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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Background and aims

Some people are preoccupied with their sexual urges and fantasies and lose control over their sexual behaviors, which can cause adverse consequences for their health and well-being. One of the options available for individuals seeking treatment for compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) is a self-help group based on the twelve-step program. The main purpose of the current study was to examine the direct and indirect (through meaning in life and hope) relationships between involvement in Sexaholics Anonymous (SA) and life satisfaction.

Methods

The sample consisted of 80 Polish members of SA (72 men and 8 women) with a mean age of 38.96 years (SD = 10.56). The Sex Addiction Screening Test-Revised, the Meaning of Life Questionnaire, the Herth Hope Index, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and items adapted from the Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement Scale were used to measure the study variables.

Results

Path analysis showed a direct positive relationship between SA involvement and life satisfaction. Moreover, the relationship between these variables was mediated by the presence of meaning in life and hope. Simultaneously, more severe symptoms of CSBD were related to lower levels of the presence of meaning in life and higher levels of the search for meaning in life, which, in turn, predicted lower levels of life satisfaction.

Discussion and conclusions

The results suggest that finding meaning in life and restoring hope partly underlie the relationship between SA involvement and life satisfaction.

Open access

Abstract

Objective

Problematic use of digital media and problematic use of the internet (PUI) in particular are growing problems in the general population. Moreover, studies have shown links between PUI and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analysis investigated whether children and adolescents with ADHD are more often affected by PUI compared to control groups.

Method

Multiple databases (EBSCOhost, Pubmed) were reviewed. Studies were eligible if individuals (aged 6–18 years) were diagnosed with ADHD, assessed on PUI-related measures, and compared to non-clinical or/and clinical controls without a diagnosis of ADHD. Out of 3,859 identified studies, 14 studies assessing 2,488 participants met all inclusion criteria. Four meta-analyses examining time-based and scale-based measures, different informants and non-clinical vs. clinical controls using random-effects models were performed. Funnel plots were used to investigate publication bias.

Results

The analyses revealed significantly more severe PUI in individuals with ADHD compared to controls, both when PUI was assessed via rating scale (scaled-based) and via units for time (time-based measures). Different informants (self- vs. parent-rating) had no impact on results. Differences in PUI between groups with ADHD and non-clinical controls were significant, whereas differences between ADHD and clinical controls were not. Due to the high heterogeneity observed and the small sample sizes, these latter findings should be interpreted cautiously.

Conclusion

Children and adolescents with ADHD show more severe PUI compared to non-clinical controls without ADHD. However, the small number of studies does not allow for a systematic comparison between ADHD and groups with other psychopathologies.

Open access

Abstract

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) provide digital learning opportunities for students around the world. To reach students, MOOCs must advertise themselves to encourage enrollment. While previous studies have explored the content of MOOC descriptions, an investigation into the rhetorical functions of these descriptions has yet to be carried out. In order to discover more about the features of MOOC descriptions which influence their potential students, this paper details the design and piloting of an interview protocol which can be used to collect data regarding the persuasive impact that MOOC descriptions have on those who read them. Samples of data collected using the instrument are presented to examine the validity of the results, and a reflection is provided which discusses the application of the instrument in future research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

A wide range of studies indicates that men and women with Problem (PrG) and Pathological Gambling (PG) differ in several clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. However, evidence for sex differences, such as the telescoping effect, is contradictory, and it is still unclear whether sex differences observed in offline gambling can also be found for online gambling. Furthermore, reviews have so far focused on binary sex differences but neglect gender aspects. In this study, an updated literature survey of sex- and gender-related differences in PrG and PG was conducted.

Methods

We searched PsyInfo, Medline/Pubmed, and the Web of Science databases from 2005 to 2020 for studies investigating sex and gender differences in gambling. A total of 126 papers were included in the literature survey.

Results

We are presenting our findings according to the categories ‘prevalence’ (offline, online, LGBTQI*), ‘sociodemographic factors’, ‘preferred gambling type’, ‘gambling motives’, ‘severity’, ‘progression of gambling problems’, ‘use of professional help/motivation for treatment’, ‘comorbidity’, ‘trauma’, ‘violence and criminality/delinquency’. The studies indicate that, despite some robust sex differences (e.g., concerning prevalence rates), results for most areas were mixed or suggest no sex differences (e.g., violence, gambling motives).

Discussion and conclusion

To date, there is a lack of studies assessing gender, and not only sex, warranting further research in this area.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic exercise (PE) has mainly been assessed with self-report instruments. However, summarized evidence on the reliability of the scores derived from such instruments has yet to be provided. The present study reports a reliability generalization meta-analysis of six well-known self-report measures of PE (Commitment to Exercise Scale, Compulsive Exercise Test, Exercise Addiction Inventory, Exercise Dependence Questionnaire, Exercise Dependence Scale, and Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire).

Methods

Pooled effect sizes were computed using a random-effect model employing a restricted maximum likelihood estimation method. Univariable and multivariable meta-regressions analyses were employed for testing moderator variables.

Results

Data retrieved from 255 studies (741 independent samples, N = 254,174) identified three main groups of findings: (i) pooled alpha values that, ranging from 0.768 to 0.930 for global scores and from 0.615 to 0.907 for subscale scores, were found to be sensitive to sociodemographic and methodological characteristics; (ii) reliability induction rates of 47.58%; and (iii) the virtually non-existent testing of the assumptions required for the proper applicability of alpha. Data unavailability prevented the provision of summarized reliability estimates in terms of temporal stability.

Discussion

These findings highlight the need to improve reliability reporting of the scores of self-reported instruments of PE in primary studies. This implies providing both prior justification for the appropriateness of the index employed and reliability data for all the subpopulation of interest. The values presented could be used as a reference both for comparisons with those obtained in future primary studies and for correcting measurement-related artefacts in quantitative meta-analytic research concerning PE.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Maria Picó-Pérez, Víctor Costumero, Juan Verdejo-Román, Natalia Albein-Urios, José Miguel Martínez-González, Carles Soriano-Mas, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales, and Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

Abstract

Background

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) and gambling disorder (GD) share clinical features and neural alterations, including emotion regulation deficits and dysfunctional activation in related networks. However, they also exhibit differential aspects, such as the neuroadaptive effects of long-term drug consumption in CUD as compared to GD. Neuroimaging research aimed at disentangling their shared and specific alterations can contribute to improve understanding of both disorders.

Methods

We compared CUD (N = 15), GD (N = 16) and healthy comparison (HC; N = 17) groups using a network-based approach for studying temporally coherent functional networks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of an emotion regulation task. We focused our analysis in limbic, ventral frontostriatal, dorsal attentional (DAN) and executive networks (FPN), given their involvement in emotion regulation and their alteration in CUD and GD. Correlations with measures of emotional experience and impulsivity (UPPS-P) were also performed.

Results

The limbic network was significantly decreased during emotional processing both for CUD and GD individuals compared to the HC group. Furthermore, GD participants compared to HC showed an increased activation in the ventral frontostriatal network during emotion regulation. Finally, networks' activation patterns were modulated by impulsivity traits.

Conclusions

Functional network analyses revealed both overlapping and unique effects of stimulant and gambling addictions on neural networks underpinning emotion regulation.

Open access

Cronbach-alfa: vele vagy nélküle?

Cronbach’s alfa: with or without it?

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Judit T. Kárász, Olivér Nagybányai Nagy, Krisztián Széll, and Szabolcs Takács

Háttér és célkitűzések

Tanulmányunkban arra vállalkozunk, hogy egy olyan eljárást mutassunk be, melynek segítségével megalapozottabban használható az eddig is széles körben alkalmazott Cronbach-alfa mutató.

Módszer

Elemzésünkben egy olyan, egyszerűen elkészíthető szimulációs eljárás alkalmazását javasoljuk, melynek segítségével az adatainkhoz igazodva egy, az adott helyzetben elvárt együttes konzisztenciaszint (át-lagos korrelációs szint) eléréséhez szükséges Cronbach-alfa viszonyítási pontot adhatunk.

Eredmények

Elemzésünk ugyanis rámutat arra, hogy nemcsak a kérdőívben használt itemek számától, hanem a kérdőívben alkalmazott Likert-skála értékeinek számától is függővé kellene tenni a Cronbach-alfa mutató viszonyítási pontját. Szintén eredménye az elemzésünknek, hogy az alkalmazott formulával nem a hagyományosan meghatározott 0,7-es értéket kapjuk, hanem mind a Likert-skálától, mind pedig az itemek számától, illetve az elvárt, itemek közötti kapcsolati erősségtől függővé lehet tenni az elvárt Cronbach-alfa értéket.

Következtetések

A javasolt algoritmus segítségével a Cronbach-alfa mutatónak egy olyan alkalmazását lehet megvalósítani, mely alkalmas arra, hogy a kérdőívünkhöz (a válaszadási Likert-skálához) igazodva, illetve a skála itemszáma alapján referenciapontot adhassunk e megbízhatósági mutatóhoz.

