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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

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Abstract

Background and aims

Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) conceptualized their Pathways Model by postulating the existence of three subtypes of problem gamblers who share common characteristics, but also present specific ones.

Methods

This study investigated how the psychological mechanisms postulated in the Pathways Model predict clinical status in a sample that combined treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 59) and non-problematic community gamblers (n = 107). To test the Pathways Model, we computed a hierarchic logistic regression in which variables associated with each postulated pathway were entered sequentially to predict the status of the treatment-seeking gambler. Self-report questionnaires measured gambling-related cognitions, alexithymia, emotional reactivity, emotion regulation strategies and impulsivity. Behavioural tasks measured gambling persistence (slot machine task), decision-making under uncertainty (Iowa Gambling Task) and decision-making under risk (Game of Dice Task).

Results

We showed that specific factors theorized as underlying mechanisms for each pathway predicted the status of clinical gambler. For each pathway, significant predictors included gambling-related cognitive distortions and behaviourally measured gambling persistence (behaviourally conditioned pathway), emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategies (emotionally vulnerable pathway), and lack of premeditation impulsivity facet (impulsivist-antisocial pathway).

Discussion and conclusions

Our study adds to the body of literature confirming the validity of the Pathways Model and hold important implications in terms of assessment and treatment of problem gambling. In particular, a standardized assessment based on the Pathways Model should promote individualized treatment strategies to allow clinicians to take into account the high heterogeneity that characterizes gambling disorder.

Open access

„Nem tudom mi kárpótolhatná a magyar nemzet lelkét a 20. századért” – a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedések vizsgálata

“Nothing could compensate the Hungarian nation's soul for the 20th century” – An investigation of the collective victim beliefs in the Hungarian context

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Zsolt Péter Szabó, Málna Benza, Edina Nikoletti, Julianna Oláh, and Mirtyll Miasnikov Gréti

Háttér és célkitűzések

Tanulmányunkban a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedéseket kívántuk vizsgálni egy kérdőívben szereplő nyitott kérdés segítségével. Tanulmányunk három fő kérdése: (1) Milyen kollektív áldozati vélekedések jelennek meg a csoporttagok körében? (2) Milyen kapcsolat van az egyes vélekedések között? (3) Mennyire fontos a csoporttagok számára a csoport történelmi áldozattá válása?

Módszer

A vizsgálat egy nagyobb kérdőíves kutatás keretében zajlott. Ennek során 933 fő töltötte ki az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kérdőívet. A kérdőív kitöltését követően egy nyitott kérdést tettünk fel, amelyre 139 fő válaszolt. A kapott válaszokra egy kódrendszert dolgoztunk ki.

Eredmények

Kutatásunk számos kérdésben alátámasztotta a szakirodalom korábbi megállapításait, ugyanakkor a választott módszer segítségével új eredményeket is kaptunk. A magyar csoport történelmi viktimizációjának a jelentősége vitatott, az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések közül elsősorban az inkluzív vélekedések jelentek meg, jellemzően nem társulnak okok és tanulságok az áldozattá váláshoz.

Következtetések

A kollektív viktimizáció szakirodalmában nagy jelentőséggel bíró összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kevésbé jelentek meg a magyar kontextusban, a legtöbb vizsgálati személy a kollektív áldozati tudat személyes fontosságára vs. annak hiányára reflektált.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Little is known about individual differences in Hallucinogen Persisting Perceptual Disorder (HPPD). This study investigated visual processing style and personality across two HPPD types (HPPD I and HPPD II) and a Non-HPPD group.

Methods

An online survey was delivered to participants sourced from online HPPD and psychedelic user groups and forums (N = 117). Using one-way ANOVA, respondents were compared across four measures of individual difference. Using logistic regression, a range of visual symptoms and experiences were investigated as potential predictors of group categorisation.

Results

The HPPD I group had higher absorption and visual apophenia scores than the other groups and was predicted by higher drug use. The HPPD II group showed significantly higher trait anxiety than both other groups. Across the HPPD groups, HPPD II categorisation was also predicted by increased negative precipitating experiences, lack of prior knowledge and pre-existing anxiety diagnoses.

Conclusions

Anxiety, negative precipitating experiences and lack of prior knowledge are associated with negative experiences of persistent visual symptoms following hallucinogen use, whilst higher absorption and visual apophenia are associated with positive or neutral experiences. Together these findings indicate that differences in personality may play a role in determining an individual's experience of HPPD, highlighting the role of individual difference research in expanding knowledge around HPPD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The popularity of video gaming has generated significant interest in research methods to examine motivations for gaming. Current measures of gaming motives are limited by lack of scope and/or their applicability to specific game genres only. We aimed to create a comprehensive motivation inventory applicable to any gaming genre and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a large sample of highly engaged video gamers.

Methods

Stage 1 of this project involved a systematic review that generated the items for the Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI). Stages 2–4 involved an evaluation of the psychometric properties of the GMI. A sample of 14,740 video gamers (89.3% male; mean age 24.1 years) were recruited via an online survey promoted by a popular gaming magazine.

Results

In Stage 2, twenty-six gaming motives were identified, which clustered into six higher-order dimensions (Mastery, Immersion/Escapism, Competition, Stimulation, Social, Habit/Boredom). In Stage 3, construct validity of the six higher-order motives was assessed by associations with gaming-related, personality, and psychological variables. In Stage 4, the relationships between motives and depression symptoms and gaming disorder symptoms were explored. Although gaming motives had weak associations with gaming genres, they were moderately related to variables such as competitiveness, sociability, and positive and negative affect. Gaming disorder symptoms were directly predicted by depression symptoms and indirectly via Immersion/Escapism, Habit/Boredom, and Competition motives.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings support the notion that motives are one of the primary causes of gaming behavior and play an important role in predicting its problematic nature. The GMI is a psychometrically valid tool that will be useful for gaining insights into factors underlying gaming behaviors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Asian countries are deemed to be high prevalence areas for gaming disorder (GD). This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize the overall prevalence of GD in East Asia and investigate characteristics that influence prevalence estimates.

Methods

Systematic and independent searches were conducted across PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library since their inception to January 27, 2021. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality scale was used for quality assessment. A random effect model was used to calculate the overall GD prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

In total, 22 articles (26 studies) comprising 51,525 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of GD in East Asia was 12%, 95% CI (10%–15%); this figure was adjusted to 6%, 95% CI (3%–9%) for a representative sample. Higher prevalence was observed in males than in females (16% vs. 8%, respectively, P < 0.05). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that studies among gamers or those without random sampling reported significantly higher prevalence rates. There were no significant differences between countries/regions, sample size, quality score, proportion of males, and scale used.

Discussion and conclusions

The prevalence of GD in East Asia is higher than that in other world regions. Future studies should extend such epidemiological research to other regions to calculate the accurate prevalence of GD to benefit the local identification, prevention, policy formulation, and treatment efforts. Considering its negative effects, effective preventive and treatment measures for GD in East Asia need greater attention.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors: John M. Clifton, Annabelle M. Belcher, Aaron D. Greenblatt, Christopher M. Welsh, Thomas O. Cole, and Alan K. Davis

Abstract

Background and aims

There is growing evidence that psilocybin, a serotonergic psychedelic substance, may be useful in the treatment of substance use disorders. However, there is a lack of data on the beliefs and attitudes towards psilocybin amongst Black individuals diagnosed with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). This study characterized psilocybin use patterns and perception of risk amongst a cohort of Black individuals diagnosed with OUD.

Methods

Using a convenience sampling approach, patients were recruited from an urban methadone treatment program and paid five dollars to complete an anonymous phone-based survey.

Results

Twenty-eight patients participated (mean age 53.8; N = 28; 35.7% female). Most (N = 23; 82.1%) had “heard of” psilocybin mushrooms before taking the survey, but only five (N = 5; 17.8%) had ever used them. More than 80% perceived a risk or were “unsure” of the risk for sixteen of the seventeen items queried about psilocybin. Approximately half (N = 15; 53.6%) were willing to try therapy incorporating psilocybin and half (N = 14; 50%) said they would be more likely to try if it were FDA approved for OUD. Most (N = 18; 64.3%) preferred to stay on methadone treatment alone, 32.1% (N = 9) wanted to try treatment with both psilocybin and methadone, and only one participant opted for psilocybin treatment without methadone.

Conclusion

Many Black individuals with Opioid Use Disorder perceive psilocybin as dangerous and may be hesitant to try psilocybin treatment. Culturally informed treatment models, educational interventions and community outreach programs should be developed to increase racial/ethnic minority representation in psilocybin research and treatment.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Nikolaos Boumparis, Severin Haug, Stefanie Abend, Joël Billieux, Heleen Riper, and Michael P. Schaub

Abstract

Background and aims

Behavioral addictions are a public health problem that causes harm to both individuals and society. Internet-based interventions offer potential benefits over face-to-face therapy for the treatment of behavioral addictions, including their accessibility, perceived anonymity, and low costs. We systematically reviewed the characteristics and effectiveness of these interventions.

