relationship between the diagnoses of GD and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was also examined. Methods: Study participants comprised 241 treatment-seekers who had engaged in excessive gaming and experienced related problems. Psychiatrists applied the GD diagnostic criteria to the participants using a diagnostic form developed for this study. Information on gaming behavior and functional impairment was obtained through face-to-face interviews conducted by clinical psychologists. Results: In total, 78.4 and 83.0% of the participants fulfilled the GD and IGD diagnostic criteria, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of GD diagnosis were both high when the IGD diagnosis was used as the gold standard. Participants with GD preferred online PC and console games, spent significantly more time gaming, and showed a higher level of functional impairment compared to those who did not fulfill the GD diagnostic criteria. Discussion and Conclusion: The definition of GD can be successfully applied to treatment-seekers with excessive gaming and related problems. A high concordance of GD and IGD diagnoses was found in those participants with relatively severe symptoms. The development and validation of a diagnostic tool for GD should be explored in future studies.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic Internet Use (PIU) might be a potential mental health problem. Few studies have investigated the relative contribution of individual and family factors in the development of PIU in early adolescence. The aim of the current study was to model the relationship between attachment styles, negative beliefs about worry, and PIU in early adolescence.

Methods

Five hundred and thirty-eight Italian early adolescents (51% females, M age = 12.7 years, SD = 0.87) were included in this study. The pattern of relationships specified by the theoretical model was examined through path analysis.

Results

Results showed that avoidance (mother) and anxiety (father) were directly associated with PIU. Anxiety (mother) and avoidance (father) were indirectly associated with PIU via negative beliefs about worry.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, our findings show that attachment toward mother and father are differently linked to PIU and that negative beliefs about worry may play a mediating role in the association between attachment and PIU. Findings are discussed within clinical and preventive implications.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Natale Canale, Tania Moretta, Luca Pancani, Giulia Buodo, Alessio Vieno, Mario Dalmaso, and Joël Billieux

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic smartphone use (PSU) has been described as a growing public health issue. In the current study, we aimed to provide a unique and comprehensive test of the pathway model of PSU. This model posits three distinct developmental pathways leading to PSU: (1) the excessive reassurance pathway, (2) the impulsive pathway and (3) the extraversion pathway.

Methods

Undergraduate students (n = 795, 69.8% female, mean age = 23.80 years, sd = 3.02) completed online self-report measures of PSU (addictive use, antisocial use and dangerous use) and the psychological features (personality traits and psychopathological symptoms) underlying the three pathways.

Results

Bayesian analyses revealed that addictive use is mainly driven by the excessive reassurance pathway and the impulsive pathway, for which candidate etiopathological factors include heightened negative urgency, a hyperactive behavioural inhibition system and symptoms of social anxiety. Dangerous and antisocial use are mainly driven by the impulsive pathway and the extraversion pathway, for which candidate etiopathological factors include specific impulsivity components (lack of premeditation and sensation seeking) and primary psychopathy (inclination to lie, lack of remorse, callousness and manipulativeness).

Discussion and conclusions

The present study constitutes the first comprehensive test of the pathway model of PSU. We provide robust and original results regarding the psychological dimensions associated with each of the postulated pathways of PSU, which should be taken into account when considering regulation of smartphone use or tailoring prevention protocols to reduce problematic usage patterns.

Open access

Aims: The present theoretical paper introduces the smartphone technology as a challenge for diagnostics in the study of Internet use disorders and reflects on the term “smartphone addiction.”

Methods: Such a reflection is carried out against the background of a literature review and the inclusion of Gaming Disorder in ICD-11.

Results: We believe that it is necessary to divide research on Internet use disorder (IUD) into a mobile and non-mobile IUD branch. This is important because certain applications such as the messenger application WhatsApp have originally been developed for smartphones and enfold their power and attractiveness mainly on mobile devices.

Discussion and conclusions: Going beyond the argumentation for distinguishing between mobile and non-mobile IUD, it is of high relevance for scientists to better describe and understand what persons are actually (over-)using. This is stressed by a number of examples, explicitly targeting not only the diverse contents used in the online world, but also the exact behavior on each platform. Among others, it matters if a person is more of an active producer of content or passive consumer of social media.

Open access