Background and purpose

In our study, we undertake to present a procedure that allows a more well-founded use of the Cronbach’s alpha index, which has been widely used so far.

Method

In our analysis, we propose the use of a simple simulation procedure, which can be used in a given situation to provide a Cronbach’s alpha reference point to achieve the expected overall consistency level (average correlation level).

Results

This is because our analysis points out that the Cronbach’s alpha index should be made dependent not only on the number of items, but also on the number of Likert scale values used in the questionnaire. It is also the result of our analysis that the applied formula does not give the traditionally determined value of 0.7, but the expected Cronbach’s alpha value dependent on both the Likert scale and the number of items, as well as the expected relationship strength between items.

Conclusion

With the help of the proposed algorithm, an application of the Cronbach’s alpha index can be implemented, which is suitable to add a reference point to this reliability index based on our questionnaire (the answer Likert scale) and the number of items on the scale.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Loot boxes are in-game items which distribute rewards to players via random-number generation; many games require players to make in-game payments to access their contents. The combination of financial outlay and random rewards has raised concern about similarities to gambling. This debate paper presents a series of themes identified by an inter-institutional working group in Finland, alongside suggested actions, and are presented with the intention of stimulating debate among stakeholders.

Methods

This work uses an exploratory research approach to gather data from a range of sources, including state-of-the-art reports from several fields and qualitative content analysis of invited presentations from a range of stakeholders, including affected individuals, practitioners, and field-specific experts.

Results and Discussion

Several significant themes emerged from the work and are presented alongside a series of proposed action points. Based on this preliminary exploration we propose a series of, non-exhaustive, actions for both primary and secondary prevention. Furthermore, the group identified the potential for responsible gaming practices to be adopted which would help to minimize the harm from overspending in gaming activities. Finally, we identified the need for further research in the field, for example the use of player data and both longitudinal and qualitative studies.

Conclusions

The emergent themes are discussed in relation to both the views of the presenters and existing research in the field and are intended to promote discussion concerning the viability of context-specific approaches to an issue of global reach and significance.

Open access

A lélek képalkotói és laborvizsgálatai. A projektív tesztek és a kérdőívek integrált alkalmazása a gyermek és serdülő pszichodiagnosztikában

The imaging techniques and laboratory test of psyche. The integrative practice of projective measures and questionnaires in child and adolescent psychodiagnostics

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Máté Jambrik, Sára Posta, Ildikó Erni, Laura Csenki, Melinda Cserép, Ildikó Ábrahám, and Bea Pászthy

A jelen tanulmány célja, hogy a gyermek és a serdülő pszichodiagnosztikában használt kérdőíves és projektív eszközök eredményeinek diszkrepanciáját megvitassa. Stephen Finn véleménye szerint mind a két tesztelési forma megbízható, azonban más működési elven alapulnak. Előfordulhat, hogy a két tesztelési forma látszólagosan más eredményt mutat, azonban a diszkrepancia megértése értékes információt adhat a vizsgálni kívánt személyről. Cikkünkben kitérünk arra, hogy a különböző tesztelési eljárások (kérdőívek, projektív tesztek) hogyan működnek, illetve arra is, hogy milyen szerepük lehet a pszichodiagnosztikai folyamatban. Az egyén viselkedésének megértése szempontjából a kérdőívek a laboratóriumi tesztekkel, a projektív tesztek pedig az agyi képalkotó eljárásokkal hozhatók párhuzamba az orvosi diagnosztikában. A projektív eljárások ingeranyagtól függően más módon készítenek „felvételeket” a lélekről, mint ahogy a CT, a PET és az MR a képalkotó diagnosztikában az agyról. A kérdőívek és a projektív eszközök integrált alkalmazása gyakran pontosabb diagnózisalkotást és kezelési terv felállítását tesz lehetővé.

The current study aims to discuss the distinction between the results of various tools used in child and adolescent psychodiagnostic, namely between questionnaires and projective measures. According to Stephen Finn, both methods are reliable but operate based on different principles. It may seem that the two methods of testing present different responses, but understanding discrepancies can provide valuable information about the subject. In our article, we discuss how these various testing methods (questionnaires, projective tests) work, and how they may play a role in the psychodiagnostic process. In our study, we consider for understanding human behaviour, non-projective tests being compared to laboratory tests and projective measures being compared to brain imaging techniques. Projective procedure stimuli elicit different features of the subject’s personality, analogous to imaging diagnostics of medical science (CT, PET and MR). The discrepancy between questionnaires and projective methods can have important indications for both diagnosis and therapy.

Open access

A nem-szuicidális önsértés és az öngyilkos magatartás kapcsolata: független vagy összefüggő jelenségek?

The links between non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviour: dependent or independent phenomena?

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Boglárka Drubina, Gyöngyi Dr. Kökönyei, and Melinda Dr. Reinhardt

Az öngyilkos magatartás (öngyilkossági gondolatok, megkísérelt és befejezett öngyilkosság) kutatása jóval régebbre nyúlik vissza, mint a nem-szuicidális önsértésé (non-suicidal self-injury; NSSI: a test szándékos megsértése öngyilkossági szándék nélkül). Számos tanulmány született a két jelenség kapcsolatának vagy éppen különbségeinek vizsgálatáról, ugyanakkor a témában fellelhető irodalom nem képvisel egységes álláspontot.

Tanulmányunk célja, hogy összefoglaljuk és bemutassuk a kurrens szakirodalomban megtalálható feltételezéseket, elméleti modelleket az NSSI és az öngyilkos magatartás lehetséges kapcsolatairól. További célunk, hogy a szakemberek összefüggéseiben tudják értelmezni a két jelenség viszonyát.

Habár az NSSI és az öngyilkos magatartás bizonyos szempontok mentén elkülöníthető (például a DSM-5 által javasolt Nem-Szuicidális Önsértés Zavar és Öngyilkos Magatartás Zavar diagnózisok mentén), ugyanakkor a kurrens kutatások a két jelenség összefüggéseire hívják inkább fel a figyelmet, egymástól elválaszthatatlan jelenségeknek tekintve őket (pl. az NSSI mint az öngyilkos magatartás prediktora).

Az eddig született kevés átfogó modell leginkább a két jelenség lehetséges összefüggéseit magyarázza, többségük az NSSI-re egy, az öngyilkosságra hajlamosító tényezőként, annak rizikófaktoraként tekint. Ezenkívül napjaink szakirodalmában a spektrumszemlélet terjedt el, amely a két jelenséget (NSSI és öngyilkos magatartás) egy spektrum két végpontjaként képzeli el.

The research of suicidal behaviour (suicidal thoughts, attended and completed suicide) is older than the research of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI; deliberately hurt one’s own body without suicidal intent). There are numerous studies that investigate the links and the differences between the two phenomena, however there is no consensus between different authors.

The aim of our study is to summarize and present the hypotheses and theoretical models about the possible links between NSSI and suicidal behaviour based on the latest literature. Furthermore, our aim is to familiarize professionals with these two phenomena (NSSI and suicidal behaviour) and to help them understand the complex relationship between the two behaviours.

Although NSSI and suicidal behaviour can be differentiated along some aspects (e.g., based on the recommended diagnoses by DSM-5: Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder and Suicidal Behaviour Disorder), research stress the importance of the links between NSSI and suicidal behaviour (e.g., NSSI as a predictor of suicidal behaviour).

Comprehensive models raise mostly for the explication of the links between NSSI and suicidal behaviour, which describe NSSI as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour. In this respect, NSSI could be a factor that facilitate the development of suicidal behaviour in different ways. Beside of that the spectrum approach is getting widely accepted. It suggests that NSSI and suicidal behaviour are the two extremes of the same spectrum of behaviour.

Open access

Problémamegoldás barátok és nem barátok között serdülők körében

Social problem-solving between friends and non-friends among adolescents

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: László Kasik, Szilvia Jámbori, Edit Tóth, and Zita Gál

Háttér és célkitűzések

A vizsgálat célja az azonos és ellentétes nemű baráti viszony és az ezekben történő problémamegoldás jellemzőinek, illetve kapcsolatuknak a feltárása volt 12–13 és 16–17 évesek körében (N = 304).

Módszer

A személyközi problémák megoldásának jellemzőit a Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised (SPSI–R, D’Zurilla, Nezu és Maydeu-Olivares, 2002; magyarul: Kasik, Nagy és Fűzy, 2010), a barátságfunkciókat a McGill Friendship Questionnaire (MFQ, Mendelson és Aboud, 2014; magyarul: Kasik, Jámbori, Gál és Tóth, 2021) eszközzel tártuk fel, mindkét kérdőív jó megbízhatósági mutatókkal rendelkezett.

