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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Koraszülöttek nyelvi fejlődésének jellemzőI, rizikótényezőI és a korrigált életkor

CHARACTERISTICS AND RISK FACTORS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN PRETERM INFANTS

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Varga Zsuzsanna, Szabó Miklós, and Csépe Valéria

A kognitív fejlődéspszichológiai és pszicholingvisztikai kutatások egyöntetű következtetése, hogy a koraszü- löttség nagy fokban növeli az atipikus nyelvi fejlődés rizikóját, mivel a koraszülötteket gyakran már csecsemőkoruktól kezdve sajátos nyelvi fejlődés jellemzi. A témában 1999 és 2018 között publikált kutatási eredmények alapján levonható az az egyértelmű következtetés, hogy a koraszülöttek atipikus nyelvi fejlődése a nyelvi feldolgozási szintek (fonológiai, morfoszintaktikai, szemantikai, szintaktikai) mindegyikét érintheti. Az óvodáskori nyelvi zavarok – számos tanulmány szerint – már a csecsemőkorban előrejelezhetők a viselkedésesnél érzékenyebb módszerekkel (pl. eseményhez kötött agyi potenciál).

Az atipikus nyelvi fejlődés hátterében viselkedéses és idegtudományi módszerekkel számos potenciális okot azonosítottak. Ilyen például az intrauterin (harmadik trimeszter) nyelvi tapasztalat hiánya, az éretlenség az agyi struktúrák sajátos vagy megzavart fejlődése.

Tény viszont, hogy a koraszülöttek nyelvi fejlődésének pontos megismerését számos olyan módszertani nehézség hátráltatja, mint a vizsgált populáció heterogenitása, a nyelvi mérőeljárások alacsony megbízhatósága, a korrigált és/vagy kronológiai kor alkalmazása. Mindez a mai napig nyitott kérdéseket vet fel mind a klinikai gyakorlat, mind a kutatások szempontjából.

A koraszülött-ellátás fejlődésének köszönhetően nő azoknak a kutatásoknak a jelentősége, amelyek a koraszülöttek nyelvi zavarainak a ma ismertnél mélyebb és megbízhatóbb feltárására irányulnak. A releváns tanulmányokban közölt eredmények várható hatása a klinikai gyakorlatra új lehetőséget ígér a nyelvi zavarok minél korábbi azonosításában, valamint a korai, prevenciós célú, a korai nyelvi fejlődést facilitáló programok kialakításában.

The unanimous conclusion of developmental-psychological and the psycholinguistical research is that pre- term birth enhances the risk of atypical language development, as preterm infants often undergo a special language development from infancy on.

With reference to the results of scientific investigations published between 1999 and 2018, unambiguous inference can be made: the atypical language development of preterm infants can be manifested at all levels of language processing (phonology, morphosyntax, semantics, syntax). According to the vast majority of studies the developmental language disorders prior to the school start are predictable already in infancy. These can be predicted for example by the event related brain potentials which proved to be more sensitive method compared to the behavioral ones.

A significant number of potential factors contributing to atypical language development were identified by the application of various behavioral and brain imaging methods. For example the absence of intrauterine (third trimester) language experience, the biological immaturity, as well as the specific or disturbed development of brain structures.

However, the exact disclosing of the preterm infants' language development is set back by several methodological problems such as the population heterogeneity, the applied linguistic measures of low reliability and the ambiguity in general use of adjusted and/or chronological age. These unsolved issues still produce highly-debated questions both from the point of the clinical practice and research.

Due to the continuous development of preterm infants' medical care the importance of those studies are increasing which put larger emphasis on more qualitative examinations oflanguage disorders compared to what is known nowadays.

The expected effects of all the results of relevant studies could produce a remarkable influence on clinical practice and provide new opportunity for the earlier identification of developmental language disorders. Furthermore, they could contribute to the development of effective, early facilitation of language development in preventive programs.

Open access

A közösség által támogatott mezőgazdálkodás szubjektív aspektusai

SUBJECTIVE ASPECTS OF COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Birtalan Ilona Liliána, Kis Bernadett, and Bárdos György

Elméleti háttér

A közösség által támogatott mezőgazdálkodás (CSA) gyorsan növekvő jelenség világszerte, a helyi élelmiszer termelésének és elosztásának az a módja, amikor a termelő és a fogyasztók (tagok) közvetlenül elköteleződnek egymás felé. A közösségi mezőgazdálkodási rendszerek, mint alulról jövő társadalmi kezdeményezések, az élelmiszerek „árutlanítása" felé tett törekvésként is értelmezhetők, és szorosan kapcsolódnak a fenntarthatóság kérdésköréhez, mely a pszichológiai és az egészségfejlesztési diskurzusba hazánkban még alig került be.

Módszertan

A szakirodalmak kiválasztása során először konkrét szókombinációk mentén kerestünk cikkeket, majd a talált cikkek irodalmi hivatkozásait áttanulmányoztuk; illetve szakirodalom-kereső portálok elsődlegesen talált cikkeihez ajánlott további cikkeit tekintettük át a CSA-részvétellel járó tapasztalatok szempontjából.

Eredmények

Áttekintésünk alapján látható, hogy a részvétel nemcsak konkrét előnyök mentén értelmezhető, hanem a további aspektusok, mint Hasonló gondolkodás, Lokalitás (város-vidék tengely), Személyes törődés, Életmódváltás, valamint az Újraírt sémák taglalása is legalább olyan fontos.

Következtetések

Véleményünk szerint a CSA-ban való részvétel átgondolása hasznos információkat nyújthat többek között a fenntartható pozitív mentális egészség fogalmának kibontásában.

Theoretical background

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is a rapidly growing phenomenon worldwide, a model of production and distribution of local food that connects the producer and consumers (members) directly. As a grassroot initiative, CSAs can be seen as a step towards the decommodification of food and are directly associated with sustainability which is rarely involved in psychological and health promotional discourse in Hungary.

Methods

In the selection process of literature, at first papers containing specific word combinations were selected. Articles recommended by academic literature search portals during this process and references section of the selected papers were studied further in the context CSA involvement to find more relevant articles.

Results

Based on our review it seems that CSA participation can be interpreted not only through factual advantages: Similar Thinking, Locality: urban-rural axis, Personal Care, Lifestyle Change, and Rewriting of Schemes are at least as important.

Consequencies

According to our view, studying participation in CSA may yield useful information for developing the concept of sustainable positive mental health.

Open access

A mentális egészség kontinuum skála rövid változatának hazai validációja

VALIDATION OF THE HUNGARIAN MENTAL HEALTH CONTINUUM-SHORT FORM

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Reinhardt Melinda, Horváth Zsolt, Tóth László, and Kökönyei Gyöngyi

Háttér és célkitűzések

A Mentális Egészség Két-kontinuum Modellje a mentális egészség pozitív összetevőit, a szubjektív jóllét komponenseit összegzi. Vizsgálatunkban a modell alapján létrehozott Mentális Egészség Kontinuum Skála rövid változatának (rövid MEKS) pszichometriai mutatóit és faktorszerkezetét teszteltük hazai felnőtt egyetemista mintán.

Módszer

552 egyetemista (71,5% nő, átlagéletkor = 22,09 év, szórás = 3,66) vett részt a keresztmetszeti elrendezésű vizsgálatban, akiket a következő kérdőívek kitöltésére kértünk: Mentális Egészség Kontinuum Skála - rövid változat; Majdnem Tökéletes Skála - rövid változat; Depresszió, Szorongás és Stressz Kérdőív - rövid változat (DASS-21); Kognitív Érzelem Reguláció Kérdőív - rövid változat és Big Five Személyiség- leltár-2 (BFI-2).

Eredmények

A Mentális Egészség Kontinuum Skála rövid változatának a tételek kereszttöltéseit is megengedő (Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, ESEM) bifaktoros szerkezetét erősítettük meg: a globális szubjektív jóllét faktor erős jelenléte mellett az eredeti szerző, Corey L. M. Keyes által leírt három specifikus (érzelmi, pszichológiai és társas) jóllét faktor is megerősítést nyert. A bifaktoros ESEM modell nemi invarianciáját is sikerült igazolnunk. A mérőeszköz megbízhatósági eredményei kiválóak (ω = 0,79-0,92 között), ahogyan validitása is bizonyítást nyert: az elvártaknak megfelelően a pozitív mentális egészség mutatók (teljes rövid MEKS és alskálái) a depresszív, a szorongásos és a stressz tünetekkel, valamint az önkritikus, maladaptív perfekcionizmussal fordított irányú együtt járást mutatnak, míg az adaptív kognitív érzelemregulációs stratégiákkal és az alkalmazkodást segítő személyiségvonásokkal (barátságosság, lelkiismeretesség, érzelmi stabilitás, extraverzió) pozitív kapcsolatban állnak.

Következtetések

Eredményeink szerint egy valid, a szubjektív jóllét szintet globálisan és annak egyes területeit is megbízhatóan mérő önkitöltős kérdőívet tudtunk bevezetni a magyar tesztállományba.

Background and aims

The Two Continua Model of Mental Health summarizes the positive components of mental health. Our aim was to test the psychometric characteristics and the factor structure of the Hungarian version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), a measurement based on the Two Continua Model of Mental Health, among Hungarian university students.

Methods

552 university students (71.5% women, mean age = 22.09, SD = 3,66) took part in the cross-sectional research. Respondents filled out the following questionnaires: Hungarian version of the MHC-SF; the Short Form of the Revised Almost Perfect Scale; the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21), the short version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; the Big Five Invento- ry-2.

Results

We strenghtened the bifactor structure of the Hungarian version of the MHC-SF in Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) framework, which allows the cross-loadings of the items. Beside the strong global subjective well-being factor specific (emotional, psychological, and social) well-being factors emerged. Measurement invariance across gender is also demonstrated. The reliabilty of the Hungarian MHC-SF is excellent (ω = 0.79-0.92), as well as its validity. As it was expected, indicators of positive mental health associated negatively with depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms, furthermore self-critical and maladaptive perfectionism. In contrast, global and specific components of subjective well-being were in positive association with adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies and certain personality traits, like agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion.

Conclusions

According to our results a valid questionnaire was introduced into the Hungarian test system, which can reliably measure global subjective well-being, as well as its specific components.

Open access

A vallásos attitűdök klasszifikációja az értelemmegélés és az aspirációk tükrében

Classification of religious attitudes in connection with the meaning of life and aspirations

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Gergely Bence, Zábó Virág, Martos Tamás, and Vargha András

Háttér és célkitűzések

A wulffi elméletet alapul vevő Kritika Utáni Vallásosság skála két dimenzión alapuló kiértékelése (Martos, Kézdy, Robu, Urbán és Horváth-Szabó, 2009) lehetőséget nyújt egy újfajta vallásosságtipológia létrehozására. Kutatásunk célja az volt, hogy a vallás iránti attitűdöket személyorientált statisztikai eljárások segítségével vizsgáljuk annak érdekében, hogy a valláshoz való személyes viszonyulás differenciáltabb típusait tárjuk fel.

Módszer

Hierarchikus agglomeratív és k-központú klaszteranalízist végeztünk el egy 1417 fős és egy 506 fős mintán, majd megbízhatóságát centroid módszerrel és egy újfajta validálási eljárással ellenőriztük (vö. Vargha, Bergman és Takács, 2016), majd a létrejövő klaszterstruktúrákat vizsgáltuk az értelemmegélés és értelemkeresés, valamint az aspirációk tükrében.

