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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Background and aims

Although numerous cultures have used psychoactive substances for spiritual, or entheogenic, purposes, little is known about contemporary entheogenic spirituality, particularly outside of the few traditions that retain sacramental drug use practices.

Method

To better conceptualize contemporary patterns of entheogenic drug use, an international, online study of entheogenic drug users was conducted (n = 684). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to explore entheogenic drug use in relation to measures of spiritual seeking (importance of spirituality in life, mediation practice, openness to experience), self-transcendent experiences (awe-proneness, mystical experiences), psychological well-being (psychological distress, subjective and eudaimonic well-being), and psychospiritual development (quiet ego, self-transcendence/wisdom, and spiritual development). ANOVA was used to compare entheogenic drug users with non-entheogenic drug users and non-drug users to assess differences across these psychospiritual variables.

Results

Of the 12 drug categories assessed, the classic psychedelics were most commonly used as entheogens. Entheogenic classic psychedelic use was associated with all of the assessed psychospiritual variables; entheogenic classic psychedelic users showed higher levels of spiritual seeking, self-transcendence, psychological well-being, and psychospiritual development compared to non-entheogenic classic psychedelic users and non-users.

Conclusion

Entheogenic spirituality may be conceptualized as a practice of spiritual seeking or implicit mysticism–the quest for self-transcendence and personal growth.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Damian van der Neut
,
Margot Peeters
,
Meyran Boniel-Nissim
,
Helena Jeriček Klanšček
,
Leila Oja
, and
Regina van den Eijnden

Abstract

Background and aims. The popularity of playing games among adolescents has increased during the last decades, possibly affecting the prevalence of problematic gaming behavior. The current study aimed to compare country-level prevalence rates of adolescents' problematic gaming behavior in five countries and identify cross-cultural similarities and differences in the relationship between problematic gaming and well-being (life satisfaction, psychological complaints, and peer support). Methods. Cross-national data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study were used. The sample comprised 14,398 gamers (61% boys) aged 11 to 16 (average age between 13.31 and 13.85) from Azerbaijan, England, Serbia, Slovenia, and the Netherlands. Results. The findings showed that the prevalence of problematic gaming differs between countries. The highest prevalence of problematic gaming was seen in Azerbaijan (16.1%) and the lowest in the Netherlands (4.3%). In contrast, Azerbaijan reported the lowest gaming intensity, whereas the Netherlands and England showed the highest gaming intensity. Additional analyses revealed that problematic gaming was associated with lower life satisfaction, more psychological complaints, and lower peer support in all countries, although the strength of these associations varied between countries. Discussion and conclusions. The current study's results are consistent with the assumption that problematic gaming negatively affects adolescents' social and mental well-being. These findings are further discussed in light of the normalization theory which suggests that cultural gaming norms (i.e., the percentage of gamers per country) would influence the strength of the relationship between problematic gaming and adolescents' well-being. The present findings highlight the need for adequate prevention strategies aiming at problematic gaming among youngsters.

Open access

Abstract

Incels, also known as “involuntary celibates,” are an online subculture comprised of mostly heterosexual men who describe themselves as unable to obtain a sexual partner despite their desire and effort to do so. The group often externalizes the reasons for this failure, blaming societal structures and ideals as well as feminist movements. In recent years, some within this subculture have become radicalized. The violent ideologies of Incels have been linked to several mass shootings, including those committed by Elliot Rodger and Jake Davison. Although some Incels have attempted to use evolutionary psychology to justify their anger and ideology, this paper aims to turn the evolutionary lens back on Incels to explore Incels' core features of misogyny, group identity, suicidality and violence. Incels attempt to establish and maintain a social “in-group,” strive to eliminate sexual competition, and attempt to bypass female mate choice. The paper explores how Incels use of evolutionary psychology principles and highlights the benefits that studying Incels, both in general and through an evolutionary lens, can yield.

Open access

Abstract

In humans, the allocation of resources, such as parental care and attention, is vital to offspring survival. Life history strategies are influenced by cues in the environment, particularly those that signal the availability of resources. What has yet to be determined is how individuals allocate resources to infants as a function of perceived ecological harshness and life history strategy. In the current research we hypothesized that perceived ecology would influence infant ratings (Study 1), and that visual attention to infant phenotypes would be associated with life history strategies (Study 2). Study 1 investigated the effect of ecological conditions (control vs. harsh) on preferences to infant phenotypes (i.e., underweight, average weight, overweight). Participants (N = 246) were less likely to rate infants favorably under a harsh ecological condition. Study 2 investigated visual perception in processing infant images. Using an eye-tracking task, participants (N = 239) viewed images of infants while their eye movements were recorded. Participants displayed an early attentional bias (i.e., first fixation duration) to the head of the infant and focused most of their visual attention to the torso of infants (i.e., total visit duration). The results of the both studies indicate that ecological factors play an important role in rating infants, and data from eye-tracking demonstrates that phenotypes influence the amount of attention given to infants.

Open access

Abstract

Individual danger and collective danger have very different effects according to the predictions of a theory called regality theory, based on evolutionary psychology. This study explores the effects of different kinds of danger on 37 different indicators of psychological and cultural responses to danger based on data from two waves of the World Values Survey, including 173,000 respondents in 79 countries.

The results show that individual danger and collective danger have very different – and often opposite – psychological and cultural effects. Collective dangers are positively correlated with many indicators related to authoritarianism, nationalism, discipline, intolerance, morality, religiosity, etc. Individual dangers have neutral or opposite correlations with many of these indicators. Infectious diseases have little or no effects on these indicators. Many previous studies that confound different kinds of danger may be misleading.

Several psychological and cultural theories are discussed in relation to these results. The observed effects of collective danger are in agreement with many of these theories while individual danger has unexpected effects. The findings are not in agreement with terror management theory and pathogen stress theory.

Open access

Abstract

Low fertility is a growing concern in modern societies. While economic and structural explanations of reproductive hindrances have been informative to some extent, they do not address the fundamental motives that underlie reproductive decisions and are inadequate to explain why East Asian countries, in particular, have such low fertility rates. The current paper advances a novel account of low fertility in modern contexts by describing how modern environments produce a mismatch between our evolved mechanisms and the inputs they were designed to process, leading to preoccupations with social status that get in the way of mating and reproductive outcomes. We also utilize developed East Asian countries as a case study to further highlight how culture may interact with modern features to produce ultralow fertility, sometimes to the extent that people may give up on parenthood or even mating altogether. Through our analysis, we integrate several lines of separate research, elucidate the fundamental dynamics that drive trade-offs between social status and reproductive effort, add to the growing literature on evolutionary mismatch, and provide an improved account of low fertility in modern contexts.

Open access
Restricted access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Marianne Balem
,
Anna Karlsson
,
Carolina Widinghoff
,
Bastien Perrot
,
Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
, and
Anders Håkansson

Abstract

Background and aims

The lockdown of sports and gambling venues during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a fear of increased gambling on other online gambling types, with a risk for transfer to more addictive gambling than otherwise. This study aimed to estimate changes in gambling activity during COVID-19-affected periods among all gamblers at a Swedish state-owned gambling operator and to analyse observable sex differences.

Methods

This study included gambling tracking data from the Swedish state-owned gambling operator Svenska Spel Sports & Casino (sports betting, online bingo, casino and poker). All individuals (n = 616,245) who gambled at least once from February 10 to July 19, 2020, were included. The study period was divided into four periods according to their expected level of COVID-19 impact on gambling opportunities: one pre-COVID period and three COVID-affected periods (sports cancellation, emerging return of sports, substantial return of sports).

Results

Sports betting experienced an apparent decrease, followed by a gradual normalization and an end level substantially below prepandemic levels. For online bingo, gambling levels increased upon sports interruption and then decreased with the return to normality in sports events but remained higher than baseline levels. We observed a similar trend for online poker during the interruption of sports, but with a lower level than baseline levels when sports events normalized. We noticed a trend favouring online casinos during the sports interruption period regarding gambling intensity but not wagering levels.

Discussion and conclusions

Dramatic changes in the content of the gambling market may divert some gamblers to other gambling types, but maintained effects could not be demonstrated.

