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Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated that people remember negative reputational information particularly well. However, most of these experiments manipulated the type of information associated with each face, rather than manipulating the circumstances under which people learn this information. The present experiment examines the effect of the social situation on memory for social-exchange relevant information. Faces were paired with descriptions of cheating, trustworthy, or neutral behavior. In addition, the importance of the social situation was manipulated: Participants had either to decide if they would want to work with the described person on a student project (socially relevant scenario) or if they would want to ask this person what time it is while waiting at an airport (socially irrelevant scenario). A multinomial processing tree model was used to measure old–new item discrimination and source memory. Only in the socially relevant scenario a source memory advantage for cheaters was found.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Mark Cornfield
,
Susan McBride
,
Joseph T. La Torre
,
Daniel Zalewa
,
Jade Gallo
,
Mehdi Mahammadli
, and
Monnica T. Williams

Abstract

Background

This study contributes to the understanding of the efficacy, safety, and experience of ketamine-assisted therapy. The paper documents how individuals describe the effects of a protocolized and personalized use of ketamine (‘the relational dose’) in the context of group couples therapy based on Imago Relationship Therapy (IRT). Little is known about simultaneously administering ketamine to both members of a couple in this context, and no research to date has been published on whether ketamine facilitates couples to better engage in and benefit from the therapeutic process. The paper includes both qualitative and quantitative results.

Method

The study utilized a mixed methods approach. One approach was an inductive content analysis that produced overarching themes gleaned from participants' check-ins pre and post their weekly ketamine sessions. Transcripts were examined to better understand ketamine's effects on couples' ability to engage in therapeutic dialogue and resolve challenging relationship issues, as well as themes related to the non-ordinary-state-of-consciousness (NOSC) experience. The second approach involved the analysis of pre-test, post-test, and follow-up data from the Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI).

Results

The couples described a wide range of effects that ketamine produced in the context of their relational dialoguing including: empathogenic effects, mystical/spiritual/psychedelic experiences, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. They also affirmed ketamine's ability to generate alternative perspectives, promote insight, heighten awareness, enhance vulnerability and communication, lower defenses, and produce novel somatic experiences. Participants' description of ketamine effects included its short duration, rapid onset, idiosyncratic sensitivity to dose, cumulative effects, as well as transient and mild side-effects. Several t-tests were statistically significant, and indicated improved relationship satisfaction following the treatment.

Conclusion

In the context of couples therapy, ketamine produced a wide range of therapeutic effects and possessed unique pharmacological properties as a rapid-acting novel psychoactive molecule. The drug may have profound therapeutic benefits when administered in the context of couples therapy, under clinical supervision, however more research should be carried out.

Open access

Abstract

Introduction

Problematic usage of the internet (PUI) is an umbrella term for a range of uncontrolled, excessive, and potentially harmful online behaviors. Recently, numerous studies have examined the potential of mindfulness programs (MPs) for reducing PUI. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis in this emerging field.

Methods

We searched eight databases from inception to October 18, 2022, with no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized trials (NRTs). The primary outcome was change in self-reported PUI, the secondary outcome was change in screen time.

Results

Of 3,473 identified records, 19 RCTs and 20 NRTs with a total of 1,549 participants were included. Participation in an MP was associated with large reductions in PUI in between-group analysis in RCTs (k = 19; g = −1.67; 95% CI −2.15, −1.19) and in within-group pre-post analysis in all studies (k = 35; g = −1.67; 95% CI −1.99, −1.36). Screen time showed a medium reduction in within-group pre-post analysis (k = 10; g = −0.65; 95% CI −0.90, −0.41). The effects for PUI remained significant in a series of sensitivity analyses, such as excluding low quality studies, excluding outliers, adjusting for publication bias, or using follow-up data. Heterogeneity between studies was high and the overall quality of evidence was rated low.

Discussion and conclusions

MPs are probably effective in reducing PUI and might be effective in reducing screen time. Shortcomings in the quality of evidence highlight the need for high-quality controlled trials with long-term follow-ups to confirm results.

