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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Workplace learning is a necessity for the organizational growth of all types of organizations, including higher education institutions. There are different directions proposed on how to make the implementation of workplace learning realistic, however, the best practices in one context may not apply well in another. This paper investigated the conditions required for the implementation of workplace learning in the case study of Laotian higher education. Firstly, 12 faculty members were invited to a semi-structured interview. The study employed a deductive category assignment of QCA in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that three conditions, namely, individual-related, organizational-related, and environmental-related conditions, appear to be key and are taken into account in developing favorable workplace learning. A further quantitative study in this area is strongly recommended.

Open access

A szociálisprobléma-megoldás és a szorongás jellemzői perfekcionista és nem perfekcionista serdülők körében – egy longitudinális vizsgálat eredményei

Characteristics of social problem-solving and anxiety among perfectionist and non-perfectionist adolescents – First results of a longitudinal study

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
László Kasik
and
Zita Gál

Háttér és célkitűzések

A maladaptív perfekcionizmussal jellemzett serdülők szociálisprobléma-megoldásának egyik igen fontos jellemzője a problémához való negatív viszonyulás, illetve a problémahelyzetből való minél gyorsabb kilépés, ha úgy érzékelik, megoldásuk nem felel meg maximálisan az általuk vagy a környezetük által megfogalmazott elvárásoknak. A kétéves (2021–2022) követéses vizsgálat első mérési pontján 11–12 éves és 16–17 éves diákok (N2021 = 305, N2022 = 290) körében vizsgáltuk, milyen arányban fordul elő körükben adaptív és maladaptív perfekcionista, milyen különbség azonosítható kortársakkal kapcsolatos problémáik megoldásában, bevonva az elemzésbe a szorongást is, mivel ennek szerepe az elkerülő viselkedésben és főként a maladaptív perfekcionizmusban jelentős.

Módszer

A szociálisprobléma-megoldás jellemzőit a Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised (D’Zurilla és mtsai, 2002), az állapot- és a vonásszorongást a State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (Sipos és mtsai, 1978) kérdőívvel vizsgáltuk. A perfekcionizmust az Almost Perfect Scale Revised (Slaney és mtsai, 2001) és az Frost Multidimensiol Perfectionism Scale (Frost és mtsai, 1990) eszközzel tártuk fel, melyekkel együttesen a személyes, a környezettől származó és külön a szülői elvárások, a kételkedés, a hibázástól való félelem, a megfelelés hiányának érzése és a rendezettség, rendszeretet jellemzői azonosíthatók.

Eredmények

Mindkét évben közel hasonló a nem perfekcionisták, az adaptív és a maladaptív perfekcionisták aránya, mely arányok egy év elteltével nem változtak, és mindkét életkorban a perfekcionisták harmada a maladaptív perfekcionizmus jeleit mutatja. A maladaptív perfekcionistákra jellemző legnagyobb mértékben a negatív problémaorientáció és az elkerülő viselkedés, utóbbi – főként az idősebbeknél – a vonás- és állapotszorongással és a szülői kritikával együtt markáns hatással bír a maladaptív perfekcionista diákok személyes elvárásaira és a megfelelés hiányának érzésére.

Következtetések

Ezek az eredmények többnyire alátámasztják a külföldi kutatási adatokat, és arra hívják fel a figyelmet, hogy az iskolai nevelés során mindenképpen szükséges a jelenleginél mélyrehatóbban foglalkozni a perfekcionizmus serdülőkori megjelenésével, felismerésével, okaival, alakulásával és következményeivel, megfelelő pedagógiai eszközökkel segíteni az adaptivitás erősödését, illetve kezelése során figyelembe kell venni más területekkel való kapcsolatát. E longitudinális felmérésből is úgy látszik, a maladaptív perfekcionizmusnak a társas problémák nem hatékony megoldásával és a szorongással is egyre szorosabb a kapcsolata serdülőkorban, mely kapcsolatrendszer kevésbé hatékony életvezetést eredményezhet mind társas, mind teljesítményhelyzetekben.

Open access

Abstract

Content analysis plays a pivotal role in the field of educational science. This paper delves into an examination of studies within the discipline that have employed a deductive approach when applying this method. Our research focus revolved around the thematic patterns present in the corresponding scientific discourse and the techniques utilized for deductive content analysis.

We conducted a systematic literature review within the Web of Science database to identify journal articles employing a theory-driven approach to content analysis. The results of the investigation revealed that empirical studies in the domains of health studies, professional development, and learning enhancement seldom adhere exclusively to deductive reasoning during content analysis. Instead, they typically blend deductive reasoning with inductive coding processes.

Open access

Abstract

Background and objectives

Work addiction (WA), characterized by dimensions such as overcommitment, difficulties in detachment from work, and work-life imbalance, is presumed to be associated with increased smartphone usage, even during risky activities like driving. The study investigated the connection between WA and future problematic and hazardous smartphone use, considering personality factors: anxiety, rumination, and worry.

Methods

A three-wave longitudinal study (N = 1,866) was conducted from March to July 2019, June to September 2020, and June to November 2021, involving a representative sample of 18-34-year-old residents in Hungary's capital. The study employed Hungarian versions of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire, Ruminative Response Scale, Anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory 18, and Penn-State Worry Questionnaire. Additionally, author-developed questions on mobile phone use while driving were included.

Results

At baseline, those at risk for WA showed more frequent mobile phone use while driving at both time points 2 and 3 compared to the non-risk group. Path analyses revealed rumination, anxiety at time 1, and worry at time 2 as significant mediators between baseline WA and mobile phone use while driving at time 3. However, when analyzing all three mediators together, only anxiety at time 1 and worry at time 2 remained significant.