Eredmények

Az MFQ által mért serkentő együttlét, segítségnyújtás, bensőségesség, érzelmi biztonság, kitartás és elismertség közül az idősebbek számára fontosabb a kitartás és az elismertség azonos és ellentétes nemű barát esetében egyaránt. A baráti viszonyban előforduló problémák megoldásához mindkét életkorban pozitívan viszonyulnak, megoldási stílusuk racionális, ám ez jobban jellemző az azonos nemű barátságokra, hiszen az ellentétes neműeknél – akárcsak a nem baráti viszonyban – megjelenik a negatív viszonyulás, ehhez kapcsoltan az impulzív és az elkerülő megoldási stílus.

Következtetések

Az eredmények a korábban feltárt életkor és nem szerinti sajátosságok megerősítése mellett igen sok módszertani kérdést is felvetnek, újabb kutatásokra ösztönöznek, valamint felhívják a figyelmet arra, hogy a baráti kapcsolatoknak milyen fontos szerepük van a serdülők társas életében, hiszen a baráti kapcsolatban felmerülő problémamegoldás rendelkezik azokkal a jellemzőkkel (pozitív viszonyulás, racionális stílus), amelyek kialakítása, erősítése általános nevelési, fejlesztési cél ebben az életkorban a nem baráti kortársi viszonyok esetében.

Background and aims

The aim of the cross-sectional study was to shed light on the characteristics of friendship and problem-solving among same- and opposite-sex adolescents at ages 12-13 (school year 6) and 16-17 (school year 10) (N = 304).

Method

The characteristics of the solution of interpersonal problems were revealed with the use of Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised (SPSI–R, D’Zurilla et al., 2002, Hungarian version: Kasik et al., 2010) and friendship functions were revealed with the McGill Friendship Questionnaire (MFQ, Mendel-son & Aboud, 2014; Hungarian version: Kasik et al., 2020). The questionnaires have good psychometric indicators.

Results

Based on the results, which mostly confi rm the data from earlier research, perseverance and recognition are the more important friendship functions from stimulating companionship, helping, intimacy, emotional security, perseverance and recognition as measured by MFQ, let it be a same- or opposite-sex friend. The revealed characteristics have also confi rmed the data from earlier studies, which means that both age groups have a positive approach to the solution of interpersonal problems in a friendship and their solution style is rational. However, this is more typical of same-sex friendships because negative orientation and, in connection to this, impulsivity and avoidance occurs in opposite-sex ones as well as in non-friend relationships.

Consequences

In addition to the confi rmation of the previously revealed age- and sex-related characteristics, the results of the research raise several methodological questions as well, invite further research and, furthermore, draw the attention to the important role that friendships play in adolescents’ social life because the social problem-solving that occurs in the friendship bears those characteristics (positive orientation, rationality) whose formation and strengthening is a general educational and developmental aim at this age in the case of non-friend peer relationships.

Open access

A Sternberg-féle szerelem kérdőív magyar változata (STLS-H)

Hungarian version of sternberg’s triangular love scale (STLS-H)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Fanni Őry, Zsuzsa Happ, András Norbert Zsidó, and Norbert Meskó

Elméleti háttér

A szerelem jelenségének tanulmányozására fejlesztett egyik mérőeszköz a Sternberg-féle Háromszögű Szerelem Kérdőív (STLS), amely a szerelem háromszögelméletén alapszik. Ennek lényege, hogy a szerelem egy komplex érzelem, amely leírható három összetevőjének (az intimitás, a szenvedély, az elköteleződés) sajátos kombinációjaként. A kérdőívet már több mint 25 nyelvre lefordították, és több száz kutatás kiindulópontjává vált.

A kutatás célja

Kutatásunk célja az STLS magyar változatának elkészítése, pszichometriai ellenőrzése és validálása volt.

Mó dszer

A kutatásban két mintát használtunk, és online kérdőívcsomagokkal végeztünk felmérést. A kérdőív faktorszerkezetének elemzésekor 1305 fő (739 nő és 566 férfi ; átlagéletkor = 30,01 év; SD = 10,92; 18–72 év között) adataival dolgoztunk. A validáláskor az előző minta egy része, 465 fő (319 nő és 146 férfi , átlagéletkor 30,4 év; SD = 10,9 év, 18–72 év között) töltötte ki a következő kérdőíveket: Sternberg-féle Trianguláris Szerelem Kérdőív (STLS), kapcsolati elégedettség skála (RAS-H), páros megküzdés kérdőív (DCI-H), szexuális motiváció kérdőív (YSEX?-HSF).

Eredmények

A faktorelemzés megmutatta, hogy a Szerelem Kérdőív magyarra fordított itemei ugyanolyan hármas szerkezetbe illeszkednek, mint az amerikai változatban. A Szerelem Kérdőív mindhárom skálája pozitív irányú, közepes erősségű korrelációt mutat a páros megküzdés kérdőív összesített skáláival, valamint a párkapcsolati elégedettséggel. Ugyanakkor mindhárom szerelem skála csak alacsony vagy értelmezhetetlenül alacsony korrelációt mutat a szexuális motivációval.

Következtetések

A Sternberg-féle Háromszögű Szerelem Kérdőív magyar változata (STLS-H) az eredetivel megegyező faktorszerkezetű, magas belső megbízhatósági mutatókkal rendelkező valid eszköz, amely alkalmas lehet a magyar nyelvű kutatásokban a szerelem mérésére.

Theoretical background

Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale (STLS) is one of the questionnaires developed to study the phenomenon of romantic love. The rationale of Sternberg’s triangular love theory that romantic love is a complex emotion that can be described as a peculiar combination of its three components (intimacy, passion, commitment). STLS has already been translated into more than 25 languages and has become the starting point for hundreds of studies.

Aim of current study

The aim of our research was to prepare, psychometrically check and validate the Hungarian version of STLS.

Method

In the research, we used two samples and conducted a survey with online questionnaire packages. Sample 1 Factor analysis: we worked with the data of 1305 subjects (739 women and 566 men; mean age = 30.01 years; SD = 10.92; 18-72 years). Sample 2 Validation: Our questionnaire-package completed by 465 individuals (319 women and 146 men, mean age 30.4 years; SD = 10.9 years, 18-72 years): Stern-berg’s Triangular Love Scale (STLS), Hungarian version of Relationship Satisfaction Scale (RAS-H), Hungarian version of Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI-H), sexual motivation questionnaire (YSEX?-HSF).

Results

The factor analysis showed that the items of the love questionnaire translated into Hungarian fit into the same triple structure as in the American version. All three scales of the love questionnaire show a positive medium strength correlation with the overall scales of the Dyadic Coping Inventory as well as the Relationship Satisfaction Scale. However, all three scales of STLS show only a low or incomprehensibly low correlation with sexual motivation.

Conclusions

The Hungarian version of the Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale (STLS-H) is a valid tool with the same factor structure as the original, with high internal reliability indicators, which may be suitable for measuring love in Hungarian research.

Open access

A szexuális kisebbségekhez tartozó magyar fiatalok egészsége és jólléte

Health and well-being in hungarian sexual minority youth

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: András Költő, Dóra Eszter Várnai, and Ágnes Németh

Háttér és célkitűzések

Hazánkban eddig kevés kutatást végeztek szexuális kisebbségekhez tartozó fiatalok egészségével és jóllétével kapcsolatban. Ebben a vizsgálatban egy összetett indikátorkészlet alkalmazásával összehasonlítottunk azonos vagy mindkét nemű partnerekhez vonzódó fiatalokat nem kisebbségi (ellenkező nemhez vonzódó vagy vonzódást át nem élt) kortársaikkal. A változók kedvező és kedvezőtlen kimeneteket is magukba foglaltak, és kiterjedtek a pszichés jóllétre és a mentális egészségre, az egészségvédő és kockáztató magatartásokra, valamint az egészség pszichoszociális determinánsaira.

Módszer

Az Iskoláskorú Gyermekek Egészségmagatartása (HBSC) kutatás 2018. évi adatfelvételében részt vevő 2651 középiskolás fiatalt vizsgáltuk (életkoruk 16,79 ± 1,19 év). A kimeneti változókat kétértékűvé alakítottuk, és gyakoriságukat összehasonlítottuk a romantikus vonzódás négy csoportjában (ellenkező neműekhez vonzódók, azonos neműekhez vonzódók, mindkét neműekhez vonzódók és nem vonzódók). Ezután a változókat bináris logisztikus regressziós modellekbe építettük. A referenciacsoportot az ellenkező nemhez vonzódó fiatalok képezték. Az esélyhányadosokat korrigáltuk a nem és a családi jómódúság hatására.

Eredmények

A mindkét nemhez vonzódó fiatalok a fizikai aktivitás és alkoholfogyasztás kivételével minden változón kedvezőtlenebb értékeket mutattak, mint az ellenkező nemhez vonzódó társaik. A kizárólag azonos nemhez vonzódó fiatalok kockázata szintén magasabb volt a kannabiszfogyasztásra és az öngyilkossági gondolat és szándék megjelenésére. A vonzalmat még át nem élt fiatalok értékei sok változó tekintetében kedvezőbbek voltak, mint az ellenkező nemhez vonzódó társaiké. A nem és a családi jómódúság befolyása nem volt jelentős.