Methods

A systematic literature search was conducted in: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A standardized methodological quality assessment was performed on all identified studies via the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool.

Results

Twenty-nine studies were assessed in this systematic review. Between them, considerable heterogeneity was noted in various study characteristics, including screening tools, inclusion criteria, and outcome measures. Attrition rates also ranged widely (9–89%), as did study quality, with three of the 29 studies rated strong, 12 moderate, and 14 weak methodologically. Twenty-two studies focused on gambling disorder, most revealing significant within-group effects for the assessed intervention on gambling-related symptoms and four of these studies identified significant between-group effects. Behavioral addictions studied in the remaining studies included gaming disorder, internet use disorder, hoarding disorder, and pornography use disorder, revealing generally-promising, albeit limited results.

Conclusions

Internet-based interventions seem promising at reducing gambling problems, but too few studies have been published, to date, for conclusions to be drawn for other behavioral addictions. Internet-based interventions targeting other behavioral addictions – like gaming disorder, internet use disorder, hoarding disorder, and pornography use disorder – remain under-examined, warranting considerable additional research to assess their effectiveness.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Todd L. Jennings, Neil Gleason, and Shane W. Kraus

Abstract

Numerous debates surround the recent inclusion of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases (11th ed.), such as the appropriate classification of this construct and what symptom criteria best capture this syndrome. Although controversy surrounding CSBD abounds, there is general agreement that researchers should examine this syndrome in diverse groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. However, there have been few investigations into how diverse sociocultural contexts may influence the assessment and treatment of CSBD. Therefore, we propose several differential diagnosis considerations when working with sexual and gender diverse clients to avoid CSBD misdiagnosis.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Jesús Castro-Calvo, Maèva Flayelle, José C. Perales, Matthias Brand, Marc N. Potenza, and Joël Billieux

Abstract

The paper by Sassover and Weinstein (2022) contributes to a timely and complex debate related to the classification of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD). The recent inclusion of CSBD as an impulse-control disorder in the ICD-11 has generated debate since a competitive view is that CSBD should rather be classified as an addictive disorder. Sassover and Weinstein (2022) reviewed existing evidence and concluded it does not support the conceptualization of CSBD as an addictive disorder. Although we agree regarding the relevance and timely nature of considering the classification of CSBD, we respectfully disagree with the position that relying on the components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005) is the optimal approach for determining whether or not CSBD is an addictive disorder. In this commentary, we discuss potential pitfalls of relying on the components model to conceptualize CSBD as an addictive disorder and argue that considering a process-based approach is important for advancing this timely debate.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Beáta Bőthe, Mónika Koós, and Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Building on the conclusions of the debate papers by Gola et al. (2022) and Sassover and Weinstein (2022), the present commentary further addressed the contradictions between the current classification, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) with elaborating on the potential roles impulsivity and compulsivity may play in CSBD, and how these characteristics may relate to addictive behaviors in particular. Moreover, it briefly discussed how the classification of CSBD might impact research and clinical practice and proposed potential future research directions that may help to reach a consensus on the classification and core symptoms of CSBD.

Open access

Criteria for the establishment of a new behavioural addiction •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Matthew J. Gullo, Andrew P. Wood, and John B. Saunders

Abstract

When does repeated behaviour constitute behavioural addiction? There has been considerable debate about non-substance-related addictions and how to determine when impaired control over a behaviour is addiction. There are public health benefits to identifying new behavioural addictions if intervention can improve outcomes. However, criteria for establishing new behavioural addictions must guard against diagnostic inflation and the pathologizing of normal problems of living. Criteria should include clinical relevance (Criterion 1), alignment with addiction phenomenology (Criterion 2) and theory (Criterion 3), and taxonomic plausibility (Criterion 4). Against such criteria, evidence does not yet support classification of pornography-use and buying-shopping disorders as addictions.

Open access

Disorders due to addictive behaviors: Further issues, debates, and controversies •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Author: Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract

Two recent papers in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions by Brand et al. (2022), and Sassover and Weinstein (2022) both make interesting additions to the place of behavioral addictions in the more general addictive behaviors field. This commentary discusses some of the further nuances in the debates surrounding whether problematic engagement in social networking, pornography, and buying/shopping should be considered as possible ‘disorders due to addictive behaviors’ in the ICD-11. Particular emphasis in this commentary is placed on social network use disorder and its delineation. While there is growing evidence that addictions to sex, pornography, social network sites, exercise, work, and buying/shopping may be genuine disorders among a minority of individuals, none of these behaviors is likely to be included in formal psychiatric manuals in the near future until there is more high-quality data on all research fronts (e.g., epidemiological, neurobiological, psychological, and clinical).

Open access

Abstract

After introduction of compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) in the ICD-11, many questions regarding etiology, classification and diagnostic criteria remain unanswered, providing rationale for further research. In this commentary, we critically review the ongoing discussion reflected in some relevant articles, and try to point out the risks of oversimplification of the broad clinical phenomenon, as well as attract attention to the neglected aspects, such as psychosexual development, intimacy disorder and the role of sexological expertise in the assessment and treatment of individuals presenting with out-of-control sexual behaviors. We also advocate for multimodal, transtheoretical approach and suggest that CSBD may be reconsidered as a condition related to sexual health.

Open access

Nosology of behavioral addictions: Intersections with philosophy of psychiatry •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Dan J. Stein and Christine Lochner

Abstract

Writing in this journal, Brand and colleagues have proposed criteria for other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors. Their proposal intersects with key debates in philosophy of psychiatry, including how best to define mental disorders, to validate them, and to optimize their meta-structure. Review of these debates in the context of behavioral addictions suggests several conclusions. First, these debates involve “essentially contested” constructs that require ongoing consideration and judgment. Second, the complexity of psychopathology suggests multiple legitimate approaches to delineating traits and explicating mechanisms. Third, in optimizing meta-structure, non-psychobiological considerations are crucial - the overlapping public mental health approach to addictive disorders is paramount.

Open access

What does “Sexual” mean in compulsive sexual behavior disorder? •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Peer Briken and Daniel Turner

Abstract

This paper comments three recent publications in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions (Brand et al., 2022; Gola et al., 2022; Sassover & Weinstein, 2022). It shortly discusses (1) the role of researcher biases and the significance of the naming of a disorder (here “sexual addiction” and “pornography use disorder”) for stigma and treatment, (2) the development and course of CSBD and its significance for research results, (3) the role of “Sexual” in CSBD. The paper concludes that the guidelines for CSBD give a precise description and the authors plea for an exchange between disciplines and a sex positive treatment approach.

Open access

What the grey literature can contribute to addictive behaviour disorder classification •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Daria J. Kuss and Olatz Lopez-Fernandez

Abstract

This commentary examines the proposal made by Brand et al. (2022) regarding a framework outlining relevant criteria for considering possible behavioural addictions within the current World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) category of ‘other specified disorders due to addictive behaviours’. We agree with the framework as it highlights the clinical perspective requiring agreed-upon classifications and criteria to produce effective diagnostic procedures and efficacious treatments. Additionally, we propose to add the need of recognising potential addictive behaviour through the inclusion of a fourth meta-level criterion: ‘grey literature evidence’. Utilising non-academic evidence can provide validity in the social context where the behaviour takes place, and it can support authorities in taking action to prevent and treat the resultant behavioural problems. The inclusion of the proposed fourth criterion will aid comprehensibility of the current proposal and provide clarity, as indicated in the present commentary, which includes the fourth criterion analysis for problematic pornography use, shopping/buying and social networking site use.

Open access

Where to put Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)? Phenomenology matters •

Commentary to the debate: “Behavioral addictions in the ICD-11”

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Hans-Jürgen Rumpf and Christian Montag

Abstract

In this commentary paper, it is discussed if Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) is best categorized as an Impulse Control Disorder, an Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or in light of the overlap of characteristics with both Gaming and Gambling Disorder as an addictive behavior. The overlapping features are: loss of control over the respective excessive behavior, giving increasing priority to the excessive behavior under investigation and upholding such a behavior despite negative consequences. Besides empirical evidence regarding underlying mechanisms, phenomenology also plays an important role to correctly classify CSBD. The phenomenological aspects of CSBD clearly speak in favor of classifying CSBD under the umbrella of addictive behaviors.

