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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Gambling Disorder (GD) is an impactful behavioural addiction for which there appear to be underpinning genetic contributors. Twin studies show significant GD heritability results and intergenerational transmission show high rates of transmission. Recent developments in polygenic and multifactorial risk prediction modelling provide promising opportunities to enable early identification and intervention for at risk individuals. People with GD often have significant delays in diagnosis and subsequent help-seeking that can compromise their recovery. In this paper we advocate for more research into the utility of polygenic and multifactorial risk modelling in GD research and treatment programs and rigorous evaluation of its costs and benefits.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Mobile phone addiction (MPA) is emerging among adolescents, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the correlation between MPA and suicide behaviors and its mechanism. The objective of the current study is exploring the direct effect of MPA on suicide behaviors and the indirect effect through poor sleep quality.

Methods

A total of 18,900 Chinese adolescents aged 12 to 18 were recruited via a multi-stage cluster sampling method.

Results

The prevalence of MPA and poor sleep quality was 26.2 and 23.1%, respectively. During the past year, 24.4% participants were involved in suicide behaviors. Specifically, suicide ideators, suicide planners, and suicide attempters were 10.7, 8.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Particularly, rural females had the highest prevalence of suicide behaviors, MPA, and poor sleep quality. Logistic regression analysis showed that MPA was significantly associated with suicide ideators (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09–1.37, p < 0.001) and planners (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04–1.34, p < 0.05), but not for suicide attempters (p > 0.05). Structural equation modelling demonstrated that MPA had direct effect on suicide behaviors (β = 0.145, 95% CI = 0.127–0.160), and poor sleep quality partially mediated the relationship (the mediating ratio was 46.7%). The mediating ratio of poor sleep quality was the highest in urban males.

Conclusions

MPA has both direct and indirect effects on suicide behaviors. For suicide prevention, limited mobile phone use and improvement sleep quality may be practical for adolescents. Additionally, more efforts of intervention could give priority to rural girls.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Johannes Fuss
,
Jared W. Keeley
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Tahilia J. Rebello
,
José Ángel García
,
Peer Briken
,
Rebeca Robles
,
Chihiro Matsumoto
,
Christoph Abé
,
Joël Billieux
,
Jon E. Grant
,
Shane W. Kraus
,
Christine Lochner
,
Marc N. Potenza
, and
Geoffrey M. Reed

Abstract

Background and aims

The ICD-11 chapter on mental, behavioral and neurodevelopmental disorders contains new controversial diagnoses including compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), intermittent explosive disorder (IED) and gaming disorder. Using a vignette-based methodology, this field study examined the ability of mental health professionals (MHPs) to apply the new ICD-11 diagnostic requirements for impulse control disorders, which include CSBD and IED, and disorders due to addictive behaviors, which include gaming disorder, compared to the previous ICD-10 guidelines.

Methods

Across eleven comparisons, members of the WHO's Global Clinical Practice Network (N = 1,090) evaluated standardized case descriptions that were designed to test key differences between the diagnostic guidelines of ICD-11 and ICD-10.

Results

The ICD-11 outperformed the ICD-10 in the accuracy of diagnosing impulse control disorders and behavioral addictions in most comparisons, while the ICD-10 was not superior in any. The superiority of the ICD-11 was particularly clear where new diagnoses had been added to the classification system or major revisions had been made. However, the ICD-11 outperformed the ICD-10 only in a minority of comparisons in which mental health professionals were asked to evaluate cases with non-pathological high involvement in rewarding behaviors.

Discussion and Conclusions

Overall, the present study indicates that the ICD-11 diagnostic requirements represent an improvement over the ICD-10 guidelines. However, additional efforts, such as training programs for MHPs and possible refinements of diagnostic guidance, are needed to avoid over-diagnosis of people who are highly engaged in a repetitive and rewarding behavior but below the threshold for a disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Game genres, availability on smartphones, in-game purchases, and playing duration, have been thought to influence Gaming Disorder (GD). However, little research has comprehensively examined their relationships with GD. Therefore, we examined the relationship between GD, in-game purchases, gaming duration via consoles and smartphones, and genres of smartphone games. Study 1 was based on self-reports, and Study 2 included objective data to clarify these associations.

Methods

We conducted two independent online surveys that collected sociodemographic data, game use patterns, and psychopathological assessment data, including GD severity (Study 1: N = 32,690; Study 2: N = 3,163). General mental illness scores and objective gaming time were also collected in Study 2.

Results

In Study 1, in-game purchases, several gaming genres, and subjective gaming duration were positively associated with probable GD. On the other hand, interactions between card games and loot box charges were negatively related to probable GD. In Study 2, objective gaming times of most game genres were not associated with GD. Although the correlation between subjective and objective gaming duration was moderate, their correlations with GD differed.