Következtetések

Az eredmények elhelyezhetők a kisebbségi stressz, a strukturális stigma és a romantikus stressz elméleti modelljeiben, igazolják a szexuális kisebbségi (főképp a mindkét nemhez vonzódó vagy biszexuális) fiatalok egészségi egyenlőtlenségeit, és alátámasztják az iskolai intervenciók és a dolgozói továbbképzés fontosságát.

Background and aims

In Hungary, there are only a few studies on the health and well-being of sexual minority young people. In this analysis, a complex indicator set was used to compare same- and both-gender attracted youth with their non-minority (opposite-gender attracted or not attracted) peers. The indicators included positive and negative outcomes of psychological well-being and mental health, health-protective and health-compromising behaviours, and psychosocial determinants of health.

Method

Data from 2651 secondary school students, participating in the 2018 data collection of the Hungarian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (age: 16.79 ± 1.19 years), were analysed. Indicators were dichotomised and compared across groups of romantic attraction: opposite-gender attracted; same-gender attracted; both-gender attracted; and not attracted. Binary logistic regression models were created, with opposite-gender attracted youth being the reference group. Odds ratios were adjusted for gender and family affl uence.

Results

Compared to their opposite-gender attracted peers, both-gender attracted youth had poorer outcomes on all variables, with the exception of physical activity and alcohol consumption. Youth exclusively attracted to same-gender partners also had higher risk for cannabis use and suicidality. Youth not attracted fared better on many variables than their opposite-gender attracted peers. Gender and family affl uence had small impact on the effects.

Conclusions

The results can be interpreted within the theories of minority stress, structural stigma and romantic stress. They confi rm health inequalities in sexual minority (especially in both-gender attracted or bisexual) youth, and underscore the need for school-based interventions and training for youth service providers.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Daniel L. King, Sophia Achab, Susumu Higuchi, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Kai W. Müller, Joël Billieux, Vladan Starcevic, John B. Saunders, Philip Tam, and Paul H. Delfabbro

Abstract

Gaming activities have conferred numerous benefits during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, some individuals may be at greater risk of problem gaming due to disruption to adaptive routines, increased anxiety and/or depression, and social isolation. This paper presents a summary of 2019–2021 service data from specialist addiction centers in Germany, Switzerland, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Treatment demand for gaming disorder has exceeded service capacity during the pandemic, with significant service access issues. These data highlight the need for adaptability of gaming disorder services and greater resources and funding to respond effectively in future public health crises.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

With the inclusion of gaming disorder in the ICD-11, diagnostic criteria were introduced for this relatively new disorder. These criteria may also be applied to other potential specific Internet-use disorders, which may be classified in ICD-11 as other disorders due to addictive behaviors, such as online buying-shopping disorder, online pornography-use disorder, social-networks-use disorder, and online gambling disorder. Due to the heterogeneity in existing instruments, we aimed to develop a consistent and economic measure of major types of (potential) specific Internet-use disorders based on ICD-11 criteria for gaming disorder.

Methods

The new 11-item Assessment of Criteria for Specific Internet-use Disorders (ACSID-11) measures five behavioral addictions with the same set of items by following the principles of WHO’s ASSIST. The ACSID-11 was administered to active Internet users (N = 985) together with an adaptation of the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) and screeners for mental health. We used Confirmatory Factor Analyses to analyze the factor structure of ACSID-11.

Results

The assumed four-factorial structure was confirmed and was superior to the unidimensional solution. This applied to gaming disorder and to the other specific Internet-use disorders. ACSID-11 scores correlated with IGDT-10 as well as with the measures of psychological distress.

Discussion and Conclusions

The ACSID-11 seems to be suitable for the consistent assessment of (potential) specific Internet-use disorders based on ICD-11 diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder. The ACSID-11 may be a useful and economic instrument for studying various behavioral addictions with the same items and improving comparability.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Kun-Chia Chang, Yun-Husan Chang, Cheng-Fang Yen, Jung-Sheng Chen, Po-Jen Chen, Chung-Ying Lin, Mark D. Griffiths, Marc N. Potenza, and Amir H. Pakpour

Abstract

Background and aims

Individuals with schizophrenia may often experience poor sleep, self-stigma, impaired social functions, and problematic smartphone use. However, the temporal relationships between these factors have not been investigated. The present study used a longitudinal design to examine potential mediating roles of poor sleep and self-stigma in associations between problematic smartphone use and impaired social functions among individuals with schizophrenia.

Methods

From April 2019 to August 2021, 193 individuals with schizophrenia (mean [SD] age = 41.34 [9.01] years; 88 [45.6%] males) were recruited and asked to complete three psychometric scales: the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale to assess problematic smartphone use; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quality; and the Self-Stigma Scale-Short Scale to assess self-stigma. Social functioning was evaluated by a psychiatrist using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. All measures were assessed five times (one baseline and four follow-ups) at three-month intervals between assessments.

Results

General estimating equations found that problematic smartphone use (coefficient = −0.096, SE = 0.021; P < 0.001), sleep quality (coefficient = −0.134, SE = 0.038; P < 0.001), and self-stigma (coefficient = −0.612, SE = 0.192; P = 0.001) were significant statistical predictors for social functioning. Moreover, sleep quality and self-stigma mediated associations between problematic smartphone use and social functioning.

Conclusion

Problematic smartphone use appears to impact social functioning longitudinally among individuals with schizophrenia via poor sleep and self-stigma concerns. Interventions aimed at reducing problematic smartphone use, improving sleep, and addressing self-stigma may help improve social functioning among individuals with schizophrenia.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Observation of real-time neural characteristics during gameplay would provide distinct evidence for discriminating the currently controversial diagnosis of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and elucidate neural mechanisms that may be involved in addiction. We aimed to provide preliminary findings on possible neural features of IGD during real-time internet gaming using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

Methods

Prefrontal cortical activations accompanying positive and negative in-game events were investigated. Positive events: (1) participant’s champion slays or assists in slaying an opponent without being slain. (2) the opposing team’s nexus is destroyed. Negative events: (1) participant’s champion is slain without slaying or assisting in slaying any opponent. (2) the team’s nexus is destroyed. Collected data were compared between the IGD group and control group, each with 15 participants.

Results

The IGD group scored significantly higher than the CTRL group on the craving scale. Following positive events, the IGD group displayed significantly stronger activation in the DLPFC. Following negative events, the IGD group displayed significantly weaker activation in the lateral OFC.

Discussion and Conclusions

Individuals scoring high on the IGD scale may crave for more internet gaming after encountering desired events during the game. Such observations are supported by the correlation between the craving scale and DLPFC activation. The IGD group may also show diminished punishment sensitivity to negative in-game experiences rendering them to continue playing the game. The present study provides preliminary evidence that IGD may demonstrate neural characteristics observed in other addictive disorders and suggests the use of fNIRS in behavioral addiction studies.

Open access

A De Jong Gierveld Magányosság Skála magyar változatának pszichometriai jellemzői

Psychometric characteristics of the Hungarian version of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Dominik Szabó and Ilona Szili

Elméleti háttér: A magányosság a társas kapcsolati háló szubjektíven észlelt minőségi vagy mennyiségi elégtelensége folytán kialakuló kellemetlen élmény, amelyet korábbi kutatások számos testi és pszichés zavarral hoztak összefüggésbe. Reprezentatív felmérések szerint a jelenség nemzetközi és hazai fronton is sokakat érint. Cél: Célunk a De Jong Gierveld Magányosság Skála magyar változata faktorszerkezetének és további pszichometriai jellemzőinek felmérése volt. Módszerek: Keresztmetszeti, önbeszámolós kérdő- íveket tartalmazó online kutatásunkban 934 fő vett részt (86% nő, átlagéletkor: 32,8 [SD = 11,4] év). A validáláshoz egytételes skálákat, valamint az UCLA Magányosság Skála, az Élettel való Elégedettség Kérdőív, a Pozitív és Negatív Affektivitás Skála, a Multidimenzionális Észlelt Társas Támogatás Kérdőív, illetve a Rövidített Beck Depreszszió Kérdőív magyar változatait használtuk fel. A mérőeszköz faktorstruktúrájának fel- tárásához parallel elemzést, valamint feltáró és megerősítő faktor elemzéseket végeztünk. A külső validitást rangkorrelációs elemzésekkel vizsgáltuk. Eredmények: A parallel elemzés és a feltáró faktorelemzés eredménye alapján a skála tételei egy faktorba rendeződtek. Az elvégzett megerősítő faktorelemzések alapján a legjobb illeszkedést a bifaktoriális modell mutatta (χ 2(33) = 104,755, p < 0,001; χ 2/df = 3,174; RMSEA = 0,068; CFI = 0,992; TLI = 0,987). E modell alaposabb értékelését segítő mutatók egyetlen globális faktor (magányosság) jelenlétét igazolják, mivel a feltételezett specifikus faktorok alacsony megbízhatósággal rendelkeznek (ECV = 0,851, PUC = 0,545, ARPB = 0,055, általános magányosság: ω h = 0,915, szociális magányosság: ω h = 0,215, emocionális magányosság: ω h = 0,001). A mérőeszköz a külső validitást mérő skálákkal megfelelő erősségű és irányú együttjárást mutatott. Következtetés: Feltételezhetjük, hogy a De Jong Gierveld Magányosság Skála magyar változata a magányosságérzés megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköze.