Open access
Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Olivér Lubics
,
Katalin Vadai
,
Tímea Magyaródi
, and
Henriett Nagy

Elméleti háttér: Az élettel való elégedettség a jóllétkutatások egyik leggyakrabban használt mutatója, ami számos pozitív jelenségre lehet hatással (pl. társas kapcsolatok, egészség), így fontos feltérképezni azokat a tényezőket, amelyek befolyással lehetnek az alakulására. Cél:Jelen tanulmány célja feltérképezni a boldogságtól való félelem, a demográfiai tényezők, valamint a Big Five személyiségdimenziók szerepét az élettel való elégedettségben, kitüntetett szerepet szánva a boldogságtól való félelem vizsgálatának, a koncepció újszerűsége miatt. Módszerek: Keresztmetszeti kérdőíves vizsgálatunkban 1826 felnőtt vett részt (77% nő; átlagéletkor = 35 év; SD = 15,5 év), akik a demográfiai kérdéseken kívül a Boldogságtól való félelem skálát, az Élettel való elégedettség skálát, valamint a Big Five leltárt töltötték ki. Eredmények: Az életkor és az élettel való elégedettség (r s = –0,06, p < 0,001), illetve az életkor és a boldogságtól való félelem (r s = –0,19; p = 0,005) között negatív irányú, ám elhanyagolható erősségű összefüggést találtunk, amit nem tudott szignifikánsan jobban magyarázni egy „U alakú” (kvadratikus) függvény, egy egyszerű lineáris függvénnyel összehasonlítva. Nem találtunk szignifikáns nemi különbséget az élettel való elégedettség (p = 0,17; Cohen-d = 0,07), illetve a boldogságtól való félelem (p = 0,93; Cohen-d = –0,005) pontszámokban. Az egyedülállókkal összehasonlítva a párkapcsolatban élők szignifikánsan magasabb élettel való elégedettség (p < 0,001; Cohen-d = 0,48) és szignifikánsan alacsonyabb boldogságtól való félelem (p < 0,001; Cohen-d = –0,31) pontszámokkal jellemezhetők. A boldogságtól való félelem önmagában szignifikáns, negatív prediktora az élettel való elégedettségnek (R 2 = 0,16; β = –0,398; p < 0,001), és ez a demográfiai és a Big Five faktorok kontrollálása után is igaz (β = –0,208; p < 0,001), tehát kijelenthető, hogy annak a demográfiai és a Big Five személyiségfaktoroktól elkülönülő magyarázóereje van az élettel való elégedettségben. A végső modellben a Big Five skálák közül nem bizonyult szignifikáns prediktornak a barátságosság, illetve a nyitottság, pozitív hatással bírt az extraverzió és a lelkiismeretesség, negatív hatással pedig a neuroticizmus esetében számolhatunk. Következtetések: Eredményeink nagyrészt megerősítik az élettel való elégedettség prediktoraival kapcsolatos korábbi kutatásokat; továbbá felvetik a boldogságtól való félelem behatóbb vizsgálatának szükségességét, hiszen eszerint egy, az alap személyiségdimenzióktól elkülönülő, a szubjektív jóllétre szignifikáns hatást gyakorló tényezőről lehet szó.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

In 2021, China implemented a policy to prevent adolescents from excessive online gaming, with the goal of encouraging healthier leisure activities.

Methods

Three months after this policy was implemented, we conducted a study involving 430 Chinese adolescents who regularly played online games for over two hours daily before the policy. We collected their responses to the restriction, including their compliance with the policy, engagement in undesirable alternative behaviors (e.g., watching short videos), and engagement in desirable alternative behaviors (e.g., playing sports). We also collected data on individual factors, parental technology interference, and feelings of restriction to use as predictors for behaviors, including those related to violating the restriction or watching short videos.

Results

A small percentage of heavy gamers violated the restriction by renting others' game accounts (3%) or using a family member's identity (14%), while 59% of the sample shifted to watching short videos. Heavy gamers who lived in rural areas, spent more time on online games prior to the policy, did not feel restricted from playing online games, and experienced parental technology interference were more likely to violate the restriction. Females or those lacking stable hobbies were more inclined to watch short videos.

Conclusions

Although the policy restricted heavy gaming, it has also led to increased short video use. Policymakers could explore alternative approaches, such as developing infrastructure that supports outdoor leisure activities in rural areas, encouraging parents to model responsible technology use behaviors, and guiding adolescents to cultivate positive hobbies in their leisure time.