Open access

Neuromítoszok az oktatásban – tények és törekvések

Neuromyths in education – Facts and aspirations

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Tamás Csányi
,
Katalin Kälbli
,
Bernadett Svraka
,
Kinga Révész-Kiszela
, and
Julianna Vig

Háttér és célkitűzések

A neuromítoszok olyan tévhitek, amelyek az agyműködéssel kapcsolatos információk, jelenségek, idegtudományi eredmények félreértésén alapulnak. E tévhitek az oktatási rendszerben is elterjedtek, és sokszor kapcsolódnak össze különböző, úgynevezett neuropedagógiai elképzelésekkel, amelyek közvetlenül befolyásolhatják a gyakorlati pedagógiai munkát. Az elmúlt húsz évben egyre nagyobb figyelmet kapott az a kérdés, hogy mennyire elterjedtek a neuromítoszok, milyen tényezők befolyásolják jelenlétüket és elfogadottságukat az oktatás területén, és milyen hatást gyakorolnak a tanítási módszerekre. A kutatások egyöntetűen arra jutottak, hogy ezen mítoszok igen elterjedtek mind a pedagógusok, mind a pedagógusjelöltek körében. Ezen mítoszokra olyan fejlesztési javaslatok és terápiás eljárások épülnek, melyek hatástalanságuk miatt felesleges idő- és energiaráfordítást is jelenthetnek. Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy egyrészt három elterjedt oktatási neuromítosz tudományos alapjainak rövid áttekintésével bemutassa a jelenség súlyát, másrészt átfogóan ismertesse az oktatási neuromítoszokkal összefüggő tudományos eredményeket, a téma kutatásának jövőbeli irányait.

Módszer

Tanulmányunk a neuromítoszokkal, ezen belül a három legelterjedtebb neuromítosszal kapcsolatos magyar és angol nyelvű szakcikkek feldolgozása alapján készült, műfajában narratív jellegű kritikai összefoglaló elemzés.

Eredmények

Hazánkban alig jelent meg tanulmány a témában. A nemzetközi szakirodalom azonban egyre szélesebb körben foglalkozik az oktatási neuromítoszokkal, amelyek közül a legelterjedtebbek (1) a tanulási stílusokkal, (2) az agyféltekei dominanciával és (3) az agyféltekei integrációval kapcsolatos mítoszok. A neuromítoszok elfogadását, illetve elutasítását elősegítő (prediktív, illetve protektív) tényezők egyaránt a vizsgálatok homlokterében állnak.

Következtetések

A pedagógusok, pedagógusjelöltek és pedagógusképzésben dolgozó munkatársak evidenciaalapú idegtudományi ismereteinek bővítése kulcsfontosságúnak látszik a neuromítoszokkal szembeni küzdelemben. Lényeges szerepet töltenek be az aggyal kapcsolatos korszerű ismeretek, és a neuromítoszok felismeréséhez szükséges kritikai gondolkodás.

Open access

Abstract

Whether occasioned through careful, consistent meditative practice or through quicker means like the ritual ingestion of psilocybin or ayahuasca, global contemplative practices have established effective systems of implementing, directing, and integrating the very kinds of non-ordinary experiences central to psychedelic use. However, contemplative traditions are largely absent from the present discourse on psychedelic therapy. This paper addresses this gap and offers a novel analysis of psychedelic-assisted therapy through the lens of the Tibetan Buddhist contemplative tradition. It first establishes a baseline for comparing the non-ordinary experience occasioned by Tibetan Buddhist meditation and the psychedelic experience by referencing the phenomenological literature of both. It then articulates the Tibetan contemplative framework of view, meditation, action (Tib. lta sgom spyod gsum) as the way Tibetan Buddhism directs its non-ordinary meditative experience towards its desired ends and suggests how this framework may be applied to psychedelic-assisted therapy. Finally, this paper uses this Tibetan Buddhist lens of analysis to compare and assess two protocols for psychedelic-assisted therapy and to make recommendations for future clinical protocols. Given the phenomenological similarity of Tibetan Buddhist meditative experience and the psychedelic experience, this article suggests that a more intensive preparatory session where maladaptive conceptual narratives are worked through and beneficial ones are introduced, repeated dosing sessions, and a more directed psychedelic experience may increase the efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapy. It thus argues that the insights of the Tibetan framework of view, meditation, action can improve future protocols and allow for psychedelic-assisted therapy to be of even greater benefit.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Andrea Czakó
,
Orsolya Király
,
Patrik Koncz
,
Shu M. Yu
,
Harshdeep S. Mangat
,
Judith A Glynn
,
Pedro Romero
,
Mark D Griffiths
,
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

The present paper provides an overview of the possible risks, harms, and challenges that might arise with the development of the esports field and pose a threat to professional esports players, spectators, bettors and videogame players, including underage players. These include physical and mental health issues, gambling and gambling-like elements associated with videogames and esports, the challenges arising from pursuing a career in esports, the unique difficulties women face, and a need for supporting professional esports players. It briefly discusses possible responses and suggestions regarding how to address and mitigate these negative consequences. It emphasizes the need for cooperation and collaboration between various stakeholders: researchers, policymakers, regulators, the gaming industry, esports organizations, healthcare and treatment providers, educational institutes and the need for further evidence-based information.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Negative/positive urgency (NU/PU) refers to the proneness to act rashly under negative/positive emotions. These traits are proxies to generalized emotion dysregulation, and are well-established predictors of gambling-related problems. We aimed to replicate a previous work (Quintero et al., 2020) showing NU to be related to faulty extinction of conditioned stimuli in an emotional conditioning task, to extend these findings to PU, and to clarify the role of urgency in the development of gambling-related craving and problems.

Methods

81 gamblers performed an acquisition-extinction task in which neutral, disgusting, erotic and gambling-related images were used as unconditioned stimuli (US), and color patches as conditioned stimuli (CS). Trial-by-trial predictive responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLME).

Results

PU was more strongly related than NU to craving and severity of gambling problems. PU did not influence acquisition in the associative task, whereas NU slightly slowed it. Extinction was hampered in individuals with high PU, and a follow-up analysis showed this effect to depend on relative preference for skill-based and casino games.

Discussion and conclusions

Results suggest that resistance to extinction of emotionally conditioned cues is a sign of malfunctioning emotion regulation in problematic gambling. In our work, the key effect was driven by PU (instead of NU), and gambling craving and symptoms were also more closely predicted by it. Future research should compare the involvement of PU and NU in emotion regulation and gambling problems, for gamblers with preference for different gambling modalities (e.g., pure chance vs skill games).

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

It has been argued that it is important to consider underlying mechanisms of mental health problems. Previous studies have shown that executive deficits, delay aversion, and emotion dysregulation are related to Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Social Media Disorder (SMD). However, the present study is the first to investigate whether these neuropsychological deficits show additive effects or if they interact. The present study also investigated whether these deficits mediate the association between IGD/SMD and psychosocial outcomes.

Methods

The study involved 995 university students who completed a survey measuring IGD/SMD symptom severity, neuropsychological functions, and psychosocial outcomes. Both dimensional and categorical analyses were used to assess the associations between neuropsychological functions and IGD/SMD. Simple and multiple mediation analyses were conducted to examine if neuropsychological functioning mediates the association between IGD/SMD and psychosocial outcomes.

Results

All neuropsychological functions were significantly associated with both IGD and SMD symptom severity. However, only inhibition and emotion regulation, as well as delay aversion for SMD, remained significant when controlling for the overlap between different functions. Associations were significantly stronger for men compared to women for IGD. In the categorical analyses, individuals with IGD/SMD were more likely to have neuropsychological deficits (odds ratios between 3.33 and 8.81). Finally, all neuropsychological functions, except inhibition, were significant mediators in the link between IGD/SMD and psychosocial outcomes.

Discussion and conclusions

These results shed light on the neuropsychological underpinnings of IGD/SMD, which can be used to identify more homogenous subgroups and provide more individualized treatment options.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Per Görts
,
Josephine Savard
,
Katarina Görts-Öberg
,
Cecilia Dhejne
,
Stefan Arver
,
Jussi Jokinen
,
Martin Ingvar
, and
Christoph Abé

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) has been included as an impulse control disorder in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying CSBD remain largely unknown, and given previous indications of addiction-like mechanisms at play, the aim of the present study was to investigate if CSBD is associated with structural brain differences in regions involved in reward processing.

Methods

We analyzed structural MRI data of 22 male CSBD patients (mean = 38.7 years, SD = 11.7) and 20 matched healthy controls (HC; mean = 37.6 years, SD = 8.5). Main outcome measures were regional cortical thickness and surface area. We also tested for case-control differences in subcortical structures and the effects of demographic and clinical variables, such as CSBD symptom severity, on neuroimaging outcomes. Moreover, we explored case-control differences in regions outside our hypothesis including white matter.

Results

CSBD patients had significantly lower cortical surface area in right posterior cingulate cortex than HC. We found negative correlations between right posterior cingulate area and CSBD symptoms scores. There were no group differences in subcortical volume.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that CSBD is associated with structural brain differences, which contributes to a better understanding of CSBD and encourages further clarifications of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder.

