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Abstract

With the global expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic, social or physical distancing, quarantines, and lockdowns have become more prevalent. Concurrently, Pornhub, one of the largest pornography sites, has reported increased pornography use in multiple countries, with global traffic increasing over 11% from late February to March 17, 2020. While some substantial increases have coincided with Pornhub making its premium services free to countries in lockdowned or quarantined jurisdictions, countries without such free premium access have also reported increases in the range of 4–24%. In addition, pornography searches using the terms “coronavirus”, “corona”, and “covid” have reached more than 9.1 million. In this letter, we discuss COVID-19-related pornography-use patterns and the impact they may have with respect to problematic pornography use.

Open access

Abstract

Objectives

Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is essential for the condition's diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms of IGD remain elusive at present. Hence, we employed multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) to explore this issue.

Methods

Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 103 IGD subjects (male = 57) and 99 well-matched recreational game users (RGUs, male = 51). Regional homogeneity was calculated as the feature for MVPA based on the support vector machine (SVM) with leave-one- out cross-validation. Mean time series data extracted from the brain regions in accordance with the MVPA results were used for further spDCM analysis.

Results

Results display a high accuracy of 82.67% (sensitivity of 83.50% and specificity of 81.82%) in the classification of the two groups. The most discriminative brain regions that contributed to the classification were the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PG), right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Significant correlations were found between addiction severity (IAT and DSM scores) and the ReHo values of the brain regions that contributed to the classification. Moreover, the results of spDCM showed that compared with RGU, IGD showed decreased effective connectivity from the left PG to the right MFG and from the right PG to the ACC and decreased self-connection in the right PG.

Conclusions

These results show that the weakening of the PG and its connection with the prefrontal cortex, including the ACC and MFG, may be an underlying mechanism of IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

Critics of gaming disorder (GD; i.e., Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5; Gaming disorder in the ICD-11) have expressed concerns about the potential risks of misclassification (e.g., false positives). An important consideration of relevance to this discussion is the extent to which commonly used screening instruments contain appropriate, sensible, and relevant items. The aim of this review was to evaluate the face validity of items within current tools for GD.

Methods

A systematic review of databases identified 29 instruments. An item bank (n = 417 items) was independently evaluated by three professional raters (i.e., a senior academic in clinical psychology, a senior psychometrician, and an academic/clinical psychologist) according to guidelines for defining and measuring addiction and gaming disorder.

Findings

Evaluation of the item bank identified issues related to: scope (i.e., “scope creep” or items of questionable relevance); language (i.e., confusing language, unusual wording or syntax); and overpathologizing (i.e., pathologizing typical and/or beneficial aspects or consequences of gaming). A total of 71 items across 23 tools had at least one face validity issue.

Conclusions

Most items (83%) demonstrated satisfactory face validity and were consistent with either the DSM-5 or ICD-11 GD classification. However, many tests contain at least one item that may pathologize normal gaming behaviors. Such items refer to basic changes in mood when gaming, a desire to play or continue playing games, and experiencing immersion when gaming. This analysis highlights the challenges of screening for problematic behaviors that are thought to arise within the context of normal recreational activities.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Diminished control over a specific behavior is a core characteristic in addictive behaviors such as problematic Internet-pornography (IP) use. First studies suggest that a hyperactivity of the impulsive system is one reason for impulsive behaviors in the context of problematic IP use. The tripartite-process theory of addiction explains neurocognitive mechanisms beyond common dual-process theories in addictive behaviors. However, the role of the reflective and interoceptive system is still unresolved.

Methods

The study comprised a stop-signal task (SST) including neutral and pornographic images during fMRI and questionnaires to investigate associations between symptoms of problematic IP use, craving, and neural activity of the impulsive, reflective, and interoceptive system. We examined 28 heterosexual males with varying symptom severity of problematic IP use.

Results

Data indicates that individuals with more symptoms of problematic IP use showed better performance in the SST which was linked to decreased insula and inferior frontal gyrus activity during pornographic image processing. An increase in craving was associated with lower activity of the ventral striatum during pornographic image processing. The interoceptive system showed varying effects. Increased insula activity during inhibitory control and decreased activity during pornographic image processing were associated with higher inhibitory control performance.

Discussion and Conclusion

Effects of tolerance and motivational aspects may explain the better inhibitory control performance in individuals with higher symptom severity which was associated with differential activity of the interoceptive and reflective system. Diminished control over IP use presumably results from the interaction between the impulsive, reflective, and interoceptive systems.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Given that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has tentatively been included in DSM-5 as a psychiatric disorder, it is important that the effect of parental and peer attachment in the development of IGD is further explored.

Methods

Utilizing a longitudinal design, this study investigated the bidirectional association between perceived parent–adolescent attachment, peer attachment, and IGD among 1,054 first-year undergraduate students (58.8% female). The students provided demographic information (e.g., age, gender) and were assessed using the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Assessments occurred three times, six months apart (October 2017; April 2018; October 2018).

Results

Cross-lagged panel models suggested that IGD weakly predicted subsequent mother attachment but significantly negatively predicted father attachment. However, father and mother attachment did not predict subsequent IGD. Moreover, peer attachment had a bidirectional association with IGD. Furthermore, the model also demonstrated stable cross-sectional negative correlations between attachment and IGD across all three assessments.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings of the present study did not show a bidirectional association between parental attachment and IGD, but they did show a negative bidirectional association between peer attachment and IGD. The results suggested previous cross-sectional associations between IGD and attachment, with larger links among males than females at the first measurement point. We found that peer attachment negatively predicted subsequent IGD, which indicates that peer attachment plays an important role in preventing addictive gaming behaviors for university students.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Lijuan Shi, Yuanyuan Wang, Hui Yu, Amanda Wilson, Stephanie Cook, Zhizhou Duan, Ke Peng, Zhishan Hu, Jianjun Ou, Suqian Duan, Yuan Yang, Jiayu Ge, Hongyan Wang, Li Chen, Kaihong Zhao, and Runsen Chen

Abstract

Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the associated interaction effects of childhood trauma, depression and anxiety in college students.

Methods

Participants were enrolled full-time as freshmen at a University in the Hunan province, China. All participants reported their socio-demographic characteristics and undertook a standardized assessment on childhood trauma, anxiety, depression and IGD. The effect of childhood trauma on university students' internet gaming behaviour mediated by anxiety and depression was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) using R 3.6.1.

Results

In total, 922 freshmen participated in the study, with an approximately even male-to-female ratio. A mediation model with anxiety and depression as the mediators between childhood trauma and internet gaming behaviour allowing anxiety and depression to be correlated was tested using SEM. The SEM analysis revealed that a standardised total effect of childhood trauma on Internet gaming was 0.18, (Z = 5.60, 95% CI [0.02, 0.05], P < 0.001), with the direct effects of childhood trauma on Internet gaming being 0.11 (Z = 3.41, 95% CI [0.01, 0.03], P = 0.001), and the indirect effects being 0.02 (Z = 2.32, 95% CI [0.00, 0.01], P = 0.020) in the pathway of childhood trauma-depression-internet gaming; and 0.05 (Z = 3.67, 95% CI [0.00, 0.02], P < 0.001) in the pathway of childhood trauma-anxiety-Internet gaming. In addition, the two mediators anxiety and depression were significantly correlated (r = 0.50, Z = 13.54, 95% CI [3.50, 5.05], P < 0.001).