Open access

Abstract

The Mosuo, arguably the last surviving matrilineal society in China, offers interesting insights into kinship practices that support reproduction. In particular, the modes of courtship and reproduction of the traditional Mosuo revolve around a practice known as walking marriages, which involves no contract or obligations, where the men do not use social status or resources to court women, women do not expect commitment from men, and multiple sexual relationships are permitted for both sexes and seldom incite conflict. Children borne from walking marriages are cared for not so much by fathers but rather their mothers' brothers, and wealth and property are controlled by women and passed on to daughters rather than to sons. By analyzing how familial and mating practices interact with evolved preferences and ecological affordances, we highlight the ways that traditional Mosuo practices facilitate reproductive success despite differing vastly from those familiar to modern, industrialized societies. We suggest that cases that appear like evolutionary exceptions, such as the traditional Mosuo, can bring into question the mating practices and preferences we take for granted as relatively universal and prompt a nuanced understanding of how environments, culture, and evolution mutually constrain and shape one another.

Open access

Abstract

Educational research studies show some significant contributions towards improving the quality and productivity of the education sector. With this paper, I would like to do the same by presenting the results of my pilot study on key elements of developing teacher educators' performance appraisal. This study explores a number of issues that can influence appraisal: purposes, setting standards, evaluation instruments, and implementation. The purpose of the study is to reveal what the influencing circumstances in developing teacher educators' performance appraisal are, and how teacher educators perceive the role of staff involvement in developing teacher educators' performance appraisal. In order to fulfil the above goals, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten teacher educators, currently working at two Universities of Education in Myanmar. The interview results revealed that the acceptability of performance criteria is important and academic staff involvement in developing performance appraisal design should be encouraged. Effective leadership, trust, clear and equitable systems can lead to successful appraisal. Finally, the implications are discussed with a focus on designing teacher performance appraisal.

Open access
Journal of Adult Learning, Knowledge and Innovation
Authors: Csaba Kálmán, Kata Csizér, János Gordon Győri, László Horváth, and Gábor Halász
Open access

Abstract

In today's world, education needs to empower students to become active global citizens who are prepared for 21st century challenges and who can solve local and global problems, thus, who are globally competent. To affect lasting change in our education systems, it seems urgent to incorporate the global perspective as early as in initial teacher training, and nurture globally competent teacher trainees. As essentially teachers decide on what and how they teach, it is worth examining how they develop the knowledge dimension of global competence, i.e., what content they teach for global competence development (GCD). The main aim of this study, involving five university tutors involved in EFL teacher training in Hungary, is to inquire into what topics they deal with for GCD, what attitudes they have towards dealing with these topics, and how they decide on the content in their first-year language development courses. Findings suggest that they deal with a variety of global and intercultural issues in their lessons; however, they tend to avoid certain local ones. Overall, they have a reasonably positive attitude towards these issues. Finally, the participants predominantly consider the connection to the syllabus, students' language level, and personal and student interest important when deciding on what topics to deal with in class.

Open access

Abstract

Informed by constructivism, the present qualitative case study first aimed to explore the effectiveness of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instruction, as the case of the study, at a Hungarian university to understand the strengths, weaknesses, and difficulties that EFL teacher trainees (TTs) experience during their studies. Second, it aimed to investigate the perceived usefulness of EAP instruction in preparing EFL TTs for their future careers. This paper examines the case of five Hungarian EFL TTs' perceptions of EAP instruction with the help of semi-structured interviews to see the importance of EAP education in both the TTs' studies and in their future careers. To this end, through purposeful sampling, five fourth-year TTs were invited to participate in the study to obtain a deep understanding of EAP instruction from their points of view. The results revealed that EFL TTs recognize the purpose and importance of the university EAP instruction and hold favorable views towards the teacher training program in general and EAP instruction in particular. Moreover, they considered the EAP courses as crucial in their future success as EFL teachers. However, they complained about several issues such as lack of practice opportunities, clear-cut standards, and EAP-specific materials. Hopefully, the results will provide valuable insights into the Hungarian EFL TT program's success in preparing competent future teachers.

Open access

Abstract

While the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2005, 2019) has been researched extensively in the Hungarian context, it has not been used to test international students' motivational dispositions towards learning foreign languages. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to report a study that aimed to test the L2MSS on 34 international students who learned Hungarian or English as a foreign language (EFL) during their studies in Hungary. The pilot questionnaire contained nine scales adapted from Taguchi, Magid, and Papi (2009). Besides the ideal L2 self and ought-to L2 self, the scales measured other influential learning and environmental impacts that exert their influence on the L2 learning experience, the third constituent of the model, with a view to better understanding what motivates international students to learn foreign languages. The findings of the pilot revealed that the adapted instrument worked in the Hungarian context and that international learners' motivational dispositions were mostly affected by learners' attitudes towards the foreign language community. Linear regression analysis revealed that the participants' motivated learning behavior could be predicted by their intrinsic and instrumental motivation. Significant differences were found between male and female respondents regarding their L2 ought-to selves and instrumental motivation. Besides explaining the attitudes that the learners have towards the foreign language community, the findings can be utilized to further enhance learners' motivation once the results are fed back to the community of professionals teaching similar students.

Open access

Abstract

Since acquiring writing skills in the English language is a multiplex task as it includes several complex cognitive activities (Tillema, 2012), it is a challenging skill to master for English as a foreign language (EFL) students. The acquisition of this skill is also affected by motivation, which has a great impact on the success or failure of learning the target language (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011), and significantly influences the learner's academic and professional performance (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005). Lack of research focusing on investigating the motivating effect of different aspects of English writing in the Myanmar context provided inspiration to conduct the present pilot study, which focused on mapping the motivational profile of 54 EFL pre-service teachers in English writing in Myanmar. The questionnaire developed by the authors was piloted in September 2020. Results indicate that out of the 12 dimensions measured, pre-service teachers' ideal selves and instrumental motivation seem to be the most motivating aspects of English writing, and there is a strong correlation between these two scales suggesting that the participants' ideal L2 self has a pragmatic focus. Moreover, regression analysis shows that pre-service teachers' intrinsic motivation, and their ideal selves contribute most to their motivated learning behavior.

Open access

Abstract

Autonomous language learning has drawn many researchers' attention in the field of language teaching and learning due to its relevance to the current education context. Consequently, research on autonomous behaviors of learners in learning English inside and outside the classroom has been remarkably relevant with a view to fostering autonomy in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. As this area of second language acquisition (SLA) constitutes a niche in the Myanmar EFL context, the aim of this paper is to fill this niche by conducting a quantitative replication study to investigate Myanmar EFL learners' autonomous behaviors. The original questionnaire by Spratt et al. (2002) was adapted and administered online. A total of 60 first-year and second-year English specialization students from a Myanmar university participated in the study. The results showed that learners appear to view their teachers as more responsible for in-class learning and themselves for outside or private learning, and they demonstrated surprisingly little autonomy inside the classroom. Their level of autonomy outside the classroom was significantly higher; however, it still approximated the lower end of the Likert scale, which is indicative of the need to foster learner autonomy in the context investigated. At the same time, the results have raised a need for further research in the same context on the focus of the study and its possibly related aspects impacted by culture, prescribed curricula, etc.

Open access

Abstract

Covid-19-triggered emergency remote teaching shed light on the discrepancies of the long-desired digital transformation of education. To learn more about Hungarian K12 (primary and secondary) teachers' techno-pedagogical skills, this study aimed to measure how they rate the components of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. The observed mean values gave grounds for clustering Hungarian K12 teachers based on their existing techno-pedagogical skills as well as proposing possible directions for development. It was found that among teachers who participated in the study (N = 216), 20% belong to the group of Beginners, 40% are Independent, and 40% are Advanced users of techno-pedagogical tools and methods. The groups are rather homogenous as gender, age, qualification and teaching experience are not predictors of techno-pedagogical knowledge. Beginners need help on the very operational levels of technology, Independent users transform traditional teaching methods in the online space, while Advanced users plan face-to-face and online classes differently but also include techno-pedagogy in their everyday classroom teaching practices. It was further observed that teachers in all groups are generally motivated in preparing for their online lessons, but the perceived motivation of their learners is much lower, and teachers do not generally consider online teaching effective.

Open access

Abstract

In higher education, students are expected to take responsibility for their own learning with little or no help from their teachers. Even though the teacher is a key element in the learning process, there is limited information on higher education students' way of taking charge of their own learning and the agency of the teacher that could influence this process. This paper intends to investigate this gap in the literature by conducting a semi-structured interview study. The interviews were conducted with ten English major students from a Hungarian university. The research was based on two main objectives: (1) to obtain an overview of higher education students' self-regulation (SR); (2) to explore their views on the teacher's influence on their SR process. The data retrieved from the interviews were analyzed using the Templates of Organizing Style (TOS). The results suggest that higher education students use cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioral strategies in order to self-regulate and that there are some personality and professional aspects (e.g., being likable or providing constant, meaningful feedback) of the teacher that can either enhance or hinder students' SR process. The findings also indicate that between these two aspects, the teacher's personality plays a more influential role in students' SR. This can have important implications in the way higher education students' self-regulation is perceived as well as the way teachers prepare for a lesson and behave in a class.