Open access

Az Interkulturális Érzékenység Skála magyar változatának pszichometriai vizsgálata orvostanhallgatók és pszichológia szakos hallgatók mintáján

Psychometric properties of the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale in Hungarian medical and psychology students

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Lilla Lucza
,
Tamás Martos
,
Viola Sallay
,
Anne Weiland
,
Peter Vermeir
, and
Márta Csabai

Háttér és célkitűzések

Az egyre növekvő kulturális diverzitás következtében az utóbbi évek nemzetközi és hazai tudományos irodalma egyre több figyelmet fordít az interkulturális kompetencia mérési és fejlesztési feladataira a gyógyításban. Jelen vizsgálatban célunk az Interkulturális Érzékenység Skála magyar változatának pszichometriai vizsgálata orvostan- és pszichológushallgatók körében, feltárva emellett az empátiával való konvergens validitását és a skálán különböző demográfiai változók mentén megjelenő különbségeket és együtt járásokat.

Módszer

A kvantitatív, keresztmetszeti vizsgálatban 396 magyar, gyógyító szakmára készülő hallgató demográfiai és Interkulturális Érzékenység Skála, valamint Interperszonális Reaktivitás Index adatait elemeztük. Az eredeti 5 faktoros kérdőívstruktúra érvényességi és megbízhatósági vizsgálatai mellett korreláció, független mintás t-próba, egyutas ANOVA teszteket és lineáris regressziót alkalmaztunk.

Eredmények

Az eredeti skála nem mutatott megfelelő és érvényes illeszkedést magyar mintán, helyette egy alternatív, rövidített, 3 faktoros struktúra bizonyult a legjobban illeszkedőnek, elfogadható vagy jó belső megbízhatósági mutatókkal. Eredményeink szerint a nyelvismeret és az empátia két dimenziója jelentős bejóslója az interkulturális érzékenységnek: a perspektívafelvétel pozitívan, a személyes distressz pedig fordított irányban jelezte azt előre.

Következtetések

Egy olyan magyar nyelvre adaptált mérőeszközt alakítottunk ki, mely megbízhatóan méri a magyar gyógyító szakmára készülők interkulturális érzékenységét. E készség fejlesztése napjainkban az egészségügyi képzések fontos feladata. A hallgatók nyelvtanulásának, kultúrközi tapasztalatszerzésének és empátiafejlesztésének támogatása mellett az interdiszciplináris és interkulturális felépítésű gyógyítói tanuló- vagy kutatócsoportok igen hasznos együttműködésének irányába mutatnak a jelen kutatás eredményei.

Open access

Az Összehasonlító Kollektív Áldozati Vélekedés Kérdőív magyar változatának pszichometriai jellemzői

Psychometric Properties and validity of the Hungarian version of the Collective Comparative Victim Beliefs Questionnaire

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Zsolt Péter Szabó
,
Noémi Zsuzsanna Mészáros
,
Pál Kővágó
, and
Éva Fülöp

Háttér és célkitűzések

Az Összehasonlító Kollektív Áldozati Vélekedés Kérdőív (ÖKÁVK) a csoport viktimizációjával kapcsolatos szubjektív konstrukciók, az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések mérésére kidolgozott eszköz. A jelen tanulmányban a kérdőív magyar nyelvű változatainak a pszichometriai sajátosságait vizsgáljuk.

Módszer

A kérdőív két változatát (globális összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések; regionális összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések) teszteltük összesen hét független mintán, 1925 fő részvételével (1025 fő töltötte ki a globális verziót, 860 fő a regionális verziót). A kérdőív szerkezetét feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzések segítségével vizsgáltuk, a kérdőív validitását pedig több releváns kimeneti változó segítségével ellenőriztük.

Eredmények

Az ÖKÁVK magyar változatában megjelennek és egymástól elkülönülnek a szakirodalomban korábban feltárt összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések: (1) exkluzív összehasonlítások: a saját csoport szenvedése mennyiségében és/vagy minőségében súlyosabb, mint más csoportok szenvedései; (2) inkluzív összehasonlítások: a saját csoport szenvedése mennyiségében és/vagy minőségében hasonló más csoportok szenvedéseihez; (3) lefelé összehasonlítások: más csoportok szenvedése mennyiségében és/vagy minőségében súlyosabb, mint a saját csoport szenvedései. A kérdőívben továbbá elkülöníthető a (4) saját csoport történelmi viktimizációjának személyes fontossága. Ezek a vélekedések és a saját csoport történelmi viktimizációjának személyes fontossága szignifikáns kapcsolatot mutatott releváns csoportközi kimenetekkel.

Következtetések

Az ÖKÁVK magyar változata alkalmas az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések mérésére. Az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kapcsolatban vannak a csoportközi viszonyok szempontjából jelentős változókkal.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

About 1/3 of youth spend more than four hours/day engaged in screen media activity (SMA). This investigation utilized longitudinal brain imaging and mediation analyses to examine relationships among SMA, brain patterns, and internalizing problems.

Methods

Data from Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) participants with baseline and two-year follow-up structural imaging data that passed quality control (N = 5,166; 2,385 girls) were analyzed. Joint and Individual Variation Explained (JIVE) identified a brain co-development pattern among 221 brain features (i.e., differences in surface area, thickness, or cortical and subcortical gray-matter volume between baseline and two-year-follow-up data). Generalized linear mixed-effect models investigated associations between baseline SMA, structural co-development and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology at two-year follow-up.

Results

SMA at baseline was related to internalizing psychopathology at year 2 ( β = 0.020 , S E = 0.008 , P = 0.014 ) and a structural co-development pattern ( β = 0.015 , S E = 0.007 , P = 0.029 ), where the co-development pattern suggested that rates of change in gray-matter volumes of the brainstem, gray-matter volumes and/or cortical thickness measures of bilateral superior frontal, rostral middle frontal, inferior parietal, and inferior temporal regions were more similar than those in other regions. This component partially mediated the relationship between baseline SMA and future internalizing problems (indirect effect = 0.020, P-value = 0.043, proportion mediated: 2.24%).

Discussion and conclusions

Greater youth engagement in SMA at ages 9–10 years statistically predicted higher levels of internalizing two years later. This association was mediated by cortical-brainstem circuitry, albeit with relatively small effect sizes. The findings may help delineate processes contributing to internalizing behaviors and assist in identifying individuals at greater risk for such problems.

Open access

A szexuális rendszer működése kérdőív magyar változata (SSFS)

Hungarian version of the Sexual System Functioning Scale (SSFS)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Norbert Meskó
and
Fanni Őry

Elméleti háttér

Bowlby (1982/1969) a viselkedési rendszereket univerzális, veleszületett motivációs rendszereknek írja le, amelyek a természetes szelekcióval alakultak ki, és túlélési és/vagy szaporodási esélyeket növelő konkrét evolúciós célokat szolgálnak. Az emberi elme számos viselkedési rendszert foglal magában, amelyek ösztönös viselkedést közvetítenek olyan funkcionálisan elkülönülő területeken, mint a kötődés, a gondoskodás, a szexualitás. Az ember párválasztási pszichológiáját e megközelítés szerint a szexuális viselkedésért felelős különálló viselkedési rendszer irányítja.

A kutatás célja

A Sexual System Functioning Scale (Szexuális Rendszer Működése Kérdőív, SSFS; Birnbaum és mtsai., 2014) magyar változatának pszichometriai elemzése és validálása.

Módszer

297 fő (170 nő, 127 férfi, átlagéletkor: 29,1 év; SD = 9,34 év) töltötte ki online kérdőívcsomagunkat (Szexuális Rendszer Működése Kérdőív, SSFS; Közvetlen Kapcsolatok Élményei Kérdőív rövid változata ECR-S, Kötődési Stílus Kérdőív, ASQ-H; Miért Szexelnek Az Emberek? kérdőív rövid változata, YSEX?-HSF).

Eredmények

Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy a mérőeszköz magyar nyelven is jól működik. Az eredeti verzióban meghatározott faktorstruktúra enyhe változtatással alkalmazható a magyar verzióban is. Az SSFS által mért szexuális Hiperaktivizáció pozitív együttjárást mutat az ASQ-H által mért Kapcsolatok fontossága, Ambivalencia és Önérvényesítés faktorokkal, de negatívan korrelál a Biztonsággal, továbbá pozitívan korrelál a YSEX?-HSF Személyes célok elérése és a Szex mint megküzdés faktorokkal és az ECR-S által mért Szorongás és Elkerülés faktorokkal is. Az SSFS által mért szexuális Deaktiváció pozitív együttjárást mutat az ASQ-H által mért Kapcsolatok fontossága és Ambivalencia faktorokkal, de negatívan korrelál a Biztonsággal, és sem a szexuális motivációval, sem a közeli kapcsolati élményekkel nem mutat értelmezhető erősségű együttjárást.

Következtetések

Az SSFS megbízható eszköz a magyar nyelvű kutatásokban. A kötődési rendszer és a szexuális rendszer működése részleges átfedést mutatnak egymással, ugyanakkor mivel mindkettőt külön motivációs rendszerek irányítják, ezért funkcionálisan elkülönülnek egymástól.