Conclusions

The study revealed that childhood trauma had a significant impact on adolescents' Internet gaming behaviours among college students. Anxiety and depression both significantly mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and internet gaming and augmented its negative influence. Discussion of the need to understand the subtypes of childhood traumatic experience in relationship to addictive behaviours is included.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Hideki Nakayama, Fumihiko Ueno, Satoko Mihara, Takashi Kitayuguchi, and Susumu Higuchi

Abstract

Background and aims

An important proportion of infants and adolescents in Japan are using Internet-equipped devices, including smartphones, tablets, and game consoles. However, the relationship between the risk of IA and the age at initial habitual Internet use remains unknown. We aimed to investigate this relationship among adolescents.

Methods

We surveyed 1,775 subjects in seven public junior high schools in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan, in November 2017. Students were asked to complete the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), which captured information regarding gender, school grade, night sleep, age at which they first started using the Internet at least once weekly, Internet usage situation, and Internet use time for purposes other than study. Data from subjects who reported experience of weekly Internet use were analyzed.

Results

Junior high school students who were younger at initial weekly Internet use tended to have problematic Internet use (PIU) and to spend more time on Internet activities. In particular, initial weekly Internet use before the age of five in boys was associated with a significantly increased risk of PIU (YDQ ≥ 5), with an odds ratio of 14.955, compared with initial weekly Internet use after the age of 12. Smartphone ownership significantly increased the risk of PIU compared with no ownership among the total population and among girls.

Discussion and Conclusions

Junior high school male students displayed a robust relationship between initial weekly Internet use and PIU, whereas junior high school female students displayed a particularly strong relationship between smartphone ownership and PIU. Therefore, longitudinal IA preventive education from an early age is necessary.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) are unable to control their sexual cravings, regardless of other situational factors. This inability to control cravings is a common trait in patients with neurological pathologies related to response inhibition. Until recently, however, it was unclear whether individuals with PHB have decreased inhibition and altered neural responses in the brain regions associated with inhibition compared to healthy control individuals, especially in the presence of distracting sexual stimuli. In this study, we examined the neural and psychological underpinnings of inhibition in individuals with PHB.

Methods

Thirty individuals with PHB and 30 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a modified go/no-go task with neutral or sexual backgrounds used as distractors.

Results

Individuals with PHB showed poorer response inhibition than healthy subjects, especially when sexual distractors were present. Further, compared to healthy control subjects, individuals with PHB showed decreased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and reduced functional connectivity between the IFG and the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA) when response inhibition was required. Finally, the reduced activation and connectivity were more pronounced in the presence of sexual distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors.

Discussion

These findings suggest that individuals with PHB show reduced ability to inhibit responses that might be related to lower IFG activation and IFG-preSMA connectivity during response inhibition. Our results provide insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of poor response inhibition in individuals with PHB.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Roser Granero, Susana Valero-Solis, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Laura Moragas, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Amparo del Pino-Gutierrez, Ester Codina, Virginia Martín-Romera, Gemma Casalé, Zaida Agüera, Isabel Baenas-Soto, Eduardo Valenciano-Mendoza, Bernat Mora-Maltas, Isabel Sánchez, María Lozano-Madrid, José M. Menchón, and Susana Jiménez Murcia

Abstract

Background and aims

The significant increase in the prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) among young adults in recent years has attracted interest in determining therapeutic efficiency in this sector of the population. The aim of this work was to estimate the response trajectories of gambling severity during the six-month follow-up after a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program in young adult patients and to identify the main variables associated with each trajectory.

Methods

The sample included n = 192 patients, aged 19–35 years old, seeking treatment for GD. Response trajectories were identified through latent class growth analysis.

Results

Three trajectories emerged: T1 (n = 118, 61.5%), composed of patients with severe GD at pre-treatment and good evolution to recovery; T2 (n = 62, 32.3%), with patients with moderate-high GD affectation at baseline and good evolution to recovery; and T3 (n = 12, 6.3%), with participants with severe baseline GD severity and poor evolution after CBT (Abbott, 2019). The highest risk of poor therapeutic outcomes was related to lower social index positions, high emotional distress, high scores in harm avoidance and low scores in self-directedness.

Discussion and conclusions

Differences in the response trajectories at short-term follow-up after CBT reveal heterogeneity in the samples including young and young-adult GD patients. Patients' phenotype at baseline should be considered when developing efficient, person-centered intervention programs, which should comprise strategies aimed at increasing emotional regulation capacities, self-esteem and self-efficacy, with the aim of avoiding relapses in the medium-long term after therapy.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Compulsive sexual behavior is characterized by extensive sexual behavior and unsuccessful efforts to control excessive sexual behavior. The aim of the studies was to investigate compulsivity, anxiety and depression and impulsivity and problematic online sexual activities among adult males and females who use the Internet for finding sexual partners and using online pornography.

Methods

Study 1- 177 participants including 143 women M = 32.79 years (SD = 9.52), and 32 men M = 30.18 years (SD = 10.79). The Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST), the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Spielberger Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T STAI-S) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Study 2- 139 participants including 98 women M = 24 years (SD = 5) and 41 men M = 25 years (SD = 4). The impulsivity questionnaire (BIS/BAS), Problematic online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex) and Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST).

Results

Study 1- Multiple regression analysis has indicated that a model which included BDI, Y-BOCS, and STAI scores contributed to the variance of sexual addiction rates, and explained 33.3% of the variance. Study 2- Multiple regression analysis indicated that BIS/BAS and s-IAT scores contributed to the variance of sexual addiction rates, and explained 33% of the variance.

Discussion and conclusions

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms contributed to sexual addiction among individuals who use the Internet for finding sexual partners. Impulsivity and problematic online sexual activity contributed to ratings of sex addiction. These studies support the argument that sex addiction lies on the impulsive-compulsive scale and could be classified as a behavioral addiction.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Kun Qin, Feifei Zhang, Taolin Chen, Lei Li, Wenbin Li, Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Graham J. Kemp, and Qiyong Gong

Abstract

Background and aims

Numerous studies on behavioral addictions (BAs) have reported gray matter (GM) alterations in multiple brain regions by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). However, findings are poorly replicated and it remains elusive whether distinct addictive behaviors are underpinned by shared abnormalities. In this meta-analysis, we integrated VBM studies on different BAs to investigate common GM abnormalities in individuals with BAs.

Methods

We performed a systematic search up to January 2019 in several databases for VBM studies investigating GM differences between individuals with BAs and healthy controls. The reference lists of included studies and high-quality reviews were investigated manually. Anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping was applied in this meta-analysis.

Results

Twenty studies including 505 individuals with BAs and 564 healthy controls met the inclusion criteria. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with BAs showed GM atrophy in the left anterior cingulate (extending to the left medial superior frontal gyrus and bilateral orbitofrontal gyrus), right putamen and right supplementary motor area. Subgroup analysis found heterogeneity in gender and subtypes of BAs. Meta-regression revealed that GM decreases in the left anterior cingulate and right supplementary motor area were positively correlated with addictive severity. Higher impulsivity was associated with smaller volume of the left anterior cingulate.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings on BAs were mainly derived from internet gaming disorder (IGD) and pathological gambling (PG) studies, preliminarily suggesting that GM atrophy in the prefrontal and striatal areas might be a common structural biomarker of BAs.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Haoran Meng, Hongjian Cao, Ruining Hao, Nan Zhou, Yue Liang, Lulu Wu, Lianjiang Jiang, Rongzi Ma, Beilei Li, Linyuan Deng, Zhong Lin, Xiuyun Lin, and Jintao Zhang

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous studies on smartphone use motivation (SUM) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) have been limited in the utilization of regional samples of emerging adults (e.g., college students) and also in the foci on the direct association between SUM and PSU. To address such gaps, using data from a large, national representative sample of Chinese young adolescents and their parents this study examined the associations between adolescents' various types of SUM and their PSU, and also tested the potential mediating roles of smartphone use time (SUT) that adolescents spent on various activities in such associations.

