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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Background and aims

Scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelics has been experiencing significant growth. Understanding the perceptions of psychedelic assisted psychotherapy (PAP) among health professional, patients, and the public is essential to guide future research objectives, trial protocols, and identify any barriers to future implementation.

Methods

A comprehensive search of the databases (Medline, EMBASE, PSYCHinfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) was conducted on the 29th of November, 2022. This review included cross-sectional, longitudinal, and quasi-experimental studies published in peer-reviewed journals exploring perceptions of PAP among the three stakeholder groups. Studies were limited to English-language and the years 2012–2022. The protocol and review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results

The sample consisted of 29 studies, including n = 17 health professional, n = 6 patients, and n = 6 public. Broadly, knowledge of PAP was low among all three stakeholder groups. There was mixed to positive belief in the therapeutic potential of psychedelics, with male gender, younger age, and personal psychedelic experience/knowledge being key predictors of more favourable views. The majority of findings reported strong endorsement of further research. Consistent themes were identified surrounding concerns about legal status, funding, access, side-effects, and implementation.

Conclusion

The evaluated research indicates a need for further research that will provide clarity about safety and elucidate how PAP may be implemented in public health settings. Further education of health professionals and the public should be a priority.

Open access

Abstract

The present research study investigated the phenomenon of recreational use of psychedelics at music festivals, analysing whether the resulting experiences could possibly be recognized as valuable in terms of preventive mental health strategies. Quantitative (online survey) and qualitative (interviews) research methods have been combined to illuminate 3 main topics: motivation for the setting choice; the nature of the resulting experiences & their influence on people's lives; learnings from psychedelic experiences at music festivals (PEMF).

Among other findings, motivation evolved around fun, enhancing the sensory exploration of the world, and deepening the connection to its diverse parts through engagement with art, nature and other beings. Factors, distinguishing music festivals from other settings, were significant for the setting choice (non-controllability of the environment, community & connection aspect, diversity & richness of the surroundings, pharmacological specifics). Remarkably, the non-controllability of the environment, otherwise avoided in the psychedelic research, contributed to the life-changing effects of PEMF. Exploration of their nature showed that, mostly rooted in poly-drug use, the enjoyable were clearly dominating over the challenging ones. The mystical PEMF appeared to be surprisingly common. Participants shared the related life-changing effects, centred around changed perception (increased empathy, awareness, acceptance; new perspectives, etc.) and changed behaviours (increased mindfulness in all life areas; making different life choices; changed approach to relationships, etc.). Except for post MDMA recovery, a positive impact of PEMF on mental health and the emotional state of the participants was reported, referring to increased levels of happiness, compassion, awe, trust and to emotional balance. This study showed the potential value of PEMF in terms of preventive mental health strategies in various forms. Acknowledging these findings as well as the existence of potential risks for triggering psychiatric conditions, de-stigmatization of recreational use could help introduce meaningful changes, including substance testing availability, prioritization of education as well as mandatory welfare and harm reduction services on-site.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) use has risen in the United States in recent years amid increased interest in therapeutic applications of psychedelics. Despite this, contemporary epidemiological investigations of LSD users are few. To expand the literature on this topic, we sought to characterize past-year LSD users in the United States and investigate recent demographic evolution within this population.

Methods

Using National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data from 2015–2019, we investigated correlates of past-year LSD use and associated changes over the study period.

Results

Past-year LSD use increased by 47% from 2015 to 2019 (0.59%–0.87%). However, among people reporting past-year hallucinogen use disorder there was no significant proportional increase in LSD users. Notable correlates of LSD use on multivariable analysis were: increased LSD access, lower perceived risk of trying LSD, low income, fewer children in the home, being approached by someone selling drugs in the past month, and past-year suicide attempt among people age 18 and older. We found no associations with unemployment, arrest history, or past-year psychological distress. From 2015 to 2019, the proportion of respondents reporting past-year LSD use who were age 26–34 and married increased. Past-year LSD use among lifetime users of methamphetamine also rose.

Conclusions

Though still uncommonly used in the United States, LSD's societal acceptance may be increasing. Overall, LSD does not appear to contribute significantly to the country's public health problems.

