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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Az autizmus és a tehetség kapcsolata neuropszichológiai megközelítésben

The relationship between autism and giftedness in a neuropsychological approach

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author:
Éva Gyarmathy

A tanulmány a neurológiai alapú teljesítményzavarok, kiemelten az autizmus idegrendszeri fejlődési jellemzőinek a tehetségfejlődés szempontjából történő áttekintése. Az elemzés kiterjed az autizmus és intelligencia kapcsolatára a végrehajtó funkciók, a mintázatfelismerés, a szisztematizálás és a beszéd szerepének kiemelésével és a komplex fejlesztési eljárások hatásának bemutatására. Kiemelt kérdéskör a kreativitás, amely a neuroatipikus fejlődés esetén szintén eltér a szokásostól, és kapcsolatot mutat a pszichotikus állapotokkal. A feltárt összefüggések jelzik, hogy mely tényezők tekintetében van különös gondosságra szükség, amikor az atipikus idegrendszeri fejlődés kiemelkedő képességekkel és erős fejlődésre való törekvéssel párosul. A korai beavatkozás és a környezeti tényezők döntő szerepet játszhatnak a különleges képességnek tehetség irányú fejlődésében. Az autizmus jellemzői mentén a tehetséggondozás számára konkrét lehetőségeket ismertetünk.

Open access

Diák kiégés hagyományos és alternatív pedagógiai programú oktatási intézményekben

Student burnout in schools using traditional and alternative educational programs

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Kitti Kóródi
,
Balázs Jagodics
,
Éva Szabó
,
Nóra Kunos
, and
Márta Fülöp

Háttér és célkitűzések

A diákok iskolai kiégésének kutatása mára már bekerült a pszichológiai kutatások fókuszába. A középiskolás diákok esetében is megfigyelhető a jelenség, amit a számukra kialakított mérőeszközökkel bizonyítani is lehet. Feltáró jellegű kutatásunkban arra a kérdésre kerestük a választ, hogy az iskola egyes jellemzői összefüggést mutatnak-e a kiégés mértékével.

Módszer

Kérdőíves kutatásunkban a magyar nyelvre adaptált Diák Kiégés Kérdőívet használtuk (Salmela-Aro, Kiuru, Pietikäinen és Jokela, 2008; Salmela-Aro, Kiuru, Leskinen és Nurmi, 2009; magyar változat: Jagodics, Kóródi és Szabó, 2021). A vizsgálatba középiskolás diákokat vontunk be (N = 2,205), akik eltérő követelményeket támasztó iskolatípusokban tanulnak az iskola jellegét tekintve (szakgimnázium [N = 741]; gimnázium [N = 898]; magasan teljesítő gimnázium [N = 327]; Waldorf-gimnázium [N = 81] és egyéb alternatív gimnázium [N = 151], másrészt megkülönböztethetők hagyományos vagy alternatív pedagógiai program szerint.

Eredmények

Elemzéseink szerint a diákok kiégéspontszáma a szakgimnáziumban tanulók esetében a legmagasabb, míg a legalacsonyabb kiégéspontszám a Waldorf-program alapján működő iskolák tanulóira jellemző. Emellett a középiskolás lányokra magasabb kiégés jellemző, mint a középiskolás fiúkra, amely különbségek iskolatípustól függően eltérőek.

Következtetések

A kutatásunk eredménye cáfolta azt a széles körben elterjedt nézetet, hogy a magas követelményeket támasztó, országosan is kiemelkedő intézmények tanulói lennének a leginkább kiégettek. Sokkal inkább úgy tűnik, hogy a kiégettség a követelmények és erőforrások egyenlőtlenségével magyarázható, amely a szakgimnáziumokban lehet a legerőteljesebb.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Monja Hoven
,
Alejandro Hirmas
,
Jan Engelmann
, and
Ruth J. van Holst

Abstract

Background and aims

People with Gambling Disorder (GD) often make risky decisions and experience cognitive distortions about gambling. Moreover, people with GD have been shown to be overly confident in their decisions, especially when money can be won. Here we investigated if and how the act of making a risky choice with varying monetary stakes impacts confidence differently in patients with GD (n = 27) relative to healthy controls (HCs) (n = 30).

Methods

We used data from our previous mixed-gamble study, in which participants were given the choice of a certain option or a 50/50 gamble with potential gains or losses, after which they rated their confidence.

Results

While HCs were more confident when making certain than risky choices, GD patients were specifically more confident when making risky choices than certain choices. Notably, relative to HCs, confidence of patients with GD decreased more strongly with higher gain values when making a certain choice, suggesting a stronger fear of missing out or “anticipated regret” of missing out on potential gains when rejecting the risky choice.