Open access
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Anita Deák, Regina Balázs, Tímea Fodor, Ádám Csery, Zsófia Hanna Bulla, Veronika Erdélyi, Júlia Kopácsi, Anetta Lázár, Fanni Szecsei, and Tamás Bereczkei

Studies conducted in the framework of Jaak Panksepp's Affective Neuroscience Theory provide a new approach to understand the emotional basis of personality. The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) developed by Panksepp and Davis is a common and widely used self-report tool to measure primary emotional traits. The ANPS consist of three positive scales (SEEK, CARE, PLAY), three negative scales (ANGER, SADNESS, FEAR), and Spirituality. Although the ANPS is available in 15 languages, the Hungarian version has not been developed, yet. The aim of the current study is to fill in this gap and report the result of the Hungarian version. Healthy adults (N = 910) participated in a cross-sectional study and filled in the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Positive and Negative Affective Scales (PANAS). Reliability values of all ANPS scales are good (Cronbach-α = 0.74–0,90). The confirmatory factor analysis supported both the two-factor model and the six-factor model of the emotional traits. The findings of the convergent and discriminative validity are as expected. The Hungarian version of the ANPS has good psychometric properties, and it is suitable for measuring the six primary emotional traits. The ANPS is an appropriate self-report tool for studies in the field of affective neuroscience, clinical psychology, and cross-cultural research.

Open access

Adaptív algoritmusok a párválasztásban: A Szerelmi Attitűdök Kérdőív magyar rövid változata (LAS-HSF)

Adaptive algorithms in human mating: The Hungarian version of Love Attitudes Scale Short Form (LAS-HSF)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Norbert Meskó and András Norbert Zsidó

Theoretical background

Love is a complex emotion, a psychological phenomenon known in most human cultures. From an evolutionary perspective, love is a psychological adaptation that evolved to solve specific problems of survival and reproduction. Love styles are attitudes associated with romantic relationships: Eros (passionate, erotic love); Ludus (playful love); Storge (friendly love); Pragma (pragmatic, logical love); Mania (possessive, dependent love); and Agape (self-sacrificing, selfless love). Based on the short version of the Love Attitudes Scale (LAS SF; Hendrick et al., 1998), Meskó and colleagues (2021) created a Hungarian version of the instrument (LAS-HSF).

Methods

In the present study, the 18-item (3 items per factor) version was created based on the 24-item (4 items per factor) version and analysed psychometrically on a Hungarian sample of 800 (439 women, mean age = 38.6 years).

Results

Both versions have identical factor structures and are very similar in terms of both sex differences and correlations with age.

Conclusions

The Hungarian Short Version of the Love Attitudes Scale (LAS-HSF) is a valid instrument with the same factor structure as the original, with high internal reliability, and may be suitable for measuring love attitudes in Hungarian-language research. Both the 18- and 24-item solutions have very similar indicators, and both are considered to be equally useful equipment.

Open access

Az evolúciós pszichológia paradigma újragondolása: A továbblépés irányai

Re-thinking of the evolutionary psychology paradigm: Trends of the advancement

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Lajos Szabó and Tamás Bereczkei

A great virtue of evolutionary psychology (EP) is a demonstration of strict relationship between Darwinian evolution as a metatheory and psychology. The adaptationist approach of EP has contributed to the investigation and explanation of a large variety of psychological phenomena, in an entirely new way. From the other perspective, however EP remained one-sided to a certain degree, that is partly due to an uncritically acceptance of cognitive theories (e.g. Chomsky's innatism, Fodor's modularism) which were dominant ideas during the previous decades. The onset of one-sidedness is also resulted from an ignorance: the scholars of EP paid a little attention to the huge development in the areas of human genetics, comparative psychology, and cultural anthropology. The resulting limits and simplification has been frequently pointed out by the critis opposite to EP. Criticism, however does not involve renewal in itself. Therefore, in this paper we rather examine the possibilities of updating evolutionary psychology and the trends of advancements. The recent scientific results concerning genetic influence, animal cognition, and the cultural backgrounds of psychological differences give good opportunity to re-thing and complete the original assumptions of evolutionary psychology – using the explanatory framework described by Tinbergen's „four questions”.

Open access

Együtt a bajban: a Sötét Triád tagjainak döntési mintázatai egy új társas dilemma helyzetben

Together we can: the Effect of Dark Triad Personality Traits on the Economic Decisions in a New Social Dilemma Game

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Ádám Putz, Adrián Fehér, Tas Ferencz, András Láng, Ferenc Kocsor, and Tamás Bereczkei

Theoretical background

The phenomenon of within as well as between group cooperation has been a prominent topic in both the evolutionary and social psychology research. There is an extensive literature regarding the decisions of Dark Triad individuals in social dilemma situations, too. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of “we-feeling” on the tendency of between group cooperation among individuals differing in Dark Triad traits.

Method

Participants were invited to play a new experimental game developed by the authors depicting two villages of different (Study 1, n = 236) or the same colour (Study 2, n = 147) threatened by a natural disaster (flood). In both rounds of the game participants had to decide how to allocate their sandbags among three possible locations (around their own house, at the border of their own village, or at the common dam). Participants' Dark Triad traits were assessed with the SD3 questionnaire.

Results

Participants of the same colour (in-group) condition allocated significantly more sandbags to the common dam during the second round of the game relative to participants of the different colour (out-group) condition. Participants' allocations were significantly affected by their dark personality traits; high Dark Triad scores did not always correlate with selfish strategies, however.

Conclusion

Our study confirmed that providing minimal information – i.e. group colour – can influence the tendency of between group cooperation in a social dilemma game. The results are discussed in the light of the tribal instinct hypothesis and the minimal group paradigm.

Open access

A genetikai rokonság és a szülői kapcsolati minőség hatása a testvérkapcsolatokra

The effect of genetic relatedness and parental relationship quality on sibling relationships

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Ferenc Kocsor, András Láng, Andreas Babós, and Petra Gyuris

Background and objectives

The complex relationships within patchwork families can be examined in the light of various intermediate-level evolutionary theories, such as kin selection theory, parental investment theory, and parent-offspring conflict theory. These together with recent findings that shed light on the functioning of family subsystems, can contribute to a better understanding of how patchwork families work today. In the current research, we attempted to examine the extent to which these models successfully predict the functioning of mosaic families in Hungary.

Methods

In the first part of the data collection, both members of adult sibling – including both full and half siblings – completed questionnaires about their childhood relationship. The second set of questionnaires was completed by parents who had raised at least two children with their partner, either as genetically related or stepparents. We wanted to know whether parents perceive their children's relationship as it follows from evolutionary theories. We also investigated whether couple functioning between parents could affect the relationship between siblings.

Results

The results partly contradict our hypotheses. Only age difference had a significant effect on conflicts between siblings and parental partiality, and degree of kinship did not play a role. When parents were more dissatisfied with their relationship, they perceived the relationship of half-siblings to be less close, whereas more cooperative parents perceived the relationship of full siblings to be closer.

Conclusions

The internal functioning of patchwork families cannot be directly derived from evolutionary theories. It seems that fitness interdependence and the need for the family members to meet each other's expectations tend to overshadow biased behaviours in everyday relationships that could result from increasing inclusive fitness and allocating parental efforts according to genetic interests. Although these results are not conclusive, age differences may be more important than kinship in the relationship between half- and full siblings.

Open access

A Sötét Triád személyiségvonások mint a gyors életmenet-stratégiák indikátorai: A korai stresszhatások, a kedvezőtlen körülményekhez való alkalmazkodás hatása a személyiségfejlődésre

The dark triad as indicator of fast life history strategies: The impact of early stressors and adaptation to adverse circumstances on personality development

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Béla Birkás and Árpád Csathó

Life history theory posits that behavioural adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioural strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterised by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affect dispositional social and emotional functioning, it may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behaviour. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarise findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on development of personality and fast life history strategies. By showing that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions on the ultimate and proximate levels.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet video streaming (VS) has become a popular leisure activity among the majority of adolescents, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic. Research on binge watching patterns in adults suggests an addictive potential of VS. To date, no unified conceptualization on problematic VS and no standardized assessment tools for adolescents exist even though they might be especially vulnerable.