Theoretical background: Loneliness is an unpleasant experience due to the subjectively perceived qualitative or quantitative insufficiency of the social network. Previous research has linked loneliness to many physical and mental disorders. According to representative surveys, this phenomenon affects many on both the international and domestic fronts. Objective: Our aim was the examination of the psychometric characteristics and factor structure of the Hungarian version of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Methods: 934 persons participated in our cross-sectional online research, which included self-report questionnaires (86% female, mean age: 32.8 [SD = 11.4] years). We used single-item scales, the Hungarian versions of the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Shortened Beck Depression Index for testing external validity. Parallel analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to obtain the factor structure of the instrument. To examine external validity, rank correlation analyses were made. Results: Based on the results of the parallel analysis and the exploratory factor analysis, the items of the scale were arranged in one factor. In confirmatory factor analyses, the bifactor model yielded the best fit to the data (χ 2(33) = 104.755, p < 0.001, χ 2/df = 3.174, RMSEA = 0.068, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.987). Indices that help evaluate this model more thoroughly confirmed the presence of a single global factor (loneliness), as the assumed specific factors have low reliability (ECV = 0.851, PUC = 0.545, ARPB = 0.055, general loneliness: ω h = 0.915, social loneliness: ω h = 0.215, emotional loneliness: ω h = 0.001). The measuring instrument showed interaction with the other scales of adequate strength and direction. Conclusion: We can assume that the Hungarian version of the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale is a reliable and valid instrument to measure loneliness.

Open access

The Development of a Shortened Hungarian Version of the Savoring Beliefs Inventory

A Savoring Hiedelmek Kérdőív rövidített magyar változatának kidolgozása

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Henriett Nagy, Tímea Magyaródi, András Vargha, and Attila Oláh

Background: The Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI) has been widely used to measure attitudes towards savoring positive experiences. Aim: Our aim was to develop a short yet reliable and valid form of the inventory for use in circumstances where the application of the full form is not feasible. Methods: We used two separate samples in our cross-sectional research. We used convenient and snowball sampling methods. One sample (n = 3.782, males: 274, females: 3.485, gender not identified: 23, ages ranged from 18 to 86 years, mean: 43.6 years, SD = 13.7 years) completed the original SBI, which consists of 24 items, while the second (n = 825, males: 112, females: 713, ages ranged from 18 to 100, mean: 41.4 years, SD = 11.1 years) completed a shortened form, consisting of 10 items. In the second study, participants also completed other well-being measures so that we could assess external validity. Results: According to our results, the 10-item short form of the SBI has sound psychometric properties that are comparable to those obtained using the full form. Cronbach’s alpha values of initial scale = savoring via anticipation: 0.86, savoring the moment: 0.84, savoring via reminiscence: 0.84; reduced scale = savoring via anticipation: 0.85, savoring the moment: 0.81, savoring via reminiscence: 0.81. The fit indices show that the ten-item, 3-factor model was confirmed (RMSEA: 0.060, CI90: 0.049, pClose: 0.07, CFI: 0.966, TLI: 0.952, SRMR: 0.027). The external validity of the SBI (10) was also demonstrated. Conclusion: The Short Savoring Beliefs Inventory has got appropriate psychometric properties, therefore it can be used in future studies about a Hungarian population.

Elméleti háttér: A Savoring Hiedelmek Kérdőív (Savoring Beliefs Inventory, SBI) a pozitiv élmények élvezetével kapcsolatos hiedelmek széleskörűen használt mérőeszköze. Célkitűzés: Célunk a kérdőív egy rövid változatának kialakítása volt, amely megbízható és valid módon méri a savoring hiedelmeket, olyan körülmények között is, amikor a kérdőív hosszú változatának alkalmazása nem kivitelezhető vagy kényelmes . Módszerek: Két különálló mintán végeztünk keresztmetszeti kutatásokat, kényelmi mintavétel alkalmazásával. Az első minta résztvevői az eredeti 24 tételből álló SBI kérdőívet töltötték ki (n = 3.782, férfi: 274 fő, nő: 3.485 fő, nincs adat a nemre vonatkozóan: 23 fő, életkor: 18-tól 86-ig, átlag: 43,6 év, SD = 13,7 év). A második minta résztvevői a rövidített 10 tételből álló kérdőív tételeire válaszoltak (n = 825, férfi: 112 fő, nő: 713 fő, életkor 18-tól 100-ig, átlag: 41,4 év, SD = 11,1 év). Ebben a kutatásban további jóllét kérdőívek is felvételre kerültek, ami lehetővé tette a validitás tesztelését. Eredmények: Az eredményeink szerint az SBI kérdőív 10-tételből álló rövid verziója ugyanolyan jó megbízhatósági mutatókkal rendelkezik, mint az eredeti kérdőív. (Az eredeti kérdőív Cronbach-α értékei a következők: Várakozás: 0,86, A pillanat élvezete: 0,84, Emlékezés: 0,84; a rövid változat Cronbach-α értékei pedig: Várakozás: 0,85, A pillanat élvezete: 0,81, Emlékezés: 0,81. Az illeszkedési mutatók a 10 tételes verzió esetében is megerősítik a 3-faktoros struktúrát (RMSEA: 0,060; CI90: 0,049; pClose: 0,07; CFI: 0,966; TLI: 0,952; SRMR: 0,027). Következtetések: Eredményeink támogatják a rövid verzió érvényességét is. Következtetés: A Rövid Savoring Hiedelmek kérdőív rövid változata megfelelő pszichometriai mutatókkal rendelkezik, ezért alkalmazható a jövőbeli magyar nyelvű kutatásokban.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Nerilee Hing, Matthew Rockloff, Alex M. T. Russell, Matthew Browne, Philip Newall, Nancy Greer, Daniel L. King, and Hannah Thorne

Abstract

Background and aims

Purchasing loot boxes in digital games is akin to gambling as it involves risking money for a chance-based reward of uncertain value. Research has linked buying loot boxes to problem gambling amongst adolescents, but has not examined co-occurring gambling participation. This study examined links between loot box purchasing and problem gambling amongst adolescents while controlling for monetary gambling participation.

Methods

Two survey samples of Australians aged 12–17 years were recruited through advertisements (n = 843) and online panels (n = 826). They included n = 421 and n = 128 adolescents, respectively, who met criteria for problem gambling.

Results

Past-month loot box purchasing was significantly related to gambling problems in bivariate analyses. When including age, gender and past-month monetary gambling, loot box purchases were still associated with at-risk and problem gambling in both samples. As expected, these other predictors attenuated the predictive value of recent loot box purchases in relation to gambling problems. The odds-ratios, nevertheless, were still in the predicted direction and remained significant. When controlling for monetary gambling, age and gender, recent loot box purchasing increased the odds of problem gambling 3.7 to 6.0 times, and at-risk gambling 2.8 to 4.3 times.

Discussion and conclusions

While causal relationships between loot box purchasing and problem gambling remain unclear, the results indicate that loot boxes disproportionately attract adolescents experiencing gambling problems, adding to the financial stress already caused by gambling. Consumer protection measures, youth and parental education, and age restrictions on loot box games are needed to protect young people.

