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Psychological journals are peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journals that publish original work in some areas of psychology. The most common publications include cognitive, health and clinical psychology, applied, developmental, biological, social, experimental, and educational psychology, and psychoanalysis.

Behavioral Sciences

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Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic smartphone use (PSU) has gained attention, but its definition remains debated. This study aimed to develop and validate a new scale measuring PSU-the Smartphone Use Problems Identification Questionnaire (SUPIQ).

Methods

Using two separate samples, a university community sample (N = 292) and a general population sample (N = 397), we investigated: (1) the construct validity of the SUPIQ through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses; (2) the convergent validity of the SUPIQ with correlation analyses and the visualized partial correlation network analyses; (3) the psychometric equivalence of the SUPIQ across two samples through multigroup confirmatory factor analyses; (4) the explanatory power of the SUPIQ over the Short Version of Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-SV) with hierarchical multiple regressions.

Results

The results showed that the SUPIQ included 26 items and 7 factors (i.e., Craving, Coping, Habitual Use, Social Conflicts, Risky Use, Withdrawal, and Tolerance), with good construct and convergent validity. The configural measurement invariance across samples was established. The SUPIQ also explained more variances in mental health problems than the SAS-SV.

Discussion and conclusions

The findings suggest that the SUPIQ shows promise as a tool for assessing PSU. Further research is needed to enhance and refine the SUPIQ as well as to investigate its clinical utility.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Celebrity worship, defined as an excessive admiration towards celebrities, has generated considerable research and public interest. A widely used assessment instrument to measure celebrity worship is the 23-item Celebrity Attitude Scale. However, concerns have been raised regarding the measurement, including the inconsistent factor structure and lack of a cut-off point to identify “celebrity worshipers”. The present study aims to address these concerns by testing the psychometric appropriateness of a short, 7-item version of the CAS (i.e., CAS-7) and estimating the prevalence of individuals with high-level celebrity admiration using a representative sample of Hungarian adults (between 18 and 64 years of age) according to gender, age, geographic location, and size of residence.

Methods

The total sample comprised 2028 respondents, of which 769 valid responses were administered from participants who reported having a favorite celebrity (51.11% men, M age = 36.38 years, SD = 13.36).

Results

Results indicated an excellent model fit for the two-factor and bifactor model of the CAS-7. Based on the suggested cut-off score of 26, the prevalence of high-level celebrity admiration is 4.53% in the Hungarian adult population (18–64 years of age) and 8.51% among young adults (18–34 years of age). Individuals with this high level of admiration towards a favorite celebrity reported more symptoms of problematic Internet use, depression, anxiety, and stress than individuals with general celebrity admiration levels.

Discussion and conclusions

The CAS-7 demonstrated sound psychometric properties, confirming its applicability in research and practice.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hui Wang
,
Xiang Li
,
Grace Ka In Lok
,
Chunmei Meng
,
Yaheng Tan
,
Un Man Lee
,
Louisa Sok Man Lei
, and
Natalia Chan

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction (IA) has been identified as a major public health problem that is more prominent in adolescents and young adults. Some researchers have indicated certain advantages of family-based therapy over other treatments in participants with IA, but no conclusive evaluation has been reported. The present meta-analysis aims to review the efficacy of family-based therapy on Internet addiction in adolescents and young adults.

Methods

Relevant articles published from 1996 to February 15th, 2024, were searched from 14 databases, including three Chinese databases. A total of 19,590 articles were identified using a combination of three sets of search terms (Internet addiction, family therapy, and adolescents). Only RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials were included.

Results

18 studies, most of which were conducted in Asian countries, were included in the final data analysis. The overall severity of Internet addiction in the family-based therapy group was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, significant heterogeneity was detected. Subgroup analysis showed a beneficial effect of family-based therapy when compared with non-intervention and when added to another psychological or behavioural therapy in psychiatric patients with co-medication. Few studies have examined secondary outcomes or follow-up effects.

Discussion and Conclusions

Family-based therapy is most effective in reducing the severity of Internet addiction when combined with other therapies, especially medication treatments in psychiatric patients. It might also be helpful to relieve depression and enhance family functions, which needs further evidence. More studies following up on the post-intervention effects are recommended in the future.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Xuefeng Ma
,
Min Wang
,
Weiran Zhou
,
Zhaojie Zhang
,
Haosen Ni
,
Anhang Jiang
,
Yanbin Zheng
,
Xiaoxia Du
,
Marc N. Potenza
, and
Guang-Heng Dong

Abstract

Background

Although internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been included in the DSM-5 for approximately 10 years, debate remains regarding its existence and classification.

Methods

The current research incorporated three approaches. First, implicit association tests were used to examine for potential dissociation between wanting and liking in IGD. Second, brain features in wanting and liking circuits were tested and compared with tobacco use disorder (TUD) when performing a cue-craving task to explore the neural features of wanting and liking. Third, dopaminergic systems were investigated in IGD and TUD using neuromelanin-sensitive MRI.

Results

The implicit association test results supported a wanting-liking dissociation in IGD participants. Functional MRI data suggested neural correlates underlying wanting-liking dissociation in IGD and TUD participants, with positive correlations suggesting greater dissociation with increasing addiction severity. Neuromelanin results suggest dopaminergic differences in IGD and TUD relative to healthy control participants.

Conclusions

A wanting-liking dissociation in IGD participants suggests gaming motivations in IGD relating to incentive sensitization rather than hedonic responses. The neuromelanin-sensitive MRI results suggest dopaminergic involvement in IGD and TUD. The findings suggest similar brain-behaviour mechanisms for IGD and TUD based on an incentive-sensitization model for addiction, having implications for potential therapeutic strategies and policy-based interventions.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Impaired inhibitory control accompanied by enhanced craving is hallmark of addiction. This study investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on response inhibition and craving in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We examined the brain changes after tDCS and their correlation with clinical variables.