Open access

Abstract

The current understanding of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is primarily based on studies involving non-clinical samples of heterosexual men, resulting in significant gaps in knowledge regarding women with CSBD. The commentary highlights the domains where further research is necessary, including incidence and prevalence, etiology, diagnostic criteria, comorbidities, sexual patterns, personality profiles, and barriers to help-seeking among women with CSBD. Bridging this research gap is essential for improving clinical care, developing tailored interventions, and increasing awareness about CSBD in women among healthcare providers, policymakers, and the general public.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The current research aimed to discover classification concerning problematic smartphone use in children. Furthermore, to investigate their longitudinal trajectories, as well as to discover the connection concerning problematic smartphone usage by individual, parental, and school factors.

Methods

A total of 2,399 South Korean children who were in the 4th grade (female 1,206 (50.3%), age 10–13 years) at baseline. Latent class growth analysis was utilized to discover typologies in problematic smartphone use and their longitudinal trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to find various associations among problematic smartphone use and individual, parental, as well as school factors.

Results

The results identified three distinct trajectories of problematic smartphone use: (1) a high-level group (7.7%), (2) a mid-increasing group (62.5%), and (3) a low-increasing group (29.8%). The increasing group showed the highest level of problematic smartphone use. Gender, self-esteem, social withdrawal, exercise, parental inconsistency, monthly income, and teacher support were significant predictors.

Discussion and Conclusions

The findings suggest that there are distinct developmental trajectories concerning problematic smartphone usage of childhood. The results show that the early discovery of children in danger of problematic smartphone use and targeted interventions aimed at reducing parental inconsistency and social withdrawal, improving self-esteem, exercise, and teacher support may be effective strategies for preventing problematic smartphone usage during childhood.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Matteo Aloi
,
Marco Tullio Liuzza
,
Marianna Rania
,
Elvira Anna Carbone
,
Renato de Filippis
,
Ashley Nicole Gearhardt
, and
Cristina Segura-Garcia

Abstract

Background and aims

Existing research suggests that food addiction (FA) is associated with binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, but the clinical significance of this relationship remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the different clinical profiles of FA symptoms among patients who have obesity with/without BED using latent class analysis (LCA).

Methods

307 patients (n = 152 obesity and BED, n = 155 obesity without BED) completed a battery of self-report measures investigating eating psychopathology, depression, emotional dysregulation, alexithymia, schema domains, and FA. LCA and ANOVAs were conducted to identify profiles according to FA symptoms and examine differences between classes.

Results

LCA identified five meaningful classes labeled as the “non-addicted” (40.4%), the “attempters” (20.2%), the “interpersonal problems” (7.2%), the “high-functioning addicted” (19.5%) and the “fully addicted” (12.7%) classes. Patients with BED and obesity appeared overrepresented in the “high-functioning addicted” and “fully addicted” classes; conversely, patients with obesity without BED were most frequently included in the “non-addicted” class. The most significant differences between the “high-functioning addicted” and “fully addicted” classes versus the “non-addicted” class regarded heightened severity of eating and general psychopathology.

Discussion and conclusions

The results bring to light distinct clinical profiles based on FA symptoms. Notably, the "high-functioning addicted" class is particularly intriguing as its members demonstrate physical symptoms of FA (i.e., tolerance and withdrawal) and psychological ones (i.e., craving and consequences) but are not as functionally impaired as the “fully addicted” class. Identifying different profiles according to FA symptoms holds potential value in providing tailored and timely interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Gambling Disorder (GD) is an impactful behavioural addiction for which there appear to be underpinning genetic contributors. Twin studies show significant GD heritability results and intergenerational transmission show high rates of transmission. Recent developments in polygenic and multifactorial risk prediction modelling provide promising opportunities to enable early identification and intervention for at risk individuals. People with GD often have significant delays in diagnosis and subsequent help-seeking that can compromise their recovery. In this paper we advocate for more research into the utility of polygenic and multifactorial risk modelling in GD research and treatment programs and rigorous evaluation of its costs and benefits.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Mobile phone addiction (MPA) is emerging among adolescents, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the correlation between MPA and suicide behaviors and its mechanism. The objective of the current study is exploring the direct effect of MPA on suicide behaviors and the indirect effect through poor sleep quality.