Methods

STREDIS-A is based on the ICD-11 criteria of gaming disorder. It was validated in a representative sample of 959 dyads of 10- to 17-year old adolescents with frequent VS and a respective parent using standardized questionnaires on Internet addiction, depressive and anxiety symptoms, insomnia, loneliness, and academic performance in an online survey. Item structure was investigated by factorial analyses. Cutoffs were estimated and latent profile analysis was performed.

Results

The two-factorial structure of STREDIS-A describes cognitive-behavioral symptoms and negative consequences of VS. Internal consistency and criterion validity were good to excellent. It could excellently discriminate between affected and non-affected adolescents.

Discussion and conclusions

The present study makes a significant contribution to the conceptualization of a new phenomenon. It provides the very first tool to assess streaming disorder in adolescents for clinical and research settings. Clinical validation is highly warranted.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Yihong Zhao, Martin Paulus, Kara S. Bagot, R. Todd Constable, H. Klar Yaggi, Nancy S. Redeker, and Marc N. Potenza

Abstract

Background and Aims

Screen media activity (SMA) may impact neurodevelopment in youth. Cross-sectionally, SMA has been linked to brain structural patterns including cortical thinning in children. However, it remains unclear whether specific brain structural co-variation patterns are related to SMA and other clinically relevant measures such as psychopathology, cognition and sleep in children.

Methods

Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) participants with useable baseline structural imaging (N = 10,691; 5,107 girls) were analyzed. We first used the Joint and Individual Variation Explained (JIVE) approach to identify cortical and subcortical covariation pattern(s) among a set of 221 brain features (i.e., surface area, thickness, or cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) volumes). Then, the identified structural covariation pattern was used as a predictor in linear mixed-effect models to investigate its associations with SMA, psychopathology, and cognitive and sleep measures.

Results

A thalamus-prefrontal cortex (PFC)-brainstem structural co-variation pattern (circuit) was identified. The pattern suggests brainstem and bilateral thalamus proper GM volumes covary more strongly with GM volume and/or surface area in bilateral superior frontal gyral, rostral middle frontal, inferior parietal, and inferior temporal regions. This covariation pattern highly resembled one previously linked to alcohol use initiation prior to adulthood and was consistent in girls and boys. Subsequent regression analyses showed that this co-variation pattern associated with SMA (β = 0.107, P = 0.002) and externalizing psychopathology (β = 0.117, P = 0.002), respectively.

Discussion and Conclusions

Findings linking SMA-related structural covariation to externalizing psychopathology in youth resonate with prior studies of alcohol-use initiation and suggest a potential neurodevelopmental mechanism underlying addiction vulnerability.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Nerilee Hing, Alex M. T. Russell, Matthew Browne, Matthew Rockloff, Catherine Tulloch, Vijay Rawat, Nancy Greer, Nicki A. Dowling, Stephanie S. Merkouris, Daniel L. King, Matthew Stevens, Anne H. Salonen, Helen Breen, and Linda Woo

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling-related harm to concerned significant others (CSOs) is an important public health issue since it reduces CSOs' health and wellbeing in numerous life domains. This study aimed to 1) estimate the first national prevalence of CSOs harmed by gambling in Australia; 2) identify the characteristics of CSOs most at risk of harm from another person's gambling; 3) compare the types and number of harms experienced by CSOs based on their relationship to the person who gambles; and 4) compare the number of harms experienced by CSOs by self-identified gender.

Methods

Based on a national CATI survey weighted to population norms, 11,560 respondents reported whether they had been personally and negatively affected by another person's gambling in the past 12 months; and if so, answered detailed questions about the harms experienced from the person's gambling who had harmed them the most.

Results

Past-year prevalence of gambling-related harm to adult Australian CSOs was (6.0%; 95% CI 5.6%–6.5%). CSOs most commonly reported emotional harms, followed by relationship, financial, health and vocational harms, respectively. Former partners reported the most harm, followed by current partners, other family members and non-family members, respectively. Female CSOs were more likely to report more harm and being harmed by a partner or other family member, and male CSOs from a non-family member.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings provide new insights into the wider societal burden of gambling and inform measures aimed at reducing harm to CSOs from gambling and supporting them to seek help.

Open access

Abstract

Introduction

The COVID-19 pandemic had numerous consequences for general, mental and sexual health. As gender differences in sexual compulsivity (SC) have been reported in the past and SC has been connected to adverse events and psychological distress, the current study aims at investigating associations between these factors in the context of contact restrictions in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany.

Methods

We collected data for five time points in four retrospective measurement points in an online convenience sample (n T0 = 399, n T4 = 77). We investigated the influence of gender, several pandemic-related psychosocial circumstances, sensation seeking (Brief Sensation Seeking Scale), and psychological distress (Patient-Health-Questionnaire-4) on the change of SC (measured with an adapted version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale) between T0 and T1 (n = 292) in a linear regression analysis. Additionally, the course of SC over the time of the pandemic was explored with a linear mixed model.

Results

Male gender was associated with higher SC compared to female gender over all measurement points. An older age, being in a relationship, having a place to retreat was associated with a change to lower SC during the first time of the pandemic. Psychological distress was associated with SC in men, but not in women. Men, who reported an increase of psychological distress were also more likely to report an increase of SC. 

Discussion

The results demonstrate that psychological distress seems to correlate with SC differently for men and women. This could be due to different excitatory and inhibitory influences on men and women during the pandemic. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the impact of pandemic related psychosocial circumstances in the times of contact restrictions.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Adolescence is a period of high incidence of problematic smartphone use. Understanding the developmental trajectory of problematic smartphone use in adolescence and its influencing factors could guide the choice of timing for prevention and intervention. This study fitted the growth trajectory of problematic smartphone use among adolescents and examined its associations with the childhood family environment and concurrent parent–child relationships.

Methods

Using a cohort sequential design, we investigated 2,548 Chinese adolescents and their parents three times in three years. Multiple group multiple cohort growth models were used to fit the growth trajectory.

Results

The quadratic growth trajectory of problematic smartphone use in adolescents aged 10–18 years showed a clear increasing trend, with a possible decreasing trend in late adolescence or early adulthood. Early life socioeconomic status, childhood family unpredictability, and the concurrent parent–child relationship had unique impacts on the development of problematic smartphone use during adolescence.

Discussion and conclusions

Early adolescence is a favorable time for problematic smartphone use prevention and intervention. A supportive family environment should be maintained throughout the different developmental stages of children and adolescents.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli is associated with increased severity of gambling disorder. However, the addiction-related moderators of attentional bias among those who gamble are largely unknown. Impulsivity is associated with attentional bias among those who abuse substances, and we hypothesized that impulsivity would moderate the relationship between disordered electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling and attentional bias.

Methods

We tested whether facets of impulsivity, as measured by the UPPS-P (positive urgency, negative urgency, sensation seeking, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (cognitive, motor, non-planning) moderated the relationship between increased severity of gambling disorder, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and attentional bias. Seventy-five EGM players participated in a free-viewing eye-tracking paradigm to measure attentional bias to EGM images.

Results

Attentional bias was significantly correlated with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) motor, positive urgency, and negative urgency. Only positive and negative urgency moderated the relationship between PGSI scores and attentional bias. For participants with high PGSI scores, higher positive and negative urgency were associated with larger attentional biases to EGM stimuli.

Discussion

The results indicate that affective impulsivity is an important contributor to the association between gambling disorder and attentional bias.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Recovery is a challenge for individuals coping with a gambling disorder (GD). Recovery capital (RC) is a conceptual framework describing positive external and internal (e.g., human, social, community and financial) resources that promote recovery. Negative RC relates to external and internal obstacles to recovery. To date, no scale has captured both positive and negative RC items in the gambling field. Based on the RC framework, this pilot study aimed to develop The Holistic Recovery Capital in Gambling Disorder (HRC-GD) instrument, and to explore its associations with recovery status, measures of psychopathology and happiness. We hypothesized that higher HRC-GD scores will be positively related to recovery and subjective happiness, but negatively linked to depression, anxiety, and gambling severity.

Method

Recovered and non-recovered individuals with a lifetime DSM-5 GD (n = 164) completed the HRC-GD instrument, the DSM-5 GD diagnostic criteria, and measures of depression, anxiety, and subjective happiness.

Results

Through a process of item reduction, which included a principal components analysis, 19 items were retained. Since exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded uninterpretable findings, an index score reflecting human, financial, community, and social resources and obstacles was calculated. HRC-GD index scores were negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, and GD symptom severity, but positively related with subjective happiness. Index scores were significantly associated with recovery status.

Conclusions

The HRC-GD index holds promise as a new tool for measuring RC in GD. Additional research is needed to validate this index using larger and more ethnically and gender diverse clinical and community samples of individuals with GD.