Methods

Twenty-four males with IGD were allocated randomly to an active or sham tDCS group, and data from 22 participants were included for analysis. Participants self-administered bilateral tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 10 sessions. Stop-signal tasks were conducted to measure response inhibition and participants were asked about their cravings for Internet gaming at baseline and post-tDCS. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected at pre- and post-tDCS, and group differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes from the bilateral DLPFC and nucleus accumbens were examined. We explored the relationship between changes in the rsFC and behavioral variables in the active tDCS group.

Results

A significant group-by-time interaction was observed in response inhibition. After tDCS, only the active group showed a decrease in the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). Although craving decreased, there were no significant group-by-time interactions or group main effects. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) showed group differences in post- versus pre-tDCS rsFC from the right DLPFC. The rsFC between the ACC and left middle frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with the SSRT.

Discussion and conclusion

Our study provides preliminary evidence that bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC improves inhibitory control and could serve as a therapeutic approach for IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Since the inclusion of Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases (11th ed.), there has been little effort placed into developing clinical recommendations for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients with this condition. Thus, we develop preliminary clinical recommendations for mental health professionals working with LGBQ clients who may be struggling with CSBD.

Methods

The present paper synthesizes the CSBD literature with advances in LGBQ-affirming care to develop assessment and treatment recommendations. These recommendations are discussed within the context of minority stress theory, which provides an empirically supported explanation for how anti-LGBQ stigma may contribute to the development of mental health conditions in LGBQ populations.

Results

Assessment recommendations are designed to assist mental health professionals in distinguishing aspects of an LGBQ client's sociocultural context from CSBD symptomology, given recent concerns that these constructs may be wrongly conflated and result in misdiagnosis. The treatment recommendations consist of broadly applicable, evidence-based principles that can be leveraged by mental health professionals of various theoretical orientations to provide LGBQ-affirming treatment for CSBD.

Discussion and Conclusions

The present article provides theoretically and empirically supported recommendations for mental health professionals who want to provide LGBQ-affirming care for CSBD. Given the preliminary nature of these recommendations, future research is needed to investigate their clinical applicability and efficacy.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Dusty Rose Miller
,
Jordan Taylor Jacobs
,
Alan Rockefeller
,
Harte Singer
,
Ian M. Bollinger
,
James Conway
,
Jason C. Slot
, and
David E. Cliffel

Abstract

Psilocybe zapotecorum is a strongly blue-bruising psilocybin mushroom used by indigenous groups in southeastern Mexico and beyond. While this species has a rich history of ceremonial use, research into its chemistry and genetics has been limited. Herein, we report on mushroom morphology, cultivation parameters, chemical profile, and the full genome sequence of P. zapotecorum. First, we detail growth and cloning methods that are simple, and reproducible. In combination with high resolution microscopic analysis, the strain was identified by DNA barcoding, confirming the field identification. Full genome sequencing reveals the architecture of the psilocybin gene cluster in P. zapotecorum, and can serve as a reference genome for Psilocybe clade I. Characterization of the tryptamine profile revealed a psilocybin concentration of 17.9 ± 1.7 mg/g, with a range of 10.6–25.7 mg/g (n = 7), and similar tryptamines (psilocin, baeocystin, norbaeocystin, norpsilocin, aeruginascin, and 4-HO-tryptamine) in lesser concentrations for a combined tryptamine concentration of 22.5 ± 3.2 mg/g. These results show P. zapotecorum to be a potent and chemically variable Psilocybe mushroom. Chemical profiling, genetic analysis, and cultivation assist in demystifying these mushrooms. As clinical studies with psilocybin gain traction, understanding the diversity of Psilocybe expands the conversation beyond the molecule.

Open access

Abstract

Psychological flexibility has been proposed as a core process of change when psychedelics are used for therapeutic purposes, but to date empirical outcomes have only documented changes on the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), a very general measure of psychological flexibility. This pilot study measured outcomes from psilocybin administered in a retreat setting across a range of measures assessing aspects of psychological flexibility. Nine participants attended a 7-day psilocybin retreat and completed measures at baseline, 2-, and 6-month follow up. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in cognitive defusion (Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire), valued living (Valuing Questionnaire), and Self-Compassion (Self-Compassion Scale), as well as a trend towards increased overall psychological flexibility (AAQ). Other outcome and process measures included measures related to acute effects of the psilocybin, belief in oneness, social safeness, mental health, burnout and emotion expressivity. These results offer preliminary evidence that therapeutic benefits obtained from psilocybin experiences may be linked to changes in psychological flexibility.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

First responders such as firefighters and police officers often experience traumatic events as part of their work. As a result, they are more likely to have mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety compared to the general population. Psychedelic-assisted therapy has emerged as a promising avenue to alleviate these issues, but little is currently known about first responders' interest in, and barriers to, these treatments. Here, we aimed to document first responders' attitudes towards LSD-assisted therapy and previous use of psychoactive drugs.

Methods

We recruited 102 participants through mailing lists of first responders' unions. Respondents were typically male firefighters in western Canada; others were police officers, paramedics, and military personnel across Canada and the United States. They were asked about their attitudes towards LSD- and marijuana-assisted therapies, previous psychiatric diagnoses, psychosocial impairments, and substance use.

Results

Respondents showed higher rates of distress and illicit drug use compared to the general population. Of those who sought professional treatment, a minority reported that the treatment had helped them. The respondents were generally interested in taking part in therapy or research involving LSD or marijuana. The setting (e.g., at home vs. a clinic), therapist presence, and drug dose were commonly reported to influence this participation.

Conclusions

First responders may particularly benefit from psychedelic therapy given their high interest in psychedelic drugs and high rates of treatment-relevant disorders. Better understanding the needs of this population will help inform future clinical trials and psychedelic therapies.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Interest in psychedelic research has grown significantly in recent years and the naturally derived substance psilocybin, in combination with therapy, has shown promising results as a treatment for a range of psychiatric conditions. However, the negative effects and risks of psilocybin-assisted treatment are not well-established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential negative effects of psilocybin-assisted psychological interventions in both the short and long term.