Methods

A nationwide representative sample of 8,261 Chinese adolescents (M age = 12.86 years old, SD = 1.76; 42.6% females) and their parents (49% mothers) participated in this survey study.

Results

Instrumental SUM (i.e., to expand knowledge or acquire information) was associated negatively with PSU via longer SUT spent on learning and shorter SUT spent on entertainment and communication. Self-expression SUM (i.e., to gain acceptance and recognition of others by maintaining or improving self-images) was associated with longer SUT spent on both learning and entertainment, which, in turn, predicted lower and higher levels of PSU, respectively. Last, hedonic SUM (i.e., to gain pleasure) was associated positively with PSU via longer SUT spent on entertainment and communication.

Discussion

These findings contribute to the literature by adding greater specificity in our understanding of the implications of SUM and SUT in the etiology of PSU during the critical life stage of adolescence in a Chinese cultural context.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Martina Goslar, Max Leibetseder, Hannah M. Muench, Stefan G. Hofmann, and Anton-Rupert Laireiter

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction, sex addiction and compulsive buying are common behavioral problems, which share similarities with gambling disorder and substance use disorders. However, little is known about the efficacy of their treatments. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of the treatments of such problem behaviors, and to draw parallels to gambling disorder and substance use disorders in terms of treatment response.

Methods

Literature search yielded 91 studies totaling 3,531 participants to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the short-term and long-term efficacy of psychological, pharmacological and combined treatments for internet addiction, sex addiction, and compulsive buying.

Results

Psychological, pharmacological, and combined treatments were associated with robust pre-post improvements in the global severity of internet addiction (Hedges's g: 1.51, 1.13, and 2.51, respectively) and sex addiction (Hedges's g: 1.09, 1.21, and 1.91, respectively). For compulsive buying, psychological and pharmacological treatments were also associated with a large-sized pre-post reduction in global severity (Hedges's g: 1.00 and 1.52, respectively). The controlled pre-post and within-group pre-follow-up effect sizes were in the similar range, with few exceptions. Moderator analyses suggest that psychological interventions are effective for reducing compulsive behaviors, especially when delivered face-to-face and conducted over extended periods of time. Combinations of cognitive-behavioral approaches with medications showed an advantage over monotherapies.

Discussion and Conclusions

The results suggest that treatments for common behavioral addictions are effective in the short term, similar to those implemented for gambling disorder and substance use disorders, but more rigorous clinical trials are needed.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

There is a considerable amount of research on the psychological antecedents and outcomes of gaming disorder. Although many studies have examined various personality traits or motivations as predictors in isolation, fewer studies have investigated the mediations between personality traits and motivations. Furthermore, the analyzed personality traits have been limited to a few core concepts, with the Big Five personality traits being a standard model in this context. However, more recently the dark triad of personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) has been found to be associated with various forms of problematic online behavior and usage, such as online gambling, yet little is known about gaming disorder. The current study examines the relationship of these dark personality traits to gaming disorder with three gaming motivations (achievement, social, and escapism) as mediators.

Method

The study uses an online survey of 1,502 German digital game users.

Results

Results indicate a fully mediated association for narcissism via escapism and partial mediation associations for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Direct effects on gaming disorder were observed for Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Indirect effects by psychopathy were observed via escapism and social motivation, by narcissism via escapism, and by Machiavellianism via social motivation.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings contribute to the theoretical understanding of the mediation of gaming motivations and the dark triad personality traits' importance for gaming disorder.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ji-Won Chun, Chang-Hyun Park, Jin-Young Kim, Jihye Choi, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Jung-Seok Choi, Dai-Jin Kim, and In Young Choi

Abstract

Background and aims

Although the Internet has provided convenience and efficiency in many areas of everyday life, problems stemming from Internet use have also been identified, such as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Internet addiction, which includes IGD, can be viewed as a behavioral addiction or impulse control disorder. This study investigated the altered functional and effective connectivity of the core brain networks in individuals with IGD compared to healthy controls (HCs).

Methods

Forty-five adults with IGD and 45 HCs were included in this study. To examine the brain networks related to personality traits that influence problematic online gaming, the left and right central executive network (CEN) and the salience network (SN) were included in the analysis. Also, to examine changes in major brain network topographies, we analyzed the default mode network (DMN).

Results

IGD participants showed lower functional connectivity between the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other regions in the CEN than HC participants during resting state. Also, IGD participants revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other regions in the SN and lower functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of the anterior DMN. Notably, in IGD individuals but not HC individuals, there was a positive correlation between IGD severity and effective connectivity and a positive correlation between reward sensitivity and effective connectivity within the ventral striatum of the SN.

Conclusions

Problematic online gaming was associated with neurofunctional alterations, impairing the capacity of core brain networks.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Previous research suggests a therapeutic potential of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). However, online anecdotal reports have described a phenomenon following cessation of the acute effects of 5-MeO-DMT use which has been termed reactivation (i.e., re-experiencing [“flashback”]). To date, no research has investigated whether different routes of administration may confer different reactivation rates, effects and experiences.

Aims

We aimed to assess whether intramuscular injection (IM) and vaporization of 5-MeO-DMT conferred different reactivation rates, changes in satisfaction with life as well as ratings of the experience with ego dissolution and the mystical.

Methods

Using internet-based advertisements, 27 respondents (M age = 32. SE = 1.43; males = 18; North America = 19) completed an online-based survey.

Results

Of the 14 participants in the IM group, 3 (21%) reported reactivations; in contrast, of the 13 participants in the vaporization group, 9 (69%) reported reactivations. Redosing (more than 1 dose) occurred more frequently in the vaporization group (N = 8) (1–6 times with 3–35 mg of 5-MeO-DMT), relative to the IM group (N = 2) (1–5 times with 5–10 mg of 5-MeO-DMT). All participants in the IM group experienced release of physical tension, compared to 8 participants in the vaporization group. Participants in the IM group reported longer time of onset of acute effects (between 1 and 3 [N = 6] and 4–6 min [N = 6]), relative to the vaporization group where the majority (N = 11) reported a rapid onset of 1–50 s.

Conclusion

Findings suggest that compared to vaporization, the IM route of administering 5-MeO-DMT is associated with lower and less doses, lower frequencies of reporting reactivation, a higher frequency of physical tension release, and a slower onset of acute effects.

Open access

Abstract

Objective

Given the growing popularity of ayahuasca and other hallucinogens, we sought to identify related expectancies and their role in why people might use this psychoactive brew rather than classic hallucinogens like LSD or psilocybin.

Method

Experienced users (N = 139) completed an online survey about their use of hallucinogens (including ayahuasca), how their ayahuasca experiences differed from those with other hallucinogens, as well as their intentions to use hallucinogens (including ayahuasca) in the future.

Results

Participants expected ayahuasca effects to differ meaningfully from the effects of other hallucinogens in multiple domains. Expected differences involved positive connections to nature (and other people), dramatic (or terrifying) thoughts, high variability of effects, and physical reactions. Intentions to use ayahuasca in the future increased as expectancies for positive connections increased, but decreased as physical reactions increased. One version of the full Novelty of Ayahuasca scale significantly covaried with the likelihood of using ayahuasca over other hallucinogens in the future, while another version did not. This result calls for further work examining how users perceive certain ayahuasca-induced effects.