Open access

Az elektromágneses tereknek tulajdonított idiopátiás környezeti intolerancia (IEI-EMF) jelensége az érintettek szemszögéből

Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI-EMF) – from the viewpoint of the impacted individuals

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Ferenc Köteles, and Renáta Szemerszky

Kétrészes narratív összefoglalónkban áttekintést nyújtunk az elektromágneses tereknek tulajdonított idiopátiás környezeti intoleranciával (IEI-EMF, más néven elektromágneses túlérzékenységgel) kapcsolatos tudományos eredményekről, a kutatások jelenlegi állásáról. Tanulmányunk első részében az IEI-EMF jellemzőit az érintett személyek szemszögéből tárgyaljuk. A közleményünkben foglaltak hasznosak lehetnek úgy az érintett személyek, mint az egészségügyi szakemberek számára. Az elektromágneses túlérzékenység olyan állapotot jelent, amely során az érintett személy tüneteket tapasztal az elektromos eszközök közelében vagy azok használata során, és tüneteit az elektromágneses expozíciónak tulajdonítja. Az Egészségügyi Világszervezet jelenlegi álláspontja szerint az elektromágneses túlérzékenység nem diagnosztikus kategória, s mivel az elektromágneses kitettség és a tünetek közötti feltételezett kapcsolatot az eddigi kutatások eredményei nem igazolták, így a jelenséget az idiopátiás környezeti intoleranciák tágabb kategóriájába sorolták. Az állapot előfordulási gyakorisága jelentős variabilitást mutat az egyes országok között. A tünetek mind jellegükben, mind súlyosság és kronicitás tekintetében változatosak. Jellemzőek a nemspecifikus, általános panaszok, valamint a bőrtünetek. Az IEI-EMF állapota gyakran együtt jár a fiziológiai és kognitív működés megváltozásával, továbbá egyéb szomatikus és mentális megbetegedések is kísérhetik. Jellemző a nagyfokú distressz és a csökkent szomatikus és mentális jóllét. Összefoglalónkban kitérünk az állapot prevalenciájára, a jellemző tünetekre és tünetattribúciós forrásokra, valamint a jelenséget kísérő demográfiai, fiziológiai és pszichológiai jellemzőkre. Ezután kitekintünk az orvos szakemberek elektromágneses túlérzékenységgel kapcsolatos hozzáállására, majd tanulmányunkat a felmerülő etikai kérdésekkel és megfontolásokkal zárjuk.

In our two narrative reviews we summarize the current scientific knowledge on idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI-EMF; aka electromagnetic hypersensitivity). Individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity experience symptoms in the proximity or during the use of electrical devices and ascribe them to the electromagnetic exposure. According to the actual standpoint of the World Health Organization, IEI-EMF is not a diagnostic category. As the assumed causal association between exposure and symptoms is not supported by empirical findings, the condition is regarded as an instrance of the broad category of idiopathic environmental intolerances. Prevalence of the condition shows a considerable variability among countries. Also, there is a heterogeneity with respect to quality, seriousness and chronicity of the experienced symptoms. Most frequently non-specific and skin-related symptoms are reported. IEI-EMF is often accompanied by altered physiological and cognitive functioning and other somatic and mental diseases. Is is also characterized by high level of distress and decreased somatic and mental well-being. In this paper, we discuss IEI-EMF from the viewpoint of the impacted individuals. We present its prevalence, the typical symptoms and attributions, and demographic, physiological and psychological characteristics of people with IEI-EMF. We also present attitudes of physicians toward IEI-EMF and the related ethical issues.

Open access

A fájdalomkatasztrofizálás, a krónikus fájdalom elfogadása és a reménytelenség hatása az életminőségre, degeneratív gerincbetegségből fakadó krónikus fájdalommal élő nőbetegek körében

The impact of pain catastrophizing, acceptance of chronic pain and hopelessness on quality of life of female patients with low back pain

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Ildikó Nagy, András Norbert Zsidó, and Szidalisz Ágnes Teleki

Elméleti háttér: Jelen tanulmányunkban a lumbális gerincszakaszon diagnosztizált elváltozások (porckorongsérv, csigolyaelcsúszás, szegmentális instabilitás) okozta krónikus fájdalommal élő nőbetegek körében vizsgáljuk a fájdalomkatasztrofizálás, a fájdalom elfogadása és a reménytelenség konstruktumainak az egyén életminőségére gyakorolt hatását. A krónikus fájdalomban szenvedő betegek életminősége jelentősen alacsonyabb, mint az egészséges személyeké, amellyel összefüggésben feltételezhető a fájdalomkatasztrofizálás, valamint a reménytelenség negatív hatása, ugyanakkor valószínűsíthető a fájdalom elfogadásának pozitív hatása is a krónikus derékfájdalommal élők életminőségére, fizikai és mentális jóllétére. Cél: Jelen tanulmány fő célja a mentális és szomatikus életminőséget előrejelző tényezők vizsgálata degeneratív gerincbetegségből fakadó krónikus fájdalommal élő nőbetegek körében. Módszerek: Keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves kutatásunkban 121 fő (átlagéletkor: 47,9 [SD = 10,9] év) vett részt. Mérőeszközök: SF-36 kérdőív, Reménytelenség Skála, Fájdalom Katasztrofizálás Kérdőív, Krónikus Fájdalom Elfogadás Kérdőív. Eredmények: A fizikai életminőséghez kapcsolódó modellben a tehetetlenség (β = 0,34; p < 0,001) és az, hogy a válaszadó mennyi ideje él együtt gerincbetegségéből adódó panaszaival (β = 0,27; p = 0,007) pozitívan jelezték előre a reménytelenség pontszámot. A reménytelenség (β = –0,34; p = 0,008) pedig negatív irányban jelezte előre a fizikai életminőséget. Ezen túl a tehetetlenség (β = –0,65; p < 0,001) az indirekt útvonal mellet direkt módon is összefüggött a fizikai életminőséggel. A modell által megmagyarázott variancia 75%. Az illeszkedési mutatók megfelelőek (χ 2(7) = 10,29; p = 0,173, CFI = 0,98, TLI = 0,98, RMSEA = 0,06 [90% CI: 0,01–0,14], SRMR = 0,06). A mentális életminőség prediktorait tesztelő modellben az eredmények szerint a tehetetlenség (β = 0,41; p < 0,001) pozitívan, a krónikus fájdalom elfogadása (β = –0,34; p = 0,004) negatívan jelezte előre a reménytelenség pontszámot. A reménytelenség (β = –0,25; p = 0,017) pedig negatív irányban jelezte előre a mentális életminőséget. Ezen túl a tehetetlenség (β = –0,64; p < 0,001) az indirekt útvonal mellett direkt kapcsolatot is mutatott a mentális életminőséggel. A modell által megmagyarázott variancia 61%, és a modell illeszkedése is megfelelő (χ 2(7) = 11,30; p = 0,126, CFI = 0,99, TLI = 0,98, RMSEA = 0,07 [90% CI: 0,01–0,15], SRMR = 0,05). Következtetések: A gerincproblémákból fakadó krónikus fájdalommal való együttélés az életminőség több dimenzióját is érinti. A fájdalom katasztrofizálása kapcsán a tehetetlenség érzése fokozza a reményvesztett állapotot, valamint negatívan befolyásolja a mentális és fizikai életminőséget egyaránt. A reményvesztett állapot hasonlóképpen a mentális és a fizikai életminőségi mutatókban egyaránt negatív irányú változást okoz. Ezzel szemben a fájdalom elfogadása jobb mentális életminőséget, valamint a reménytelenség érzésének csökkenését eredményezheti. Mindezek okán, a fájdalomélményhez kapcsolódó kogníciók módosítása, az azzal való megküzdés képességének elsajátítása és a tehetetlenség érzésének átkeretezése valószínűsíthetően vezethet el az érintett személyek jobb fizikai és mentális életminőségéhez.