Method

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight psychedelic treatment providers and facilitators. Their content was thematically interpreted.

Results

Three themes of short-term negative effects were identified. They included negative reactions to psilocybin dosing sessions, undesirable processes in the therapeutic relationship, and difficult self-experiences. Four themes of long-term negative effects were identified. They included destabilization of the client, difficulties adapting to life post-treatment, complications in the treatment relationship, and undesirable outcomes.

Conclusions

These results highlight the multifaceted challenges clients may face, emphasizing the need for thorough pre-intervention assessment and post-intervention support. The findings both confirm previous research and highlight new aspects that can contribute to increased safety and be relevant for clinical implementation. Further rigorous research is needed to ensure safety, establish ethical guidelines, and optimize the positive effects of these experimental medicines. Integrating various research approaches and types of measurements will be vital to further our understanding of negative effects of psychedelic-assisted therapy.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Despite increasing public acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community and psychedelic medicines, published accounts of queer psychedelia are limited. Specifically, the queer nature of psychedelics and the parallels between narratives of being queer and of psychedelic experiences, are lacking. This report brings queer experiences of psychedelia out of the metaphorical closet and argues for the development of Queer Affirming models of Psychedelic Assisted Psychotherapy (QA-PAP).

Methods

This knowledge report examines the extant psychedelic literature as it relates to queerness, and positions it against reports of rising anti-2SLGBTQ+ sentiments, and legislation aimed at dismantling civil liberties.

Results

Specifically in Canada, the United States of America, and the United Kingdom, the current socio-political climate fosters increasingly positive attitudes towards psychedelic medicine, while recently won 2SLGBTQ+ civil rights are under attack. The convergence of these trends means the psychedelic community must guard against repetition of mistakes made during the first wave of psychedelic research.

Conclusions

Including queer narratives within psychedelic research is integral to the equitable, safe, effective and accessible implementation of emerging modalities of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapies (PAP), and to ensure that ethical standards protect patients from sexual and gender based violence.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

This study addresses the scarcity of research on Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in non-Western cultures and women, exploring its prevalence, sociodemographic, sexual history characteristics, and sexual and psychological health factors in Iranian married women.

Methods

A cross-sectional study involving 772 heterosexual married women was conducted between 2022 and 2023, covering all 31 provinces of Iran. Participants were categorized as CSBD+ (at-risk individuals) and CSBD− (low-risk individuals) based on a pre-established cut-off point of ≥18 by the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale −7. Depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, self-esteem, sexual distress, sexual satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, and sexual dysfunction were assessed as psychological and sexual health variables by standardized scales.

Results

The prevalence of CSBD was 3.8% in women. Linear regression analysis showed that lower education, being jobless, substance use, pornography use, paraphilic behaviors, conflict on sex frequency, relationship, orgasm and sexual dissatisfaction, higher sexual arousal, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were positively associated with CSBD. The univariate analysis, at a stringent significance level of 0.005, mirrored the regression findings. Additionally, women with CSBD+ exhibited lower religiousness and higher anxiety compared to those without CSBD−.

Discussion and Conclusions

Raising awareness of CSBD is crucial for health systems and individuals for better policy-making and help-seeking behavior. Identifying risk factors like substance use presents opportunities for prevention, and the association of CSBD with sexual and mental health variables suggests addressing co-occurring issues for improved treatment outcomes. Recognizing culture and gender-specific sexual and psychological correlates enables targeted and effective treatment approaches.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

While the concept of recovery is receiving increasing attention in the context of gambling disorder (GD), no consensus has yet been reached regarding its definition. This scoping review aims to map the literature on GD recovery, identify gaps, and provide insights for a more holistic and patient-centred perspective.

Methods

A systematic search of three databases was conducted (PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect). Based on the method by which the results of these studies were produced, the studies included were sorted into four categories (quantitative, instrument validation, qualitative, and mixed studies) and subsequently examined using conceptual analysis.

Results

One hundred thirteen articles were included in this research after the screening process. In the quantitative and instrument validation studies, recovery was defined or operationalized in terms of abstinence, the absence of a GD diagnosis, or mild GD severity, or by reference to treatment outcomes or controlled gambling. A meta-synthesis of the results of the qualitative studies revealed four core features of recovery (insight, empowerment and commitment, wellbeing enhancement, and reconsideration of the issue of relapse).

Discussion

Discrepancies in definitions, outcomes, and variables used were evident across studies. Additionally, the quantitative and standardized approaches employed in most studies exhibited severe limitations with regard to defining recovery from the subjective and multidimensional perspectives of people recovering from GD.

Conclusions

This lack of definitional clarity emphasizes the necessity for further qualitative research. This research should encompass multiple stakeholder perspectives to develop a working definition promoting recovery from a holistic, patient-centred, and tailored approach.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Hypotheses surrounding the etiology of depressive disorders encompass a wide range of biological changes that can occur in a depressed individual, from gene variations to epigenetic modifications and not only serotonergic mechanisms. Once again, the therapy response of the patient to antidepressants is connected to modifications in the epigenetic regulation of genes within the serotonergic system. The persistence of depressive symptoms points to the possibility that stable molecular adaptations in the brain, particularly at the epigenetic level, may be involved.

Methods

Narrative review to first, discuss the historical evidence behind how serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling and its associated actors are involved in various biological processes and second, examine the role of ketamine as one of the newer treatments for depression.