Conclusions

These findings reveal that expectancies for ayahuasca differ from those for other hallucinogens, and impact an individual's willingness to try the substance again. Understanding these differences might help those who are interested in the therapeutic potential of hallucinogens decide among those available. Future studies might examine how these expectancies predict intentions to use ayahuasca (and other hallucinogens) longitudinally. Comparable approaches could also identify unique expectancies for other hallucinogens to see if those predict a preference for one over others.

Open access
Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Ujhelyiné Nagy Anikó and Kuritárné Szabó Ildikó

Childhood (intrafamiliar) traumatization is an important pathogen, that often remains unrecognized. It may (de)form the entire personality development and plays a significant role not only in the development of later psychological impairments, but also in the development of health-risk behaviors and chronic health problems. While the role of adverse childhood experiences has been known in the etiology of mental illnesses long ago, its relationship with life-long chronic somatic problems and diseases has only become the focus of international scientific interest in recent decades. Chronic childhood traumatization results in variety of neurobiological, hormonal, and immune function abnormalities, which mediate the pathogenic effect of the adversities toward many organ systems. International studies have confirmed the causal role of childhood traumatization in adult health impairment and also proved that it is an undetected epidemic, given its prevalence and the related adverse consequences. In our summary, we aimed to provide a comprehensive overview about the main research findings regarding the somatic health consequences of adverse childhood experiences. We present the associations between childhood adversities and health-risk behaviours, adult risk factors for cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, digestive and respiratory system problems, chronic pain syndrome, sleep disorders and early death in order to emphasize the need of both preventing and treating childhood adverse experiences and to highlight the public health implications of this hidden epidemic.

Open access

Although Native American communities are unique in their beliefs, traditions, and languages, there are some fundamental common belief systems shared by most Native American cultures. Therapists and other practitioners engaging in a healing relationship with Native Peoples should be aware of these fundamental aspects of the Native American culture. This includes trust/respect, confidentiality outside of the context therapeutic setting, culturally based therapy that is inclusive of Native American traditions, and culture, and making efforts to gain an understanding of the culture with which one will be interacting.

Open access

Recent research suggests that psychedelic drugs can be powerful agents of change when utilized in conjunction with psychotherapy. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy has been studied as a means of helping people overcome posttraumatic stress disorder, believed to work by reducing fear of traumatic memories and increasing feelings of trust and compassion toward others, without inhibiting access to difficult emotions. However, research studies for psychedelic psychotherapies have largely excluded people of color, leaving important questions unaddressed for these populations. At the University of Connecticut, we participated as a study site in a MAPS-sponsored, FDA-reviewed Phase 2 open-label multisite study, with a focus on providing culturally informed care to people of color. We discuss the development of a study site focused on the ethnic minority trauma experience, including assessment of racial trauma, design of informed consent documents to improve understanding and acceptability to people of color, diversification of the treatment team, ongoing training for team members, validation of participant experiences of racial oppression at a cultural and individual level, examination of the setting and music used during sessions for cultural congruence, training for the independent rater pool, community outreach, and institutional resistance. We also discuss next steps in ensuring that access to culturally informed care is prioritized as MDMA and other psychedelics move into late phase trials, including the importance of diverse sites and training focused on therapy providers of color.

Open access

Although it is exciting to witness the culmination of decades of drug policy advocacy and clinical research, the psychedelic science movement struggles with many of the same social issues that plague healthcare in general. The healing properties of plant medicines and their derivatives were originally brought to Western consciousness by indigenous cultures from all over the world. These practices are now being adapted to Western models of healthcare, in part, to achieve governmental approval as medical treatments. The current models of psychedelic psychotherapy being utilized in clinical trials are resource-intensive and therefore likely to remain out of reach for the socioeconomically disadvantaged if approved as medical treatments. Moreover, people of color and women are uncommon in leadership positions in the psychedelic research community, and few people of color are included as research participants in psychedelic studies. This piece introduces a special issue with a focus on issues of diversity, equity, and accessibility in psychedelic medicine.

Open access

The road to the current psychedelic renaissance in research on ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) – the active ingredient of the drug Ecstasy – for addressing treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder has been fraught with political and academic bias, as well as cultural stigma among underserved populations, all of which serve as barriers to minority inclusion and participation. In this open letter to ethnic/racial and sexual/gender minorities, the author details intersectional insights from his own experience being administered MDMA legally as part of a therapist training trial for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy, in hopes of radically destigmatizing this treatment approach for marginalized populations. Themes covered include: set and setting; cultural pride; LGBTQIA+ pride; acceptance of intersectionality; and patience, perspective, and strength in retrospection. This letter concludes by tasking current investigators of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to emphasize issues of intersecting identities (e.g., in terms of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity) in their research agenda, attempt to improve minority participation in a culturally attuned manner, as well as increase minority stakeholdership in this field.

Open access
Restricted access

This commentary considers efforts to turn psychedelics into medications that can be administered through healthcare systems as examples of “medicalization.” I draw on ethnographic research both inside and outside of university-based clinical trials from 2014 to date, together with analogous examples from psychiatry and drug research and development. Rather than taking a normative stance on medicalization, I situate it in a wider political, economic, and cultural context to better understand its logics and effects. I begin by suggesting the resurgence of psychedelic science has been concerned with medicalization from the outset, recently prompting a crisis in the “psychedelics community” over its self-identity and values. Next, against the confident public messaging surrounding psychedelics, I consider how attempts to scale up and market psychedelic-assisted therapy could end up undermining the safety and efficacy of the therapy itself. I then outline the movements to decriminalize, legalize, and minimize the harms and risks of using psychedelics in their currently illicit therapeutic and recreational modalities. Finally, I explore how working toward psychedelic medicalization over the coming years may influence the movements toward decriminalizing and legalizing psychedelics use, focusing on the underarticulated ways in which medicalization may disregard or even hinder, rather than help, decriminalization and legalization efforts. I call attention to how the cost of gaining approval for therapies incentivizes the development of diluted-yet-profitable forms of psychedelic-assisted treatments, and how frameworks developed for “proper use” demarcate what counts as “abuse” and enable those with newly sanctioned access to psychedelics to condemn afresh their illicit use.

Open access

Párkapcsolati mintázatok és kapcsolati elégedettség együtt élő pároknál: az Olson-modell ellenőrzése

Relationship patterns and relationship satisfaction among cohabiting couples: Verifying the Olson model

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Lakatos Csilla, Martos Júlia, Mányai Adrienn, and Martos Tamás

Theoretical background: Relationship satisfaction is one of the most researched areas of family and partnership functioning, an important indicator of the stability and quality of the partnerships. The quality of the partnership also affects general well-being, physical and mental health. Objective: To explore the partnership functioning and satisfaction of married and cohabiting couples based on David H. Olson's family structure concept. Methods: The participants of our cross-sectional questionnaire survey were married and cohabiting couples (n = 282 couples; mean of age: 45.06 ± 9.52 years and 42.74 ± 10.27 years for male and female partners). There were two sub-samples in terms of attending therapy: 202 couples did not take part in therapy (71.6%), 80 couples took part in therapy (28.4%). Measures: Olson Family Test Fourth Edition (FACES-IV), Relationship Satisfaction Scale (RAS-H), and the question in concern with the subjective state of health. Results: A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed with data from 282 couples, based on the dimensions of the Olson Test Cohesion Index, Flexibility Index and Family Communication. Five clusters were identified: (1) “high female cohesion”, (2) “well communicating, ordinary functioning”, (3) “poor communicating”, (4) “high male cohesion”, and (5) “flexible and well communicating” cluster. The difference between the two sub-samples was primarily in the relative frequency of the “poorly communicating” group (56.3% vs. 33.2% for couples with therapy and without therapy). Comparison of couples belonging to clusters showed that the means of clusters differ statistically significantly in the sexual satisfaction with both male partners (F(4) = 11.07, p < 0.002) and female partners (F(4) = 9.48, p < 0.005), as well as male partners (F(4) = 7.66, p < 0.001) and female partners (F(4) = 6.87, p < 0.001). The clusters did not show a significant association with subjective health status. Conclusions: Our results suggest that relationship satisfaction can be experienced in multiple relationship modes. A common feature of well-functioning and well-balanced partnership is good communication, which contributes to cohesion and flexibility, thereby maintaining a balance in the relationship.