Eredmények

Az eredmények szerint azonosítható egy megbízható 7 klaszteres struktúra. A feltárt klasz- terek között megjelent a szakirodalom által sugallt klasszikus négy attitűddel közel azonos mintázat (Ortodoxia, Külső Kritika, Relativizmus, Második Naivitás). Három további típus kimutatása hozzájárult ahhoz, hogy a vallás iránti egyéni viszonyulásokról árnyaltabb képet tárjunk fel.

Következtetések

Az Ortodoxia és a Második Naivitás csoportba tartozók kedvezőbb, a Külső Kritika csoportjába tartozók kedvezőtlenebb pontszámot érnek el az értelemmegélés és -keresés, illetve az aspirációk tekintetében. A transzcendencia befogadása az értelmesség megélésének pozitív előrejezője.

Based on Wulffs theorem the two dimensional evaluation of the Post Critical belief scale presents a valuable opportunity to create a typology of religious attitudes. The main goal of the research was to explore different types of attitudes towards religiosity in a person-oriented framework. We performed a hierarchical agglomerative and k-means cluster analysis in two distinct samples (one with 1417 and one with 506 participants), and verified the results with centroid-method and a new validation process (Vargha, Bergman & Takács, 2016). Furthermore we examined the relationship between the given cluster structures and the presence of/ searching for meaning in life, and the intrinsic/extrinsic aspirations. The results show that there is a reliable underlying 7-cluster solution in both samples. The explored cluster structures include the classic pattern of religious attitudes (Orthodoxy, External Critique, Relativism, Second Naivité), moreover it expands the model with three additional types. The members of the Orthodoxy and Second Naivité clusters had higher scores, while the External Critique group had lower scores in the given external variables. The inclusion of transcendence is in a positive relationship with presence of meaning in life.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Loyalty programs are implemented widely by gambling operators to provide customers with additional prizes and benefits for consistent patronage. The aim of this paper was to examine whether loyalty programs were more commonly reported by higher risk gamblers in large population studies conducted in Australia.

Method

This paper examines the prevalence of loyalty program use and the association with problem gambling in Australia using data from seven out of 13 public gambling prevalence surveys conducted over the last decade.

Results

Evidence drawn from six of these seven studies showed consistent positive association between loyalty card use and higher risk gambling in venue-based gamblers. At least 40% of problem gamblers reported loyalty card use compared with only around 10% of gamblers in general.

Discussion

These observations suggest that there is a need to conduct more focused investigations on the utilisation of loyalty programs by higher risk gamblers.

Conclusions

It will be important to examine whether loyalty programs encourage or extend gambling sessions, but also how they can be used to facilitate responsible gambling initiatives and inform further behavioural research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) is a proposed mental disorder, in which absorption in rich, narrative fantasy becomes addictive and compulsive, resulting in emotional, social, vocational, or academic dysfunction. Most studies on MD were carried out on aggregated international samples, using translated versions of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16). However, it is unknown whether the properties of MD are affected by culture. Thus, we investigated the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the MDS-16.

Methods

We recruited both individuals self-identified as suffering from MD and non-clinical community participants from four countries: the USA, Italy, Turkey, and the UK (N = 1,081).

Results

Configural invariance was shown, suggesting that the hypothesized four-factor structure of the MDS-16 (including Yearning, Impairment, Kinesthesia, and Music) holds across cultures. Metric invariance was shown for Impairment, Kinesthesia, and Music, but not for Yearning, suggesting that the psychological meaning of the latter factor may be understood differently across cultures. Scalar invariance was not found, as MD levels were higher in the USA and UK, probably due to the over-representation of English-speaking members of MD communities, who volunteered for the study.

Discussion and conclusions

We conclude that the urge to be absorbed in daydreaming and the fantasies’ comforting and addictive properties may have different meanings across countries, but the interference of MD to one’s daily life and its obstruction of long-term goals may be the central defining factor of MD.

Open access

Mobile and non-mobile Internet Use Disorder: Specific risks and possible shared Pavlovian conditioning processes. •

Commentary on: How to overcome taxonomical problems in the study of Internet use disorders and what to do with “smartphone addiction”? (Montag et al., 2019)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Tania Moretta, Shubao Chen, and Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

This commentary addresses a recent article by Montag et al. (2019) about the relevance of distinguishing between mobile and non-mobile Internet Use Disorder (IUD). In response to the review, we reflect on the clinical relevance of this distinction and, in parallel, we propose some Pavlovian conditioning processes as possible mechanisms underlying different IUDs. We believe that, from a clinical point of view, it is of fundamental importance assessing both specific “forms” of IUDs and the underlying mechanisms that would be shared across different IUDs, like multiple and parallel classes of Pavlovian responses and the influences of Internet cues on Internet-related addictive behaviors that may be influenced by the probability of obtaining Internet rewards.

Open access

Risk reduction and harm prevention in technology use. •

A commentary on Swanton et al.'s (2020) ‘Problematic risk-taking involving emerging technologies: A stakeholder framework to minimize harms’

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author: Daria J. Kuss

Abstract

This commentary paper draws on Swanton et al.'s (2020) paper “Problematic risk-taking involving emerging technologies: A stakeholder framework to minimize harms” to discuss issues pertaining to the challenges and possible risks emerging technologies may pose for the users. It acknowledges technology use is not problematic per se, but for some users, it can be associated with preventable harms. Corporate social responsibility is called for to protect consumers. It is argued that there exists a collective responsibility to ensure technology can be used in a healthy and beneficial way, risk is reduced and harm is prevented.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included in the DSM-5 as a provisional diagnosis. Whether IGD should be regarded as a disorder and, if so, how it should be defined and thresholded have generated considerable debate.

Methods

In the current study, machine learning was used, based on regional and interregional brain features. Resting-state data from 374 subjects (including 148 IGD subjects with DSM-5 scores ≥5 and 93 IGD subjects with DSM-5 scores ≥6) were collected, and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was employed to classify IGD from recreational game use (RGU) subjects based on regional brain features (ReHo) and communication between brain regions (functional connectivity; FC). Permutation tests were used to assess classifier performance.

Results

The results demonstrated that when using DSM-5 scores ≥5 as the inclusion criteria for IGD subjects, MVPA could not differentiate IGD subjects from RGU, whether based on ReHo or FC features or by using different templates. MVPA could differentiate IGD subjects from RGU better than expected by chance when using DSM-5 scores ≥6 with both ReHo and FC features. The brain regions involved in the default mode network and executive control network and the cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power during classification.

Discussion

The current findings challenge the current IGD diagnostic criteria thresholding proposed in the DSM-5, suggesting that more stringent criteria may be needed for diagnosing IGD. The findings suggest that brain regions involved in the default mode network and executive control network relate importantly to the core criteria for IGD.

Open access

Applying fairness in labeling various types of internet use disorders. •

Commentary on How to overcome taxonomical problems in the study of internet use disorders and what to do with “smartphone addiction”?

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Jon D. Elhai, Haibo Yang, and Jason C. Levine

Abstract

We comment on arguments about internet and smartphone use disorders by Montag, Wegmann, Sariyska, Demetrovics, and Brand (2020). Although not currently official diagnoses, we emphasize that for some individuals, excessive internet/smartphone use can have dangerous consequences. We discuss the challenges with ICD-11 codifying only internet gaming as an internet use-related disorder, neglecting other types of excessive internet users. Montag et al.'s approach to classifying a broader range of internet use disorders seems more fair than the current system in aiding individuals needing treatment resources for excessive internet use.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Julian Strizek, Josefine Atzendorf, Ludwig Kraus, Karin Monshouwer, Alexandra Puhm, and Alfred Uhl

Abstract

Background

Not much is known about the correlation between gaming problems and substance use across different countries. This paper presents cross-national analyses of different gaming indicators and their relationship to substance use.

Methods

Based on data from the 2015 ESPAD study, differences in the relationship between gaming and substance use across 35 countries were analysed using multi-level logistic regression, using substance use as an individual level predictor, economic wealth as a country-level predictor and a combined problem gaming indicator as the outcome.

Results

Multi-level logistic regressions revealed significant correlations between individual substance use and gaming problems, which varied across countries and were moderated by economic wealth. Students who used alcohol, tobacco or cannabis and who lived in high-income countries had a smaller risk of scoring positively on a combined problem gaming indicator than students who used alcohol, tobacco or cannabis and who lived in less prosperous countries.

Discussion

Different gaming indicators varied substantially across countries, with self-perceived gaming problems being more common in countries with a low prevalence of gaming. Significant cross-level effects demonstrate the need to take the societal context into account when the relationship between problem gaming and substance use is analysed. Prevention measures need to take the fact into account that patterns of substance use among problem gamers vary across countries.

Open access

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the study is to adapt the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16) to Hungarian, assess its psychometric properties, and establish its cut-off score. In addition, the relationship between maladaptive daydreaming and adverse childhood experiences was examined. Method: Study participants were recruited online via snowball sampling. Based on three inclusion criteria (self-identified MDer status; control over daydreaming; frequency of daydreaming) 160 out of 494 respondents were included in the study. Results: Our results confirm both the high reliability and convergent validity of the questionnaire. The cut-off score of 60 percentiles can reliably discriminate between excessive and normal daydreamers. The general applicability of the MDS-16-HU was tested and confirmed by the use of the Adverse Childhood Experience Questionnaire (ACE-10), a short, self-report questionnaire. Its results showed that certain types of childhood adversities increase the likelihood of maladaptive daydreaming. Conclusions: The instrument is a valid and reliable measure, therefore it can serve as a useful screening tool in clinical practice. In addition, our findings highlighted the role of childhood adversities in the aetiology of maladaptive daydreaming.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Interest surrounding the relationship between flow and problematic gameplay has surged. An important antecedent of flow in the context of video-gaming is the skill-challenge balance, but researchers have only manipulated this balance by changing speed of play. The current research seeks to examine the skill-challenge balance and flow in a mobile game in which challenge is increased via the complexity of puzzles. We predicted games like Candy-Crush would more strongly support a model of flow in which the greatest flow would be experienced by more skilled players and that high flow games would induce the most urge to continue play.

Methods

We had 60 Candy-Crush players play games near their level standing (maximal skill-challenge balance), or games that were too easy or too hard. Perceived skill, challenge, flow, and urge to continue gameplay were measured after each game.

Results

Players felt the highest degree of skill-challenge balance when playing games around their level standing. Easy games produced the least flow, while both regular and hard games produced comparable flow despite hard games being far more challenging and frustrating. The findings support models of flow positing those with highest perceived skill will experience greater flow. Finally, flow and arousal combine to increase urge to keep playing.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings suggest those with high perceived skill will experience deep, immersive flow which motivates players to keep playing.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Davide Marengo, Cornelia Sindermann, Daniela Häckel, Michele Settanni, Jon D. Elhai, and Christian Montag

Abstract

Background and aims

Personality is one of the most frequently investigated variables to shed light on the putatively addictive use of the smartphone. By investigating associations between personality and individual differences in addictive smartphone use, researchers aim to understand if some personality traits predispose technology users to develop addictive behaviors. Here, based on existing empirical literature, we aimed at determining the strength of associations between Big Five personality traits and smartphone use disorder (SmUD) by a meta-analytic approach.