Open access

A magyar nyelvű PERMA Jóllét Profil kérdőív megbízhatóságának és érvényességének vizsgálata

Examination of the reliability and validity of the PERMA-Profiler Questionnaire in Hungary

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Balázs András Varga, Attila Oláh, and András Vargha

Elméleti háttér: Seligman PERMA modelljét 2016-ban operacionalizálták. Ennek a mérőeszköznek a magyar adaptációját végeztük el a nemzetközileg publikált tapasztalatok és egy rendelkezésre álló hozzáférési mintavétel segítségével. Cél: A PERMA Jóllét Profil kérdőív átfogó pszichometriai ellenőrzése (konfirmatív, megbízhatósági és érvényességi vizsgá lata). Módszerek: Online keresztmetszeti kérdőíves vizsgálat (n = 1540, férfi: 25,4%, nő: 74,6%, átlagéletkor = 52,0 év; SD = 11,3 év). Mérőeszközök: A demográfiai és testi/lelki egészségre vonatkozó kérdéseken kívül az elemzésbe bevont változók az alábbi kérdőívek voltak: Mentális Egészség Teszt, Globális Jóllét Kérdőív, Diener-féle Virágzás skála, Rövidített Savoring Hit Kérdőív, a Rövidített Pszichológiai Immunrendszer Kérdőív. Az elemzés során mind a PERMA ötfaktoros alap-, mind a Negatív érzelmekkel és Egészséggel kiegészített, bővített modelljének a konfirmatív faktorelemzését is elvégeztük. Eredmények: A PERMA öt, illetve öt plusz két faktorának megerősítő faktorelemzése egyaránt igazolta az eredeti struktúrát. Az illeszkedés az alapmodellben (χ 2(80) = 418,405, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,953, TLI = 0,938, RMSEA = 0,052, RMSEA CI90: 0,048–0,057, pClose = 0,205; SRMR = 0,035) és a bővített modellben is (χ 2(168) = 648,555, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,953, TLI = 0,941, RMSEA = 0,043, RMSEA CI90: 0,040–0,047, pClose = 0,999, SRMR = 0,033) elfogadható volt. A faktortöltések minden esetben megfelelő nagyságúak voltak, kivéve az Elmélyülés és a Teljesítmény alskála egy-egy tételét, amelyek elmaradtak az elvárt értéktől, illetve az Elmélyülés faktor belső megbízhatósága is csak közepes szintű (0,5–0,6 közötti) volt. Ezek az eredmények összhangban vannak a nemzetközi tapasztalatokkal. A kialakított alskálák egymással való viszonya, illetve a többi mérőeszközökkel való együttjárási mintázatok alátámasztották a PERMA Jóllét Profil kérdőív konvergens és diszkriminációs validitását. Következtetés: A PERMA felnőtt magyar mintán történt adaptációja összhangban van az eredeti struktúra tapasztalataival, így azonos szempontok és feltételek mellett alkalmazható.

Background: Seligman’s PERMA model was operationalized in 2016. The Hungarian adaptation of this assessment instrument was examined, based upon the earlier international adaptations. We conducted convenience sampling. Aim: Comprehensive psychometric verification of the PERMA-Profiler Questionnaire (confirmatory analysis, reliability and validity testing). Methods: Online cross-sectional survey (n = 1540, male: 25.4%, female: 74.6%, mean of age = 52.0 years; SD = 11.3 years). Measures: In addition to demographics and physical / mental health issues, the variables included in the analysis were the items of the Mental Health Test (MHT), the Global Well-being Questionnaire, the Diener Flourishing Scale, the Abbreviated Savoring Beliefs Inventory, and the Abbreviated Psychological Immune System Questionnaire. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of both PERMA’s five-factor baseline and extended model, supplemented with negative emotions and health. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis of the five and the five plus two factors of the PERMA confirmed the original structure. The fit was also adequate in the basic model (χ 2(80) = 418.405, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.953, TLI = 0.938, RMSEA = 0.052, RMSEA CI90: 0.048–0.057, pClose = 0.205, SRMR = 0.035), as well as in the extended model (χ 2(168) = 648.555, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.953, TLI = 0.941, RMSEA = 0.043, RMSEA CI90: 0.040–0.047, pClose = 0.999, SRMR = 0.033). The factor loadings were adequate in all cases, except for the subscales of engagement and achievement for which the values were below the expected score. The reliability of engagement factor was also uncertain. These results are in line with international findings. The relationship between the subscales and other measures supported the convergent and discriminatory validity of the instrument. Conclusion: The adaptation of PERMA on a Hungarian sample is in line with the experience of the original structure, it can be applied under the same criteria and conditions.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Steve Sharman, Amanda Roberts, Becky Harris, Rebecca Lockwood, and Henrietta Bowden-Jones
Open access

Segítő foglalkozású szakemberek jólléte a COVID-19 járvány első hullámában – A vitális kimerültség többtényezős vizsgálata

The helping professionals’ subjective well-being during the first wave of COVID-19: A cross-sectional study of vital exhaustion

Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Gábor Pál Török, Bernadett Asztalos, Máté Joób, Timea Tésenyi, Ildikó Danis, and Attila Pilinszki

Elméleti háttér: Az olyan válsághelyzetekben, mint a COVID-19, kiemelt hangsúlyt kell kapjon a segítő szakmákban dolgozó szakemberek pszichés támogatása a szolgáltatások fenntarthatósága és a kiégés megelőzése szempontjából. Különösen fontos a kiégés hátterében felismerhető vitális kimerültség mérése. Cél: Keresztmetszeti vizsgálatunk célja a segítő területen dolgozók vitális kimerültségének és ennek különböző háttérváltozókkal való összefüggéseinek vizsgálata a COVID-19 első hullámában. Módszerek: Online kérdőívünket az egészségügy, a szociális ellátás, az oktatás és a hitélet területén dolgozó szakemberek (n = 931) töltötték ki. A kérdőív a vitális kimerültség felmérése mellett kitért a szociodemográfiai, fizikai (egészség-magatartással kapcsolatos), munkahelyi és családi jellemzők feltérképezésére. Eredmények: Megállapítottuk, hogy az egészségügyi és szociális dolgozók kimerültebbek, mint mások (F(1, 929) = 16,801; p < 0,001). A vitális kimerültség alakulásában a következő változóknak tulajdoníthattunk nagyobb prediktív hatást: az alvás minőségének változása ( β = 0,292; p < 0,01), a család és munka egyensúlyának változása ( β = –0,238; p < 0,01) és a szubjektív egészségi állapot ( β = –0,201; p < 0,01). Közepes erősségű összefüggést láttunk az étkezések gyakoriságának változása és az alvásminőség változása között (χ 2(4, n = 931) = 144,8; p < 0,001), valamint a család-munka egyensúly változása és az alvás minőségének változása között (χ 2(12, n = 788) = 171,4; p < 0,001). Következtetések: Az alvás megfelelő minőségének és mennyiségének, a rendszeres étkezésnek és a fizikai aktivitásnak nemcsak megelőző szerepe, hanem stabilizáló ereje van akut krízisekben is. Az egyéni tényezőkön túl a munkáltatóknak is fontos szerepük van az alkalmazottak jóllétének megőrzésében, hiszen a munkahelyi kommunikáció és a munkakörülmények is jelentős mértékben befolyásolják azt.

Theoretical background: In a critical situations such as COVID-19, priority should be given to the psychological support of helping professionals regarding the sustainability of services and prevention of burnout. It’s exceptionally important to measure the vital exhaustion that might be a reason of burnout. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate helping professionals’ vital exhaustion in relation to different groups of background variables during the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Helping professionals from health and social care, education, and the field of religion (n = 931) were contacted with an online questionnaire in Hungary in the spring of 2020. After calculating descriptive statistics of vital exhauson, we examined the sociodemographic, physical (related to health behavior), professional and personal background variables. Results: Health and social care workers were more exhausted than members of other helping professions (F(1, 929) = 16.801, p < 0.001). In the development of vital exhaustion, we could attribute a greater predictive effect to the following variables: change in the quality of sleep ( β = 0.292, p < 0.01), change in family-work balance ( β = –0.238, p < 0.01), and subjective health ( β = –0.201, p < 0.01). We could attribute a moderate correlation between changes in the frequency of meals and changes in sleep quality (χ 2(4, n = 931) = 144.8, p < 0.001), and changes in family-work balance and changes in sleep quality (χ 2(12, n = 788) = 171.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Proper quality and quantity of sleep, regular meals, and physical activity not only have preventive significance but they also have a stabilizing effect in acute crises. Work conditions and communication at work can have a major influence on wellbeing. Therefore beyond the individual factors employers also play an important role to maintain their employees’ wellbeing.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Natasha Figueiredo, Junko Kose, Bernard Srour, Chantal Julia, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau, Benjamin Allès, Indira Paz Graniel, Eloi Chazelas, Mélanie Deschasaux-Tanguy, Charlotte Debras, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Carlos A. Monteiro, Mathilde Touvier, and Valentina A. Andreeva

Abstract

Background and aims

Data regarding the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and eating disorders (ED) are scarce. Our aim was to investigate whether UPF intake was associated with different ED types in a large population-based study.

Methods

43,993 participants (mean age = 51.0 years; 76.1% women) of the French NutriNet-Santé web-cohort who were screened for ED in 2014 via the Sick-Control-One stone-Fat-Food (SCOFF) questionnaire, were included in the analysis. The clinical algorithm Expali TM tool was used to identify four ED types: restrictive, bulimic, binge eating, and other (not otherwise specified). Mean dietary intake was evaluated from at least 2 self-administered 24-h dietary records (2013–2015); categorization of food as ultra-processed or not relied on the NOVA classification. The associations between UPF intake (as percent and reflecting mean daily UPF quantity (g/d) within the dietary intake, %UPF) and ED types were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression models.