Discussion

The current findings highlight the potential relevance of confidence and “regret” as cognitive mechanisms feeding into excessive risk-taking as seen in GD. Moreover, this study adds to the limited previous work investigating how confidence is affected in value-based risky contexts.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Stacey B. Armstrong
,
Adam W. Levin
,
Yitong Xin
,
Jordan C. Horan
,
Jason Luoma
,
Paul Nagib
,
Brian Pilecki
, and
Alan K. Davis

Abstract

Background and aims

Because psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) is likely to be provided by interdisciplinary professional teams comprised of social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists, understanding the acceptability of this treatment approach among these professional disciplines is essential as the treatment advances through approval processes at the Food and Drug Administration.

Methods

The study includes data from three separate survey studies investigating the attitudes and beliefs about PAT among national samples of social workers (n = 309), psychiatrists (n = 181), and psychologists (n = 366). The combined sample (n = 856) was predominantly female (64.3%), with a mean age of 49 (SD = 16.13), and 17 (SD = 13.56) years of professional experience.

Results

There were no significant differences between groups in confidence that PAT would be effective. However, there were significant between-group differences in psychiatrists' understanding of PAT compared to social workers. Next, psychologists' mean ratings of the acceptability of PAT were significantly greater than social workers' ratings. Mean ratings about believing that PAT was a reasonable treatment approach were higher among psychologists compared to social workers and psychiatrists. Additionally, mean ratings regarding the disadvantages of PAT were significantly greater among social workers compared to psychologists and psychiatrists. Lastly, social workers' ratings that PAT could permanently improve clients' lives were significantly lower than psychiatrists and psychologists.

Conclusions

Findings help elucidate overall impressions of PAT among disciplines likely involved in providing this treatment should it be approved and suggest the need for education and training across professions. However, given the inconsistencies across disciplines, more research is needed to inform successful interdisciplinary training programs and better understand potential barriers to dissemination of this new treatment.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Psilocybin, the psychoactive compound in magic mushrooms, is increasingly discussed in terms of its psychotherapeutic potential; however, little is known about community attitudes towards psilocybin assisted therapy (PAT).

Aims

To address the question: What are the public's attitudes towards psilocybin and psilocybin-assisted therapy? And what factors explain these attitudes?

Methods

This study investigated the attitudes of 118 young adults in the Australian Capital Territory through an online survey.

Results

Participants who were more open to experience and who had used recreational drugs were more likely to have positive attitudes towards all aspects of PAT. Additionally, psychedelic drug use and agreeableness was positively associated with attitudes towards psilocybin safety, legality, and research; and psilocybin use was positively associated with attitudes towards psilocybin knowledge and acceptability.

Conclusions

This convenience sample of young adults was generally positively disposed towards PAT. People who were more open to experience and who had used recreational or psychedelic drugs had more favourable attitudes towards PAT.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Alex M.T. Russell
,
Matthew Browne
,
Nerilee Hing
,
Matthew Rockloff
,
Philip Newall
,
Nicki A. Dowling
,
Stephanie Merkouris
,
Daniel L. King
,
Matthew Stevens
,
Anne H. Salonen
,
Helen Breen
,
Nancy Greer
,
Hannah B. Thorne
,
Tess Visintin
,
Vijay Rawat
, and
Linda Woo

Abstract

Background

Electronic gaming machines (EGMs) are one of the most harmful forms of gambling at an individual level. It is unclear whether restriction of EGM functions and accessibility results in meaningful reductions in population-level gambling harm.

Methods

A natural policy experiment using a large (N = 15,000) national dataset weighted to standard population variables was employed to compare estimates of gambling problems between Australian residents in Western Australia (WA), where EGMs are restricted to one venue and have different structural features, to residents in other Australian jurisdictions where EGMs are widely accessible in casinos, hotels and clubs. Accessibility of other gambling forms is similar across jurisdictions.

Results

Gambling participation was higher in WA, but EGM participation was approximately half that of the rest of Australia. Aggregate gambling problems and harm were about one-third lower in WA, and self-reported attribution of harm from EGMs by gamblers and affected others was 2.7× and 4× lower, respectively. Mediation analyses found that less frequent EGM use in WA accounted for the vast majority of the discrepancy in gambling problems (indirect path = −0.055, 95% CI −0.071; −0.038). Moderation analyses found that EGMs are the form most strongly associated with problems, and the strength of this relationship did not differ significantly across jurisdictions.