Method

For each Big Five personality trait, we performed a meta-analysis of correlations representing their association with SmUD. We also investigated possible publication bias and the moderating effects of age, gender, nationality, length of personality assessments, and time of publication.

Results

We found n = 26 eligible studies. In line with both the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model and the framework on problematic mobile-phone use by Billieux, we observed a positive association between Neuroticism and SmUD (r = 0.25), while the association between Extraversion and SmUD was not significant. Partially in line with the aforementioned theoretical frameworks, Conscientiousness was negatively associated with SmUD (r = −0.16). Remaining traits showed smaller associations. No significant publication bias emerged. Moderator analyses showed that time of publication moderated the link between Conscientiousness and SmUD. Moreover, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness showed a heightened inverse association with SmUD among older samples.

Conclusions

The present meta-analysis provides robust empirical evidence that Big Five personality traits can help to understand individual differences in SmUD, supporting the usefulness of their assessment when planning and targeting interventions aimed at at-risk individuals.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Afework Tsegaye, Joachim Bjørne, Anita Winther, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Renáta Cserjési, and H.N. Alexander Logemann

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous studies suggest that attentional bias and disengagement may vary as a function of Body Mass Index (BMI), most notably in a palatable food related context. Though this could indeed represent a food context specific effect, it could also represent a general reward related context effect. In addition, though mindfulness and stress have both been reported to affect attention, it is not yet clear whether these moderate the relationship between BMI and attention as a function of reward context. In the current study we addressed these questions. It was hypothesized that BMI would be positively associated with bias in a food context and money context relative to a neutral context. The inverse was expected for disengagement. It was expected that mindfulness would decrease these relationships and for stress the inverse was expected.

Methods

In the current online study, eighty-seven participants (24 males and 63 females; age: M = 30.1, SD = 8.3; BMI: M = 24.2, SD = 4.67), filled out questionnaires and completed a visuospatial cueing task measuring attention and disengagement of attention in a neutral, food-related, and money-related condition.

Results

There was no association between BMI and attentional bias. Higher BMI was associated with faster responses to money pictures presented opposite to a cued location as compared to money pictures that did not follow a predictive cue. Our results do not support a clear moderating role of mindfulness and stress.

Discussion and conclusion

Our results imply faster processing and associated quicker responding to unanticipated reward-related stimuli in individuals with overweight or obesity.

Open access

Abstract

Objective

In 2013, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) included the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Then, in 2019, the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) categorized gaming disorder (GD) as an addictive disorder. This review aimed to review the raised concerns, debate, and research of IGD or GD criteria and provide suggestions to resolve them.

Methods

A narrative review was conducted, and PubMed was searched for articles mentioning concerns and research on the DSM-5 criteria for IGD, ICD-11 criteria for GD, or criteria for other synonyms, such as problematic gaming or gaming addiction. A total of 107 articles were identified.

Results

Concerns were organized into three categories: conceptual framework, moral panic, and diagnostic validity. Most argumentations supported the proposition that GD and other substance use disorders have similar presentations. A clear definition of GD and adequate public education could prevent rather than exacerbate moral panic. Several researchers reported concerns regarding the nosology, diagnostic validity, and wording of each criterion. However, the threshold, five of the nine criteria with impaired function, demonstrated adequate validity in interview studies.

Conclusion

The current findings support the addiction framework, functional impairment, and validity of the GD criteria. However, further prospective, experimental, and clinical studies validating these findings are warranted. Moreover, an integrative review or debate conference could contribute to the organization of the available results and concept development. Aggregating adequate scientific information could allay or resolve concerns related to the diagnosis of GD.

Open access

Internet use disorders: What's new and what's not?. •

Commentary on: How to overcome taxonomical problems in the study of Internet use disorders and what to do with “smartphone addiction”? (Montag et al., 2019)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author: Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

This commentary critiques the recent paper by Montag et al. (2019) and (i) argues that there are a number of issues that are presented as contemporary but have been discussed in the internet addiction literature for over 20 years, (ii) argues that generalized internet use disorder (IUD)/smartphone use disorder (SmUD) and specific IUD/SmUD may mean different things to different scholars, (iii) suggests that online activities that involve content creation often utilize nonmobile devices, and (iv) suggests that there are some potentially problematic online behaviors that are not included as major activities in the proposed in Montag et al.‘s taxonomy of internet-related problematic behaviors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Problem gambling among adolescents has recently attracted attention because of easy access to gambling in online environments and its serious effects on adolescent lives. We proposed a machine learning-based analysis method for predicting the degree of problem gambling.

Methods

Of the 17,520 respondents in the 2018 National Survey on Youth Gambling Problems dataset (collected by the Korea Center on Gambling Problems), 5,045 students who had gambled in the past 3 months were included in this study. The Gambling Problem Severity Scale was used to provide the binary label information. After the random forest-based feature selection method, we trained four models: random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), extra trees (ETs), and ridge regression.

Results

The online gambling behavior in the past 3 months, experience of winning money or goods, and gambling of personal relationship were three factors exhibiting the high feature importance. All four models demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC) of >0.7; ET showed the highest AUC (0.755), RF demonstrated the highest accuracy (71.8%), and SVM showed the highest F1 score (0.507) on a testing set.

Discussion

The results indicate that machine learning models can convey meaningful information to support predictions regarding the degree of problem gambling.

Conclusion

Machine learning models trained using important features showed moderate accuracy in a large-scale Korean adolescent dataset. These findings suggest that the method will help screen adolescents at risk of problem gambling. We believe that expandable machine learning-based approaches will become more powerful as more datasets are collected.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Harmful gambling has been associated with the endorsement of fallacious cognitions that promote excessive consumption. These types of beliefs stem from intuitively derived assumptions about gambling that are fostered by fast-thinking and a lack of objective, critical thought. The current paper details an experiment designed to test whether a four-week online intervention to strengthen contextual analytical thinking in gamblers is effective in changing gamblers cognitions and encouraging safer gambling consumption.

Methods

Ninety-four regular gamblers who reported experiencing gambling-related harm were randomly allocated to either an experimental (n = 46) or control condition (n = 48), including 45 males, ranging from 19 to 65 years of age (M = 36.61; SD = 9.76). Following baseline measurement of gambling beliefs and prior week gambling consumption, participants in the experimental condition were required to complete an adaption of the Gamblers Fallacy Questionnaire designed to promote analytical thinking by educating participants on common judgement errors specific to gambling once a week for four weeks. Post-intervention measures of beliefs and gambling consumption were captured in week five.

Results

The experimental condition reported significantly fewer erroneous cognitions, greater endorsement of protective cognitions, and reduced time spent gambling post-intervention compared to baseline. The control group also reported a reduction in cognitions relating to predicting and controlling gambling outcomes.

Conclusion

Cognitive interventions that encourage gamblers to challenge gambling beliefs by reflecting on gambling involvement and promoting critical thinking may be an effective tool for reducing the time people invest in gambling activities.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Xinqi Zhou, Renjing Wu, Congcong Liu, Juan Kou, Yuanshu Chen, Halley M. Pontes, Dezhong Yao, Keith M. Kendrick, Benjamin Becker, and Christian Montag

Abstract

Background and aims

Growing concerns about the addictive nature of Internet and computer games led to the preliminary recognition of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as an emerging disorder by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a new diagnosis by the World Health Organization (WHO). While the definition of clear diagnostic criteria for (I)GD represents an important step for diagnosis and treatment of the disorder, potential neurobiological correlates of the criteria remain to be explored.

Methods

The present study employed a dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) approach to determine associations between (I)GD symptom-load according to the APA and WHO diagnostic frameworks and brain structure in a comparably large sample of n = 82 healthy subjects.

Results

Higher symptom-load on both, the APA and WHO diagnostic frameworks convergently associated with lower volumes of the striatum.

Discussion

The results from this exploratory study provide the first initial evidence for a neurobiological foundation of the proposed diagnostic criteria for (I)GD according to both diagnostic classification systems and suggest that the transition from non-disordered to disordered gaming may be accompanied by progressive neuroplastic changes in the striatum, thus resembling progressive changes in other addictive disorders.

Conclusions

The proposed (I)GD criteria in both diagnostic systems were associated with neurostructural alterations in the striatum, suggesting an association with progressive changes in the motivational systems of the brain.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Tyler B. Kruger, Mike J. Dixon, Candice Graydon, Madison Stange, Chanel J. Larche, Stephen D. Smith, and Daniel Smilek

Abstract

Background and aims: Slot machines are a pervasive form of gambling in North America. Some gamblers describe entering “the slot machine zone”—a complete immersion into slots play to the exclusion of all else. Methods: We assessed 111 gamblers for mindfulness (using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)), gambling problems (using the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI)), depressive symptoms (using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale), and boredom proneness (using the Boredom Proneness Scale). In a counterbalanced order, participants played a slot machine simulator and completed an auditory vigilance task. During each task, participants were interrupted with thought probes to assess whether they were: on-task, spontaneously mind-wandering, or deliberately mind-wandering. After completing each task, we retrospectively assessed flow and affect. Compared to the more exciting slots play, we propose that gamblers may use deliberate mind-wandering as a maladaptive means to regulate affect during a repetitive vigilance task. Results: Our key results were that gamblers reported greater negative affect following the vigilance task (when compared to slots) and greater positive affect following slots play (when compared to the vigilance task). We also found that those who scored higher in problem gambling were more likely to use deliberate mind-wandering as a means to cope with negative affect during the vigilance task. Using hierarchical multiple regression, we found that the number of “deliberately mind-wandering” responses accounted for unique variance when predicting problem gambling severity (over and above depression, mindfulness, and boredom proneness). Conclusions: These assessments highlight a potential coping mechanism used by problem gamblers in order to deal with negative affect.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Desire thinking is a voluntary cognitive process that involves the perseverative focus on memories, images and information related to a desired target. The aim of the present study was to validate the Hebrew version of the Desire Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ; Caselli & Spada, 2011) in a sample of adolescents and to investigate its relationship with measures of thought suppression, impulsivity and individual-based compulsive sexual behaviour.

Methods

In Study 1, a convenience sample of 718 adolescents completed the newly translated Desire Thinking Questionnaire in Hebrew (DTQ-H) and results were subjected to an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). In Study 2, a convenience sample of 379 adolescents completed a battery of questionnaires including the DTQ-H. A Confirmatory Factors Analysis was performed on the DTQ-H and validity was ascertained by correlating with other measures.

Results

In Study 1, a 9-item two-factor structure was identified. A 6-item two-factor structure was confirmed in Study 2. Results also indicated that the DTQ-H has acceptable levels of reliability, and good concurrent and incremental validity in predicting compulsive sexual behaviour.

Conclusions

The 6-item DTQ-H appears to be a reliable and valid measure of desire thinking and may be used also on adolescents – an understudied population.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The Brief Screener for Substance and Behavioral Addictions (SSBAs) was developed to assess a common addiction construct across four substances (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine), and six behaviors (gambling, shopping, videogaming, eating, sexual activity, and working) using a lay epidemiology perspective. This paper extends our previous work by examining the predictive utility of the SSBA to identify self-attributed addiction problems.

Method

Participants (N = 6,000) were recruited in Canada using quota sampling methods. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) analyses were conducted, and thresholds established for each target behavior's subscale to predict self-attributed problems with these substances and behaviors. For each substance and behavior, regression models compared overall classification accuracy and model fit when lay epidemiologic indicators assessed using the SSBA were compared with validated screening measures to predict selfattributed problems.