Open access

Változások és újítások a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) pszichodiagnosztikai tesztben

Changes and innovations in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) psychodiagnostic test

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Hunor Girasek
,
Alexandra Soós
,
Henrietta Janicsák
,
Dóra Dudás
, and
Melinda Reinhardt

Bevezetés

A Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory (MMPI) Magyarországon az 1970-es évek óta használatos pszichodiagnosztikai mérőeszköz, melynek második kiadása (MMPI-2) 1989-ben jelent meg a nemzetközi használatban, Magyarországon pedig 2009-ben készült el az adaptációja.

Célkitűzés

Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy bemutassa az MMPI-2-ben megjelent változásokat, újításokat és a teszt előnyeit a korábbi változatához képest.

Következtetések

A téma-összefoglaló tanulmány rávilágít, hogy az MMPI-2 kifejlesztése nemcsak új normatív mintát, de nyelvi-stilisztikai megújulást is hozott. Ezenfelül a korábbi Validitási és Klinikai skálák mellett olyan új skálák is megjelentek, mint az Újrastrukturált klinikai skálák, a Tartalmi skálák és a személyiségpszichopatológia mérésére alkalmas PSY-5 skálák. Megtörtént továbbá a Kiegészítő skálák revíziója, illetve új Kiegészítő skálák bevezetése és új Validitási skálák kifejlesztése is.

Konklúzió

A változtatások részletes számbavétele rámutat arra, hogy az MMPI újrasztenderdizálása során kialakított MMPI-2 jóval átfogóbb, egyben differenciáltabb értelmezést kínál a különböző mentális zavarok és pszichopatológiai jelenségek megértése szempontjából, mint az eredeti változat. Kitekintésként pedig ismertetésre kerül a nemzetközi gyakorlatba már bevezetett két új MMPI-fejlesztés, az MMPI-2-Resturctured Form (MMPI-2-RF) és az MMPI-3 is.

Restricted access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Belle Gavriel-Fried
,
Meytal Serry
,
Dana Katz
,
Dorottya Hidvégi
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
, and
Orsolya Király

Abstract

Background

Recovery from mental health and behavioral disorders is classically defined as a reduction in symptoms. More recent definitions see it as a process in which individuals improve their health, wellness and other life domains. The inclusion of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th International Classification of Diseases in 2019 prompted growing interest in GD. However, relatively little is known about recovery from GD, and there is scant literature describing or assessing its course.

Objectives

This scoping review was designed to explore the state of the art on recovery from GD (e.g., terminology and measures used to assess recovery, main topics in studies about recovery from GD).

Methods

PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched and critically reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines. We included empirical studies in English covering individuals across all age groups who met the diagnostic criteria of GD/internet gaming disorder (IGD) according to valid scales that relate to recovery or any change, and were published before February 2022.

Results

A total of 47 out of 966 studies met the inclusion criteria. Recovery as a concept is not explicitly mentioned in GD studies. Rather, changes in subjects' disorders are described in terms of decreases/reductions in symptom severity, or improvement/increases. These changes are primarily measured by scales that evaluate symptom reduction and/or improvement in GD and other psychopathologies.

Conclusions

The concept of recovery is included in the GD field but is not clearly mentioned or used. Therapists and researchers should aim to promote and integrate the notion of recovery in GD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Joshua B. Grubbs
,
Rory C. Reid
,
Beáta Bőthe
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Eli Coleman
,
Neil Gleason
,
Michael H. Miner
,
Johannes Fuss
,
Verena Klein
,
Karol Lewczuk
,
Mateusz Gola
,
David P. Fernandez
,
Elaine F. Fernandez
,
Stefanie Carnes
,
Michal Lew-Starowicz
,
Drew Kingston
, and
Shane W. Kraus

Abstract

Background and aims

The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD), a new diagnosis that is both controversial and groundbreaking, as it is the first diagnosis to codify a disorder related to excessive, compulsive, and out-of-control sexual behavior. The inclusion of this novel diagnosis demonstrates a clear need for valid assessments of this disorder that may be quickly administered in both clinical and research settings.

Design

The present work details the development of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Diagnostic Inventory (CSBD-DI) across seven samples, four languages, and five countries.

Setting

In the first study, data were collected in community samples drawn from Malaysia (N = 375), the U.S. (N = 877), Hungary (N = 7,279), and Germany (N = 449). In the second study, data were collected from nationally representative samples in the U.S. (N = 1,601), Poland (N = 1,036), and Hungary (N = 473).

Findings

Across both studies and all samples, results revealed strong psychometric qualities for the 7-item CSBD-DI, demonstrating evidence of validity via correlations with key behavioral indicators and longer measures of compulsive sexual behavior. Analyses from nationally representative samples revealed residual metric invariance across languages, scalar invariance across gender, strong evidence of validity, and utility in classifying individuals who self-identified as having problematic and excessive sexual behavior, as evidenced by ROC analyses revealing suitable cutoffs for a screening instrument.

Conclusion

Collectively, these findings demonstrate the cross-cultural utility of the CSBD-DI as a novel measure for CSBD and provide a brief, easily administrable instrument for screening for this novel disorder.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Marco D. T. Scanavino
,
Alia Garrudo Guirado
,
João Miguel Marques
,
Maria Luiza Sant'Ana do Amaral
,
Bruna Messina
,
Sirlene Caramello dos Reis
,
Vivian Boschesi Barros
,
Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo
,
Hermano Tavares
, and
Jeffrey T. Parsons

Abstract

Background

Little attention has been given to efficacious treatment and adherence to treatment of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB).

Aims

Randomized controlled trial investigated short-term psychodynamic group therapy followed by relapse prevention group (STPGP-RPGT) and pharmacological treatment (PT) for CSB men on sexual compulsivity and adherence.

Method

135 men, 38 (SD = 9) years old on average, were randomly assigned to 1) STPGP-RPGT; 2) PT; 3) Both. Participants completed measures at baseline, 25th, and 34th week. 57 (42.2%) participants dropped out between baseline and 25th week, and 68 (50.4%) between baseline and 34th week. 94 (69.6%) did not adhere (80% pills taken or attended 75% therapy sessions).

Results

A significant interaction effect was found between time and group (F (4, 128) = 2.62, P = 0.038, ES = 0.08), showing who received PT improved less in sexual compulsivity than those who received STPGP-RPGT (t = 2.41; P = 0.038; ES = 0.60) and PT + STPGP-RPGT (t = 3.15; P = 0.007, ES = 0.74). Adherent participants improved more in sexual compulsivity than non-adherent at the 25th week (t = 2.82; P = 0.006, ES = 0.65) and 34th week (t = 2.26; P = 0.027, ES = 0.55), but there was no interaction effect, F (2, 130) = 2.88; P = 0.06; ES = 0.04). The most reported behavior (masturbation) showed greater risk of non-adherence (72.6%).

Discussion and conclusions

Adherent participants improved better than non-adherent. Participants who received psychotherapy improved better than those who received PT. Methodological limitations preclude conclusions on efficacy.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Ingestion or administration of classic psychedelics is sometimes associated with improvements in well-being or mental health. Acute mystical-type experiences that psychedelics occasion have been suggested to be related to such improvements. Meanwhile, other features of the psychedelic experience, such as psychological insights and emotional breakthroughs, are also increasingly being studied. This review aimed to collect and assess the available evidence for mystical-type experiences under psychedelics associating with medium-to-long term improvements in well-being or mental health, on their own and as compared with other features of the acute experience.

Methods

I conducted a pre-registered, comprehensive review of existing empirical studies on the topic, based on a systematic search of the literature.

Results

Forty-four eligible studies were found, with most reporting positive associations between mystical-type experiences and improvements in well-being or mental health. The current level of evidence appeared stronger among healthy people, in cross-sectional studies, and for links with positive changes in general well-being and life satisfaction, attitudes and behavior, and anxiety, than for depression or other aspects of well-being and mental health. A few studies suggested that psychological insights and emotional breakthroughs may be as or more closely associated with positive changes than mystical-type experiences.

Conclusions

Despite their significant limitations, the identified studies suggest that mystical-type experiences under psychedelics are associated with improvements in some areas of well-being. However, psychological insights and emotional breakthroughs might be at least as important and should also be measured in future studies.