Results

There is increasing evidence that responses to psychotherapy for mood disorders are correlated with epigenetic alterations. Although therapy response appears to be associated with epigenetic changes in genes regulating the serotonergic system, there are multiple lines of research that provide additional data implicating epigenetic alterations in the glutamatergic system. Also, the epigenetic regulation of target genes along the HPA axis are becoming more intriguing in linking mood disorders with environmental stressors, and warrant a closer look. Recent research suggests that ketamine's antidepressant effects may be linked to epigenetic alterations. Considering the multiple studies linking BDNF with depression, further exploration of its relation with ketamine in the context of epigenetic signaling is warranted.

Conclusion

Understanding how and to what extent epigenetic mechanisms change gene expression and how these changes are influenced by environmental stressors may eventually allow mental health professionals to better understand the biological basis of depression as well as to gauge the efficacy, onset, durability and duration of therapies to treat mood disorders. Moreover, understanding the relation between serotonergic neurotransmission and epigenetic mechanisms of how these may be modified by ketamine should lead us to a greater knowledge of their therapeutic potential.

Open access

Abstract

As reliable facilitators of characteristically unique altered states of consciousness that are notoriously difficult to comprehend, psychedelics naturally attract a multidisciplinary scope for their research, with direct relevance to neuroscience, pharmacology, psychology, as well as philosophy of mind, metaphysics, and epistemology — disciplines united by the common inquiry into the nature of conscious experience. Accordingly, the central focus of this paper concerns the metaphysical debate between internalism and externalism about whether psychedelic phenomenology — in particular, its ‘breakthrough’ level — could be said to directly ontologically depend on external factors, as well as the interpretive implications arising from each of those positions. The main contributions of the author of this paper include the provision of a coherent account of the essential phenomenal characteristics of psychedelic experiences, the integration of relatively fragmented philosophical debates on psychedelic phenomenology into the traditional internalist-externalist framework in metaphysics, as well as the exploration of the extent to which the externalist position on psychedelic phenomenology — traditionally associated with non-naturalism — is compatible with naturalistic explanatory frameworks. In Part 1, psychedelic phenomenology will be outlined first, after which the central inquiries of this paper will be contextualised and qualified. In Part 2, the internalist position on psychedelic phenomenology — both its strong and weak versions — will be discussed. In Part 3, the externalist position will be explored, which will be followed by a final evalutation between the three positions presented in this paper. The paper will conclude in favour of the weak internalist position, and that whilst the externalist position remains significantly more speculative than both the strong and the weak internalist positions, the externalist position cannot be rejected altogether until further progress in consciousness research is made.

Open access

Abstract

Workplace learning is a necessity for the organizational growth of all types of organizations, including higher education institutions. There are different directions proposed on how to make the implementation of workplace learning realistic, however, the best practices in one context may not apply well in another. This paper investigated the conditions required for the implementation of workplace learning in the case study of Laotian higher education. Firstly, 12 faculty members were invited to a semi-structured interview. The study employed a deductive category assignment of QCA in analyzing the data. The findings revealed that three conditions, namely, individual-related, organizational-related, and environmental-related conditions, appear to be key and are taken into account in developing favorable workplace learning. A further quantitative study in this area is strongly recommended.

Open access

A szociálisprobléma-megoldás és a szorongás jellemzői perfekcionista és nem perfekcionista serdülők körében – egy longitudinális vizsgálat eredményei

Characteristics of social problem-solving and anxiety among perfectionist and non-perfectionist adolescents – First results of a longitudinal study

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
László Kasik
and
Zita Gál

Háttér és célkitűzések

A maladaptív perfekcionizmussal jellemzett serdülők szociálisprobléma-megoldásának egyik igen fontos jellemzője a problémához való negatív viszonyulás, illetve a problémahelyzetből való minél gyorsabb kilépés, ha úgy érzékelik, megoldásuk nem felel meg maximálisan az általuk vagy a környezetük által megfogalmazott elvárásoknak. A kétéves (2021–2022) követéses vizsgálat első mérési pontján 11–12 éves és 16–17 éves diákok (N2021 = 305, N2022 = 290) körében vizsgáltuk, milyen arányban fordul elő körükben adaptív és maladaptív perfekcionista, milyen különbség azonosítható kortársakkal kapcsolatos problémáik megoldásában, bevonva az elemzésbe a szorongást is, mivel ennek szerepe az elkerülő viselkedésben és főként a maladaptív perfekcionizmusban jelentős.

Módszer

A szociálisprobléma-megoldás jellemzőit a Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised (D’Zurilla és mtsai, 2002), az állapot- és a vonásszorongást a State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (Sipos és mtsai, 1978) kérdőívvel vizsgáltuk. A perfekcionizmust az Almost Perfect Scale Revised (Slaney és mtsai, 2001) és az Frost Multidimensiol Perfectionism Scale (Frost és mtsai, 1990) eszközzel tártuk fel, melyekkel együttesen a személyes, a környezettől származó és külön a szülői elvárások, a kételkedés, a hibázástól való félelem, a megfelelés hiányának érzése és a rendezettség, rendszeretet jellemzői azonosíthatók.

Eredmények

Mindkét évben közel hasonló a nem perfekcionisták, az adaptív és a maladaptív perfekcionisták aránya, mely arányok egy év elteltével nem változtak, és mindkét életkorban a perfekcionisták harmada a maladaptív perfekcionizmus jeleit mutatja. A maladaptív perfekcionistákra jellemző legnagyobb mértékben a negatív problémaorientáció és az elkerülő viselkedés, utóbbi – főként az idősebbeknél – a vonás- és állapotszorongással és a szülői kritikával együtt markáns hatással bír a maladaptív perfekcionista diákok személyes elvárásaira és a megfelelés hiányának érzésére.