Open access

Emerging adulthood in medical school. Gender, school-related factors and Big Five traits related to medical students’ quarter-life crisis

Kezdődő felnőttkor az orvosegyetemen. A nem, az egyetemhez kötődő tényezők és a Big Five vonások kapcsolata az orvostanhallgatók kapunyitási pánikjával

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Csaba Hamvai
,
Dániel Baricz
,
Dávid Pócs
, and
Oguz Kelemen

Background: Quarter-life crisis is the anxiety and discomfort the young might experience at the end of their studies and at the beginning of their career. Objectives: Factors related to medical students’ quarter-life crisis were explored in this study. Methods: in the cross-sectional study, 351 medical students (74.6% female, mean of age: 23.79 years, SD: 1.53 years) filled in the online questionnaire that contained Quarter-life Crisis Questionnaire, International Personality Item Pool version of Big Five markers, and questions about different aspects of medical school. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression analysis were performed. Results: Women reported higher quarter-life crisis (t = –3.44, p = 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.42). Higher quarter-life crisis displayed among those students who did not apply to medical university right after high school (U = 2865.5, p = 0.03, Cohen’s d = 0.24). Students who would have not applied to medical school again (t = –7.93, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.90); would have not encouraged their children to apply to medical school (U = 10414.5, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.57); were uncertain to finish university (t = 6.68, p< 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.74) showed higher quarter-life crisis. Students who failed at least one term for academic reason (U = 11809.5, p = 0.04, Cohen’s d = 0.23); did not feel to get proper knowledge to accomplish a medical job (t = –3.90, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.54); were not satisfied with their grades (U = 11560.5, p = 0.01, Cohen’s d = 0.27) reported higher quarter-life crisis. Students who did not plan to work in a clinical field and patient care (t =–5.974, p = 0.00, Cohen’s d = 0.93); wanted to work abroad in the future (U = 12931.5, p = 0.00; Cohen’s d =0.27) had higher quarter-life crisis. Personality traits, such as extraversion (β = –0.20, p < 0.001), conscientiousness (β = –0.10, p = 0.01) were significant negative, neuroticism significant positive predictor of quarter-life crisis (β = 0.61, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The explored variables might be indicators of quarter-life crisis, and can be the basis of university counseling, when medical students’ quarter-life crisis and emerging adulthood is in focus.

Open access

„Én már hamu vagyok?” Kiégéskörkép – fókuszban a tanárok helyzetével

“Am I just ashes now?” Burnout landscape – focusing on teachers’ perspective

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Réka Szigeti
,
Noémi Balázs
, and
Róbert Urbán

A kiégés az egyik legsúlyosabb munkahelyi veszélyforrás, amely a pedagógusszakmát is erősen érinti. Narratív irodalmi összefoglalónkban a kiégés kutatásának kezdeteit is feltüntetve tekintjük át az aktuális kérdéseket a definíció, méréstan, a háttérokok és a prevenciós megközelítések terén fókuszálva a tanárokkal kapcsolatos relevanciákra. A diverzifikált módszertan nehezíti az előfordulás pontos mérését és a kezelési protokollok kialakítását is. A kiégés kutatásának kezdetén a Maslach és munkacsoportja által létrehozott modell vált dominánssá, amely a mai napig a legelterjedtebb, de mivel sok kritika éri, számos új mérőeszköz alakult ki. Napjainkban a konszenzusra való törekvés a jellemző szintetizáló definíciókkal és mérőeszközzel. A munka- és szociálpszichológiai megközelítés mellett amely ennek a cikknek is alapját képezi a kiégés klinikai megközelítését is érintjük. A kiégés mint folyamat pontosabb feltérképezése pedig hozzájárul a személyre szabottabb prevenció kialakításához. A legújabb kutatási eredmények fényében összegezzük, hogy milyen egyéni és szervezeti szintű tényezők milyen differenciált hatással bírnak a kiégés mértékének alakulására. Végül kitérünk arra, hogy mindezeket az egyéni és szervezeti szintű tényezőket, illetve ezek interakcióit figyelembe véve melyek a leghatékonyabb prevenciós megközelítések különösen az általános és középiskola világában.

Open access

Men's attitudes toward third party casual sex

Predict rape myth acceptance

Culture and Evolution
Authors:
Rebecka K. Hahnel-Peeters
,
Cari D. Goetz
, and
Aaron T. Goetz