Open access

Abstract

This paper aims at presenting an overview of the historic and current features concerning the relationship among original peoples, psychoactive drugs, and various forms of anti-drug practices in Latin America. The current expansion of extractivist capitalism in Latin America overlaps with Indigenous peoples' traditional lands, provoking new forms of violence and confrontation. The War on Drugs is being used as a justification to militarize these lands and to criminalize Indigenous populations. Thus, neo-extractivist initiatives in Latin America provoke renewed clashes between Indigenous peoples' interests and local and global elites' purposes. We seek to raise awareness about the relationship between the drug war and Indigenous people's human rights violations as an alert and an invitation for social scientists to engage in theoretical and empirical research on this issue.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) is a suggested syndrome where individuals become addicted to fantasizing vividly for hours on end at the expense of engaging in real-world relationships and functioning. MD can be seen as a behavioral addiction. However, a paucity of longitudinal research means that there is no empirical evidence confirming the stability of this alleged addiction. Moreover, the direction of its association with psychopathology is unclear.

Methods

We examine, for the first time, long-term stability and longitudinal associations between MD, psychological distress (stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms) and COVID-19 related exposure.

Results

Participants (N = 814) completed an online survey twice, with a lag of 13 months. A two-wave structural equation model demonstrated high MD stability and positive cross-lagged pathways from MD to psychological distress. COVID-19 related exposure was not a longitudinal predictor.

Discussion and conclusions

MD is a stable condition and a risk factor for an increase in psychological distress.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Limited research has investigated how individuals' problem gaming affects significant others. The present study investigated the extent to which partners and parents were personally affected by their partner or child's problematic gaming behavior and what steps, if any, were taken in relation to treatment and other help-seeking by the gamers and the respondents themselves.

Methods

Two targeted samples (parents, n = 104; partners, n = 264) in Australia were recruited and administered an online survey. The survey assessed gaming-related harm across multiple domains, including financial, relationship, emotional wellbeing, physical health and work/study. Treatment and help-seeking questions referred to seeking psychological assistance, self-help, and community support. Non-parametric tests compared groups on harm measures based on GD status.

Results

Parents and partners of individuals rated in the ‘problem gaming’ range reported significantly greater harms compared to those in the at-risk and non-problem categories. The most frequently endorsed harms were in the relationship domain, including neglected household responsibilities, withdrawal from social events, and relationship conflict. Some parents consult with friends and family (15%) to resolve their child's gaming-related problems. Partners reported to seek outside support and assistance for themselves, including 30% who sought a psychologist. No partners reported having consulted a psychologist for their gaming partner.

Discussion

Problem gaming affects significant others across multiple life areas, but few seek outside help or support, suggesting there may be significant unmet needs.

Conclusions

Further research should examine factors that influence acceptance and engagement with problem gaming help options. Harm indicators may be useful for evaluating targeted interventions and other measures to reduce problem gaming.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Van Bui
,
Christian Baumgartner
,
Elena Bilevicius
,
Alanna Single
,
Lana Vedelago
,
Vanessa Morris
,
Tyler Kempe
,
Michael P. Schaub
,
Sherry H. Stewart
,
James MacKillop
,
David C. Hodgins
,
Jeffrey D. Wardell
,
Rosin O’Connor
,
Jennifer Read
,
Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos
,
Christopher Sundström
,
Sarah Dermody
,
Andrew H. Kim
, and
Matthew T. Keough

Abstract

Background and aims

Problem gambling and tobacco use are highly comorbid among adults. However, there are few treatment frameworks that target both gambling and tobacco use simultaneously (i.e., an integrated approach), while also being accessible and evidence-based. The aim of this two-arm open label RCT was to examine the efficacy of an integrated online treatment for problem gambling and tobacco use.

Methods

A sample of 209 participants (M age = 37.66, SD = 13.81; 62.2% female) from North America were randomized into one of two treatment conditions (integrated [n = 91] or gambling only [n = 118]) that lasted for eight weeks and consisted of seven online modules. Participants completed assessments at baseline, after treatment completion, and at 24-week follow-up.

Results

While a priori planned generalized linear mixed models showed no condition differences on primary (gambling days, money spent, time spent) and secondary outcomes, both conditions did appear to significantly reduce problem gambling and smoking behaviours over time. Post hoc analyses showed that reductions in smoking and gambling craving were correlated with reductions in days spent gambling, as well as with gambling disorder symptoms. Relatively high (versus low) nicotine replacement therapy use was associated with greater reductions in gambling behaviours in the integrated treatment condition.

Discussion and conclusions

While our open label RCT does not support a clear benefit of integrated treatment, findings suggest that changes in smoking and gambling were correlated over time, regardless of treatment condition, suggesting that more research on mechanisms of smoking outcomes in the context of gambling treatment may be relevant.

Open access

Abstract

The current article advances the hypothesis that creative culture evolved, in part, to allay the costs of the overgrown human brain and the cognitive integration limit that it imposes. Specific features can be expected among cultural elements best suited to allaying the integration limit and also among the neurocognitive mechanisms that might undergird these cultural effects. Music, visual art, and meditation are used as examples to illustrate how culture helps to bridge or sidestep the integration limit. Tiered religious, philosophical, and psychological concepts are considered in light of their reflection of the tiered process of cognitive integration. The link between creativity and mental illness is offered as additional support for the role of cognitive disconnection as a wellspring of cultural creativity, and I propose that this link can be harnessed in defense of neurodiversity. Developmental and evolutionary implications of the integration limit are discussed.

Open access

Abstract

Current theories in moral psychology do not agree about the kinds and range of offenses that people should moralize. In this study, a new approach to defining the moral domain, Human Superorganism Theory (HSoT), is presented and tested. HSoT proposes that the primary function of moral action is the suppression of cheaters in the unusually large societies recently established by our species (i.e., human ‘superorganisms’). It suggests that a broad range of moral concerns exist beyond traditional notions of harm and fairness, including actions that inhibit functions such as group-level social control, physical and social structuring, reproduction, communication, signaling and memory. Roughly 80,000 respondents completed a web-based experiment hosted by the British Broadcasting Corporation, which elicited a suite of responses to characteristics of a set of 33 short scenarios representing the areas identified by the HSoT perspective. Results indicate that all 13 superorganism functions are moralized, while violations of scenarios falling outside this area (social customs and individual decisions) are not. Several hypotheses derived specifically from HSoT were also supported. Given this evidence, we believe this new approach to defining a broader moral domain has implications for fields ranging from psychology to legal theory.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Kai W. Müller
,
Michael Dreier
,
Manfred E. Beutel
,
Christian Ruckes
,
Anil Batra
,
Karl Mann
,
Michael Musalek
, and
Klaus Wölfling

Abstract

Objective

According to ICD-11 gaming disorder is currently defined as a behavioral addiction. While our understanding of crucial aspects of this new condition including other subtypes of internet use disorders is growing, less is known about treatment strategies and their effectiveness. Particularly, dimensions of life satisfaction and their meaning for internet use disorders are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was addressing the role of life satisfaction dimensions in a randomized controlled trial. We examined life satisfaction as an additional treatment outcome and investigated in how far life satisfaction is predictive for symptom reduction and related to personality traits.

Methods

A multicenter randomized controlled trial with three measure points (baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up) was conducted based on N = 143 patients aged 17 and above meeting diagnostic criteria for internet use disorders. A cognitive-behavioral disorder specific intervention was applied in n = 72 and compared to a wait list control (n = 71). Endpoints included symptoms of internet use disorders, psychosocial functioning, and life satisfaction. Personality traits were assessed as moderating factors.

Results

Life satisfaction (η 2 = 0.106) and health satisfaction (η 2 = 0.173) significantly increased in the intervention group with large effect sizes. Decreasing symptoms of internet use disorders at follow-up were predicted by life satisfaction at post-treatment (ß = −0.51) with extraversion (B = 1.606) and openness (B = 2.069) moderating this association.

Conclusion

Life satisfaction yields additional value as a secondary treatment outcome in internet use disorders and can be therapeutically addressed in order to stabilize treatment effects in the long run. Our study indicates that existing treatment strategies might benefit from explicitly addressing and enhancing psychosocial resources in order to prevent relapses in patients.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Núria Mallorquí-Bagué
,
Gemma Mestre-Bach
, and
Giulia Testa

Abstract

Background and objectives

Craving is one of the main criteria for the diagnosis of substance use disorder according to the DSM-5; however, it is not included in the main criteria for gambling disorder (GD). In the present systematic review, we aimed to evaluate the available body of knowledge regarding gambling craving to help step forward to a consensus regarding this topic.

Data sources

PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES and PubMed/Medline were used.

Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions

(1) individuals of both genders who had a clinical diagnosis of GD in which the presence of gambling craving were studied by means of tasks or self-report tools; (2) we included three types of studies: (a) validation articles of craving psychometric tools in which GD was assessed; (b) articles in which craving–GD association was explored; and (c) treatment articles for GD in which craving was assessed.

Results

n = 63 studies were finally included in the systematic review. Some studies described an association between craving- and gambling-related factors, and craving was also described as a predictor of GD severity, gambling episodes, chasing persistence and income-generating offenses. Gambling craving also seems to be associated with emotional states and negative urgency. Finally, some studies implemented specific interventions for GD and assessed its impact on reducing gambling craving.