Open access

In recent years, the study of psychedelic science has resurfaced as scientists and therapists are again exploring its potential to treat an array of psychiatric conditions, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and addiction. The scientific progress and clinical promise of this movement owes much of its success to the history of indigenous healing practices; yet the work of indigenous people, ethnic and racial minorities, women, and other disenfranchised groups is often not supported or highlighted in the mainstream narrative of psychedelic medicine. This review addresses this issue directly: first, by highlighting the traditional role of psychedelic plants and briefly summarizing the history of psychedelic medicine; second, through exploring the historical and sociocultural factors that have contributed to unequal research participation and treatment, thereby limiting the opportunities for minorities who ought to be acknowledged for their contributions. Finally, this review provides recommendations for broadening the Western medical framework of healing to include a cultural focus and additional considerations for an inclusive approach to treatment development and dissemination for future studies.

Open access

Background and aims

Set and setting function both as a concept that guides research and practice with psychedelic drugs and as a meme aimed at reducing harm among psychedelic users. Referring to non-pharmacological factors that shape drug experiences, the concept of set and setting was popularized in the West during the mid-20th century. However, little theoretical development has occurred regarding what falls under the umbrella of set and setting since its conception.

Methods

By bridging set and setting theory with research from the fields of social psychology and sociology of medicine, this review calls attention to how race can contribute the set and setting for a psychedelic experience.

Results

I argue that psychosocial factors influencing racial differences in mental health also constitute meaningful differences in set. Furthermore, I suggest that the character of race relations in the United States provides a distinct cultural setting for racialized psychedelic users, both in therapeutic and naturalistic contexts. In turn, racial identification may contribute to the variation in framing and interpretation of psychedelic experiences.

Conclusion

These considerations have important implications beyond understanding non-pharmacological influences on psychedelic experiences, including developing protocols for clinical applications of psychedelics, educating future practitioners, and meeting the needs of diverse patient populations.

Open access

This article reflects upon the conception and development of a set of guidelines for the awareness of sexual abuse in ayahuasca settings, an assortment of scenarios that take place in local and global settings entailing the use of a psychedelic brew known for producing visionary and purgative effects composed of Amazonian Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine) commonly combined with the leaves of Psychotria viridis (chacruna) or Diplopterys cabrerana (chaliponga). The globalization and diaspora of ayahuasca expertise, usage, and plant materials has broadened the diversity of individual and group interactions and geographical and social contexts in which this hallucinogenic concoction is ingested, and thus given rise to a range of possibilities, which also may, despondently, include possibilities for sexual harassment and abuse. The authors raise the key issues and processes that have led to formation, publication, and dissemination of the Ayahuasca Community Guide for the Awareness of Sexual Abuse of Chacruna Institute for Psychedelic Plant Medicines, focusing specifically on the needs for such guidelines, as well as the challenges faced in collaboratively creating them. The creation of guidelines as an educational task is wrought with concerns, as they must first and foremost convey the fact that abuse is never the victim/survivor’s fault, and yet they must also aim to inform individuals of potential common scenarios that can lead to abuse. In this sense, guidelines themselves are held up to scrutiny, and the process of collaboratively crafting the Chacruna Institute’s Guide for the Awareness of Sexual Abuse has not been an exception.

Open access

This paper reflects on potential contributions from anthropology to the field of “psychedelic science.” Although the discipline’s beginnings went hand in hand with colonialism, it has made significant contributions to the understanding of Indigenous knowledge systems. Furthermore, recent calls to decolonize our theoretical frameworks and methodology, notably the “ontological turn,” open up the space for engaging meaningfully with Indigenous worldviews. At this critical juncture of the “psychedelic renaissance,” it is important to reflect on whether the current model is satisfactory and on ways to decolonize psychedelic science. What we need is a shift in paradigm, one that will acknowledge the validity of Indigenous worldviews as equal partners to scientific inquiry. Acknowledging the contributions of Indigenous knowledges to psychedelic science is necessary and needs to go hand in hand with attempts to revise biomedical models to be more inclusive in substantial ways. The paper does not argue for the abandonment of the scientific paradigm, rather for the abandonment of its privileged position. Decolonizing psychedelic science will require allowing multiple perspectives to coexist and contribute equally to our efforts going forward.

Open access

Tapasztalatok egy manualizált csoportos edukációs programmal az osztályos kardiológiai rehabilitációban

Experiences with a manualized group patient education program in residential cardiac rehabilitation

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Tiringer István, Nagy Alexandra, Teleki Szidalisz, Žilinski Nikolett, and Szabados Eszter

Our publication presents such a new approach to patient education, which we have learned over the past few years by using a standardized, manualized patient education program in residential cardiac rehabilitation. According to this new approach, the empowerment of patients establishes that they can cope with the illness-related problems in their everyday life. The starting point in this process is that patients receive information about their illness and their treatment according to their needs. Learning realistic attitudes and adequate skills requires education methods the aim of which is to promote active participation and to communicate and discuss one's illness-related ideas and experiences. Active participation of patients' supports the development of responsibility and the implementation of the skills learned in the daily life of patients'. In other parts of the publication the program „Curriculum coronary heart disease” is presented, which served as the basis of our patient education practice. This program consists of five consecutive modules, which was developed in a multidisciplinary collaboration. The parts of the program that deal with reducing risk factors and changing health behaviour were derived from the established Health Action Process Approach model. In our own experience, the use of this standardized, manualized patient education program is made easy by its structure and extensive elaboration. These characteristics are not only prerequisites for the quality of the application but are also very helpful in regulating the group dynamic processes that can develop when discussing lifestyle change issues. The standardized application of the patient education program can be the basis of its later evaluation and the research of its mechanisms.

Open access

A társas helyzetben tapasztalt flow-élmény kapcsolata az élettel való elégedettséggel és a pszichológiai jólléttel, fiatal felnőtteknél

Experiencing flow in social activities and its relationship with satisfaction with life and psychological wellbeing, in the sample of young adults

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Magyaródi Tímea and Oláh Attila

Theoretical background: Flow can contribute to well-being, because as an activity theory, it is related to the positive consequences, and contributions to development of the behavior. Aim: Flow in a social interaction and its relationship with the different well-being concepts has not been studied yet, however the contributing role of social relationships to well-being has been emphasized a lot. This study aims to reveal this relationship. We investigate the effect of the frequency and intensity of flow in social activities, and flow synchronization. Methods: 1060 adult people took part in the online cross-sectional survey study – age: M(SD) = 26.67(10.76) years. They filled in the questionnaires anonymously: General Flow Description, General Flow Description in Social Interactions, Flow State Questionnaire, Flow Synchronization Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scales of Psychological Well-being. Results: according to the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency (β = 0.07, p = 0.038) and intensity (β = 0.08, p = 0.039) of flow in a social activity can predict satisfaction with life, while the frequency of flow in solitary situations = 0.10, p - 0.002) and flow synchronization (interactional aspects during a cooperative flow-inducing activity) (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) may contribute to psychological well-being Consequences: the social aspects of flow can contribute to well-being, the frequency, intensity and synchronization factors can help elaborating the person's mental health.