Results

5,967 participants (13.6%) were categorized as likely ED (restrictive n = 444; bulimic n = 1,575; binge eating n = 3,124; other ED n = 824). The fully-adjusted analyses revealed a positive association between UPF intake and bulimic, binge eating, and other ED: ED risk (odds ratio, OR) for an absolute 10-percentage point incremental increase in %UPF intake were 1.08 (1.01–1.14; P = 0.02), 1.21 (1.16–1.26; P < 0.0001), and 1.11 (1.02–1.20; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant association was detected for restrictive ED.

Discussion and Conclusion

This study revealed an association of UPF intake with different ED types among French adults. Future research is needed to elucidate the direction of the observed associations.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

The study explores IGD withdrawal-related presentations, including autonomic reaction, affective symptoms, anhedonia, and gaming urge during abstinence from gaming. We prospectively evaluated these withdrawal-related symptoms (WRS) and gaming craving during abstinence from gaming.

Methods

We examined 69 individuals with IGD and 69 regular gamers and evaluated their WRS (using an exploratory questionnaire), affective and behavioral WRS (using the Questionnaire on Gaming Urge-Brief Version gaming disorder questionnaire), and heart rate. All the participants attempted to abstain from gaming before our assessment. Subsequently, some participants’ WRS and gaming craving before they engaged in gaming were prospectively evaluated.

Results

In the IGD group, 85.5% experienced gaming WRS, including affective, anhedonia, and gaming urge symptoms. They could relieve these symptoms through gaming. The IGD group experienced more severe gaming WRS, gaming craving, and a higher heart rate than the regular gamer group. Gaming urge was most associated WRS of IGD. Participants with IGD experienced more severe gaming cravings when their gaming abstinence before the assessment was shorter. WRS attenuated at night and the following morning when they maintained their gaming abstinence after assessment.

Conclusion

Individuals with IGD experience withdrawal-related affective, anhedonia, and gaming urge symptoms and a higher heart rate during abstinence. The WRS attenuated in 1 day. Most participants agreed that these symptoms could be relieved through gaming. Further prospective evaluation by objective assessment in an adequate sample was required to understand gaming withdrawal symptoms comprehensively.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Qian Zhao, Yongjun Zhang, Min Wang, Jiecheng Ren, Yijun Chen, Xueli Chen, Zhengde Wei, Jingwu Sun, and Xiaochu Zhang

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leads to serious impairments in cognitive functions, and lacks of effective treatments. Cue-induced craving is a hallmark feature of this disease and is associated with addictive memory elements. Memory retrieval-extinction manipulations could interfere with addictive memories and attenuate addictive syndromes, which might be a promising intervention for IGD. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of a memory retrieval-extinction manipulation on gaming cue-induced craving and reward processing in individuals with IGD.

Methods

A total of 49 individuals (mean age: 20.52 ± 1.58) with IGD underwent a memory retrieval-extinction training (RET) with a 10-min interval (R-10min-E, n = 24) or a RET with a 6-h interval (R-6h-E, n = 25) for two consecutive days. We assessed cue-induced craving pre- and post-RET, and at the 1- and 3-month follow-ups. The neural activities during reward processing were also assessed pre- and post-RET.

Results

Compared with the R-6h-E group, gaming cravings in individuals with IGD were significantly reduced after R-10min-E training at the 3-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Moreover, neural activities in the individuals with IGD were also altered after R-10min-E training, which was corroborated by enhanced reward processing, such as faster responses (P < 0.05) and stronger frontoparietal functional connectivity to monetary reward cues, while the R-6h-E training had no effects.

Discussion and Conclusions

The two-day R-10min-E training reduced addicts’ craving for Internet games, restored monetary reward processing in IGD individuals, and maintained long-term efficacy.

Open access

Abstract

Mystical experiences are often described as being among the most profound and meaningful events of a person’s life. Their occurrence, while a normal but uncommon phenomenon, is reliably occasioned by psychedelic substances under the appropriate conditions, although care is needed around the context of usage to help ensure safe and beneficial experiences. The occurrence of mystical experiences in psychedelic sessions is a key mediator of the sustained psychological benefits reported in both healthy and clinical populations. Certain factors including set and setting, drug dosage, trait absorption, drug type, intention and states of surrender and acceptance all predict or influence the occurrence of mystical experiences. Various additional factors may further contribute to the occurrence and intensity of mystical experiences and enhance their long-term benefits, including music, meditation and spiritual practices and nature-based settings. This review examines these factors and considers how they might be optimised to increase the chances of a mystical experience occurring, while also considering factors that are negatively associated with mystical experiences with suggestions on how these might be mitigated where applicable. Finally, potential future research avenues for furthering our knowledge of psychedelic mystical experiences and how their benefits might be enhanced is suggested. Maximising the potential for the occurrence of mystical experiences is an important aspect of the beneficial application of psychedelics.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: McKenzie Himelein-Wachowiak, Salvatore Giorgi, Amy Kwarteng, Destiny Schriefer, Chase Smitterberg, Kenna Yadeta, Elise Bragard, Amanda Devoto, Lyle Ungar, and Brenda Curtis

Abstract

Background & Aims

Previous studies have shown that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has addictive features, and an addiction model of NSSI has been considered. Addictive features have been associated with severity of NSSI and adverse psychological experiences. Yet, there is debate over the extent to which NSSI and substance use disorders (SUDs) are similar experientially.

Methods

To evaluate the extent that people who self-injure experience NSSI like an addiction, we coded the posts of users of the subreddit r/selfharm (n = 500) for each of 11 DSM-5 SUD criteria adapted to NSSI.

Results

A majority (76.8%) of users endorsed at least two adapted SUD criteria in their posts, indicative of mild, moderate, or severe addiction. The most frequently endorsed criteria were urges or cravings (67.6%), escalating severity or tolerance (46.7%), and NSSI that is particularly hazardous. User-level addictive features positively predicted number of methods used for NSSI, number of psychiatric disorders, and particularly hazardous NSSI, but not suicidality. We also observed frequent use of language and concepts common in SUD recovery circles like Alcoholics Anonymous.

Discussion & Conclusion

Our findings support previous work describing the addiction potential of NSSI and associating addictive features with clinical severity. These results suggest that NSSI and SUD may share experiential similarities, which has implications for the treatment of NSSI. We also contribute to a growing body of work that uses social media as a window into the subjective experiences of stigmatized populations.

Open access

Abstract

Despite growing availability of several evidence-based approaches in the treatment of substance use disorders, existing pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions continue to have significant limitations, such as low treatment retention rates and high rates of relapse. There is a need to develop new strategies and models to address these limitations and target underlying psychosocial drivers of addiction, such as motivation to change – a crucial factor in achieving positive addiction treatment outcomes. Re-emerging clinical evidence and literature signal the promise of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapies as being novel, adjunctive treatments for a range of mental health and substance use disorders, encouraging further research. However, there remains a lack of formally validated metrics to evaluate recovery capital and motivation, limiting interpretation of the growing psychedelic literature. This commentary describes the current state of this line of investigation and potential impact of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy on enhancing motivation to change in addiction treatment, and the need for validated metrics to evaluate recovery motivation and capital to assess the potential for psychedelic-assisted psychotherapies to elicit positive, lasting changes in substance use behaviors among those seeking treatment.

Open access

Abstract

Background

N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (N, N-DMT) is a naturally occurring tryptamine-based alkaloid and classic psychedelic. The potent psychoactive properties of N, N-DMT are mediated by serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonism. There are limited investigations into the physiologic effects of inhaled N, N-DMT, despite this being one of the most common routes of administration. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an emergent non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation and reductions in HRV have been negatively associated with multiple health outcomes.

Methods

A case is described with a brief review of supportive findings.

Results

Heart rate (HR) and HRV responses following three naturalistic inhaled N, N-DMT experiences were documented in a healthy 31-year-old male. Acute transient elevations in HR immediately following N, N-DMT administration and a pronounced elevation in the average daily HRV one-day following the experiences were observed. The duration of experience shortened across the three experiences despite similar N, N-DMT doses.

Conclusion

These findings offer preliminary evidence into the effect of inhaled N, N-DMT on HR and HRV. Given the emergent understanding of reductions in HRV as a hazardous marker of stress, psychiatric conditions, and mental health outcomes, further research into the effects of psychedelics on HRV is warranted.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The aims were to examine how socio-demographics and gambling behavior relate to both primary and additional gambling motives, and whether the gambling motives change during a one-year-period.

Methods

The Finnish Gambling Harms Survey data was used. Gambling motives were measured with a categorical question. Gambling severity was measured using the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Using the first-wave data including only past-year gamblers (n = 5,684), five logistic regression models were utilized to explore the associations of gambling motives with socio-demographics and gambling behavior. The stability of gambling motives was assessed with McNemar’s test using longitudinal data (n = 2,078).