Következtetések

Ezek az eredmények többnyire alátámasztják a külföldi kutatási adatokat, és arra hívják fel a figyelmet, hogy az iskolai nevelés során mindenképpen szükséges a jelenleginél mélyrehatóbban foglalkozni a perfekcionizmus serdülőkori megjelenésével, felismerésével, okaival, alakulásával és következményeivel, megfelelő pedagógiai eszközökkel segíteni az adaptivitás erősödését, illetve kezelése során figyelembe kell venni más területekkel való kapcsolatát. E longitudinális felmérésből is úgy látszik, a maladaptív perfekcionizmusnak a társas problémák nem hatékony megoldásával és a szorongással is egyre szorosabb a kapcsolata serdülőkorban, mely kapcsolatrendszer kevésbé hatékony életvezetést eredményezhet mind társas, mind teljesítményhelyzetekben.

Open access

Abstract

Content analysis plays a pivotal role in the field of educational science. This paper delves into an examination of studies within the discipline that have employed a deductive approach when applying this method. Our research focus revolved around the thematic patterns present in the corresponding scientific discourse and the techniques utilized for deductive content analysis.

We conducted a systematic literature review within the Web of Science database to identify journal articles employing a theory-driven approach to content analysis. The results of the investigation revealed that empirical studies in the domains of health studies, professional development, and learning enhancement seldom adhere exclusively to deductive reasoning during content analysis. Instead, they typically blend deductive reasoning with inductive coding processes.

Open access

Abstract

Background and objectives

Work addiction (WA), characterized by dimensions such as overcommitment, difficulties in detachment from work, and work-life imbalance, is presumed to be associated with increased smartphone usage, even during risky activities like driving. The study investigated the connection between WA and future problematic and hazardous smartphone use, considering personality factors: anxiety, rumination, and worry.

Methods

A three-wave longitudinal study (N = 1,866) was conducted from March to July 2019, June to September 2020, and June to November 2021, involving a representative sample of 18-34-year-old residents in Hungary's capital. The study employed Hungarian versions of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire, Ruminative Response Scale, Anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory 18, and Penn-State Worry Questionnaire. Additionally, author-developed questions on mobile phone use while driving were included.

Results

At baseline, those at risk for WA showed more frequent mobile phone use while driving at both time points 2 and 3 compared to the non-risk group. Path analyses revealed rumination, anxiety at time 1, and worry at time 2 as significant mediators between baseline WA and mobile phone use while driving at time 3. However, when analyzing all three mediators together, only anxiety at time 1 and worry at time 2 remained significant.

Discussion and conclusion

This study demonstrates that WA predicts future mobile phone use while driving through mediation by anxiety and worry. Our findings add to the growing evidence highlighting the detrimental aspects of WA, emphasizing the need for improved prevention and treatment strategies.

Open access

Illúzió a szabad akarat? Idegtudományi-pszichológiai-filozófiai megfontolások

Is free will an illusion? Related aspects revealed by neuroscience, psychology and philosophy

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author:
Márk Molnár

A szabad akarat képessége magától értetődőnek tűnhet, azonban a tudománytörténetben az erre vonatkozó determinisztikus (a szabad akarat lehetőségével összeegyeztethetetlen) és nem determinisztikus (a szabad akaratot megengedő) felfogás évszázadokra visszamenően követhető. A legfontosabb alapfogalmak tisztázását követően az akaratlagos mozgással kapcsolatos megfigyeléseket és ezek értelmezési lehetőségeit tekintjük át, többségében azokat, melyek az akaratlagos mozgás szándékát több 100 ms-mal megelőző felkészülési potenciál jelenségét alapul véve megengedik, vagy kizártnak tartják a szabad akarat lehetőségét. A kérdés szempontjából lényeges lehet annak mérlegelése, hogy képes lehet-e az idegrendszer termékeként felfogható pszichés tevékenység visszahatni magára az azt létrehozó rendszerre. Amennyiben ez lehetséges, ez nyitva hagyhatja a szabad akarat megvalósulásának lehetőségét.

Open access

Abstract

Background

An imbalance between model-based and model-free decision-making systems is a common feature in addictive disorders. However, little is known about whether similar decision-making deficits appear in internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study compared neurocognitive features associated with model-based and model-free systems in IGD and alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Method

Participants diagnosed with IGD (n = 22) and AUD (n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 30) performed the two-stage task inside the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. We used computational modeling and hierarchical Bayesian analysis to provide a mechanistic account of their choice behavior. Then, we performed a model-based fMRI analysis and functional connectivity analysis to identify neural correlates of the decision-making processes in each group.

Results

The computational modeling results showed similar levels of model-based behavior in the IGD and AUD groups. However, we observed distinct neural correlates of the model-based reward prediction error (RPE) between the two groups. The IGD group exhibited insula-specific activation associated with model-based RPE, while the AUD group showed prefrontal activation, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, individuals with IGD demonstrated hyper-connectivity between the insula and brain regions in the salience network in the context of model-based RPE.

Discussion and Conclusions

The findings suggest potential differences in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying model-based behavior in IGD and AUD, albeit shared cognitive features observed in computational modeling analysis. As the first neuroimaging study to compare IGD and AUD in terms of the model-based system, this study provides novel insights into distinct decision-making processes in IGD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Elise Victoria Tørdal
,
Ståle Pallesen
,
Dominic Sagoe
,
Lise Øen Jones
, and
Farha Mahjabeen

Abstract

Introduction

The overall prevalence of gambling problems across prison populations is currently unknown. The objective of the present study was therefore to quantitatively synthetize prevalence estimates of gambling problems in prison populations using a random effects meta-analytic model and to investigate if the estimates were moderated by time frame, cut-off levels, and sample size.

Methods

To be included the studies had to report original data on the prevalence of gambling problems in a prison sample and to be written in a European language, whereas data based on abstracts or qualitative reports were excluded. The search ended on December 1, 2023 and were conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Embase, Google Scholar, Grey Literature Report, and GreyNet. Risk of bias was assessed with a standardized 10-item measure for epidemiological studies.