Results

ROC analyses indicted moderate to high diagnostic accuracy (Area under the curves (AUCs) 0.73–0.94) across SSBA subscales. Thresholds for identifying self-attributed problems were 3 for six of the subscales (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, shopping, and gaming), and 2 for the remaining four behaviors (gambling, eating, sexual activity, and working). Compared to other instruments assessing addiction problems, models using the SSBA provided equivalent or better model fit, and overall had higher classification accuracy in the prediction of self-attributed problems.

Discussion and conclusions

The SSBA is a viable screening tool for problematic engagement across ten potentially addictive behaviors. Where longer screening tools are not appropriate, the SSBA may be used to identify individuals who would benefit from further assessment.

Open access

A 110 éve született Mérei Ferencre, a klinikai pszichológus szakma alapító tanítómesterére emlékezünk

On the occasion of the 110th anniversary of the birth of Ferenc Mérei, founder of the clinical psychology profession in hungary

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Ajkay Klára, Bagdy Emőke, Dobos Emőke, Erdélyi Ildikó, Falus Ferenc, Kapusi Gyula, and Pajor András

Írásunk a Pszichodráma Műhelycsoport (röviden MCS) együtt gondolkodó emlékezésének terméke. Arra törekedtünk, hogy mindmáig aktív csoportéletünk keletkezését is abba a történeti folyamatba ágyazzuk, amelyben a “Lipótmezőn” megtörtént a klinikai pszichológia honfoglalása”. Mérei Ferenc, “a Tanár úr” teremtő és alapító személyisége a hazai klinikai lélektan gyakorlatának. Emlékezésünkben Mérei Ferenc személyiségét, tanári mivoltát, pszichológusi hivatásszemélyiséget formáló munkáját szeretnénk láttatni, érzékeltetni. Rorschachozásra tanítása is szerves részét képezte annak a szakmára nevelő munkának, amelyben egységes volt az elméleti tudás követelménye, a gyakorlat (a “csinálás”, ahogyan Ő nevezte) és a pszichológusi magatartás csiszolgatása. Ez az írás Mérei alkotó tehetsége iránti tiszteletünk kifejezése és szakmateremtő tevékenységének mementója. Az írásban az emlékező gondolkodás egyes tématerületei szerinti kérdéseinket követjük, ekképpen nyolc kérdésre válaszolunk.

This paper is the result of the collaborative and commemorative work of the “Psychodrama Workshop Group” (hereafter WG). Our aim was to embed the origins of our group, which is still active today, in historical processes such as the “conquest” of clinical psychology that occurred in the “Lipótmező”.

Ferenc Mérei, widely known as “the teacher”, was the creator and founder of the Hungarian clinical psychology practice. With this commemorative project, we aim to present Mérei’s personality, his teaching philosophy and his work in framing the psychological profile of the profession.

His teaching of' “Rørschaching” was an integral part of his professional educational work, which combined the necessity of theoretical knowledge with psychology practice (“doing”, as he called it) and the development of psychologists’ professional habitus. This paper thus expresses our respect for Mérei’s creative talent and serves as a memento to his activities in shaping the profession. To this end, we pursue eight specific questions that are informed by our commemorative approach.

Open access

Az R-PAS (Rorschach Teljesítményértékelő Rendszer) bemutatása

A Presentation of R-PAS (The Rorschach Performance Assessment System)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Nagy Zsófia and Császár-Nagy Noémi

Háttér: a megújított Rorschach-teszt (R-PAS) a hazai pszichológiai gyakorlat számára ismeretlen.

Célkitűzés: A Rorschach Teljesítményértékelő Rendszer® (továbbiakban R-PAS) új amerikai konstruk-ció Hermann Rorschach tintafolt tesztjének legújabb gyakorlati alkalmazásához (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard és Erdberg, 2011). Ennek bemutatása a tanulmány célja.

Módszer: A teszt ismertetése. Az R-PAS empirikusan közelíti meg a tesztet, igyekszik javítani annak normatív alapjait, integrálni a teszt alkalmazásával kapcsolatos nemzetközi eredményeket, ezáltal növelve annak felhasználhatóságát, modern egységes módszertani keretet biztosítva. Az R-PAS törekvése, hogy csök-kentve a vizsgálat változékonyságát, növelje annak minél pontosabban mérhető felhasználhatóságát.

Eredmények: A fejlesztők célja az volt, hogy klinikailag gazdag, bizonyítékokon alapuló, logikailag átlátható, felhasználóbarát, valamint nemzetközileg egységesen igénybe vehető viselkedésértékelési rendszert hozzanak létre a Rorschach-táblák alkalmazásával. A megközelítés a teszt teljesítményalapú felhasználására fókuszál. Ennek eddigi eredményeit ismerteti a tanulmány.

Konklúzió: Az ismertetés rávilágít, milyen előnyei és lehetőségei vannak a Rorschach-teszt új jelölési és feldolgozási módszere alkalmazásának. Az R-PAS már több európai országban és nyelven teret kapott, jelen-leg is zajlanak a fordítások és a módszertanhoz kapcsolódó nemzetközi normatív adatgyűjtés. Ezt indítvá-nyozzák a szerzők a hazai gyakorlat számára is.

Background: The renewed Rorschach test (R-PAS) is still unknown in Hungarian clinical psychological practice.

Objective: The Rorschach Performance Assessment System® (hereafter R-PAS) is a new American tem-plate for the latest practical application of the Hermann Rorschach ink-blot test (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard & Erdberg, 2011). The aim of this study is to introduce this new test format to a Hungarian audi-ence.

Method: The R-PAS approaches the test empirically. It aims to improve its normative bases and to inte-grate international results connected to the application of the test in order to increase its usability by means ofa modern, consistent methodological framework. The ambition of the R-PAS is to reduce the variability of testing and to increase the test's usability by making the results as accurately measurable as possible.

Results: The aim of the people behind the R-PAS was to create a clinically rich, evidence-based, logically transparent, user-friendly and internationally accessible behavioural assessment system for applying the Rorschach tables. This approach focuses on a performance-based use of the test, the results of which to date are presented in this study.

Conclusion: This introductory paper highlights the benefits and opportunities of applying the new marking and processing method of the Rorschach test. The R-PAS has already gained ground in several European countries and languages, and translations into additional languages as well as the collection of international normative data on methodology are currently under way.

Open access
Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Veronika Mészáros, Szabolcs Takács, Zsuzsanna Kövi, Máté Smohai, Zoltán Gergely Csigás, Zsuzsanna Tanyi, Edit Jakubovits, Dóra Kovács, Ilona Szili, Andrea Ferenczi, and Szilvia Ádám

Theoretical background: Research on burnout has widespread interest in mental health sciences. The Demands-Resources Model of Burnout represents a new direction in research. Similarly to the most popular model of burnout, the Multidimensional Model, it embeds burnout in an organizational framework. Goals: The purpose of this study is to analyze the dimensionality and divergent validity of the Mini Oldenburg Burnout Questionnaire (MOLBI), the measurement tool of the Demands-Resources Model. Our work also tests the multidimensional theory, which posits that the burnout dimensions are independent of one another and do not form a global burnout factor. Method: Participants' (n = 406 people, 59.1% female) mean age was 39.4 (SD = 11.06) years and most of them had a graduate degree. In addition to the MOLBI questionnaire, participants completed the Work-Family Balance and Mental Health Test. We conducted a parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis to analyze the structure of MOLBI; a bifactor analysis and model-based reliability test to analyze the validity of global and specific factors. We assessed the relationships between MOLBI and other parameters with Kendall's tau-b correlation. Results: Our results showed that the original two-factor structure of the questionnaire fit our data best (χ2= 78.489, DF = 26, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.977; NNFI = 0.960; RMSEA = 0.068; RMSEA CI90:0.066-0.070). The reliabilities of factors and global scores were adequate. Besides, the bifactor analysis showed that the global burnout dimension and disengagement subscale had enough explanatory power. The exhaustion factor of burnout was moderately associated with work-family balance and resilience. The disengagement factor was moderately related to creative problem-solving capacity. Conclusions: MOLBI demonstrates appropriate psychometric characteristics and can be reliably used for the assessment of global burnout (with the total score) and disengagement. Therefore, it fits the dimensional perspective of mental health problems. Considering the construct and divergent validity analysis, exhaustion and global burnout show a similar correlation pattern, while disengagement measures the motivational and behavioral aspects of the phenomenon.

Elméleti háttér: A kiégés kutatása széleskörű érdeklődésre tart számot a mentális- és egészségtudományokban. A kutatásban új irányt képvisel a kiégés Követelmény-Erőforrás Modellje, amely a fogalom legnépszerűbb modelljéhez, a Multidimenzionális modellhez hasonlóan szervezeti keretbe ágyazza a kiégés jelenségét. Cél: Tanulmányunk célja a kiégés Követelmény-Erőforrás Modelljéhez mérőeszközként illeszkedő Mini Oldenburg Kiégés Kérdőív (MOLBI) pszichometriai elemzése. Munkánk kiemelten vizsgálja a multidimenzionális teória egyik alapvető állítását, miszerint a kiégés dimenziók egymástól függetlenek és nem alkotnak egy globális kiégés faktort. Módszer: A vizsgálatban 406 fő vett részt (59,1% nő). Átlagosan 39,4 (SD = 11,06) évesek és legtöbbjük felsőfokú végzettségű. A résztvevők a MOLBI kérdőív mellett a Munkahely-Család Egyensúly és a Mentális Egészség Kérdőívet is kitöltötték. A MOLBI struktúrájának elemzésére parallel analízist és feltáró faktoranalízist alkalmaztunk. A globális és specifikus faktorok létjogosultságának elemzésére bifaktor elemzést és modellfüggő megbízhatósági vizsgálatokat végeztünk. A MOLBI kapcsolatrendszerét Kendall tau-b korrelációval elemeztük. Eredmények: Eredményeink azt mutatták, hogy a kérdőív kétfaktoros eredeti faktorstruktúrája megerősíthető (χ2 = 78,489, DF = 26, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,977; NNFI = 0,960; RMSEA = 0,068 ; RMSEA CI90:0,066-0,070). A dimenziók megfelelő reliabilitás értékekkel rendelkeztek. Emellett a bifaktor elemzés eredményei szerint a kérdőív két faktorának összege - a teljes kiégés dimenzió - is megfelelő magyarázó erővel bírt. A kiégés kimerülés faktora elsősorban a munka-család egyensúllyal, valamint a rezilienciával mutatott közepes erősségű kapcsolatot. Következtetések: A MOLBI megfelelő pszichometriai paraméterekkel rendelkező mérőeszköz, amelynek alkalmazásával mind a teljes kiégés, mind a kiábrándultság megbízhatóan mérhető. Ezáltal jól illeszkedik a klinikai diagnosztikában jelenleg uralkodó dimenzionális szemlélethez. A vizsgálatban használt konstruktum és divergens validitás elemzését figyelembe véve, a kimerültség és a teljes kiégés hasonló korrelációs mintázatot mutat, a kiábrándultság viszont a jelenség motivációs és cselekvéses aspektusát méri.