Discussion and conclusion

These results suggest the complexity of relationships between GD and in-game purchases, genres, and gaming duration. Results of this study suggest the importance of proper assessment of GD reflecting actual functional impairment in social life. Future studies should improve and update evaluation of assessments for gaming.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nerilee Hing
,
Alex M. T. Russell
,
Catherine Tulloch
,
Lisa Lole
,
Matthew Rockloff
,
Matthew Browne
,
Hannah Thorne
, and
Philip Newall

Abstract

Background and aims

Smartphone, computer and land-based betting platforms each have distinctive features. This study examined 1) preferred features of sports betting platforms amongst young adults and 2) whether feature preferences vary with gambling severity.

Methods

The study surveyed 616 Australians aged 18–29 years who bet at-least monthly on sports, esports and/or daily fantasy sports. Participants provided a simple rating of the importance of 24 features of betting platforms and then completed a discrete choice experiment to indicate their preferences amongst different groups of features.

Results

Smartphones were the only platform providing all preferred features. The most important feature was ability to bet instantly 24/7 from any location, followed by electronic financial transactions. Less important features were ability to access betting information online and to bet with multiple operators. Social and privacy features, and access to promotions, did not significantly predict platform choice. The experiment found no significant differences in preferred features by gambling severity group or by gender. The non-experimental descriptive data, however, indicated that participants in the moderate risk/problem gambling categories placed significantly more importance on privacy, ability to place in-play bets, bet with cash, bet with a credit card, see frequent promotions, and bet with multiple operators.

Discussion and conclusions

Most features that bettors prefer can intensify betting. Curtailment of betting promotions, in-play betting, and credit card betting are measures that can assist higher-risk gamblers without unduly affecting other gamblers. Consumer protection tools, including mandatory pre-commitment, need strengthening to help counter the unique risks of smartphone betting.

Open access

Abstract

Background

The advancement of communication technology and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to an increased reliance on online education. However, the effects of the long-term use of smart devices for online learning on students' social anxiety and problematic smartphone use (PSU) and the role of fear of missing out (FoMO) in this process have yet to be fully explored.

Methods

This study analysed longitudinal data from 2,356 high school students (female = 1,137 (48.26%), mean age = 13.84, SD age = 1.37) in China, divided into high- and low-FoMO groups based on their scores on the FoMO scale, to examine the impact of four months of online learning on social anxiety and PSU. The Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) were used to assess social anxiety and PSU symptoms.

Results

The undirected symptom networks revealed more bridge symptoms among the students in the high-FoMO group, although their overall symptom scores decreased. The results of the directed cross-lagged panel networks showed that “productivity loss” predicted other symptoms in the low-FoMO group but that “afraid of negative evaluation” was the predictor in the high-FoMO group. Meanwhile, “withdrawal/escape” and “productivity loss” were the symptoms that were most affected by other symptoms in the high-FoMO and low-FoMO groups, respectively.

Conclusions

The current study therefore sheds light on the changes in social anxiety and PSU symptoms among secondary school students during long-term online learning, as well as the moderating role of FoMO.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction has been linked to ADHD-related symptoms. However, the direction of the relationship and its potential for reciprocal relations is not well understood. This study examined the potential reciprocal relations between the three components of ADHD and Internet addiction, as well as the moderating effects of gender on these relations.

Methods

Using a longitudinal design, we collected data of 865 Chinese adolescents across three waves (Mage = 13.78, SD = 1.56 in wave 1), with a time interval of 6 months.

Results

Cross-lagged analyses revealed bidirectional associations between hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and Internet addiction over time. Multi-group analyses did not yield any significant gender differences in these relationships.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings enhance our understanding of the complex link between ADHD components and Internet addiction and have implications for interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of Internet addiction and ADHD.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Neşe Devenot
,
Brian A. Pace
,
Jason Slot
, and
Alan K. Davis
Open access

Abstract

Behavior frequency measures in behavioral addictions research fail to account for how engagement in the activity relates to each respondent's personal circumstances. We propose a “Red Box, Green Box” method, an alternative to conventional self-report behavior questions. Participants report two distinct time-based values: (1) Green box: time spent engaged in the activity during ‘free’ time, and (2) Red box: engagement in the activity at times when the respondent should be doing something else (e.g., studying, working, sleeping, exercising, etc.). Some practical examples of the ‘red box, green box’ method are provided. This method may help to calibrate behavioral frequency for each respondent and yield clearer insights into displacement effects and risks associated with frequency of use. We suggest some future research directions to test the feasibility and utility of this approach in different implementations.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been listed in section III of the DSM-5 for approximately 10 years, the study of treatments for IGD remains in early stages. Nonetheless, a summary of findings to date and discussion of future research needs are warranted.

Methods

The current study reviewed scientific treatment studies with control groups and randomized controlled trials. We summarized the strengths and weaknesses of different treatment strategies and identified gaps in the research literature that may inform the direction of future research efforts.

Results

Sixteen studies were reviewed. Existing treatment studies may be categorized into cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapies, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and others.

Conclusions

CBT is the most widely studied treatment strategy for IGD thus far. Future studies should consider IGD-specific CBT treatment strategies. Medication-based treatment should be implemented with caution. NIBS is promising, and future studies should explore the most efficacious parameters and targets. In addition, studies should consider sex differences in the treatment of IGD.

Open access