Conclusions

There is a growing body of knowledge on the relevant role of craving in gambling behavior and GD. Further studies are needed to reach a consensus on the diagnostic criterion for GD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Chang Liu
,
Lei Ren
,
Kristian Rotaru
,
Xufeng Liu
,
Kuiliang Li
,
Wei Yang
,
Ye Li
,
Xinyi Wei
,
Murat Yücel
, and
Lucy Albertella

Abstract

Background

Existing research has demonstrated that problematic smartphone use (PSU) may reflect a composition of heterogeneous symptoms, with individual PSU symptoms uniquely related to predisposing variables. The Big Five personality traits represent one of the most frequently examined predisposing variables in relation to PSU. However, no studies to date have examined the trait-to-symptom association between the Big Five personality traits and PSU. Using a network analysis approach, we aimed to understand: 1) specific pathways linking each of the Big Five personality traits to PSU symptoms and 2) the bridging effects of each Big Five personality trait on the PSU symptom cluster.

Methods

A regularised graphical Gaussian model was estimated among 1,849 Chinese university students. PSU symptoms were assessed with items from the Problematic Smartphone Use Scale. Facets of the Big Five personality traits were assessed with the subscales of the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory-15. An empirical index (i.e., bridge expected influence) was used to quantify bridge nodes.

Results

Results revealed specific and distinct pathways between the Big Five personality traits and PSU symptoms (e.g., Neuroticism-Escapism/Avoidance, Conscientiousness-Preoccupation and Extraversion-Escapism/Avoidance). Further, Neuroticism showed the highest positive bridge centrality among the Big Five personality traits, while Conscientiousness had the highest negative bridge centrality.

Discussion and conclusions

The current study provided direct empirical evidence concerning specific pathways between the Big Five personality traits and PSU symptoms and highlighted the influential role of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as potential targets for early detection and treatment of PSU.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Online gaming motives have proven to be useful in differentiating problematic engagement in online gaming. However, the mixture modeling approach for classifying problematic subtypes based on gaming motives remains limited. This study attempted to differentiate heterogeneous online gamers into more homogenous subtypes based on gaming motives using latent profile analysis (LPA). We also compared various psychological and gaming/leisure related variables across the derived profiles.

Methods

A total of 674 Korean online game users (mean age = 21.81 years, male = 76%) completed self-report questionnaires, including the Korean version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (K-MOGQ). After the LPA, the relationships between latent profile membership and auxiliary variables were explored.

Results

Four latent profiles were identified, that were further classified into one problematic (highly motivated-dissatisfied gamer), one highly engaged (highly motivated-satisfied gamer), and two casual (moderately-motivated casual gamer and lowly-motivated casual gamer) gamer profiles. Inter-profile comparisons revealed that highly motivated-dissatisfied gamer had the most pathological profile, characterized by high Internet gaming disorder (IGD) tendency, neuroticism, and impulsivity, but the lowest recreation motive. While highly motivated-satisfied gamer also demonstrated a heightened IGD tendency, they showed positive patterns of psychological and gaming/leisure-related variables, which indicated they could be better considered as high engaged instead of problematic gamers.

Discussion and conclusions

These results indicate that the recreation motive, in addition to fantasy or escape motives, is an important factor in differentiating maladaptive online gamers. Classifying online gamers based on gaming motives can contribute to a clearer conceptualization of heterogeneous gamers, paving the way for individualized assessment and treatment planning.

Open access

Abstract

Coinciding with and responding to a growing crisis in the diagnostic, explanatory and treatment systems of psychiatry, the last couple of decades have seen a growing amount of evidence regarding the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs to treat a variety of mental health conditions. Broadly, this crisis can be construed as that of “indivi/dualist” approaches which aim to treat patients who are construed as separated from their social and material contexts, which are taken as given. The implicit premise: the self, but not the world, is the site of therapeutic intervention. By contrast, researchers insist that psychedelic therapy functions by on producing an experience of “connectedness” to self, world, and others, which is heavily influenced by context. However, by remaining in an indivi/dualist thoughtspace, neurological and psychological perspectives betray these recurring themes. In this essay, I approach psychedelic therapy for depression through the lens of phenomenological psychiatry to take these themes seriously–a task which passes by considering experience as embodied, and therefore embedded. Starting off from an analysis of depression as a bodily detunement (disconnection), I argue that, through a process of “immersive reflection”, psychedelic therapy transforms not only the self, but patients’ sense of reality. This will allow me to answer several questions pertaining to psychedelic therapy regarding its therapeutic mechanism, why it transforms reality and not only the self, why it transforms and not merely amplifies experience, why its effects last beyond the drugs’ psychoactive duration, and in what their paradigm-shifting potential for mental health consists of.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Riley D. Kirk
,
Olivia M. Uhley
,
Paloma Lehfeldt
,
C. Miyabe Shields
,
Marné Garretson
,
Alanna Collins
,
Helané Wahbeh
, and
Stephen Dahmer

Abstract

Background

Entheogen use is becoming increasingly popular and a potential option for treatment or adjuvant treatment for various medical conditions. Clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy, safety, and possible role of these traditional medicines in the context of modern society and the Western medicine paradigm. The willingness of patients to participate in such studies is currently unknown.

Materials and Methods

In September 2021 we implemented an anonymous, observational pilot survey to determine the general public's willingness to participate in future entheogen research. All participants were English-speaking adults and had participated in therapy or a retreat utilizing entheogens in a naturalistic setting in the last five (5) years. Participants were recruited through community outreach via email.

Results

The response rate for this data set was estimated to be 48.3% (n = 84/174). Nearly all (95.5%) participants believed this research should be done and 86.9% said they would participate in entheogen research that lasted longer than one year. A greater proportion of participants were willing to participate in remote interviews (73.5%) rather than in-person surveys (64.7%). A majority of participants (78%) also noted the importance of financial compensation for their time influencing the willingness to participate in future entheogen studies.

Conclusions

The willingness to participate in research involving traditional entheogens is not the limiting factor in facilitating further studies. Participants held overwhelmingly positive perceptions indicating that they believed this research should be done. Future longitudinal clinical studies with financial compensation and controlled set and settings will be necessary to expand the evidence base for naturalistic entheogen use.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Silvana Melissa Romero Saletti
,
Stephan Van den Broucke
,
Joël Billieux
,
Laurent Karila
,
Daria J. Kuss
,
José Manuel Rivera Espejo
,
Pavica Sheldon
,
Cathryne P. Lang
,
Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck
,
Palmyra Zollo
,
Clara Courboin
,
Dominica Diez
,
T. Phillip Madison
,
Jano Ramos-Diaz
,
César Augusto Eguia Elias
, and
Fiorella Otiniano

Abstract

Background and aims

Social network use is widespread, and the study of Instagram seems to have captured more attention in recent years. However, scale development and validation in the field has fallen short of providing sound scales of Instagram motives and usage patterns that consider the uniqueness of Instagram-related behavior. This paper describes the development, psychometric and cross-cultural validation of two new measurement instruments: the “Instagram Motives Questionnaire” (IMQ) and the “Instagram Uses and Patterns Questionnaire” (IUPQ).

Methods and results

A preliminary set of items was developed for each questionnaire based on a previous qualitative interview study on Instagram motives, uses, and consequences. In the first study, the questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 312 participants aged 18–35 years (M = 23.81; SD = 4.49), and an exploratory factor analysis was performed. A parsimonious and interpretable 6-factor solution that displayed adequate factor loadings and adequate Omega coefficients for both instruments were found. In a second study, the two instruments and other measures of known social network usage correlates and mental health consequences were administered online to 1,418 English-speaking participants aged 18–34 years (M = 21.35; SD = 3.89). Both scales showed good psychometric properties and the factor structure identified in study 1 was reproduced through confirmatory factor analysis. Omega reliability coefficients were adequate. Finally, when performing multi-group CFA along with a French (n = 1,826) and a Spanish (n = 3,040) sample, language and gender invariance were supported. Correlations with other relevant measures indicate good convergent validity of both scales.

Conclusions

The present research provides psychometrically sound instruments for further investigations on Instagram use behaviors.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Matthew Browne
,
Paul Delfabbro
,
Hannah B. Thorne
,
Catherine Tulloch
,
Matthew J. Rockloff
,
Nerilee Hing
,
Nicki A Dowling
, and
Matthew Stevens

Abstract

Background and aims

It is well understood that engagement with some forms of gambling, like EGMs, is riskier than other forms. However, while reports of associations are common, few studies have attempted to evaluate and compare the relative risk of all available forms, and none have estimated the relative contribution of each form to the total burden of gambling problems (GP) in a population.