Methods

A total of 18,900 Chinese adolescents aged 12 to 18 were recruited via a multi-stage cluster sampling method.

Results

The prevalence of MPA and poor sleep quality was 26.2 and 23.1%, respectively. During the past year, 24.4% participants were involved in suicide behaviors. Specifically, suicide ideators, suicide planners, and suicide attempters were 10.7, 8.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Particularly, rural females had the highest prevalence of suicide behaviors, MPA, and poor sleep quality. Logistic regression analysis showed that MPA was significantly associated with suicide ideators (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09–1.37, p < 0.001) and planners (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04–1.34, p < 0.05), but not for suicide attempters (p > 0.05). Structural equation modelling demonstrated that MPA had direct effect on suicide behaviors (β = 0.145, 95% CI = 0.127–0.160), and poor sleep quality partially mediated the relationship (the mediating ratio was 46.7%). The mediating ratio of poor sleep quality was the highest in urban males.

Conclusions

MPA has both direct and indirect effects on suicide behaviors. For suicide prevention, limited mobile phone use and improvement sleep quality may be practical for adolescents. Additionally, more efforts of intervention could give priority to rural girls.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Johannes Fuss
,
Jared W. Keeley
,
Dan J. Stein
,
Tahilia J. Rebello
,
José Ángel García
,
Peer Briken
,
Rebeca Robles
,
Chihiro Matsumoto
,
Christoph Abé
,
Joël Billieux
,
Jon E. Grant
,
Shane W. Kraus
,
Christine Lochner
,
Marc N. Potenza
, and
Geoffrey M. Reed

Abstract

Background and aims

The ICD-11 chapter on mental, behavioral and neurodevelopmental disorders contains new controversial diagnoses including compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), intermittent explosive disorder (IED) and gaming disorder. Using a vignette-based methodology, this field study examined the ability of mental health professionals (MHPs) to apply the new ICD-11 diagnostic requirements for impulse control disorders, which include CSBD and IED, and disorders due to addictive behaviors, which include gaming disorder, compared to the previous ICD-10 guidelines.

Methods

Across eleven comparisons, members of the WHO's Global Clinical Practice Network (N = 1,090) evaluated standardized case descriptions that were designed to test key differences between the diagnostic guidelines of ICD-11 and ICD-10.

Results

The ICD-11 outperformed the ICD-10 in the accuracy of diagnosing impulse control disorders and behavioral addictions in most comparisons, while the ICD-10 was not superior in any. The superiority of the ICD-11 was particularly clear where new diagnoses had been added to the classification system or major revisions had been made. However, the ICD-11 outperformed the ICD-10 only in a minority of comparisons in which mental health professionals were asked to evaluate cases with non-pathological high involvement in rewarding behaviors.

Discussion and Conclusions

Overall, the present study indicates that the ICD-11 diagnostic requirements represent an improvement over the ICD-10 guidelines. However, additional efforts, such as training programs for MHPs and possible refinements of diagnostic guidance, are needed to avoid over-diagnosis of people who are highly engaged in a repetitive and rewarding behavior but below the threshold for a disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Game genres, availability on smartphones, in-game purchases, and playing duration, have been thought to influence Gaming Disorder (GD). However, little research has comprehensively examined their relationships with GD. Therefore, we examined the relationship between GD, in-game purchases, gaming duration via consoles and smartphones, and genres of smartphone games. Study 1 was based on self-reports, and Study 2 included objective data to clarify these associations.

Methods

We conducted two independent online surveys that collected sociodemographic data, game use patterns, and psychopathological assessment data, including GD severity (Study 1: N = 32,690; Study 2: N = 3,163). General mental illness scores and objective gaming time were also collected in Study 2.

Results

In Study 1, in-game purchases, several gaming genres, and subjective gaming duration were positively associated with probable GD. On the other hand, interactions between card games and loot box charges were negatively related to probable GD. In Study 2, objective gaming times of most game genres were not associated with GD. Although the correlation between subjective and objective gaming duration was moderate, their correlations with GD differed.

Discussion and conclusion

These results suggest the complexity of relationships between GD and in-game purchases, genres, and gaming duration. Results of this study suggest the importance of proper assessment of GD reflecting actual functional impairment in social life. Future studies should improve and update evaluation of assessments for gaming.

Open access