Introduction: In this study we examine the effect of pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and hopelessness on quality of life (QoL) of female patients with chronic low back pain (caused by disc herniation, vertebrae slippage or segmental instability). Numerous studies suggested that pain catastrophizing, and pain acceptance are closely related to the quality of life of patients with chronic low back pain, having a significant negative effect on the physical and mental well-being of the individuals. However, the positive effect of pain acceptance on the patient’s quality of life could be also assumed. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to examine the factors that predict the mental and physical quality of life of chronic low back pain female patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 121 female patients (agemean= 47.9 [SD = 10.9] years). Measures: Beck Hopelessness Scale, Short Form 36 health survey questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire. Results: Regarding the physical Qol, the analyses revealed that helplessness (β = 0.34, p < 0.001) and the time since the onset of pain symptoms (β = 0.27, p = 0.007) predicted positively the degree of hopelessness. Hopelessness (β = –0.34, p = 0.008) in turn, had a negative direct effect on the physical Qol. Moreover, and besides the indirect pathway, helplessness (β = –0.65, p < 0.001) had a direct negative effect on the physical quality of life of the patients. Explained variance is 75%. The model fit the data well (χ 2(7) = 10.29, p = 0.173, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06 [90% CI: 0.01–0.14], SRMR = 0.06). Regarding the model of mental quality of life, the analyses revealed that helplessness (β = 0.41, p < 0.001) positively, while the acceptance of chronic pain (β = –0.34, p = 0.004) negatively predicted the degree of hopelessness. Hopelessness in turn (β = –0.25, p = 0.017) had a direct negative effect on the mental Qol. Helplessness, moreover, also had a direct effect (β = –0.64, p < 0.001) on mental Qol. Explained variance is 61%. The model of mental quality of life showed a proper fit (χ 2(7) = 11.30, p = 0.126, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.07 [90% CI: 0.01–0.15], SRMR = 0.05). Conclusions: The analyses revealed that chronic back pain affects several dimensions of quality of life. The results showed that pain catastrophizing and helplessness increase the feelings of hopelessness, which, in turn, negatively influences the patients’ mental and physical quality of life. Hopelessness results in negative changes both in mental and physical quality of life indicators. These results suggest that increasing coping with pain, restructuring the sense of helplessness, and the acceptance of chronic pain can enhance the mental quality of life as well as decrease the feelings of hopelessness.

Open access

„A pénz nem boldogít…” vagy mégis? – avagy az anyagi helyzet változásának kapcsolata a boldogsággal

„Money can’t buy happiness”… or can? – the relationship between financial status change and happiness

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Sándor Nagy, Szilvia Ádám, and Veronika Mészáros

Elméleti háttér: A boldogság fogalmi tisztázásának, valamint a boldogsággal összefüggő tényezők vizsgálatának a pozitív pszichológia viszonylag nagy figyelmet szentel. Jelen tanulmányunkban a jövedelmet, illetve az anyagi helyzet változását (romlás, javulás vagy konstans anyagi helyzet) helyezzük fókuszba, és azt vizsgáljuk, hogy hogyan kapcsolódik a boldogsághoz. Célkitűzésünk: egyfelől annak tisztázása, hogy az anyagi helyzet változása összefüggésben van-e a boldogság szubjektív megítélésével. Továbbá annak elemzése, hogy az egyén jövedelme befolyásolja-e a kapcsolat természetét, tehát hogyan alakul az említett viszony magasabb, illetve alacsonyabb jövedelem mellett. Módszerek: Mintánkat a Hungaro study 2013 vizsgálat 471 válaszadója alkotja, akik az általunk vizsgált – Életesemény Kérdő ívben feltett, valamint jövedelemmel és boldogsággal kapcsolatos – kérdésekre hiánytalanul válaszoltak, és jövedelmük 2013-ban 50 000 –145 999 Ft-os tartományba esett. Eredmények: Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy azok, akik az elmúlt egy évre vetítve az anyagi helyzetük romlásáról számolnak be, kevésbé boldognak ítélik magukat azokhoz képest, akiknek javult, vagy nem változott az anyagi helyzete (F(2, 468) = 18,640; p < 0,001; η2 = 0,074). Ez az eredmény nemtől, kortól, iskolázottságtól és a lakóhelytől független. A különböző jövedelemkategóriába tartozó emberek boldogságának mértéke azonos abban az esetben, ha nem változott az anyagi helyzetük (F(1, 148) = 0,09; p = 0,771; η 2 = 0,001); ám kevésbé boldognak ítélik magukat az alacsonyabb jövedelemkategóriába tartozók, ha anyagi helyzetük romlásáról számolnak be (F(1, 288) = 6,39; p = 0,012; η 2 = 0,022). Következtetések: Eredményeink felhívják a figyelmet arra, hogy az anyagi helyzet romlása – főképp alacsonyabb jövedelem mellett – hatást gyakorol az egyén által megélt boldogságra. Így prevenciós célú lehet társadalmi szinten olyan értékek előtérbe helyezése az anyagi értékek mellett (vagy helyett), mint például a bizalom, a tolerancia vagy a hála, amelyek hosszabb távon is szavatolhatják a boldogság magasabb szintjét.

Background: Positive psychology pays relatively much attention to the conceptual clarification of happiness and the study of factors related to happiness. In the present study, we focus on the relations of income and changes in financial status (worsening, improvement, or unchanged) to happiness. Aims: Our goal is to explore the relationship between a change in financial situation and the subjective assessment of happiness. Furthermore, we analyze whether the income of the individual influences the nature of the relationship, i.e., how the said relationship changes with higher or lower income, respectively. Methods: Our sample consisted of 471 respondents from the Hungarostudy 2013 survey, who fully answered the questions of income, happiness and certain items of the Life Events Questionnaire. Their income was in the range of 50,000 –145,999 Ft in 2013. Results: Our results showed that those who reported a deterioration in their financial situation over the past year considered themselves less happy than those who improved or experienced no change in their financial situation (F(2, 468) = 18.640, p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.074). These results were independent of gender, age, education, and type of settlement. We found that the degree of happiness of people belonging to different income categories was the same if their financial situation did not change (F(1, 148) = 0.09, p = 0.771, η 2 = 0.001); however, those in the lower income category considered themselves less happy when they reported a deterioration in their financial situation (F(1, 288) = 6.39, p = 0.012, η 2 = 0.022). Conclusions: Our results suggest that deterioration in the financial situation, especially among those with lower income, has an impact on the happiness experienced by the individual. Thus, introduction of values and attributes into our society such as trust, tolerance, gratitude in addition to (or instead of) material values may lead to improvements in the perception of happiness in the long term.

Open access

A Többdimenziós Párkapcsolati Stressz Kérdőív magyar változatának (MSQ-C-Hu) pszichometriai mutatói

Psychometric characteristics of the Hungarian version of Multidimensional Stress Questionnaire for Couples (MSQ-C-Hu)

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Zsuzsa Happ, Georgina Csordás, Csilla Lakatos, Enikő Csilla Kiss, and Krisztina Csókási

Elméleti háttér: A diádikus stressz olyan stresszteli eseményből származik, amely közvetlenül vagy közvetve egy pár mindkét tagját érinti, és megküzdési erőfeszítésekre készteti őket. Cél: Tanulmányunkban a párkapcsolatban élők által észlelt akut és krónikus időtartamú intra-, illetve extradiádikus stressz mértékének mérésére kidolgozott Többdimenziós Párkapcsolati Stressz Kérdőív (Multidimensional Stress Questionnaire for Couples, MSQ-C) magyar változatát (MSQ-C-Hu) mutatjuk be, és értékeljük pszichometriai jellemzőit. Módszerek: Keresztmetszeti kérdőíves vizsgálatunkban 609 fő 18 évnél idősebb, a kitöltés időpontjában legalább 12 hónapja párkapcsolatban élő személy vett részt (327 nő, 282 férfi; átlagéletkoruk 31,6 [SD = 11,7] év). A résztvevők az MSQ-C-Hu kérdőíven kívül megválaszolták a Kapcsolati Elégedettség Skála (RAS-H), az Élettel Való Elégedettség Skála (SWLS-H), a Spielberger-féle Állapot- és Vonásszorongás Kérdőív (STAI) kérdéseit, valamint nyilatkoztak szubjektív testi tüneteikről (PHQ-15) és szociodemográfiai jellemzőikről. A résztvevők közül 447 fő kitöltötte a Diádikus Megküzdés Kérdőívet is (DCI-H). Eredmények: Megerősítő faktoranalízisünk igazolta az MSQ-C-Hu kérdőívnek az eredetivel megegyező faktorszerkezetét (akut stressz: χ 2/df = 1,353; CFI = 0,992; TLI = 0,991; RMSEA = 0,024; krónikus stressz: χ 2/df = 1,517; CFI = 0,988; TLI = 0,986; RMSEA = 0,029). A mérőeszköz belső konzisztenciája megfelelőnek bizonyult, 0,74–0,88 Cronbach-α értékekkel. A szociodemográfiai változók közül a diádikus stressz a párkapcsolat jellegével (p értékek 0,005 és 0,145 között) és időtartamával (p ≤ 0,029), az együttélés időtartamával (p ≤ 0,014), az iskolai végzettséggel (p értékek 0,022 és 0,153 között), a háztartás anyagi helyzetével (p ≤ 0,002) és a gyermekneveléssel (p < 0,001) mutatott szignifikáns kapcsolatot. Magasabb diádikus stressz esetén a párkapcsolati elégedettség és az élettel való elégedettség alacsonyabb mértékűnek, míg a vonás- és állapotszorongás, illetve a fizikai tünetek mértéke magasabbnak bizonyult. A legerősebb együttjárás az intradiádikus stressz és a párkapcsolati elégedettség között mutatkozott (akut intradiádikus stressz r = –0,586; p < 0,001; krónikus intradiádikus stressz r = –0,657; p < 0,001). További eredményeink igazolták, hogy a magasabb diádikus stressz alacsonyabb saját páros megküzdés (r értékek –0,158 és –0,354 között, p < 0,001), partner páros megküzdése (r értékek –0,243 és –0,451 között, p < 0,001), pozitív közös páros megküzdés (r értékek –0,245 és –0,491 között, p < 0,001) és összesített közös megküzdés (r értékek –0,228 és –0,467 között, p < 0,001) értékekkel jár együtt, valamint magasabb negatív közös páros megküzdéssel (r értékek 0,280 és 0,471 között, p < 0,001). Következtetés: Eredményeink alapján az MSQ-C magyar nyelvű válto zata megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyul a diádikus stressz mérésére.