Open access

Elméleti háttér: A mentális egészség egyfajta jóllét biológiai, pszichológiai, társadalmi és spirituális szinten, ezen kívül pedig képesség a pozitív állapotok fenntartására és megélésére, amelyhez a hatékony megküzdés és savoring, valamint a reziliencia és a dinamikus önszabályozás jelenléte is társul. A pozitív pszichológia egyik feladata, hogy érvényes teszteket dolgozzon ki a mentális egészség mérésére. Cél: A Mentális Egészség Teszt (MET) legújabb változatának átfogó pszichometriai ellenőrzése. Módszer: Két, online módon lefolytatott kérdőíves keresztmetszeti vizsgálat. I. 1540 fő (391 férfi, 1149 nő; átlagéletkor 52,0 év, SD = 11,3 év) demográfiai, valamint testi és lelki egészségre vonatkozó kérdések mellett kitöltötte az alábbi kérdőíveket: MET, PERMA Kérdőív, Globális Jóllét Kérdőív, Diener-féle Virágzás skála, Rövidített Savoring Hit Kérdőív, Rövidített Pszichológiai Immunrendszer Kérdőív. II. 1083 fő (233 férfi, 847 nő; átlagéletkor 33,9 év, SD = 12,2 év) demográfiai, a vallásosságra, valamint a testi és lelki egészségre vonatkozó kérdések mellett kitöltötte a MET, Aspirációs Index, Rövidített Beck Depresszió, WHO Jól-Lét, Élettel való Elégedettség, valamint Életcél Kérdőíveket. Eredmények: Az I. mintán elvégzett feltáró faktoranalízis megerősítette a MET ötfaktoros szerkezetét 17 tétellel, s az ezt tesztelő konfirmatív faktoranalízis jó illeszkedésű modellt jelzett. A II. mintában ugyanezen a faktorstruktúrán elvégzett konfirmatív faktoranalízis kiváló illeszkedésű (RMSEA = 0,051; pClose = 0,408; CFI = 0,950; TLI = 0,936). Az öt skála Cronbach-a értékei mindkét vizsgálatban 0,70 felettiek, magas belső konzisztenciát mutatva. A diszkriminációs validitást igazolja, hogy minden skálának van egy minimum 44%-os olyan egyedi része, amelyet a többi négy skála nem fed le. A skálák tartalmi validitását a mentális egészség 10 tesztjével, speciális tesztkérdésekkel és szociodemográfiai mutatókkal sikerült igazolni. Fontos eredmény továbbá, hogy a jóllét pozitív irányú kapcsolatot mutat az anyagi helyzettel; az alkotó-végrehajtó hatékonyság a flow-val és az iskolázottsággal; az önreguláció és a reziliencia az életkorral; a savoring pedig a nőknél minden életkorban magasabb, mint a férfiaknál. Következtetés: a MET a jóllét, a savoring, az alkotó-végrehajtó hatékonyság, az önreguláció és a reziliencia konstruktumok megbízható és érvényes mérőeszközének tekinthető.

Theoretical background: Beyond that mental health is related to biological, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being, it is a capacity to maintain and experience the positive conditions with effective coping, savoring, resilience and dynamic self-regulation skills. One of the most important responsibility of positive psychology is to construct scales measuring mental health. Aim: the purpose of this study is to present the psychometric characteristics of the new version of the Mental Health Test (MHT) based on five pillars. Method: Two online cross-sectional studies with self-report questionnaires. Study I: 1540 persons (391 men, 1149 women; mean age 52.0 years, SD = 11.3 years) filled in MHT, PERMA Profiler, Global Health, Diener's Flourishing Scale, Shortened Savoring and Shortened Psychological Immune Competence questionnaires along with questions about physical and psychological well-being and demographic data. Study II: 1083 persons (233 men, 847 women; mean age 33.9 years, SD = 12.2 years) filled in MHT, Aspiration Index, Shortened Beck Depression Inventory, WHO Well-Being Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Purpose in Life Test, and Shortened Young Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire, along with questions about demographic data, religiosity, physical and mental health. Results: In Study I exploratory factor analysis identified the five-factor structure of MHT with 17 items, having also good fit measures in confirmative factor analysis. In Study II the five-factor model of the five subscales yielded excellent fit measures in confirmatory factor analysis (RMSEA = .051, pClose = .408, CFI = .950, TLI = .936). In both studies, Cronbach's a values of the five subscales (all above 0.70) indicated a high level of internal consistency. The discriminant validity is proven by the fact that each subscale had a minimum 44% part not covered by the set of other subscales. The content validity of the subscales was confirmed by ten tests about mental health, some special questions and socio-demographic indicators. Subscale of well-being showed a definite positive correlation with financial background. Creative and executing efficiency correlated with flow and education. We found also a positive correlation of self-regulation and resilience subscales with age, and women showed a higher level of savoring than men at all age levels. Conclusion: MHT can be considered a reliable and valid measurement tool for well-being, savoring, creative and executing efficiency, self-regulation and resilience dimensions of mental health.

Open access

Kapcsolatdinamikai folyamatelemzés processzometriával sine morbo és klinikai esetekben

Relationship dynamic process-analysis by processometry in sine morbo and clinical cases

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Bagdy Emőke

Célkitűzés: A processzometria módszerének alkalmazását bemutatni párok kapcsolatdinamikai folyamatainak követésében.

Módszer: A Közös Rorschach Vizsgálat (KRV) textusfeldolgozásának validált eljárása, amely a teszt jegyzőkönyv interakcióinak folyamatán át módot ad a páratlanul egyszeri kapcsolati viszonyminták „komputertomográfiás”, rétegeire bontott, finom elemzésére. A feldolgozás objektív módszertani oldala a számítógépes folyamatmonitorozás, a vizsgált három dimenzióban (dominancia, együttműködési aktivitás és intimitás), ötfokozatú skálán. Interpretatív elemzési oldala az üzenettartalmak szimbolikus jelentések mentén történőösszefűzése. A kommunikáció „hogyanja” és üzeneti tartalma („mit üzen” a v. sz.) együttesen a lelki mélységet bevilágító felismerésekhez segítenek hozzá.

Eredmények: A feldolgozott két esetet bemutató tanulmány, egy látszólag sine morbo pár „fallikus kol- lúziója”, valamint egy anorexia nervosában szenvedő lánynak édesanyjával való mély, lelki dinamikai azonossága arra nézve, hogy egy nőnek veszélyes felnőtté válnia. Titkos összejátszásuk közös nevezője: „maradjunk kislányok”.

Konklúzió: A tanulmány lehetőséget ad az elemzés lépéseinek és munkamódjának megismerésére. Rávilágít a KRV pár- és családdiagnosztikai jelentőségére a (rejtett) kapcsolatdinamikai történések megismerésében.

Objective: Introducing the application of processometry for the follow-up of relationship-dynamic processes of couples.

Method: The validated procedure of the Joint Rorschach Examination (JRE) text-elaboration that allows computer-tomographic, layered, precise analysis of unique, single relationship patterns through the process of test protocol interactions. The objective methodological side of elaboration is the computer-based process-monitoring in the three examined dimensions (dominance, collaboration activity and intimacy) on a five-point scale. The interpretative analytic side is linking contents of messages along symbolic meanings. The „how” of communication and content of its message („what does the subject communicate”) jointly contribute to recognition illuminating psychodynamic depth.

Results: the study of two adapted cases, the „phallic collusion” of an apparently sine morbo couple, and the deep, psychodynamic identity of a girl - suffering from anorexia nervosa - with her mother with regard to the fact that it is dangerous for a woman to become an adult. The common denominator of their secret collusion is ‘let’s stay girls’.

Conclusion: The study provides an opportunity to understand steps and working methods of the analysis. It highlights the couple and family diagnostic significance of JRE in the cognition of (hidden) relationship dynamic actions.

Open access

Háttér és célkitűzések: Önkéntes beteglátogatóként és a kórházakban gyógyuló felnőtt betegek mentálhigiénés gondozásával foglalkozó szakemberként gyakran foglalkoztat az a kérdés, hogyan lehet a kórházakban kezelt betegek mentális állapotán javítani, a kórházban eltöltött heteket mentálisan segíteni. Egyre többet hallani az „empatikusabb gyógyításról", vagyis a betegekkel szembeni megértőbb hozzáállásról, de az empatikus magatartás rendkívül nagy energiát igényel. Meglátásom szerint a kedvesség, a másokkal szembeni kedves hozzáállás és cselekedet már önmagában nagyon sokat tehet a betegek mentális egészségének megőrzésében. Módszer: A vizsgálat során a klinikán dolgozó betegkísérők közül négy fővel készítettem félig strukturált interjút. Az interjúk mellett a retrospekció, továbbá extrospekció módszerét alkalmaztam. Eredmények: A betegkísérőkkel készült interjúk összegzése és saját tapasztalataim alapján a kedvességnek öt olyan alappillérét határoztam meg (a bemutatkozás, a mosoly, az együttérző érintés, a figyelmesség, valamint a biztatás és beszélgetés), amelyek sokat jelenthetnek a betegek gyógyulása során, és amelyeket bárki elsajátíthat a betegek mentális egészégének megőrzése vagy javítása érdekében. Következtetések: A betegek iránti tisztelet és törődés nemcsak a segítségnyújtás különböző formáiban, de a kedvesség gyakorlásában is megmutatkozhat. Sokszor nem tudhatjuk, hogy egy beteg ember mit él át, hogyan éli meg az adott élethelyzetet, milyen érzései vannak, de egy kedves cselekedet már az egész napját meghatározhatja, erősítheti a gyógyulásba vetett hitét, a beteg és a gyógyító személyzet tagjai között pedig elősegítheti a bizalmi kapcsolatot. A betegekkel való jó kapcsolat kialakítása nemcsak a betegek mentális egészségére van jó hatással, de az egészségügyi dolgozókat is védheti a kiégéstől.

Background and aims: As a voluntary patient visitor and a specialist working for the mental health of hospital-treated adult patients, I frequently dwell on the question how the mental state of hospitalized patients could be improved, and how the weeks spent in a hospital could be supported mentally. Although the healing power of empathy, thus a more emphatic attitude towards patients is recognized today, emphatic behaviour requires a lot of energy. In my view, kindness, and a kind attitude or action can greatly improve the mental health of patients. Methodology: In the course of the analysis, I have done semi- structured interviews with four patient escorts working at the clinic. Besides the interviews, I have also applied the methods of retrospection and extrospection. Results: Based on the summary of the interviews with the patient escorts and my own experiences, I distinguished five basic elements of kindness (introduction, smile, compassionate touch, thoughtfulness, and encouragement) that may greatly contribute to the healing of the patients, and are easily adaptable for the sake of the preservation or improvement of their mental health. Conclusions: The respect and concern for patients can not only be manifested in the various forms of medical assistance, but also in the practice of kindness. In many cases we might not even suspect what a sick person experiences, and what she/he goes through in a certain situation. There is no doubt, however, that a kind act can determine a person's whole day, strengthen one's faith in healing, and promote trust between patients and healthcare providers. Maintaining a good relation is not only beneficial for the mental health of the patients, but it could also prevent healthcare professionals from burnout.