Open access

Background and aims

Overindulgence in Internet gaming, which is related to rapid development of the online game industry, can cause a psychiatric disorder known as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). The number of adolescents with IGD is on the rise in countries with developed Internet technologies, such as South Korea. Therefore, it is important to develop biomarkers to detect patients at high risk of IGD. This study investigated expression levels of proteins in the blood of adolescents to provide insight into the development of biomarkers.

Methods

We collected blood samples from 73 subjects [40 healthy adolescents (Internet gaming control, IGC) and 33 adolescents with IGD] between 13:00 and 15:00. We analyzed the expression levels of orexin A, oxytocin, cortisol, melatonin, BDNF, sICAM-1, RANTES, and NCAM using multiplex assay kits.

Results

Orexin A was significantly (p = .016) elevated in the IGD group and the expression levels of melatonin tended to be higher (p = .055) in the IGD group. On the other hand, increased Internet gaming time in the IGD group was negatively correlated (p = .041) with expression of BDNF. On the contrary, sICAM-1 associated with inflammation exhibited the tendency of the positive correlation (p = .073) with Internet gaming time in the IGD group.

Discussion and conclusions

We identified elevation of orexin A in the peripheral blood of adolescents with IGD and a negative correlation between Internet gaming time and BDNF in adolescents with IGD. Our results provide useful information to understand the pathophysiology of IGD in adolescents.

Open access

Background and aims

Individuals who meet criteria for compulsive buying–shopping disorder (i.e., acquiring problems only) or hoarding disorder (i.e., acquiring and discarding problems) may acquire possessions to compensate for unmet belonging needs, but may do so in different ways. Those with compulsive buying–shopping disorder may acquire objects that they believe will relieve the distress associated with unmet belonging needs (e.g., objects that distract or comfort), whereas those with hoarding disorder may acquire objects that they believe achieve belonging needs (e.g., objects that have interpersonal connotations). Accordingly, this study examined whether a belongingness threat would drive individuals who excessively acquire possessions to choose a human-like object (person-shaped tea holder) or a comfort item (box of chamomile tea).

Methods

One hundred seventy-five participants (57 self-reported excessive acquiring only; 118 self-reported excessive acquiring and difficulty discarding) recalled a time when they either felt supported or unsupported by a significant other before choosing an object to take home with them. Participants rated how anthropomorphic and comforting the objects were as well as how attached they became to their chosen object.

Results

Unsupported individuals were more likely to acquire the comfort item than supported individuals; however, individuals with both acquiring and discarding problems were more likely to acquire the human-like item than those with an acquiring problem only. Comfort and anthropomorphism ratings predicted object choice and attachment.

Discussions and conclusion

The current findings extend the Compensatory Consumer Behavior Model to include what factors determine strategy choice and object attachment.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: Nathan D. Sepeda, John M. Clifton, Laura Y. Doyle, Rafael Lancelotta, Roland R. Griffiths, and Alan K. Davis

Background and aims

5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a potent, short-acting psychedelic that produces strong hallucinogenic effects. The association between the context (i.e., set and setting) of 5-MeO-DMT use and the acute and enduring effects of the substance is unknown. Therefore, this study examined these associations using secondary data from two cross-sectional survey studies.

Methods

The acute and enduring effects of inhaled synthetic 5-MeO-DMT were compared between individuals who used 5-MeO-DMT in a non-structured context (NSC; n = 216, female = 10%, M age = 35.5, SD = 11.8) and those who used in a structured context (SC; n = 362, female = 45%, M age = 47.7, SD = 13.3). Questionnaires were administered online and responses were anonymized for privacy purposes. Respondents were asked to retrospectively rate their first experience with synthesized 5-MeO-DMT on measures of mystical experience, challenging experience, and enduring effects.

Results

Both groups endorsed high ratings on the Mystical Experience Questionnaire; however, mean scores were significantly higher in the SC group compared to the NSC group. Similarly, the proportion of respondents who had a complete mystical experience was significantly larger in the SC group (83%) compared to the NSC group (54%). Ratings of enduring effects (i.e., meaningfulness, spirituality, and well-being) were also significantly higher, and the intensity of challenging experiences was significantly lower, in the SC group compared to the NSC group.

Conclusions

5-MeO-DMT appears to occasion mystical-type experiences with enduring positive effects, which are more intense when 5-MeO-DMT is administered in a safe and supportive context. Future prospective experimental studies should examine the effects of 5-MeO-DMT and its interactive relationship with supportive contextual factors.

Open access

Elméleti háttér

A reziliencia azon tényezőket foglalja magában, amelyek a potenciálisan traumatizáló, veszélyeztetett életkörülmények ellenére történő sikeres alkalmazkodást elősegítik, a stressz negatív hatásait enyhítik, és a változásokkal szembeni adaptív megküzdést lehetővé teszik. A Szülői Reziliencia Skála (Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire – PREQ) a szülők lelki ellenálló képességének mérésére kidolgozott eszköz.

Célkitűzések

A kutatás célja a 16 itemes PREQ magyar nyelvre adaptálása és pszichometriai elemzése volt.

Módszerek

Keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves vizsgálatunkban összesen 249 szülő vett részt – 65 fős vulnerábilis csoport (átlagéletkor:42,3 év; szórás: 5,66 év) és 184 fős kontrollcsoport (átlagéletkor: 40,7 év; szórás: 6,01 év) – , akik az alábbi kérdőíveket töltötték ki: 16 itemes Szülői Reziliencia Kérdőív (PREQ16), a Connor–Davidson Reziliencia Skála 10 itemes változata (CD-RISC 10), General Health Questionnaire 12itemes változata (GHQ12), Beck Depresszió Kérdőív 21 itemes változata (BDI21), Szülői Stressz Kérdőív (PASS), Képességek és Nehézségek Kérdőív (SDQ).

Eredmények

A konfirmatív faktorelemzés igazolta magyar mintán az eredeti Szülői Reziliencia Kérdőív 3 faktoros struktúráját, a kérdőív Cronbach-alfa értéke magas (0,842) volt. A kérdőív az elvárásoknak megfelelő irányú együtt járást mutatott a validáláshoz alkalmazott konstruktumokkal, a konvergens, divergens, diszkrimináló és inkrementális validitás egyaránt megegyezett a nemzetközi irodalomban tapasztaltakkal.

Következtetések

Összességében elmondhatjuk, hogy a 16 itemes PREQ magyar változatának (PREQ-H) pszichometriai mutatói megfelelőek, a kérdőív megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyul a szülői reziliencia mérésére.

Open access

Háttér és célok

Az amputáció egy olyan átélt trauma, amely gyökeresen átalakítja az egyén önmagáról és a külvilágról alkotott képét. Jelen vizsgálat célja az volt, hogy megvizsgáljuk, az amputáción átesett betegek milyen pszichés, szociális és fizikai nehézségekkel találják szembe magukat a műtétet követően, valamint hogyan igyekeznek megküzdeni a kritikus élethelyzettel. A reziliencia nézőpontjából azt kerestük, melyek azok a protektív és rizikótényezők, amelyek szerepet játszanak az alkalmazkodóképesség és a betegek mentális egészségének megőrzésében.