Results

A total of 26 studies comprising 9,491 participants were included. The vast majority of the participants were males. The most commonly used instrument for assessment of gambling problems was the South Oaks Gambling Screen. The pooled random-effects gambling problems prevalence estimate was 30.8% (95% CI = 25.1–37.3). The meta-regression analysis showed that none of the three moderator variables (criteria, timeframe, sample size) were related to the gambling problems prevalence. Common limitations of the included studies entailed not being representative nationally or for the target population, lack of randomization, and low response rate. The meta-analysis was restricted to studies published in a European language.

Conclusions

Overall, the studies show that 1 in 3 prisoners has gambling problems and suggests that more emphasis on relevant prevention and treatment is warranted for this population. The study was funded by the Norwegian Competence Center for Gambling and Gaming Research and pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42023390552).

Open access

Abstract

The fundamental role of higher education is to help students learn to cope in a constantly changing and uncertain world. The key to this is to support the development of their agency and commitment to learning. Although technology is the main tool of knowledge transfer, according to the OECD, it is teachers who represent the values of their field and that of knowledge and learning.

Since academic development is a relatively recent topic in the Hungarian literature, the present research aims to explore teachers' role interpretation, goals, missions, approaches to teaching, and their commitment to academic development at one of Hungary's leading business universities, the Budapest Business University (BBU). The study is based on 33 semi-structured interviews recorded at BBU involving 33 teachers of economics-related subjects in three faculties of the university. The interview transcripts were analysed by thematic analysis.

The results show that participants have markedly different teaching approaches, and the interrelationships between their objectives, missions and academic development can be seen as constituting a system. Finally, the potential interrelationships among the different themes were examined. The findings show that the teachers' goals and missions are strongly related, although more affective factors can be identified in relation to missions. These affective factors include inspiring enthusiasm and building partnership and mutual learning. In line with this, most participants adopt a teacher/student interaction strategy, only few cases of student focus were identified.

Open access

Jövőbe látó lélektan – Gépi tanulás a pszichológiai kutatásmódszertanban

Predictive psychology – applying machine learning in psychological research methodology

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Andrei Damsa
,
Marcell Püski
, and
Miklós Gábriel Tulics

Háttér és célkitűzés

A pszichológiai kutatásmódszertan eljárásait (főképp a p értékre építkező bizonyításokat) számos kritika érte az utóbbi évtizedek során. A kutatói elfogultság és a módszertanok (például az adatgyűjtés, az adatszelekció vagy a statisztikai próbák) könnyű manipulálhatósága teret adott a félrevezető és nehezen reprodukálható kutatásoknak. A gépi tanulás elterjedése megfigyelhető a pszichológia területén is, új eszköztárat biztosítva a kutatók számára. Az eljárás áthelyezi a hangsúlyt a statisztikai bizonyításról az előrejelzésre, valamint az ehhez kapcsolódó validációs folyamatokra, ezáltal lecsökkentve a kutatói szubjektivitás hatását. Jelen tanulmány célja gyakorlati példákon keresztül betekintést nyújtani a gépi tanulás módszertanába, fókuszálva a pszichológiai alkalmazhatóságára.

Módszer

A vizsgálati szakasz első részében két, a gépi tanulás használatára irányuló tanulmány kerül bemutatásra a humán döntéshozatali mechanizmusok, valamint a pandémiás helyzet okozta mentális hatások területére vonatkozóan. A vizsgálati szakasz második részében egy klasszifikációs feladat (filmpreferencia és nemi identitás kapcsolata) keretén belül kerül összehasonlításra egy nem parametrikus statisztikai módszer és két, gépi tanuláson alapuló eljárás.

Eredmények

A kapott eredmények bemutatják a gépi tanulás által nyújtott előnyöket (validációs eljárások és többletinformáció kinyerése), párhuzamot vonva a nem parametrikus eljárással.

Következtetések

A tanulmány népszerűsíteni és alátámasztani hivatott a gépi tanulás alkalmazhatóságát a kutatói szektorban tevékenykedő pszichológusok számára. A bemutatott kutatás reprodukálhatóságának érdekében az adatok és programozási kódsorok szabadon felhasználhatók a tanulmányban megadott elérhetőségeken keresztül.

Open access

A Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála (OBCS) működése magyar nyelven

The validation of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) in Hungarian

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Fanni Őry
and
Norbert Meskó

Háttér és célkitűzések: A nőket jelentős szociokulturális nyomás éri a fizikai megjelenésükkel kapcsolatban. A Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála (Objectified Body Consciousness Scale) képes kimutatni a nők közötti egyéni különbségeket abban, hogy a fizikai megjelenésükre vonatkozó társadalmi elvárásokat mennyire internalizálják. Jelen kutatás célja kettős. Egyrészt szeretnénk reflektálni egy korábbi magyar cikkre, amely a fenti kérdőívvel foglalkozott. Másrészt szeretnénk bemutatni, hogy ez a több nyelven is jól mérő kérdőív magyar nyelven is használható az eredeti faktorokkal. Módszer: Első vizsgálatunkban egy online kérdőívcsomagot használtunk, amelyet 770 nő (M = 30,1 év; SD = 11,3; 18–71 év) töltött ki. A kérdőívcsomag a Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skálát (OBCS), a Kozmetikai Műtét Elfogadása Skálát (ACSS) és a Testedzésfüggőség Skálát (EAI) tartalmazta, továbbá felmérte a saját testtel kapcsolatos elégedettség szintjét is. Második vizsgálatunkban 102 egyetemista nő (M = 20,7 év; SD = 2,13; 18–29 év) vett részt. Az adatfelvétel személyesen történt, ahol a priming helyzet után a következő kérdőívcsomagot használtuk: Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála (OBCS), Kozmetikai Műtét Elfogadása Skála (ACSS) és a Rosenberg-féle Önértékelés Skála (RSES). A faktorstruktúra vizsgálatához a JASP, míg a validáláshoz a Jamovi programot használtuk. Eredmények: Elemzéseink szerint a Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála magyar verzióján is jól működik az eredeti hármas faktorstruktúra. A három faktor a következő lett: Test felügyelet, Testszégyen, Kontroll hiedelmek. Az elvárásoknak megfelelően a magasabb fokú tárgyiasítás szignifikánsan összefügg a saját testtel való magasabb elégedetlenséggel, a kozmetikai műtétek iránti nagyobb nyitottsággal, a testedzésfüggőség kialakulásának fokozott veszélyével, illetve az alacsonyabb önértékeléssel. Következtetések: Összességében, a Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála magyar nyelven is megfelelőnek bizonyult a nők testükkel kapcsolatos, tárgyiasításhoz fűződő tapasztalatainak mérésében, az eredetileg meghatározott faktorstruktúrát alkalmazva.