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A krónikus fájdalom szindrómában szenvedő beteg személyiségjellemzőinek elemzése, különös tekintettel az énerő, önszabályozó és intrapszichés kontrollrendszer vizsgálatára

An analysis of the personal characteristics of patients with chronic pain syndrome with special regard to self-empowerment and the self-regulatory and intrapsychic control system

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Császár-Nagy Noémi, Lovas Éva, Takács Szabolcs, and Nagy Zsófia

Háttér: A magyar lakosság több mint egyharmadát érinti e betegség. A vele járó komorbid depresszió a betegek csaknem felénél előfordul. Életvitelükre a rokkantsági állapot jellemző. Rehabilitációs lehetőségeik szűkösek. Tudományosan megalapozott, kidolgozott rehabilitációs program mind ez idáig nem létezik.

Célkitűzés: A betegek komplex személyiségvizsgálatán alapuló személyiségi potenciálok feltárása, az int- rapszichés dinamika, életviteli működésmód átfogó elemzése, különös tekintettel a rehabilitációs programtervezés szempontjából döntő „erőfaktorokra", mint énerő, önsegítő-önépítő aktivitás és életviteli kontroll- rendszer.

Módszer: A Rorschach komplex és átfogó személyiségvizsgálat alkalmazásával kilenc hipotézis mentén a személyiségjellemzők feltárása, a személyiség egészének kontextusába helyezve az önsegítő, belső erőtényezőkre fókuszált elemzés.

Vizsgálati minta: 576 beteg és 609 sine morbo kontrollszemély. Az adatokat SPSS programcsomaggal elemeztük.

Eredmények: A betegek sajátos személyiségjellemzői „deficit arculatú" hiánytényezőkként detektálhatók. Ezek közül az önsegítő és önépítő intrapszichés erők, az önkontroll, a motivációs aktivitás súlyos károso- dottsága, valamint az emocionális élet deficitjegyei emelhetők ki. Az életvezetés „deficit szindrómás" mivolta az életminőséget rombolja, és mintegy „életképtelenségi" beteghelyzetet tükröz. Magas megbízhatóságú differenciáldiagnosztikai indexet dolgoztunk ki, amely szűrési és preventív eszközként szolgálhat.

Következtetések: Gazdag eredményanyagunk lehetőséget nyit állapot- és betegségspecifikus rehabilitációs program kidolgozására, amelyben a hangsúlyt a belső erőtartalékok, motivációk felerősítésére, énerősítésre és a pozitív copingok megtanítására kell helyeznünk.

Background: More than one third of the Hungarian population is affected by chronic pain syndrome, which is accompanied by comorbid depression in almost half the patients. Their lifestyles are peculiar to disability and their rehabilitation opportunities are scarce, but so far, no scientifically based rehabilitation programme has been elaborated.

Objective: This study aims to explore personality potentials based on a complex personality assessment of patients and a comprehensive analysis of intrapsychic dynamics and lifestyle, with special regard for strength factors that are crucial for the design of a rehabilitation programme, such as self-empowerment, self-help/self-build activity and the lifestyle control system.

Method: Using the Rorschach complex and comprehensive personality survey, this study explores personality traits along ten hypotheses, placed in the context of the whole personality, with a focus on the factors relating to the patients' internal self-help ability.

Sample size: 576 patients and 609 “sine morbo” controls. The data were processed with the help of the SPSS statistics software.

Results: Patients’ specific personality characteristics can be analysed as deficiency factors that form a "deficit image". These include severe damage to intrapsychic self-help and self-build ability, self-control mechanisms and motivational activity, as well as deficits of emotional life. The patients' lifestyle, which is characteristic of the "deficit syndrome", destroys their quality of life and is thus illustrative of the unviable nature of their situation. We have developed a highly reliable, differential diagnostic index that can serve as a screening and preventive tool.

Conclusions: The rich material of our results provides an opportunity for the elaboration of a rehabilitation programme specifically for this conditions/disease, with emphasis on strengthening the patients' inner power reserves, self-motivation and self-empowerment and teaching them positive coping.

Open access

A magyar Rorschach-rendszer revíziója és az új, sine morbo standard

Review of the hungarian Rorschach system and the new “sine morbo” standard

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Molnár Ferenc

Háttér és célkitűzés: A Rorschach-teszt időszerűvé vált új, sine morbo standardját 2007 és 2014 között a Szegedi Tudományegyetem Pszichológiai Intézetének független kutatócsoportja készítette el. A standardizálás előkészítő és kezdeti szakaszában felülvizsgáltuk a magyar Rorschach-rendszert, jelölési alapelveket fogalmaztunk meg, módosítottunk néhány jel alkalmazásán, újakat is bevezettünk.

Módszer: A kutatásban a pszichiátriailag sine morbo, felnőtt személyek önként vettek részt, életkoruk 18 és 75 év közötti volt, iskolai végzettségük az általános iskolástól a többdiplomásig terjedt, és 118 település lakói közül kerültek ki. Az alapvető független változók kategóriáiból 32 almintát állítottunk össze, a teljes minta 1500 főből állt.

Eredmények: Az eredmények alapján vagy megerősítettük, vagy módosítottuk a mutatók korábbi jellemző értékeit és övezeteit, meghatároztuk az új mutatók referenciaértékeit, a feleletszám eltérő hatását a jelekre és mutatókra, összeállítottuk az új vulger válaszok listáját, támpontokat nyújtottunk a lokális értelmezéshez.

Következtetés: Rorschach-rendszerünk revíziója és az új standard adatai a Rorschach-teszt szükséges és elkerülhetetlen továbbfejlesztését szolgálják, validitását erősítik, reliabilitását növelik.

Background and objective: The elaboration of the new “sine morbo” standard for the Rorschach test started in 2007 and was completed in 2014 by an independent research group at the Institute of Psychology of the University of Szeged. In the preparatory and initial phases of the standardisation process, the Hungarian Rorschach system was re-examined, marking principles were defined, new signs were introduced and several indicators of the Comprehensive System, which are currently being used in most countries, were adopted into our system.

Method: The adult individuals who volunteered to participate in the study were psychiatrically “sine morbo”, came from 118 different communities, were aged 18 to 75, and had education levels ranging from primary school to multiple academic degrees. We compiled 32 subsamples from among the categories of the basic independent variables, with a total sample size of 1,500 individuals.

Results: Based on the results, we either reinforced or modified the previous characteristic values and zones of the indicators; determined the reference values of the new indicators and the different effects of the response rate on the signs and indicators; established a list of new vulgar responses; and provided guidance for local interpretation.

Conclusion: The revision ofour Rorschach system and the data of the new standard serve as a necessary improvement of the Rorschach test, strengthening its validity and increasing its reliability.

Open access

A témában megjelenő friss kutatási eredmények összefoglalásával arra kerestük a választ, hogy a pozitív élmények feldolgozása (savoring) milyen jelentőséggel bír a daganatos megbetegedések komplex terápiájában. Az eredmények azt mutatják, hogy a savoring nem csak a boldog élet egyik nélkülözhetetlen összetevője. Azokban a stresszel teli időszakokban is fontos erőforrásként szolgálhat - mind a páciens, mind pedig az őt ápoló hozzátartozók életében is -, mint amilyet az életet veszélyeztető, daganatos betegségek is jelentenek. A pozitív tapasztalások „ízlelgetése" képes csökkenteni a megbetegedéssel kapcsolatos szorongásos és depresszív tüneteket, az érzelmi distresszt, valamint növelni a pozitív érzelmi állapotot, és az élettel és párkapcsolattal való elégedettséget is. Az említésre kerülő eredmények, valamint savoring intervenciós lehetőségek akár a hazai onkopszichológiai ellátás területén is új színfoltot jelenthetnek.

By reviewing the results of recent researches we aimed to highlight the importance of savoring in the complex therapy of cancer. These results show that savoring is not only an essential component of a happy life, but it can also be an important resource in stressful periods and serious illness as the life-threatening cancer, both for the patient and for his relatives and caregivers. Savoring can reduce, among others, illness-related anxiety, depression, emotional distress and increase positive emotional and life satisfaction as well as relationship satisfaction. The mentioned results, as well as the potential of savoring interventions, may represent a new approach in the field of Hungarian oncopsychological care as well.

Open access

Quo vadis Rorschach-teszt? A Rorschach-próba múltja, jelene, krízisei, megújulása és jövője

Quo vadis Rorschach test? The past, presence, crises, renewal and future of the Rorschach test

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Császár-Nagy Noémi

Célkitűzés: A tanulmány a Rorschach projektív személyiségvizsgáló eljárás történeti nyomvonalán haladva a teszt fejlődésének, kríziseinek és megújulásának fázisait teszi követhetővé.

Módszertan: Alapvető forrásmunkák, monográfiák, történeti és szakirodalmi tanulmányokon alapuló gyűjtés adatainak rendezése, történeti és fejlődési korszakokra tagolása.

Eredmények: A teszt szakmatörténeti fejlődési útját hat szakaszra tagolva ismertetjük az ötlettől a megvalósulásig: történések Hermann Rorschach haláláig (1. szakasz); a teszt sorsa a Rorschach halála utáni évtizedben (1923-1936) (2. szakasz); a teszt súlypontjának átkerülése az USA-ba (3. szakasz); a második világháborútól a hetvenes évekig terjedő időszak (1941-1970), a teszt fénykora és alkonya (4. szakasz); a teszt újjászületése, a szintézisteremtő John Exner munkássága (5. szakasz), valamint: támadások tüzében és az új R-PAS teszt születése (6. szakasz).

Következtetések: A fejlődési út a teszt keletkezésétől kezdve mindmáig konfliktushordozó. A kauzális gondolkodás fegyelme, a tesztológia pszichometrikus követelményei, valamint az életszerű közelítés, a viselkedés átfogó és intuitív értelmezési módja közt feszülő, megújuló ellentéteket tárja fel. A konfliktus kezelésének történeti jellegzetessége a hegeli „megszüntetve megőrzés" (Aufheben), a régibe ágyazódó, megújuló módszertanok születése. Ezt tükrözi a Rorschach-teszt története is.

Objective: This study makes the phases of the test's development, crises and renewal traceable by means of the historical trajectory of the Rorschach Projective Personality Examination Procedure.

Methodology: An analysis of data collected from essential sources, including monographs as well as historical and literary studies, broken down into the historical periods of the test's development.

Results: The historical trajectory of the test is described in six phases: From the idea to its realisation - the events prior to Hermann Rorschach's death (Phase 1); The fate of the test in the decade after Rorschach's death (1923-36) (Phase 2); The shift in focus to the United States (Phase 3); The period from World War II to the 1970s (1941-1970), The golden age and decline of the test (Phase 4); The rebirth of the test and the work of the synthesiser John Exner (Phase 5); and The test under attack and the birth of the new R-PAS test (Phase 6).

Conclusions: The test's path of development, from its genesis up to the present day, has been marked by conflict. This reveals the tense and on-going contradictions between the discipline of causal thinking, the psychometric requirements of testing and a realistic, comprehensive and intuitive approach to interpreting behaviour. A historical feature of conflict management in Hegelian terms is 'sublation ' (Aufheben), or the renewal of methodologies that are embedded in the past. This is also reflected in the history of the Rorschach test.