Methods

Using an aggregated dataset of national and state-based prevalence studies in Australia (N = 71,103), we estimated prevalence and unique effects of frequency of engagement on each form on GP. Two alternative numerical methods were then applied to infer the relative contribution of each form to the total amount of GP.

Results

EGMs are responsible for 51%–57% of gambling problems in Australia, and 90% of gambling problems are attributable to EGMs, casino, race, and sports betting. Casino table games and EGMs are equally risky at the individual level, but the former contribute far less to problems due to low participation. Bingo and lottery play show no statistically detectable risk for GP.

Discussion and conclusion

The results illustrate which forms present the greatest population burden and illuminate the reasons why. EGMs have an outsized impact. EGM uniquely combines high risk conditional on play, with a high participation rate and a high frequency of play among participants. This is in contrast to risky but less commonly played casino games, and prevalent but non-risky forms like lotteries. We conclude that EGM regulation should be a primary focus of policy action in Australia. More innovative policy ideas relating to EGMs should be tested due to the disproportionate impact of this product type.

Open access

A mentalizáció, a reziliencia és a problémaviselkedés kapcsolati beágyazottsága serdülőkorban: vizsgálatok a Reflektív Funkció Kérdőív (RFQ-H) magyar változatával

Mentalization, resilience, problem behavior and percieved social support among 14–19 year old high school students: Studies with the Hungarian version of the Reflective Function Questionnaire

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Erzsébet Szél
and
Éva Szabó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A mentalizáció kulcsfontosságú a szociokognitív képességek integrációjához és fejlett interperszonális készségek kialakításához. Hagelquist (2017) pedagógiai és pszichoterápiás modelljében a sikeres mentalizációt építőkövek hierarchikus rendszerébe helyezte. Célunk a Reflektív Funkció Kérdőív megbízhatóságának vizsgálata és a mentalizáció hagelquisti modelljének igazolása egészséges serdülő mintán. Jelen kutatásban azt vizsgáltuk, hogy az észlelt társas támogatás és a mentalizáció színvonala milyen kapcsolatot mutat a rezilienciával és a problémaviselkedés kialakulásával.

Módszer

A vizsgálatban 444 serdülő vett részt (M = 16,3 év, SD = 1,15 év), akik a Reflektív Funkció Kérdőív mellett kitöltötték a Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív magyar változatát, a Képességek és Nehézségek Kérdőívet, valamint a Multidimenzionális Társas Támogatás Kérdőívet. Az adatok elemzéséhez klaszteranalízist végeztünk a mentalizáció és az észlelt társas támogatás dimenzióinak bevonásával.

Eredmények

Az észlelt problémaviselkedés gyenge, illetve közepes erősségű kapcsolatban áll a mentalizáció sérülésével, a mentalizáció dimenziói közül a bizonytalan mentalizációval és az érzelmi elárasztottság skálájával, azaz az egyén csökkent képessége arra, hogy saját szándékait értelmezze, pozitív együtt járást mutat a problémaviselkedés kialakulásával. A mentalizáció és az észlelt társas támogatás dimenzióinak bevonásával három klasztert alakítottunk ki. A kiegyensúlyozott csoportba tartozó egyének szignifikánsan kevesebb problémaviselkedést jeleztek, és magasabb szintű rezilienciáról számoltak be. A magárahagyottak csoportja a reziliencia és a problémaviselkedés területén is a legerősebb sérüléseket jelzi, míg az érzelemvezérelt csoport esetén a problémaviselkedés emelkedett mértéke jellemző.

Következtetések

A mentalizáció kapcsolati beágyazottsága befolyásolja a reziliencia színvonalát és a problémaviselkedés kialakulásának esélyét, ezzel igazolódott Hagelquist modelljének azon része, amely a sikeres mentalizáció egyik feltételének a környezeti-kapcsolati biztonságot jelöli ki.

Open access

Az iskolai stressz, az adaptív és maladaptív megküzdés, valamint az iskolai kötődés összefüggései serdülő mintán

The relationships between school stress, adaptive and maladaptive coping and school attachment in an adolescent sample

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Ágnes Juhász
,
Boglárka Ardai
,
Lilla Nagy
,
Noémi Balázs
, and
Réka Szigeti

Háttér és célkitűzések

Kutatásunkban 10 és 14 év közötti serdülők körében vizsgáltuk 473 fős mintán a megküzdő stratégiák ismeretét, az adaptív stratégiák védő szerepét az átélt stresszel szemben, valamint az átélt stressz és depresszió összefüggéseit az iskolával kapcsolatos attitűdjeikkel. Témánk indokoltságát a serdülőkorban átélt nagyobb mértékű stressz, valamint az adaptív megküzdési stratégiáknak a stressz negatív hatásaival szembeni potenciális védő szerepe adja.

Módszer

Kvantitatív és kvalitatív módszereket is használtunk két különböző időpontban. A kamaszoknál felmértük az általuk átélt stresszt, illetve a depressziót, továbbá a szubjektív egészségi panaszaikat és az iskolai kötődésüket. A megküzdő stratégiák ismeretét nyílt végű kérdéssel, majd a válaszok tartalomelemzésével kutattuk. Az összefüggéseket korrelációs és lineáris regressziós elemzéssel vizsgáltuk.

Eredmények

Az iskolai stressz összefüggést mutatott a depresszióval és az észlelt tanári támogatással. Az iskolai kötődést a vizsgált változók közül egyedül a tanári támogatás magyarázta. Az iskolai stressz szignifikáns negatív kapcsolatban volt az iskolai kötődéssel keresztmetszeti és hosszmetszeti elrendezésben is. Mintánkban a leginkább ismert stresszkezelési technikák a fizikai aktivitás, a verbalitás/sírás/kiabálás, a fizikai pihenés/feltöltődés és a digitális világ technikáinak használata voltak, néhány vizsgálati személy az instrukció ellenére maladaptív stratégiákat is említett. A maladaptív stratégiák igénybevétele főként a fizikai aktivitással, a verbalitás/sírás/kiabálás használatával, illetve a digitális világ technikáinak igénybevételével mutatott együtt járást. Az adaptív stresszlevezető technikák mennyisége gyenge pozitív korrelációt mutatott a stresszel.

Következtetések

A tanároktól kapott támogatásnak kiemelten fontos szerepe lehet a serdülők által átélt stressz mértékének csökkentésében, illetve ezen keresztül a depressziójuk megelőzésében.

Open access

Roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatok és identitás

Roma–non-Roma interethnic relationships and identity

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Cinderella Komolafe
,
Georgina Csordás
, and
Beáta Dávid

Háttér és célkitűzések

A roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatok, házasságok száma egyre növekszik Magyarországon. Bár az interetnikus párkapcsolatok kapcsolatba hozhatóak a romák társadalmi integrációjával, eddig mégis kevés kutatás fókuszált vizsgálatukra. Kutatásunk fókuszában az etnikai identitás, valamint a roma identitásstratégiák álltak, különböző roma alcsoportok (beás, oláh, romungró) bevonásával. Arra kerestük a választ, hogy ezen konstruktumok milyen kapcsolatban állnak azzal, hogy a válaszadóknak volt-e valaha életében nem roma párja.

Módszer

Kérdőíves, kvantitatív, keresztmetszeti, feltáró kutatásunkban a roma – nem roma interetnikus párkapcsolatokat az etnikai identitás (MEIM skála), roma identitásstratégia (szeparált, integrált, asszimilált) és a roma alcsoporthoz (oláh, beás, romungró) való tartozás szempontjából vizsgáltuk egy 533 fős magyarországi roma mintán.

Eredmények

Vizsgálatunkban míg az etnikai identitás nem mutatott összefüggést azzal, hogy a válaszadóknak volt-e nem roma párja életükben, addig a roma identitásstratégia igen. Akik jobban a többségi csoporthoz tartozónak vallották magukat, nagyobb arányban választottak nem roma párt. Míg, akik büszkén vallották, hogy roma származásúak, inkább választottak roma párt életük során. Az iskolai végzettség a roma identitásstratégiával és a pár származásával is összefüggött.

Következtetések

Az, hogy az etnikai identitásban nem mutatkozott meg különbség a párok származása szerint, a roma identitásstratégiában pedig igen, arra utalhat, hogy a párválasztás ez esetben jobban szól a többség és a kisebbség viszonyáról és annak benső reprezentációjáról, mint arról, hogy a kisebbségi csoportba tartozó egyén hogyan gondolkozik és cselekszik etnikai csoportjával kapcsolatban.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy has demonstrated significant promise as a treatment for depression, anxiety, and existential distress associated with serious medical illness and has generally been employed on an individual basis, which presents challenges for scaling and resource availability. There are also compelling theoretical reasons to suggest that group-based formats-if utilized in a thoughtful fashion-might offer unique or enhanced therapeutic benefits for certain conditions or populations. The HOPE trial is an IRB-approved open-label feasibility and safety pilot study of psilocybin enhanced group therapy in patients with a DSM-5 depressive disorder associated with a cancer diagnosis completed at the Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) in Salt Lake City, Utah (HOPE: A Pilot Study of Psilocybin Enhanced Group Psychotherapy in Patients with Cancer). We report here qualitative survey-based data, impressions, and suggestions for group-based psychedelic-assisted therapy interventions based on our observations to inform future studies.