Open access

A Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála (OBCS) működése magyar nyelven

The validation of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) in Hungarian

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Fanni Őry
and
Norbert Meskó

Háttér és célkitűzések: A nőket jelentős szociokulturális nyomás éri a fizikai megjelenésükkel kapcsolatban. A Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála (Objectified Body Consciousness Scale) képes kimutatni a nők közötti egyéni különbségeket abban, hogy a fizikai megjelenésükre vonatkozó társadalmi elvárásokat mennyire internalizálják. Jelen kutatás célja kettős. Egyrészt szeretnénk reflektálni egy korábbi magyar cikkre, amely a fenti kérdőívvel foglalkozott. Másrészt szeretnénk bemutatni, hogy ez a több nyelven is jól mérő kérdőív magyar nyelven is használható az eredeti faktorokkal. Módszer: Első vizsgálatunkban egy online kérdőívcsomagot használtunk, amelyet 770 nő (M = 30,1 év; SD = 11,3; 18–71 év) töltött ki. A kérdőívcsomag a Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skálát (OBCS), a Kozmetikai Műtét Elfogadása Skálát (ACSS) és a Testedzésfüggőség Skálát (EAI) tartalmazta, továbbá felmérte a saját testtel kapcsolatos elégedettség szintjét is. Második vizsgálatunkban 102 egyetemista nő (M = 20,7 év; SD = 2,13; 18–29 év) vett részt. Az adatfelvétel személyesen történt, ahol a priming helyzet után a következő kérdőívcsomagot használtuk: Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála (OBCS), Kozmetikai Műtét Elfogadása Skála (ACSS) és a Rosenberg-féle Önértékelés Skála (RSES). A faktorstruktúra vizsgálatához a JASP, míg a validáláshoz a Jamovi programot használtuk. Eredmények: Elemzéseink szerint a Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála magyar verzióján is jól működik az eredeti hármas faktorstruktúra. A három faktor a következő lett: Test felügyelet, Testszégyen, Kontroll hiedelmek. Az elvárásoknak megfelelően a magasabb fokú tárgyiasítás szignifikánsan összefügg a saját testtel való magasabb elégedetlenséggel, a kozmetikai műtétek iránti nagyobb nyitottsággal, a testedzésfüggőség kialakulásának fokozott veszélyével, illetve az alacsonyabb önértékeléssel. Következtetések: Összességében, a Tárgyiasított Testtudat Skála magyar nyelven is megfelelőnek bizonyult a nők testükkel kapcsolatos, tárgyiasításhoz fűződő tapasztalatainak mérésében, az eredetileg meghatározott faktorstruktúrát alkalmazva.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

The high prevalence of internet addiction (IA) has become a worldwide problem that profoundly affects people's mental health and executive function. Empirical studies have suggested trait anxiety (TA) as one of the most robust predictors of addictive behaviors. The present study investigated the neural and socio-psychological mechanisms underlying the association between TA and IA.

Methods

Firstly, we tested the correlation between TA and IA. Then we investigated the longitudinal influence of TA on IA using a linear mixed effect (LME) model. Secondly, connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) was employed to explore neuromarkers of TA, and we tested whether the identified neuromarkers of TA can predict IA. Lastly, stressful life events and default mode network (DMN) were considered as mediating variables to explore the relationship between TA and IA.

Findings

A significant positive correlation between TA and IA was found and the high TA group demonstrated higher IA across time. CPM results revealed that the functional connectivity of cognitive control and emotion-regulation circuits and DMN were significantly correlated with TA. Furthermore, a significant association was found between the neuromarkers of TA and IA. Notably, the CPM results were all validated in an independent sample. The results of mediation demonstrated that stressful life events and correlated functional connectivity mediated the association between TA and IA.

Conclusions

Findings of the present study facilitate a deeper understanding of the neural and socio-psychological mechanisms linking TA and IA and provide new directions for developing neural and psychological interventions.

Open access
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Julia Basler
,
Cintia Bali
,
Adrián Fehér
,
Botond László Kiss
, and
András Norbert Zsidó