Open access

A Rorschach-próba hazai szakirodalma tematikusan, a megjelenés időrendjében: 1940–2019

Hungarian literature of the Rorschach trial thematically in issue: 1940–2019

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Bagdy Emőke and Császár-Nagy Noémi
Open access

A Rorschach-próba hazai útja

The hungarian path of the Rorschach test

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Császár-Nagy Noémi

Célkitűzés: A tanulmány a Rorschach projektív személyiségvizsgálat meghonosodásának, elterjedésének és a – főként klinikai területeken való – alkalmazásának útját kívánja nyomon követni. Mindmáig nincs rendezett és hiteles történeti feldolgozása a tesztnek a hazai alkalmazott lélektani fejlődés kereteibe helyezve. Ezt pótolja jelen munkánk.

Módszer: Történeti és alkalmazásfejlődési adatgyűjtés forrásmunkákból merítve, valamint időrendben követett publikációs aktivitás tükrében öt időrendi-folyamati fejlődési szakasz különíthető el. Legmarkánsabb fejlődési ugrás a Közös Rorschach-próba bevezetése és képzése volt, valamint a nemzetközi szintű Rorschachmegújulásban hazánkban is bevezetés alatt álló R-PAS, a teljesítményelvű Rorschach-teszt.

Eredmények: A tanulmány követhetővé teszi a hazai betelepítésben és meghonosításban a Szondi-iskola munkatársainak szerepét. A klinikai pszichológiai gyakorlatban Mérei Ferenc és Szakács Ferenc jelentőségét, a Közös Rorschach hazai kultúrában pedig Bagdy Emőke tevékenységének szerepét.

Konklúzió: A teszt megújulva tovább él, módszertani eljárásaiban követve a változó pszichológiai szemléletnek a gyakorlati munkában érvényesülő kihatásait. A tesztkövetelmények (validitás, megbízhatóság standardok megújítása stb.) azonban időt átívelő módon állandóak.

Objective: This study aims to trace the establishment, spread and application of the Rorschach projective personality examination, mainly in clinical fields. To date, there has been no systematic and scientific examination of the history of the test within the framework of the development of Hungarian applied psychology, which the present study aims to redress.

Method: This study is based on an analysis of historical sources and data on the development of the application of the Rorschach test, as well as a chronological examination of relevant publications. The development process can be divided into five stages. The most significant developmental leaps were the introduction of and training for the Joint Rorschach test and the introduction of the R-PAS, an empirically based scoring system for the Rorschach test, in the framework of the international Rorschach renewal.

Results: The study highlights the importance of the Szondi School in the introduction and establishment of the Rorschach test in Hungary, and the role of Ferenc Mérei and Ferenc Szakács in Hungarian clinical psychological practice, as well as that of Emőke Bagdy in the Hungarian application of the Joint Rorschach.

Conclusion: The study shows that the test has been given a new lease of life, in line with the latest methodology and the effects of changing approaches to psychological practice. At the same time, the testing requirements (validity, reliability, renewal of standards, etc.) are constant across time.

Open access

A Rorschach X. tábla felszólító jellegének vizsgálata

An examination of the imperative character of Rorschach table X.

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Miskei Anikó, Bagdy Emőke, and Vargha András

Háttér: A Rorschach-táblák felszólító jellegének validitása a szakirodalomban mindmáig kétséges. A hazai gyakorlatban Mérei Ferenc igazolta 1947-ben erre vonatkozó feltevéseit, amelyek ellenőrzése időszerű feladat.

Célkitűzés: Munkánk a X Rorschach-tábla felszólító jellegének érvényességét vonta ellenőrzés alá. Feltételeztük, hogy a Mérei Ferenc által leírt és értelmezett felszólító jelleg megerősítést nyerhet, mely „az élettér kiaknázásának a lehetősége; az a viselkedési mód, ahogy a vizsgálati személy bolyong a valóságnak abban a mezőjében, amelyhez kapcsolódik" (Mérei, 1979, 429).

Módszer: Három kutatási fázisban dolgoztunk. Az elsőben követtük a felszólító jelleg kimunkálásához alkalmazott eredeti Mérei-féle elemzési rendszert. A második fázisban a felszólító jellegre irányadó szakirodalmi adatokat figyelembe véve, a Mérei-féle elemzési rendszerben jellegzetesnek mondható tartalmakat 614 vizsgálati személynél, a férfiak és nők közti különbség, valamint iskolázottság szerint rangsoroltuk 10 változó mentén. A harmadik fázisban percepciós kísérleti helyzetet teremtve (komputer-képfelbontással) hat ingerhelyzetben, részeire bontva, színes, fekete-fehér, akromatikus árnyékolás, illetve kontúr változatban külön exponáltuk a X tábla markáns részeit.

Eredmények: A kapott eredmények szerint a tartalmakra mind a színek kavalkádja, mind a sok apró részlet hatással van. Ez megerősíti az eredeti Mérei-koncepciót, valamint saját felvetésünket is, és elősegíti az értelmezés további, adekvát használatát.

Theoretical background: The validity of the imperative meaning of the Rorschach tables in the literature is still uncertain. While Ferenc Mérei justified his assumptions in 1947, no control has been undertaken since then.

Objective: The objective of this study was to check the imperative meaning of Rorschach table X, based on the assumption that Ferenc Mérei's interpretation can be confirmed, namely that table X relates to "the potential for living space to be exploited; the behaviour of the subject as he roams the field of reality to which he is attached" (Mérei, 1979, 429).

Method: We worked in three phases. In the first one, we followed Mérei's original analytical system, applying it to the elaboration of the imperative character. In the second phase, taking into account facts and figures from the literature, we ranked the 614 subjects of the study for contents that are typical of Mérei's analytical system, using 10 variables to assess differences between men and women and the subjects' education levels. In the third phase, after setting up an experimental situation (applying computer image resolution), we separately exposed the subjects to striking parts of table X in six states of stimulus, with the images broken down into different categories: colour, black and white, achromatic shading and contour variations.

Results: The study showed that the contents of the subject's answers are influenced by both the variety of colours and a number of other small details. This reinforces both Mérei's original concept and our hypothesis and contributes to the proper interpretation of Rorschach results.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) has been a long debated issue. While formerly the discussion was about whether to regard CSBD as a distinctive disorder, the current debate is dealing with the classification of this phenomenon. One of the prominent voices in this field considers CSBD as a behavioral addiction and proposes CSBD to be called and diagnosed as sexual addiction (SA). This present debate paper will review the existing evidence supporting this view and it will argue against it.

Results

We have found that a great deal of the current literature is anecdotal while empirical evidence is insufficient. First, the reports about the prevalence of CSBD are contradictory. Additionally, the field mainly suffers from inconsistent defining criteria of CSBD and a consensus which symptoms should be included. As a result, the empirical evidence that does exist is mostly about some symptoms individually and not on the disorder as a whole construct.

Conclusions

We conclude that currently, there is not enough data supporting CSBD as a behavioral addiction. Further research has to be done, examining CSBD phenomenology as a whole construct and based on a homogeneous criterion.

Open access

Sine morbo személyek álláskeresés léthelyzetéből következő személyiségi, képesség- és állapotváltozásainak feltárása Rorschach-próbával

Applying the rorschach test to analyse the personality, capacity and status of “sine morbo” individuals following unemployment-induced changes in their existential situation

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Nagy Zsófia, Lovas Éva, Takács Szabolcs, and Császár-Nagy Noémi

Háttér: A munkavállalás hiánya, a munkanélküliség különféle háttéren jöhet létre: az egyén akarhat dolgozni, de nincs alkalmazhatóság (nincs álláshely). Szeretne dolgozni, de betegsége (pl. krónikus betegség állapota) nem teszi lehetővé a munkába állást (ilyen pl. a krónikus fájdalom szindrómás beteg élethelyzete). Nem akar dolgozni, ideig-óráig dolgozik, munkakerülése személyiségzavaron alapul. Élete zátonyra futott, vagy hajléktalanná vált, kényszerűen munkanélküli. Végül gyakori eset, hogy előző munkahelyétől megválva új állást keres. Tanulmányunk ez utóbbi esettel fogalkozik. Változó világunkban ugyanis a sine morbo személyek munkahelyének változtatása, az átmeneti munkanélküliség természetes jelenség.

Célkitűzés: Az a törekvés vezette munkánkat, hogy elegendően informatív számú mintán vizsgáljuk meg az átmeneti munkanélküliség és az álláskeresés helyzete következtében a személyiségben végbemenő és detektálható változásokat. Azokat a személyiségi erőket és képességeket kívánjuk felderíteni, amelyek az egyéneket a sine morbo állapotban megtartva lehetővé teszik a munkavállalásért való erőfeszítéseket, a megküzdési aktivitás mozgósítását.

Módszer: Rorschach komplex személyiségvizsgálat, az alapvető személyiségi információs területek (percepció, küzdő erők, kontrollfunkciók, érzelmi élet, magatartási kontroll, viselkedési modellreakciók stb.) feltérképezése.

Vizsgálati minta: 599 álláskereső és 531 nem álláskereső, munkavállaásában krónikus betegsége által akadályozott kontrollszemély.

Eredmények: A személyiséget az „útkeresési feszültség" állapotába kerülve fokozott énerő, motivációs aktivitás és erős érzelmi mozgósíthatóság jellemzi. Az érzelmi kontroll egyensúlyt mutat, a szorongás értelmi kontrollja gyengébb. Erőteljes ambiciozitás, rejtőzködési attitűd jellemző. Célvezérelt aktivitás és a problémahelyzet fölé emelkedő, távolító feszültségelhárítás jellemzi a vizsgált személyeket.

Következtetések: A munkamotivációiban súlyosan sérült és/vagy korlátozott kontrollokkal szemben az énerő, küzdőképesség, motiváció és ambíciók megőrzése jellemzi a sine morbo álláskeresőket. Ezt az énerőt, érzelmi, motivációs és magatartási mintázatot szükséges azoknál terápiásan újraépíteni, akik az állapotuk miatt vesztes, inaktív és regresszív léthelyzetbe szorultak.

Background: Unemployment can have a variety of causes. For this study, we examined the situation of "sine morbo" individuals who are searching for a new job due to temporary unemployment. In a world that is constantly changing and demands the capacity of flexible adaptation, it is important to assess how a temporary state of unemployment impacts the personality of the affected individuals.

Objective: Our work was driven by an effort to investigate personality changes that occur and can be detected as a result of the experience of temporary unemployment and the need to look for a job. We aimed to explore those personality forces and abilities that, while keeping individuals in the "sine morbo" state, enable them to make an effort to find employment and mobilise their coping abilities. We also explored the situational changes resulting from unemployment-induced insecurity, which may adversely affect an individual's job search prospects.

Method: Rorschach Complex Personality Examination, mapping basic personality information areas / perception, coping abilities, control functions, emotional life, behavioural control, behavioural model reactions, etc.

Test sample: 599 jobseekers as well as 531 non-jobseekers who are unable to work due to chronic illness. The control subjects are patients with chronic pain syndrome.

Results: The situation of fighting against job loss is characterised by increased self-efficacy, motivational activity and strong emotional mobilisation. Emotional control is reflective of a sense of equilibrium, and the mental control abilities of people suffering from anxiety are therefore weaker. Strong ambition, but the attitude of hiding of weakness and a higher level of sensibility are typical for the temporary job seekers. The subjects exhibit target-driven activity and seek to preventive copings and distancing themselves from the problem, dispassionate attitude", or "attempts at rationalising the situation". The intellectual means for treating the growing sense of insecurity and lack of self-esteem are weak, as subjective thinking takes hold. The subjects' behavioural control remains adaptive, they do not exhibit strong rumination, complaining or self-pity, and only have a low rate on catastrophising scale.