Abstract

The reproductive self-interest model of morality (RSIMM) is a framework for understanding moral judgments associated with sexual behavior. This model posits that individual differences in sexual strategies, mediated by one's religiosity and political orientation, casually influence people's moral judgments toward social hot-button issues. Previous work on the RSIMM has explained individual differences in attitudes toward abortion, prostitution, and contraception. Individuals more interested in long-term mating judged these behaviors as morally wrong. In this preregistered study, we proposed the RSIMM would account for individual differences in rape myth acceptance (RMA). RMA is the phenomenon of endorsing beliefs or stereotypes about rape that diminish the severity of assaults or shift blame from perpetrators to victims. We examined the relationship between political orientation, attitudes toward third-party casual sex, and RMA in a convenience sample of 308 participants (137 women). We predicted that more negative attitudes toward third parties' casual sex would correlate with increased RMA. Our hypothesis was supported for men but not women: Men who condemned others' casual sex, had more unrestricted attitudes about their own casual sex, and desired more casual sex were statistically more likely to accept more rape myths. In the discussion, we speculate that sex differences in the relationship between attitudes towards casual sex and RMA may be due to the costs of rape incurred by women but not men.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Although the correlation between substance use disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been largely studied, less is known about the correlation between behavioral addictions and ADHD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral addictions in a large sample of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of ADHD and to compare the clinical profile of ADHD patients with and without behavioral addictions comorbidity.

Methods

248 consecutive adults newly diagnosed as ADHD patients were assessed through a series of validated scales for gambling disorder, internet, sex, shopping and food addictions. ADHD patients with at least one comorbid behavioral addiction were compared to non-comorbid patients on ADHD symptoms, impulsivity, mood and anxiety symptoms and functional impairment.

Results

58.9% of patients had at least one behavioral addiction comorbidity. Of the whole sample, 31.9% of the patients had a comorbidity with one behavioral addiction while the 27% showed a comorbidity with two or more behavioral addictions. Internet addiction was the most common comorbidity (33.9%) followed by food addiction (28.6%), shopping addiction (19%), sex addiction (12.9%) and gambling disorder (3.6%). ADHD patients with comorbid behavioral addictions showed higher ADHD current and childhood symptoms, higher cognitive and motor impulsivity, higher mood and anxiety symptoms and higher functional impairment.

Conclusions

Behavioral addictions are highly frequent in adult ADHD patients. Comorbid patients seem to have a more complex phenotype characterized by more severe ADHD, mood and anxiety symptoms, higher impulsivity levels and greater functional impairment.

Open access

The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and the acceptance of cosmetic surgery in a nonclinical sample of Hungarian adults

A testdiszmorfiás zavar prevalenciája és a kozmetikai sebészet elfogadottsága magyar felnőttek vizsgálati mintáján

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors:
Beáta Szászi
and
Pál Szabó

Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common, often undiagnosed, serious condition. The relationship between body dysmorphic disorder and cosmetic surgery is rather complex, as many patients with body dysmorphic disorder search for cosmetic solutions for the imagined defect in appearance. Aims: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its relationship to the acceptance and use of cosmetic services and body-related variables among Hungarian adults. Methods: Body weight and height, body satisfaction, health state, aesthetic intervention-related experiences, and plans were assessed by a self-report online questionnaire that included the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire and the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Six hundred three subjects (94% women, n = 567, 6% men, n = 36, age M = 40.16 years, SD = 13.32 years) joined the research on a social media platform. Results: The prevalence of BDD is 8.1% (n = 49), 8.1% (n = 46) in women, and 8.3% (n = 3) in men. The BDD-positive group had higher BMI (U = 9641.5, p = 0.028), more plastic surgeries (χ2(1) = 19.682 , p = 0.012), and more acceptance of cosmetic surgery (U = 6664, p < 0.001). The risk of BDD is significantly higher in those who have a lower education (OR = 0.424, p = 0.031), accept cosmetic surgery (OR = 1.031, p = 0.025), plan plastic surgery (OR = 0.351, p = 0.027) and are more dissatisfied with their body (OR = 0.397, p < 0.001). Consideration of cosmetic surgery (U = 7433, p = 0.006) and planning for future plastic surgeries χ 2(1) = 7.943, p = 0.019) are more frequent in females. Sixty-six women (11.6%) have already had some intervention, 26.4% plan, and 10.4% probably plan cosmetic surgery, while these data are 11.1%, 8.3% and 5.6% in males. These symptoms occur more frequently among women according to Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire: avoidance behavior (33.9% vs. 16.7%, χ 2(1) = 4.539, p = 0.033), significant mental suffering caused by the perceived flaw(s) (29.8% vs. 13.9%, χ 2(1) = 4.178, p = 0.041). The Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale total score has a significant positive relationship with BDD caseness (β = 0.100, p = 0.011) and the number of blepharoplasties (β = 0.111, p = 0.005) and significant negative relationship with the planning of cosmetic surgery (β = –0.491, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder is high in this non-clinical, unselected Hungarian sample. The risk for body dysmorphic disorder is higher in those interested in cosmetic services; screening for this body image disorder is necessary.

Open access