Módszer

Alsóvégtag-amputált diabetes mellitusban szenvedő betegeket (n = 46) vizsgáltunk utánkövetéssel az amputációt követő első, illetve hatodik hónapban, a kutatócsoportunk által összeállított kérdőívcsomag segítségével. Kontrollcsoportként egészséges vizsgálati személyeket vontunk be (n = 63), valamint 2-es típusú cukorbetegeket (n = 54). A kérdőívcsomag tartalmazta a Beck Depresszió Kérdőívet (BDI-R), a Connor–Davidson Reziliencia Skálát (CD-RISC), a Társas Támogatás Kérdőívet (MOS-SSS), a Pozitív és Negatív Affektivitás Skálát (PANAS), valamint a Folkman és Lazarus-féle Konfl iktusmegoldó Kérdőívet (WOC).

Eredmények

Az amputációt követő hatodik hónapban a depresszió, valamint a negatív érzelmek mértéke szignifikáns csökkenést mutat, de a depresszió és a negatív érzelmek jelenléte az alkalmazkodás sikerességét veszélyezteti. Ezzel együtt a reziliencia és a pozitív érzelmek dominanciája növekszik. A társas támogatás keresése, különösképpen a betegek pozitív szociális interakción alapuló támasz iránti igénye nő az idő előrehaladtával, mindez pozitív kapcsolatban áll a rezilienciával. Továbbá protektív tényezőként van jelen a céltudatos cselekvés és az alkalmazkodás mint megküzdési stratégiák, de a negatív érzelmek jelenléte gyengíti a betegek adaptív megküzdését.

Következtetések

A magasabb rezilienciával rendelkező betegek alkalmazkodása sikeresebb, mint azoké, akik negatív alkalmazkodási stratégiákat alkalmaznak.

Open access

Are more generous altruists more likely to signal their altruism? According to the theory of costly signaling, altruists signal their altruism in order to enhance their reputations; this theory predicts that above-average altruists will be most likely to signal their altruism. However, previous empirical research has found that average altruists are more likely to signal their altruism than above- and below-average altruists, suggesting adherence to an egalitarian norm. Studies of real-life of altruism, reputation management, and signaling are rare. Here, we examined a sport charity database to look at the behavior of donors and fundraising runners. We observed that average donors are the most likely to publish both their names and the amount, whereas below-average donors are more likely to publish only their name (and hide the amount), and extremely generous donors are more likely to publish only the amount (and hide their name) than less generous donors. We also found that runners who targeted a higher sum or a longer distance garnered larger sums through larger individual donations. These results support egalitarian theories of signaling and show that humans actively manipulate the information about their altruistic act to maximize their reputation.

Open access

Background and aims

Evidence from the field of addictive disorders suggests that attentional bias for stimuli related to a substance or activity of abuse (e.g., gambling) exacerbates the addictive behavior. However, evidence regarding attentional bias in PIU is sparse. This study aims to investigate whether individuals who express problematic tendencies toward social networking sites (SNS), a subtype of PIU, show attentional bias for stimuli associated with social media.

Methods

Sixty-five participants performed Visual Dot-Probe and Pleasantness Rating Tasks containing SNS-related and matched control images during eye movements were recorded, providing a direct measure of attention. Participants were assessed on their levels of SNS Internet use (ranging from problematic to non-problematic) and their levels of urges to be online (high vs. low).

Results

Problematic SNS users and, in particular, a subgroup expressing higher levels of urges to be online showed an attentional bias for SNS-related images compared to control images.

Conclusion

These results suggest that attentional bias is a common mechanism associated with problematic Internet use as well as other addictive disorders.

Open access

Háttér és célkitűzések

A halogató viselkedés kutatásában egyre hangsúlyosabb szerepet kap a maladaptív passzív halogatás és a hatékony stratégiaként alkalmazható aktív halogatás elkülönítése. Tanulmányunk célja a Choi és Moran (2009) által kidolgozott Aktív-Passzív Halogatás Kérdőív magyar változatának (Szabó, 2012) pszichometriai tesztelése volt. Módszer: Magyar egyetemi hallgatókból álló mintán (N = 843) ellenőriztük a kérdőív struktúráját, reliabilitását és kapcsolatát más pszichológiai tényezőkkel.

Eredmények

A feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzések alapján egy passzív és egy aktív halogatás alskála jelenik meg a korábbiakban használt ötfaktoros struktúrával szemben. Az alskálák belső megbízhatósága jónak tekinthető. Az aktív halogatás pozitív, míg a passzív halogatás negatív kapcsolatban áll az önértékeléssel és a tanulási énhatékonysággal. Az időperspektívát tekintve a passzív halogatás a múlt-negatív orientációval pozitív, míg a jövőorientációval negatív együtt járást mutat. A halogatásfaktorokon alapuló klaszterelemzés szerint kialakított csoportok között különbség van a tanulási eredmény tekintetében. A legeredményesebbek a nem halogatók csoportjába tartozók, őket követik az aktív és a passzív halogatók.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján kapott nyolcitemes kérdőív alkalmas a klasszikus passzív halogatás, illetve az időnyomás-preferencia kapcsán kialakuló aktív halogatás elkülönítésére. Azonban az eredeti modellben használt további aktívhalogatás-típusok feltárására más eszközök kidolgozása szükséges.

Open access

A modern emlékezetkutatás másfél évszázada indult el Hering elméletével, mely először kötötte az emlékezés közismert kulturális gyakorlatát az idegszövet feltételezett átalakulásaihoz. Azóta is vita tárgya, hogy vajon a múlt minden hatását emlékezetnek nevezzük-e, vagy csupán az egykori helyzetek és események visszaidézését. Az előadás kiindulópontja, hogy az emlékezet kutatása azóta három vágányon halad. Keressük a szervezet múltjának neurális nyomait, az emlékezés szerveződését az egyén lelki életében, s a visszaidézések csoport szervezte s csoportteremtő gyakorlataiban a kulturális (akár történeti) emlékezetet nyomozzuk.

A hagyományok közti kapcsolatteremtés egyik fogalmi kérdése a „mik vagy kik” az emlékek és az emlékezés hordozói és ágensei? Emlékezik-e a hippokampusz, s emlékeznek-e a kondicionált állatok? Hogyan emlékezhetnek csoportok, miként Halbwachs ma felújított évszázados elmélete sugallja, úgy, hogy közben ne tételezzünk misztikus „csoportlelkeket”. Hogyan használunk emlékezeti erőforrásként másokat, könyveket, könyvtárakat, s keresőmotorokat? Ki végzi ilyenkor az emlékezést, s hová rendelődik a bevésés-tárolás-felidézés klasszikus hármassága?

Klasszikus kérdés mindhárom kutatási hagyományban az emlékek és tudások szerveződése. Ismertetőjegyek, helyek, képek, szokások, történetek, eljárások világáról született biológiai, pszichológiai és kulturális elméletek kavalkádja. Bergson óta velünk él az az igény, hogy az emlékeket a személyhez (egóhoz, selfhez) kapcsoljuk, s az ént egyszerre tekintsük mint a test, a személyi élmény és a társas hatás emlékezeti integrációs felületét és ezek működésének eredményét. A mellett érvelek, hogy a jelentésteli emlékek elbeszélő felfogása, amelyet a hazai irodalomban László János képviselt, kapcsolatot tud teremteni a pszichológiai és a kulturális emlékezet, gyakorlatok és kutatási hagyományok között.