Conclusion: In contrast with the control subjects, who are severely impaired and / or limited in their work motivation, the "sine morbo" jobseekers are characterised by their ability to maintain self-efficacy, perseverance, motivation and ambition. This ability is the balancing pillar of personality, and psychological- state variables that are considered to be unfavourable are thus mirrors of temporary regression. Individuals who are permanently unable to work for health reasons should therefore be offered teaching to "train" their positive motivation and control functions. This could be a basic requirement of their rehabilitation.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The current study aimed to assess how sports bettors respond to advertised bets on social media and whether this differs dependent upon bet complexity and social media account type.

Methods

Employing a 3 × 2 repeated measures design, 145 regular football bettors were recruited to take part in an online study requiring them to rate bets advertised upon social media, providing indications of their likelihood to bet, confidence in the bet and how much they would stake on the bet. Advertised bets differed in terms of complexity (low, medium and high) and each bet was presented separately on both an operator account and an affiliate account.

Results

Data analysis highlighted a significant interaction between bet complexity and account type, with bettors rating themselves as being more likely to bet and more confident in bets which were presented on an affiliate account for medium complexity bets but not for low or high complexity bets.

Discussion and conclusions

This study provides initial evidence that affiliate marketing of sports betting increases bettor's confidence in certain types of bets. This heightens previously addressed concerns around affiliate marketing, given that affiliates are financially incentivised to attract custom toward gambling operators. Future research should explore risk factors for increased uptake of affiliate marketing, and the impact on gambling behaviour.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: André Sevenius Nilsen, Bjørn Erik Juel, Nadine Farnes, Luis Romundstad, and Johan Frederik Storm

Abstract

Background and aims

While psychedelic agents are known to have powerful, but largely unexplained, effects on contents of consciousness, there is an increasing interest in the potential clinical usefulness of such drugs for therapy, and legalization is discussed in some countries. Thus, it is relevant to study the effects of psychedelic compounds not only on experience, but also on behavioral performance.

Methods

Seven healthy participants performed a motor response inhibition task before, during, and after sub-anesthetic doses of intravenously administered ketamine. The infusion rate was individually adjusted to produce noticeable subjective psychedelic effects.

Results

We observed no statistically significant impact of sub-anesthetic ketamine on reaction times, omission errors, or post error slowing, relative to the preceding drug-free condition. However, we did observe significant correlations between performance impairment and self-reported, subjective altered states of consciousness, specifically experience of “anxiety” and “complex imagery.”

Conclusions

Considering the limited number of participants and large variation in strength of self-reported experiences, further studies with wider ranges of ketamine doses and behavioral tasks are needed to determine the presence and strength of potential behavioral effects.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Valentin Flaudias, Sylvain Iceta, Oulmann Zerhouni, Rachel F Rodgers, Joël Billieux, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Jordane Boudesseul, Ingrid de Chazeron, Lucia Romo, Pierre Maurage, Ludovic Samalin, Laurent Bègue, Mickael Naassila, Georges Brousse, and Sébastien Guillaume

Abstract

Background and aims

Since mid-March 2020, over 3 billion people have been confined as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic eating behaviors are likely to be impacted by the pandemic through multiple pathways. This study examined the relationships between stress related to lockdown measures and binge eating and dietary restriction in a population of French students during the first week of confinement.

Methods

A sample of undergraduate students (N = 5,738) completed an online questionnaire 7 days after lockdown measures were introduced. The survey comprised variables related to lockdown measures and the COVID-19-pandemic, mood, stress, body image, binge eating and dietary restriction during the past 7 days, as well as intent to binge eat and restrict in the following 15 days.

Results

Stress related to the lockdown was associated with greater likelihood of binge eating and dietary restriction over the past week and intentions to binge eat and restrict over the next 15 days. Greater exposure to COVID-19-related media was associated with increased eating restriction over the past week. Binge eating and restriction (past and intentions) were associated with established risk factors, including female gender, low impulse regulation, high body dissatisfaction, and having a concurrent probable eating disorder.

Discussion and conclusion

The higher the stress related to the first week of confinement, the higher the risk of problematic eating behaviors among students, particularly those characterized by eating-related concerns. Screening for risk factors and providing targeted interventions might help decrease problematic eating behaviors among those who are most vulnerable.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic internet use (PIU) is a highly prevalent condition with severe adverse effects. The literature suggests that parent-child bonding and parental behavioral control exert protective effects against PIU. However, the most relevant studies rely on simplistic measurement of parenting, cross-sectional designs and mixed-aged samples. Our study analyzed the effect of maternal and paternal parenting on PIU by using a prospective design and a cohort sample of same-aged children.

Methods

Data from 1,019 Czech 12-year-old sixth-graders who were followed until ninth grade were used. Maternal and paternal responsiveness and strictness were reported by children using the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and the Parental Control Scale (PCS). PIU was measured by the Excessive Internet Use Scale (EIUS).

Results

The self-reported PIU prevalence in nine-graders (15-year-old) was 8.1%. Parenting, reported by adolescents 18 months before PIU screening, showed significant relationships with PIU: parental responsiveness was negatively and moderately associated, while maternal strictness showed a weak positive association; the authoritative parenting style in both parents decreased PIU, with a PIU probability of 3.21%, while a combination of maternal authoritarian and paternal neglectful parenting was associated with PIU probability as high as 20.9%.

Discussion and conclusions

The self-reported prevalence of PIU in Czech adolescents was found to be high. The effects of parenting on PIU were similar to the effects of parenting on other problematic behavior among adolescents. Our findings showed the need for interventions to prevent PIU by helping parents to apply optimal parenting styles.

Open access

Abstract

Similar to much of the mental health field, psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy has failed to center the needs of people of color. Monnica Williams and colleagues demonstrate the harm faced by Black women and other people of color when working with psychedelic-assisted psychotherapists that are unaware of and ill-equipped to address sensitive topics related to race. Here I discuss the benefits and limitations of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy training for therapists that have not engaged in deep and reflective processes to understand their personal engagement in racism, privilege, and oppression. I call on leaders in the field of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy to adhere to a new standard of intersectional cultural humility for anyone preparing to provide these services. Finally, I highlight the need to significantly increase the number of therapists of color trained to offer psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy to begin to address racial disparities to access to these radical treatments for trauma.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The clinical significance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is spreading worldwide, but its underlying neural mechanism still remains unclear. Moreover, the prevalence of IGD seems to be the highest in adolescents whose brains are in development. This study investigated the functional connectivity between large-scale intrinsic networks including default mode network, executive control network, and salience network. We hypothesized that adolescents with IGD would demonstrate different functional connectivity patterns among large-scale intrinsic networks, implying neurodevelopmental alterations, which might be associated with executive dysfunction.

Methods

This study included 17 male adolescents with Internet gaming disorder, and 18 age-matched male adolescents as healthy controls. Functional connectivity was examined using seed-to-voxel analysis and seed-to-seed analysis, with the nodes of large-scale intrinsic networks used as region of interests. Group independent component analysis was performed to investigate spatially independent network.

Results

We identified aberrant functional connectivity of salience network and default mode network with the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in adolescents with IGD. Furthermore, functional connectivity between salience network and pSTS correlated with proneness to Internet addiction and self-reported cognitive problems. Independent component analysis revealed that pSTS was involved in social brain network.

Discussion and conclusions

The results imply that aberrant functional connectivity of social brain network with default mode network and salience network was identified in IGD that may be associated with executive dysfunction. Our results suggest that inordinate social stimuli during excessive online gaming leads to altered connections among large-scale networks during neurodevelopment of adolescents.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Buying-shopping disorder and its transferability to the online sector is controversial. This study investigates in-store and online shopping patterns by comparing data-based modeling to a diagnostic cut-off approach. Further aims were to test model equivalence for gender and identify socio-demographic risk factors.

Methods

In a representative survey, the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale (BSAS) was applied, using both an online and in-store version. Latent class analyses were followed by multinomial logistic regression analyses to investigate socio-demographic variables. Measurement invariance across genders was tested with multi-group comparisons.

Results

With N = 1,012, 3-class solutions provided the best model fit for both in-store and online shopping. Most individuals (76, 86%) were grouped in non-addicted classes, followed by risky (21, 11%) and addicted classes (both 3%). Twenty-eight percent of individuals in the online addicted shopping class remained unidentified using the cut-off. For online shopping, only lower age and education differentiated classes significantly.

Discussion

Results indicate a close link between online and in-store shopping, albeit with distinguishing features. The cut-off yielded findings discrepant from class probabilities. That buying-shopping disorder mainly affects younger women of lower educational level must be questioned, given the limited associations identified.

Conclusions

It is important not only to consider different settings of pathological shopping, but also to focus on groups that may not have appeared at risk in previous investigations (e.g., men, older age). The BSAS cut-off warrants further research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Mobile phone addiction (MPA) is frequently reported to be correlated with anxiety, depression, stress, impulsivity, and sleep quality among college students. However, to date, there is no consensus on the extent to which those factors are correlated with MPA among college students. We thus performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively synthesize the previous findings.

Methods

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM) databases from inception to August 1, 2020. Pooled Pearson's correlation coefficients between MPA and anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and sleep quality were calculated by R software using random effects model.

Results

Forty studies involving a total of 33, 650 college students were identified. Weak-to-moderate positive correlations were found between MPA and anxiety, depression, impulsivity and sleep quality (anxiety: summary r = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.34–0.45, P < 0.001, I 2 = 84.9%; depression: summary r = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.32–0.40, P < 0.001, I 2 = 84.2%; impulsivity: summary r = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.28–0.47, P < 0.001, I 2 = 94.7%; sleep quality: summary r = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.22–0.33, P < 0.001, I 2 = 85.6%). The pooled correlations revealed some discrepancies when stratified by some moderators. The robustness of our findings was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions

The current meta-analysis provided solid evidence that MPA was positively correlated with anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and sleep quality. This indicated that college students with MPA were more likely to develop high levels of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity and suffer from poor sleep quality. More studies, especially large prospective studies, are warranted to verify our findings.

Open access

Abstract

Psychedelic medicine is an emerging field of research and practice that examines the psychotherapeutic effects of substances classified as hallucinogens on the human mind, body, and spirit. Current research explores the safety and efficacy of these substances for mental health disorders including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although current studies explore psychotherapeutic effects from a biomedical perspective, gaps in awareness around cultural issues in the therapeutic process are prominent. African Americans have been absent from psychedelic research as both participants and researchers, and little attention has been paid to the potential of psychedelics to address traumas caused by racialization. This paper examines cultural themes and clinical applications from the one-time use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as part of an US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical trial and training exercise for three African American female therapists. The primary themes that emerged across the varied experiences centered on strength, safety, connection, and managing oppression/racialization. The participants' experiences were found to be personally meaningful and instructive for how Western models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy could be more effective and accessible to the Black community. Included is a discussion of the importance of facilitator training to make best use of emerging material when it includes cultural, racial, and spiritual themes. A lack of knowledge and epistemic humility can create barriers to treatment for underserved populations. Implications for future research and practice for marginalized cultural groups are also discussed, including consideration of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) as an adjunct to the psychedelic-therapy approaches currently advanced. As women of color are among the most stigmatized groups of people, it is essential to incorporate their perspectives into the literature to expand conversations about health equity.

Open access