Methods

Patients with a DSM-5 depressive disorder with an underlying cancer diagnosis were recruited from HCI by referral from oncology providers, palliative care, and social work. Following screening and consenting, 4-6 participants per cohort (with three total cohorts) were enrolled in a protocol involving 3 120 min group preparatory sessions, a single high-dose (25 mg) group psilocybin session, and 3 subsequent group integration sessions. Primary clinical outcomes are still in process of data collection and analysis. Qualitative data was gathered from patient written reports and a survey administered at 2 weeks post intervention. Qualitative reports were also gathered from the therapist team at a post-study group process session.

Findings

We report here results from a qualitative survey of participant experiences with group format study design, as well as impressions and guidelines for group format and group psychotherapeutic process to inform other studies pursuing group-based interventions in psychedelic therapy. Suggestions are provided for protocol design, screening processes, space considerations, therapist team structure, group process, music, timeline, as well as potential issues and challenges.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous research has proposed that microdosing, i.e., the repeated use of sub-threshold doses of serotonergic hallucinogens, has an impact on mood by increasing emotional awareness. We propose that increased emotional awareness could translate into higher emodiversity, a balanced experience of emotions in which emotions are experienced with more similarity in intensity and duration. We examine the effect of microdosing, the day after, as well as the cumulative effect of microdosing on overall, positive and negative emodiversity.

Methods

We use data collected over a period of 28 days sampled between February to June 2020 from 18 users that already had an active practice of microdosing at the start of the data collection. We assessed emotional states using ESM methods, i.e., signal-contingent sampling with triggers sent 5 times a day. The working dataset has a number of 224 observations days. We used mixed effects models to test our hypotheses.

Results

When taking into account the level of average affect, we found that during microdosing days positive and overall emodiversity were significantly lower. No evidence was found for a mediating role of the level of average affect. Higher cumulative instances of microdosing were not related to any of the emodiversity indexes. Participants experienced more “awe, wonder, or amazement”, “ashamed, humiliated, or disgraced” as well as less “joyful, glad, or happy” emotions during microdosing days.

Conclusion

A microdosing practice may increase the centrality of certain emotions on microdosing days, resulting in a decrease in emotional diversity.

Open access

Abstract

Virtual exchange practices have been developed at universities for several years; however, the academic importance of VE has grown during the COVID-19 pandemic (Garcés & O'Dowd, 2020; Oswal, Palmer & Koris, 2021). As a result of the restrictions concerning physical mobility, VE has become a ‘first aid kit’ (Reiffenrath, de Louw & Haug, 2020) to continue students' international cooperation. However, at present, there is little research about the nature of students' VE practices during the pandemic COVID-19, particularly in relation to the functions of VE. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics of the special VE actions undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic and to map out the educational functions and their prevalence through focus group interviews involving students who study at five different universities in Europe.

The article introduces the term ‘emergency-mode’ VE programmes that combine activities of traditional VEs with tailor-made solutions to accommodate the challenges posed by the pandemic. The analysis shows new directions of VE in terms of its educational functions, identifying 1) developmental, 2) social, 3) instrumental, 4) emancipatory, 5) self-reflectional, 6) motivational, as well as 7) occupational functions. The article also presents the prevalence of these functions in the specific learning environments created due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Open access

Abstract

This article reports on integration challenges that were experienced by nine individuals who attended a three-day legal psilocybin truffle retreat in the Netherlands. The study employed a qualitative phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews to gain an understanding of participants' (n = 30) psilocybin experiences and their after-effects. While the study did not actively seek to measure integration issues or unexpected side effects, nine out of thirty participants (30%) spontaneously reported a post-experience integration challenge. These challenges included: mood fluctuations, ‘post-ecstatic blues’, disconnection from community, re-experiencing symptoms, spiritual bypass and perceived lack of support. Integration challenges were transient; they occurred immediately after the psilocybin experience (once the main psychedelic effects had worn off) and in the days and weeks following the retreat, and resolved with time. Integration challenges were also correlated with positive after-effects including long-term remission of significant health conditions. The experiences related in this article align with existing literature that describes the ‘spiritual emergency’ phenomenon; that is, the potential challenges that can arise after ecstatic experiences and how these challenges may be integral to the transformative potential of such experiences. We discuss the implications for psychedelic integration and harm reduction practices and for future psychedelic research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Although large-scale population studies have linked the use of classic psychedelics (lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin, or mescaline) to reduced odds of physical health problems, mental health problems, and criminal behavior, the roughly 35 million adults in the United States who have used classic psychedelics are nonetheless stigmatized in the American job market. Various federal organizations in the United States automatically reject applicants on the sole basis of prior psychedelic use, thereby practicing an open form of legal discrimination against these applicants. The present study investigates whether this discrimination can be justified based on associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and motivationally-based workplace absenteeism.

Methods

Using pooled cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2013–2019) on 193,320 employed adults in the United States, this study tests whether lifetime classic psychedelic use predicts the number of workdays employees skipped in the last month (i.e., motivationally-based workplace absenteeism).

Results

After adjusting for sociodemographics, physical health indicators, and other substance use, no significant association between lifetime classic psychedelic use and motivationally-based workplace absenteeism is found.

Conclusion

This study builds on classic psychedelic research that is just beginning to take work-specific outcomes into account and offers empirical justification for the elimination of arbitrary drug-based recruitment policies in the workplace.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Madeline Brendle
,
Anya Ragnhildstveit
,
Matthew Slayton
,
Leo Smart
,
Sarah Cunningham
,
Mackenzie H. Zimmerman
,
Paul Seli
,
Michael Santo Gaffrey
,
Lynnette Astrid Averill
, and
Reid Robison

Abstract

Background and Aims

Ketamine and esketamine have garnered interest in both psychiatric research and clinical practice for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In this review, we examined registered trials investigating the therapeutic use of ketamine or esketamine for TRD, with the aim of characterizing emerging trends and knowledge gaps.

Methods

The ClinicalTrials.gov electronic registry and results database was queried from inception to February 5, 2022, adhering to elements of the PRISMA guideline, we evaluated trial eligibility in the qualitative synthesis. Data regarding study design, drug regimens, and measures were subsequently abstracted and descriptively analyzed.

Results

The search returned 86 records, of which 56 trials were included in the final review. The number of trials investigating ketamine and esketamine for TRD increased since 2008, with higher peaks observed in 2015 (n = 9) and 2021 (n = 9). Most trials were Phase 2 (13, 23.2%) or Phase 3 (11, 19.6%), gathering preliminary data on efficacy and/or further data on safety and efficacy with variant dosing and pharmacological approaches. By and large, trials examined ketamine and esketamine as individual versus combination treatments (45% and 25%, respectively). The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was most commonly used to assess clinical outcomes (75%).

Conclusions

There are increasingly large-scale and late-phase trials of esketamine over ketamine for TRD, coupled with efforts to centralize evidence on these medications. Yet several trials do not assess patient characteristics that may affect treatment response, such as age, sex, and race. By understanding these design limitations, scientists and clinicians can avoid research waste and funding bodies can judiciously direct support towards high priority research.

Open access

Abstract

In the autumn semester of the academic year 2019/2020, a portfolio approach was introduced and piloted in one of the ESP courses offered by Budapest Business School's Faculty of Finance and Accountancy. Besides developing ESP skills, the portfolio tasks developed for the purpose of this research and introduced during the research project reported herein were intended to improve students' cooperation skills, which are essential in the job market. At the beginning of the same semester in order to forecast how successful this portfolio approach could be, we intended to obtain insights into our students' initial attitudes towards cooperation with peers and wished to look into the likelihood of participants' positive reception of cooperation-purpose portfolio tasks. To this end, a quantitative questionnaire study was carried out through an online platform amongst 49 Hungarian university students. This paper presents the results of this study. First, the relevant theoretical background is presented, namely, cooperation as a soft skill and its subskills. Then the possibilities and opportunities of improving cooperation skills during ESP classes are discussed: in the scope of our study, relying on the methodological approach offered by of the European Language Portfolio, cooperation skills were developed through cooperation-purpose portfolio tasks. Next, our study describes the quantitative questionnaire study, its administration and the resulting data. Our results show that students have a positive initial attitude towards cooperation with peers and cooperation-purpose portfolio tasks, and it has been found that the portfolio approach used in this research project seems to be a useful strategy for developing participants' cooperation skills.

Open access