Results

Gambling for positive feeling was associated with younger age, high income, high gambling involvement and at-risk gambling. Monetary motive was associated with female gender, high gambling involvement, online or mixed-mode and at-risk gambling. Supporting worthy causes was associated with older age, monthly and weekly gambling, and land-based gambling. Socializing was associated with younger age and gambling occasionally on land-based venues with multiple game types. Finally, the motive to escape was intensified among 25–34-year-olds, homemakers, and those with high gambling involvement and at-risk or problem gambling. Gambling motives remained relatively stable for one year.

Discussion and conclusions

Gender and age profiles varied in different motives. Positive feeling, socializing and escape motive was heightened among younger respondents while supporting worthy causes was heightened among the oldest. Women gambled for money more often than men. Escape motive was associated with problem gambling. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm the longitudinal results.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The current Covid-19 situation offers a natural experiment to explore the effect of a chronic stressor on compulsive buying tendencies over an extended period of time.

Design

Survey method of sampling every three days a new cohort during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic (March-October 2020) in the United States.

Participants

Total (clean) sample of N = 1,430 (39.3% female, mean age = 36.4 years).

Measurements

Online and offline compulsive buying separately, distress, economic position, income and age were assessed.

Findings

Both online and offline compulsive buying increased during the data collection period (τ = 0.24, τ = 0.22, respectively, both P < 0.001). Individuals with self-reported high economic position (EP) reported the highest tendency for compulsive buying throughout the entire time frame, although the increase in compulsive buying tendencies over time was the most pronounced among the economically less privileged. Online compulsive buying increased after the CARES Act (first stimulus package) by an effect size of d = 0.33. When entered into a regression model, EP had the strongest effect on compulsive buying after accounting for the effect of distress, income and age. The high-EP group reported the strongest correlation between distress and compulsive buying (r = 0.67, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.57–0.76).

Conclusions

Compulsive buying tendency gradually increased during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic especially after the CARES Act.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Lucero Munguía, Roser Granero, Anahi Gaspar-Pérez, Neus Solé-Morata, Isabel Sánchez, Jéssica Sánchez-González, José M. Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, and Fernando Fernández-Aranda

Abstract

Background

A first approach addressed to ascertain whether emotion regulation (ER) could be a transdiagnostic construct between eating disorders (EDs) and gambling disorder (GD) (through a joint clinical clustering analysis of both disorders) was performed by Munguía et al. (2021). Both conditions were represented by a severe, moderate, and low ER profile subgroups, according to the degree of ER difficulties. Results showed a linear relationship between the severity of ER difficulties and the severity of the disorder and the psychopathological state.

Aims

Based on the aforementioned cross-sectional study, the objective of this longitudinal research was to explore the treatment response of the different ER subgroups.

Methods

459 adult patients (n =277 ED; n =182 GD) were included. Several clinical variables, as well as outcome indicators (after completing 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy), were evaluated.

Results

The three subgroups found in the previous cross-sectional study were taken for the performance of the present research. ED and GD distribution in each subgroup replicates the one exposed by Munguía et al. (2021), as well as their characterization, considering psychopathology, disorder severity and personality traits. The low ER subgroup reported a better response to treatment, whereas the severe group had the highest rates of non-remission and dropouts.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that greater difficulties in ER lead to poorer treatment outcomes. Therefore, tailored treatments for patients with poor ER abilities would be recommended to improve adherence and treatment outcomes.

Open access

Abstract

This commentary challenges some of the proposals made in the opinion paper entitled “The expanded interactional model of exercise addiction” by Dinardi, Egorov, and Szabo (2021). We first question the usefulness of the (expanded) interactional model of exercise addiction to determine the psychological processes underlying distress and functional impairment in excessive physical exercise. We then consider the authors’ use of the Self-Determination Theory to model exercise addiction, which risks the misclassification of strenuous, but adaptive, patterns of physical exercise as exercise addiction. We finally address broader concerns regarding the idea that maladaptive exercising could be conceptualized as an addictive disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Online interventions for problem gambling are increasingly popular, but not everyone benefits from them. We describe 12 years of real-world data from an online intervention for gambling problems and aim to find out the extent to which depression, alcohol use, and sense of financial control influence the effectiveness of the program.

Methods

We analyzed treatment effectiveness and moderators in the Finnish “Peli Poikki” program (2007–2018)—an 8-week cognitive behavioral therapy and follow-up program for problem gambling. Participants were Finnish-speaking adults over 18 years of age (N = 2011, 66.9% males). We measured the self-reported level of problem gambling, depression, alcohol use, and sense of financial control across four treatment phases (baseline, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up), as well as the presence of gambling debt, psychological and physiological health, years suffered from gambling problems, and demographic variables.

Results

Participation grew across years with retention rates of 55%, 30%, and 19% for post-treatment and the two follow-ups, respectively. The average problem gambling scores declined significantly following treatment and remained low throughout the follow-ups. However, this decline (the beneficial treatment effect) was reversed after the follow-ups for those with high depression scores and those who felt they had no control over their finances.

Discussion and Conclusions

The Peli Poikki program is a well-functioning online intervention but less effective in the long term for participants with persisting symptoms of depression or without a sense of financial control. More attention is needed to screen and direct people with comorbidities to the appropriate services.

Open access

Addiktológiai pszichológia Magyarországon: az elmúlt 30 év áttekintése

Addiction Psychology in Hungary: A Review of the Past 30 Years

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Zsolt Demetrovics and József Rácz

A tanulmány célja az addiktológiai szakterület elmúlt harminc-negyven évének áttekintése, a legfontosabb fejlemények, kutatási területek és eredmények összefoglaló bemutatása. A szerzők az addiktológiai pszichológia történetében három fázist azonosítanak. A 80-as évek kezdeti törekvéseit a 90-es évek közepétől a szakterületjelentős megerősödése és hazai kibontakozása követte, míg a 2000-es évek második felétől már a nemzetközi jelenlét a meghatározó. A történeti összefoglalót követően a szerzők az egyes meghatározó kutatócsoportokat és kutatási irányokat mutatják be, majd a legfontosabb szakmai közéleti fejleményeket ismertetik.

The current review aims to summarise the history of the past thirty to forty years of the addiction field in Hungary and present a summary of the major developments, research fields, and scientific results. The authors identify three phases in the history of Hungarian addiction science. The initial aspirations of the 1980s were followed by a significant strengthening and development of the field.from the mid-1990s. This, however, mainly happened within Hungary, while in the next decade, from the second half of the 2000s, the international presence of the Hungarian addiction research field became more significant. Following the historical summary, the authors present the major research teams and research directions and describe the main policy developments.

Open access
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: János Kállai, Róbert Urbán, and Márta Csabai

A tanulmány az egészségpszichológia elmúlt évtizedekben Magyarországon lezajlott szakmai fejlődését tekinti át. A programiaddá személyek felsorolása mellett részletesen tárgyalja a kutatási irányokat és az ellátási gyakorlat meghatározó eredményeit. Kiemelt figyelmet fordít a szakma specifikus fogalmainak bemutatására, a beavatkozások kompetenciaterületeire, valamint az egészségpszichológiai, a magatartás-orvoslás, a pszichoszomatika, a klinikai pszichológia területekkel való kapcsolatának értelmezésére. Bemutatja az új szakmai mentalitás és ellátási lehetőségek kialakulását, és ráirányítja a figyelmet az alkalmazott egészségpszichológiai ellátás és az egészségfejlesztés kiemelt fontosságú területeire, a társadalmi és mentális fejlődésben betöltött szerepükre. Továbbá szemelvényeket sorol fel a nemzetközi trendekhez való kapcsolódás kiemelkedő hazai eredményeiről. Az egészségügyi finanszírozást és ellátást tervező országos döntéshozók számára a testi, lelki és szociális egészség növelése érdekében javaslatokat fogalmaz meg az egészségpszichológiai ellátás fejlesztéséhez.

The study overviews the development of health psychology in Hungary for the last decades. Besides of the list of the progenitors confers in detail about the research lines and the relevant results of the care and practice. It pays attention to the introduction of the profession-specific concepts and the competence areas of the interventions, furthermore the interpretation of the relationship between health psychology, behavioral medicine, psychosomatic medicine, and clinical psychology. Presents the new mentality and .form of care and highlights the role of the significance of applied psychology and health development in social and mental advancement. Furthermore, specifies a collection from the Hungarian outstanding research data related to relevant international trends. The study contains some proposal for the governmental decision-makers that provides a chance for the health psychological services to develop better bio-psycho-social health in our country.

Open access

A megismerési és affektív folyamatokat vizsgáló modern kísérleti pszichológia és humán idegtudomány kimagasló eredményei fényében a vitacikk felhívja a figyelmet több fogalmi csúsztatásra, elméleti kérdések megoldatlanságára és módszertani problémákra. A hozzászólások szerzői részben kiegészítik, részben vitatják a felvetett kérdéseket, ezekre a vitacikk szerzője válaszol.

Open access