Background: Dyadic stress means a stressful event that affects both members of a couple directly or indirectly, evoking coping efforts. Aim: In our study, we present the Hungarian version (MSQ-C-Hu) of Multidimensional Stress Questionnaire for Couples (MSQ-C), the questionnaire developed to measure the acute and chronic levels of intra- and extradyadic stress experienced by partners in intimate relationships, and evaluate its psychometric characteristics. Methods: A total of 609 individuals (327 women, 282 men; mean age 31.6 [SD = 11.7] years) completed the research survey. The criteria of participation included the age of minimum 18 years and being involved in an intimate relationship for at least 12 months. In addition to the MSQ-C-Hu questionnaire, participants answered the questions of Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS-H), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS-H), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and reported their subjective physical symptoms (PHQ-15), as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. 447 people also completed the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI-H). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the same factor structure of the MSQ-C-Hu questionnaire as the original questionnaire (MSQ-C) had (acute stress: χ 2/df = 1.353, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.991, RMSEA = 0.024; chronic stress: χ 2/df = 1.517, CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.986, RMSEA = 0.029). The internal consistency of the instrument proved to be sufficient, (Cronbach-α values of 0.74–0.88). Dyadic stress was associated with the type (p varies between 0.005 and 0.145) and duration (p ≤ 0.029) of the relationship, the duration of cohabitation (p ≤ 0.014), level of education (p varies between 0.022 and 0.153), the financial situation of the household (p ≤ 0.002), and parenting (p < 0.001). The higher the dyadic stress was, the lower relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction were, while the more the somatic complaints and higher the state and trait anxiety were. The strongest correlation was found between intradyadic stress and relationship satisfaction (acute intradyadic stress r = –0.586, p < 0.001, chronic intradyadic stress r = –0.657, p < 0.001). Our results demonstrated that higher dyadic stress was associated with lower dyadic coping of the own (r varies between –0.158 and –0.354; p < 0.001), dyadic coping of partner (r varies between –0.243 and –0.451; p < 0.001), positive common dyadic coping (r varies between –0.245 and –0.491; p < 0.001), and total score of dyadic coping (r varies between –0.228 and –0.467; p < 0.001), as well as higher negative common dyadic coping (r varies between 0.280 and 0.471; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that MSQ-C-Hu is a reliable and valid measurement tool for measuring dyadic stress.

Open access

Abstract

In this opinion piece we propose the investigation of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterised by appearance-based preoccupations and accompanying compulsions. While safe and effective treatments for BDD exist, non-response and relapse rates remain high. Therefore, there is a need to investigate promising new treatment options for this highly debilitating condition. Preliminary evidence suggests safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of psychedelic treatments in disorders that share similar psychopathological mechanisms with BDD. Drawing on this evidence, as well as on relevant qualitative reports and theoretical proposals, we argue that it would be worthwhile to conduct a phase 2a study aimed at assessing the safety and feasibility of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in BDD. We also offer some suggestions for how future research ought to proceed.

Open access

Az abszolút hallás: áldás vagy átok?

Absolute pitch: Blessing or curse

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Attila Herceg and Pál Szabó

Absolute pitch (AP) is an interdisciplinary phenomenon that has been the subject of research in the field of genetics, neuroscience, musicology, and psychology. Individuals with AP are able to identify the pitch of an isolated sound (passive AP) or to produce that sound (active AP) without a reference point. The aim of the authors is to give a literature review on AP, with special regard to psychological and Hungarian aspects. The phenomenon of AP was already known in the 18th century, but it was only in the last decades of the 19th century that it became the focus of research. Relatively small number of epidemiological studies have been carried out on AP. On the basis of study results, AP is very rare, its prevalence is given over a wide range, between 0.01 and 1% in the general population, and between 3.4 and 20% among trained musicians. AP is more prevalent among blind persons, Asian musicians, and those with autism spectrum disorder. Several forms of AP are distinguished; the relationship between AP and relative pitch is under the scope of studies. Implicit AP is a remarkable phenomenon. The cause of AP and the process of its development have not yet been explored. However, the interaction of genetic, environmental and neural factors seems to be crucial. There are strong evidences for the role of genetic factors and early music training. Neural correlates of AP, structural and functional differences in the nervous system of people with and without AP have been demonstrated, and the performances of these groups in musical tasks also differ.

Open access

A Loyola Generativitás Skála (LGS-18) magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian adaptation of the Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS-18)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Izabella Ilea, Dániel Jenei, and Orsolya Vincze

Background and aims

In the 21st century, generativity has become an increasingly important concept in terms of the individual's well-being. It represents a general attitude of commitment towards a broader community and contribution to improving the world. The study aimed to create the Hungarian version of the Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS-18).

Method

In the first stage of the adaptation we tested the factor structure of the LGS scale, in the second and the third stages we examined the validity and the test-retest reliability of the scale. The study involved N = 624 participants (M age = 50.09; SDage = 8.58), who filled out the following questionnaires: Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS), Satisfaction with Life (SWLS-H), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES-H), Sence of Coherence (SOC), Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS), Schwartz's Value Survey (SVS).

Results

The confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis approved the 18-items version of LGS with excellent reliability and stability. The constructs inserted into the validation showed consistency with the LGS-18 scale according to our expectations and to the data from the international literature.

Conclusions

The 18 item version of the Hungarian Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS-18) is proved to be a reliable and valid questionnaire for measuring adults' generativity.

Open access

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an umbrella term which comprises several kinds of behaviors (e.g., cutting, hitting, biting, scratching, burning). Over the last decade, lifetime prevalence of NSSI acts has showed a dynamic increase among young people. Furthermore, NSSI could associated not only with mental disorders, but might appear in nonclinical samples. This urges the detailed and complex exploration of the etiology, functions, processes and removal of NSSI. Multidimensional nature of the etiology of NSSI makes difficult to develop a comprehensive model. The existing explanatory models are diverse, integrative approach much less likely could be discovered. Our study gives an overview of the spectrum of the models of NSSI. We summarize the biological, the psychological, the interpersonal, and the psychodynamic models, as well as the developmental pathways of NSSI. Finally, the cultural and the system perspectives are also incorporated into the explanations of NSSI. Empirical results provide evidence of the presented models.

Open access

Oktatási reform hatékonyságának vizsgálata – Tantárgyak nehézségi elemzése IRT-modell segítségével programtervező informatikus hallgatók körében

The effectiveness of education reform – Applying the Rasch model to analyse computer science students' dropout

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Rita Takács, Judit T. Kárász, Szabolcs Takács, Zoltán Horváth, and Attila Oláh

The high dropout rates (generally 30–40%) in higher education is causing serious problems. Computer science education is particularly affected, with the first two semesters of undergraduate education being the most critical period in most countries. The institutes may lose 60% of their students. The aim of our study is to analyse how effective the educational reform was: how many students could we prevent from dropping out since 2016.

A sample of academic performance of computer science students was analyzed between 2010 and 2017 using IRT model analysis. The study includes data from 3,673 university students.

According to our results, after the educational reform, most subjects became more achievable and students with lower abilities also tried to take the exams. Mathematics-related subjects became achievable at a lower level of difficulty, and lower ability students also tried to take the exams, and did not see the attempt as a potential failure.

Programming/professional subjects became more difficult, and they were differentiating students at a higher level than mathematic related subjects. Educational reform to support students' academic progress has made it possible to improve students' academic performance. We conclude that intervention programs are worthwhile to consider in order to retain students.

Open access