Discussion

Lower harm from gambling in WA is attributable to restricted accessibility of EGMs, rather than different structural features. There appears to be little transfer of problems to other gambling forms. These results suggest that restricting the accessibility of EGMs substantially reduces gambling harm.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Both Peyote and San Pedro cacti contain mescaline, a classical psychedelic eliciting mystical and visual effects, but only Peyote is a vulnerable species. We sought to address the questions 1; do people who use Peyote substitute with San Pedro, and vice versa, and; 2. how popular is the use of wild harvested mescaline cactus compared with the use of cultivated plants?

Methods

Data were collected as part of the 2022 Global Drug Survey, a self-report survey distributed internationally in 11 languages. We asked mescaline cacti consumers about consumption practices, preferences and conservation and conducted chi square tests of associations comparing all motivations by preferred mescaline source.

Results

Of participants who reported using mescaline in the last 12 months (N = 284; 73.2% male, 21.8% female, 5.0% other gender; mean age 36.3, SD 12.5), 20.0% reported consuming Peyote collected from native habitats. Of participants specifying Peyote as their preferred source of mescaline, 82.2% had consumed Peyote in the past 12 months. Indigenous cultural traditions (57.8%), availability (40.0%) and environmental sustainability (33.3%) were the most commonly reported motivations for Peyote preference (n = 45), whereas for San Pedro (n = 86), availability (54.7%), potency (45.3%) and indigenous cultural traditions (44.2%) were most the commonly reported San Pedro preference motivations. Price and potency were significantly more likely to be chosen by those preferring San Pedro compared with Peyote. Less than 7% of participants who consumed San Pedro in the past 12 months had consumed San Pedro from native habitats. Of the participants who specified San Pedro as their preferred source of mescaline, 96.5% had consumed San Pedro in past 12 months. San Pedro was the most commonly reported source of mescaline product consumed (56.1%) with Trichocereus bridgesii being the most reported preferred San Pedro species. Mescaline cacti consumed in the last 12 months rarely deviated from mescaline cacti of preference.

Conclusions

Wild Peyote is not the most popular mescaline source, but consumption of related products remains unsustainable. Promoting San Pedro as a Peyote substitute may act as an intervention to reduce Peyote consumption.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Loot boxes are digital containers of randomised rewards available in many video games. Individuals with problem gambling symptomatology spend more on loot boxes than individuals without such symptoms. This study investigated whether other psychopathological symptomatology, specifically symptoms of obsessive-compulsive behaviour and hoarding may also be associated with increased loot box spending.

Methods

In a large cross-sectional, cross-national survey (N = 1,049 after exclusions), participants recruited from Prolific, living in Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia, and the United States, provided self-reported loot box spending, obsessive-compulsive and hoarding symptomatology, problem gambling symptomatology, and consumer regret levels.

Results

There was a moderate positive relationship between loot box spending and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and hoarding. Additionally, greater purchasing of loot boxes was associated with increased consumer regret.

Discussion and Conclusion

Results identified that those with OCD and hoarding symptomatology may spend more on loot boxes than individuals without OCD and hoarding symptomatology. This information helps identify disproportionate spending to more groups of vulnerable players and may assist in helping consumers make informed choices and also aid policy discussions around the potentialities of harm.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Rafael Ballester-Arnal
,
Jesús Castro-Calvo
,
Marta García-Barba
,
Juan Enrique Nebot-García
, and
María Dolores Gil-Llario

Abstract

Background and aims

Despite the inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CSB) as a diagnostic entity in the ICD-11 and the increasing number of studies addressing psychological factors leading to its onset and maintenance, little is known about the role of hormonal factors when accounting for this clinical condition (especially in women). This study aimed to provide insights into the association between testosterone levels (i.e., the androgen more intimately linked to sexual desire and arousability) and CSB in both men and women.

Methods

A total of 80 participants (40 men [Mage = 22.31; SD = 2.93] and 40 women [Mage = 21.79; SD = 2.06]) provided a saliva sample for the estimation of the level of free testosterone and completed a battery of measures assessing CSB and other related sexual domains (sexual sensation seeking and online/offline sexual behavior).

Results

In men, salivary testosterone had a positive and significant correlation with three scales assessing CSB (r between 0.316 and 0.334). In women, these correlations were small and non-significant (r between 0.011 and 0.079). In both men and women, the level of salivary testosterone had small non-significant correlations with the other domains of sexual behavior assessed.

Discussion and conclusions

Individuals' level of testosterone may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CSB, but only in men. In women, alternative psychological –i.e., motivational, behavioral, or cognitive– processes may be playing a more central role in the expression of this condition.

Open access