Discussion and conclusion

This study demonstrates that WA predicts future mobile phone use while driving through mediation by anxiety and worry. Our findings add to the growing evidence highlighting the detrimental aspects of WA, emphasizing the need for improved prevention and treatment strategies.

Open access

Illúzió a szabad akarat? Idegtudományi-pszichológiai-filozófiai megfontolások

Is free will an illusion? Related aspects revealed by neuroscience, psychology and philosophy

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author:
Márk Molnár

A szabad akarat képessége magától értetődőnek tűnhet, azonban a tudománytörténetben az erre vonatkozó determinisztikus (a szabad akarat lehetőségével összeegyeztethetetlen) és nem determinisztikus (a szabad akaratot megengedő) felfogás évszázadokra visszamenően követhető. A legfontosabb alapfogalmak tisztázását követően az akaratlagos mozgással kapcsolatos megfigyeléseket és ezek értelmezési lehetőségeit tekintjük át, többségében azokat, melyek az akaratlagos mozgás szándékát több 100 ms-mal megelőző felkészülési potenciál jelenségét alapul véve megengedik, vagy kizártnak tartják a szabad akarat lehetőségét. A kérdés szempontjából lényeges lehet annak mérlegelése, hogy képes lehet-e az idegrendszer termékeként felfogható pszichés tevékenység visszahatni magára az azt létrehozó rendszerre. Amennyiben ez lehetséges, ez nyitva hagyhatja a szabad akarat megvalósulásának lehetőségét.

Open access

Abstract

Background

An imbalance between model-based and model-free decision-making systems is a common feature in addictive disorders. However, little is known about whether similar decision-making deficits appear in internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study compared neurocognitive features associated with model-based and model-free systems in IGD and alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Method

Participants diagnosed with IGD (n = 22) and AUD (n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 30) performed the two-stage task inside the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. We used computational modeling and hierarchical Bayesian analysis to provide a mechanistic account of their choice behavior. Then, we performed a model-based fMRI analysis and functional connectivity analysis to identify neural correlates of the decision-making processes in each group.

Results

The computational modeling results showed similar levels of model-based behavior in the IGD and AUD groups. However, we observed distinct neural correlates of the model-based reward prediction error (RPE) between the two groups. The IGD group exhibited insula-specific activation associated with model-based RPE, while the AUD group showed prefrontal activation, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, individuals with IGD demonstrated hyper-connectivity between the insula and brain regions in the salience network in the context of model-based RPE.

Discussion and Conclusions

The findings suggest potential differences in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying model-based behavior in IGD and AUD, albeit shared cognitive features observed in computational modeling analysis. As the first neuroimaging study to compare IGD and AUD in terms of the model-based system, this study provides novel insights into distinct decision-making processes in IGD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Elise Victoria Tørdal
,
Ståle Pallesen
,
Dominic Sagoe
,
Lise Øen Jones
, and
Farha Mahjabeen

Abstract

Introduction

The overall prevalence of gambling problems across prison populations is currently unknown. The objective of the present study was therefore to quantitatively synthetize prevalence estimates of gambling problems in prison populations using a random effects meta-analytic model and to investigate if the estimates were moderated by time frame, cut-off levels, and sample size.

Methods

To be included the studies had to report original data on the prevalence of gambling problems in a prison sample and to be written in a European language, whereas data based on abstracts or qualitative reports were excluded. The search ended on December 1, 2023 and were conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Embase, Google Scholar, Grey Literature Report, and GreyNet. Risk of bias was assessed with a standardized 10-item measure for epidemiological studies.

Results

A total of 26 studies comprising 9,491 participants were included. The vast majority of the participants were males. The most commonly used instrument for assessment of gambling problems was the South Oaks Gambling Screen. The pooled random-effects gambling problems prevalence estimate was 30.8% (95% CI = 25.1–37.3). The meta-regression analysis showed that none of the three moderator variables (criteria, timeframe, sample size) were related to the gambling problems prevalence. Common limitations of the included studies entailed not being representative nationally or for the target population, lack of randomization, and low response rate. The meta-analysis was restricted to studies published in a European language.

Conclusions

Overall, the studies show that 1 in 3 prisoners has gambling problems and suggests that more emphasis on relevant prevention and treatment is warranted for this population. The study was funded by the Norwegian Competence Center for Gambling and Gaming Research and pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42023390552).

Open access

Abstract

The fundamental role of higher education is to help students learn to cope in a constantly changing and uncertain world. The key to this is to support the development of their agency and commitment to learning. Although technology is the main tool of knowledge transfer, according to the OECD, it is teachers who represent the values of their field and that of knowledge and learning.

Since academic development is a relatively recent topic in the Hungarian literature, the present research aims to explore teachers' role interpretation, goals, missions, approaches to teaching, and their commitment to academic development at one of Hungary's leading business universities, the Budapest Business University (BBU). The study is based on 33 semi-structured interviews recorded at BBU involving 33 teachers of economics-related subjects in three faculties of the university. The interview transcripts were analysed by thematic analysis.

The results show that participants have markedly different teaching approaches, and the interrelationships between their objectives, missions and academic development can be seen as constituting a system. Finally, the potential interrelationships among the different themes were examined. The findings show that the teachers' goals and missions are strongly related, although more affective factors can be identified in relation to missions. These affective factors include inspiring enthusiasm and building partnership and mutual learning. In line with this, most participants adopt a teacher/student interaction strategy, only few cases of student focus were identified.

Open access