Mint egy pszichológustól joggal várható is, mondanivalóm az lesz, hogy a C. P. Snow kiemelte két kultúra, de mára akár három kultúra (művészet, bölcsészet, tudomány) örökségében a kísérleti pszichológus hivatása, hogy megteremtse a hidat és párbeszédet ezek között a szétvált társalgási univerzumok között. Saját emlékezetikultusz-személyeink, Ranschburg, Rapaport, Kardos, Grastyán, Mérei és László életműve és nyitott gondolkodása hordozza ezt az igényt mint elkötelező örökséget.

Restricted access

Az Intim Kötődés Mérése (IBM-HU) kérdőív pszichometriai jellemzőinek bemutatása

Presentation of psychometric characteristics of the Intimate Bond Measurement questionnaire (IBM-HU)

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Éva Hadházi and Szabolcs Takács

Background: The Intimate Bond Measurement (IBM) questionnaire is suitable for determining and measuring the two main constructs of intimacy, the care and control dimensions, in international research, it is mainly used as a tool to measure intimacy in partnership. Aim: in our study we present the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire on the Hungarian population. Method: 1318 persons (250 men, 1068 women; average age 34.77 years, SD = 10.91 years) filled in self-reporting questionnaires in a cross-sectional study, beside the demographic data: Intimate Bond Measurement, Relationship Assessment Scale, Experiences in Close Relationships – Relationship Structures, Parental Bonding Instrument, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and The MOS Social Support Survey. Results: Due to the confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, the same factor structure outlined as shown by international literature. The Cronbach's alpha values are high enough (Care Scale: 0.94; Control Scale: 0.91) and scales correlated negatively (r = −0.58, p < 0,01). The degree of intimacy was independent of socio-demographic factors (gender, education, place of residence, income situation, marital status, presence and number of children). People who were self-reported to suffer from chronic illnesses and those who were treated for mental reasons were distinguished from the sine morbo group. And in the values of the care scale they were below those that did not have such characteristics, while the values of the control scale were significantly higher for those receiving treatment for psychological reasons. The correlation of intimacy with other factors was only considered where the correlation coefficient reached 0.3. The relationship satisfaction showed strong, positive correlation with care, and negative with control. Care negatively while control is positively correlated with the scale of avoidance and anxiety of adult attachment with partner. From parental bonding, the paternal restriction arises in the group of those who are treated for mental problems: the more restrictive their father was, the less caring and the more controlling they find their partner. Depression and trait anxiety showed a negative correlation with care perception, although not everywhere reached the relevant level. The perception of control was only associated with depression and trait anxiety in patients with chronic disease. We found a positive correlation of all three dimensions of social support with care, and a consistent negative correlation with control, but their strength was quite variable. Conclusions: IBM-HU can be considered a reliable and valid measurement tool for the care and control dimensions of intimacy.

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Background and aims

Cybersex use (CU) is highly prevalent in Switzerland’s population, particularly among young men. CU may have negative consequences if it gets out of control. This study estimated prevalence of CU, frequency of CU (FCU), and problematic CU (PCU) and their correlates.

Methods

A non-selective sample of young Swiss men (N = 5,332, mean age = 25.45) completed a questionnaire assessing FCU and PCU, sociodemographics (age, linguistic region, and education), sexuality (being in a relationship, number of sexual partners, and sexual orientation), dysfunctional coping (denial, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, and self-blame), and personality traits (aggression/hostility, sociability, anxiety/neuroticism, and sensation seeking). Associations were tested using hurdle and negative binomial regression models.

Results

At least monthly CU was reported by 78.6% of participants. CU was associated positively with post-secondary schooling (vs. primary schooling), German-speaking (vs. French-speaking), homosexuality, bisexuality (vs. heterosexuality), more than one sexual partner (vs. one), dysfunctional coping (except denial), and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with being in a relationship (vs. not), age, and sociability. FCU was associated positively with homosexuality, bisexuality, no or more than one sexual partner, dysfunctional coping (except denial), and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with age, being in a relationship, and sociability. PCU was associated positively with bisexuality, four or more sexual partners, dysfunctional coping, and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with German-speaking and sociability.

Discussion and conclusions

CU should be viewed in light of its associations with sociodemographic, sexual, and psychological factors. Healthcare professionals should consider these aspects to adapt their interventions to patients’ needs.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Guilherme Borges, Ricardo Orozco, Corina Benjet, Kalina I. Martínez Martínez, Eunice Vargas Contreras, Ana Lucia Jiménez Pérez, Alvaro Julio Peláez Cedrés, Praxedis Cristina Hernández Uribe, María Anabell Covarrubias Díaz Couder, Raúl A. Gutierrez-Garcia, Guillermo E. Quevedo Chavez, Yesica Albor, Enrique Mendez, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Philippe Mortier, and Hans-Juergen Rumpf

Background and aims

DSM-5 includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. While online and offline gaming may produce undesired negative effects on players, we know little about the nosology of IGD and its prevalence, especially in countries with emerging economies.

Methods

A self-administered survey has been employed to estimate prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and study the structure and performance of an instrument in Spanish to measure DSM-5 IGD among 7,022 first-year students in 5 Mexican universities that participated in the University Project for Healthy Students (PUERTAS), part of the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health International College Student Initiative.

Results

The scale for IGD showed unidimensionality with factor loadings between 0.694 and 0.838 and a Cronbach’s α = .816. Items derived from gaming and from substance disorders symptoms mixed together. We found a 12-month prevalence of IGD of 5.2% in the total sample; prevalence was different for males (10.2%) and females (1.2%), but similar for ages 18–19 years (5.0%) and age 20+ (5.8%) years. Among gamers, the prevalence was 8.6%. Students with IGD were more likely to report lifetime psychological or medical treatment [OR = 1.8 (1.4–2.4)] and any severe role impairment [OR = 2.4 (1.7–3.3)]. Adding any severe role impairment to the diagnostic criteria decreased the 12-month prevalence of IGD to 0.7%.

Discussion and conclusions

Prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and the performance of diagnostic criteria in this Mexican sample were within the bounds of what is reported elsewhere. Importantly, about one in every seven students with IGD showed levels of impairment that would qualify them for treatment under DSM-5.

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EMLÉKEZÉS

Hommage Haynal André, az „Aranyember” emlékére

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Sipos Júlia
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EMLÉKEZÉS BARKÓCZI ILONÁRA

A kutató manipulációtól az alkotó gondolkodásig

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author: Kónya Anikó
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Evolutionary explanations of human behavior have produced many new insights, but also much resistance. This essay examines 2 books on sex differences written with very different approaches. Rosemary Hopcroft's Evolution and Gender argues that men and women can be both equal and different and that average biological differences between the sexes, which are often small, do not threaten the ideal of political equality. In Hopcroft's view, understanding these differences with the help of evolutionary theory is a condition for the realization of equality, not an obstacle. Saini's Inferior depicts an opposition between an ‘old science’, portraying sex differences as immense, and a ‘new science’, with most sex differences being so small that they cannot possibly account for social trends. While Evolution and Gender gives a concise and representative view of current evolutionary research on sex differences, Inferior claims that obsessions pervade entire research areas. Evolution and Gender has a careful tone, while Inferior often emphasizes the allegedly ‘controversial’ nature of studies. The essay ends with reflections on how to best communicate the results of evolutionary psychology to the public.

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