Bevezetés: A szociális szorongás olyan társas helyzetekben megjelenő félelem vagy szorongás, amelyben az egyén mások figyelmének lehet kitéve. Az egyén attól fél, hogy mások negatívan ítélik őt meg, és az ebből fakadó distressz képzelt és valós szociális deficitekhez vezethet. A szorongás ezen fajtájának szubklinikai formája korábbi kutatások alapján a teljes lakosság akár negyedét is érintheti. Célkitűzés: Jelen tanulmány célja a Liebowitz Szociális Szorongás Skála magyar nyelvű adaptációja és pszichometriai mutatóinak feltárása, valamint annak megállapítása, hogy mely nemzetközileg elfogadott verzió faktorstruktúrája alkalmazható hazai mintán. Módszer: Összesen 476 fővel (350 nővel és 126 férfival) készült keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves kutatásunk során a Liebowitz Szociális Szorongás Skálát, korábbi tapasztalatra vonatkozó tételeket, és a Kognitív Érzelemszabályozás Kérdőív rövidített verzióját vettük fel. A Liebowitz Szociális Szorongás Skála pszichometriai mutatóit klasszikus (faktoranalízis) és modern (IRT-elemzés) tesztelméleti módszerrel is megvizsgáltuk. Eredmények: A Liebowitz Szociális Szorongás Skála megfelelő pszichometriai mutatókkal rendelkezik, és a kérdőív tételei jól diszkriminálnak a látens változó különböző szintjével (−1 és 3 szórás között) rendelkező személyek között. A nemzetközileg is jelenleg legszélesebb körben elfogadott faktorstruktúrát kis módosítással replikálni tudtuk. A kérdőív nagy szórástartományban megbízhatóan mér, így a szociális szorongás mértékéről a populáció nagy részében képes információt adni, az érintett személyeket képes jól kiszűrni. A kérdőív skálái ellenőrző kérdések alapján is megfelelően diszkriminálnak a kitöltők között, és a kognitív érzelemszabályozás adaptív és maladaptív stratégiáival az elvártnak megfelelő irányú (negatív, illetve pozitív) korrelációkat találtunk. Következtetések: A Liebowitz Szociális Szorongás Skála összességében magyar mintán megbízható és érvényes kérdőív. Alkalmazhatósága az átlagpopuláció szűrésénél, prevencióknál kiemelten fontos lehet.

Open access

A Női Színlelt Orgazmus Kérdőív magyar változata (FOS)

Hungarian version of the Faking Orgasm Scale for Women (FOS)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Edit Csányi
,
Fanni Őry
, and
Norbert Meskó

Elméleti háttér

A női orgazmusszínlelés jelenségének tanulmányozására fejlesztett egyik mérőeszköz a Faking Orgasm Scale for Women (FOS; Női Színlelt Orgazmus Kérdőív), amely a nők orgazmusszínlelési szokásait vizsgálja két különböző helyzetben. Ennek köszönhetően alaposabb megértést nyerhetünk az orális szex fogadásakor és közösüléskor alkalmazott orgazmusszínlelés komplex folyamata mögött meghúzódó okokról.

A kutatás célja

A vizsgálat célja a Faking Orgasm Scale magyar változatának elkészítése, pszichometriai ellenőrzése és validálása.

Módszer

A kutatásban használt két mintán online kérdőívcsomagokkal végeztük a felmérést. A kérdőív faktorszerkezetének elemzésekor 2220 női kitöltő (átlagéletkor = 24,4 év; SD = 7,48 év; 18–80 év között) adataival dolgoztunk. A validáláshoz az előző minta egy része, 768 nő (átlagéletkor = 22,6 év; SD = 4,54 év; 18–48 év között) töltötte ki a kérdőívcsomagot: Női Színlelt Orgazmus Kérdőív (FOS), a Nők Szexuális Működési Modelljei Kérdőív (WSWMS), és a Szexuális Motiváció Kérdőív (YSEX?-HSF).

Eredmények

A faktorelemzés megmutatta, hogy a Női Színlelt Orgazmus Kérdőív magyarra fordított változata illeszkedik az eredeti változat faktorstruktúrájára. A különböző okokból színlelt orgazmus eltérő szexuális működési modellekkel és szexuális motivációkkal mutat együtt járást. Továbbá a színlelő és nem színlelő nők között különbség mutatkozott a szexuális elhatárolódásuk mértékében és partnerük gondoskodásának megélésében. A színlelőkre jellemzőbb, hogy személyes szexuális céljaik elérése érdekében és az érzelmi nehézségekkel való megküzdésként vesznek részt szexuális tevékenységekben, mint nem színlelő társaikra.

Következtetések

Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy a magyar mintát vizsgáló kutatók számára egy megbízható, jól hasznosítható eszköz áll rendelkezésre. Mivel a Női Színlelt Orgazmus Kérdőív magyar változata egy prediktív eszköznek tekinthető, számos szexualitással és párkapcsolattal összefüggő kutatásban alkalmazható.

Open access

A szülői értékpreferenciák hatása a kollektív áldozati vélekedések transzgenerációs átadására

The influence of parental value preferences on the transgenerational transmission of collective victim beliefs

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Author:
Judith Gabriella Kengyel

Háttér és célkitűzések: Korábbi kutatások alapján a kollektív áldozati vélekedések továbbadásra kerülnek szülők és gyermekeik között. Az értékek számos vizsgálat szerint összefüggenek a politikai preferenciákkal, illetve a nemzeti identitással. Jelen tanulmány összefüggéseket célzott meg feltárni a szülői értékpreferenciák és a fiatal felnőtt gyermekek kollektív áldozati vélekedései között. Módszer: Kérdőíves vizsgálatunk során 114 szülő-gyermek diád szerepelt a mintában. Vizsgálati eszközeink között felhasználtuk a Nemzeti azonosulás magyar kérdőívét, a Kollektív áldozati tudat kérdőívet, illetve a Schwartz motivációs értéktípusai kérdőívet (Portrait Values Questionnaire). Eredmények: Eredményeink szerint kapcsolat van a szülők által vallott értékek, illetve a szülők és gyerekeik nemzeti identitáshoz kapcsolódó kötődés és glorifikáció dimenziói, illetve kollektív áldozati vélekedései között, továbbá vizsgálatunk megerősítette, hogy a szülők, illetve gyermekeik értékei között pozitív együtt járás figyelhető meg, alátámasztva korábbi kutatások eredményeit. Jelen kutatásban a konzervációhoz köthető értékek esetében láthattuk a legerősebb összefüggést, ezek külön-külön is összefüggést mutatnak az exkluzív áldozati vélekedésekkel és az áldozati tudat észlelt fontosságával, illetve a nemzeti azonosulás kötődés és glorifikáció dimenzióival. Következtetések: Eredményeink szerint a szülők értékrendje nem közvetlenül kapcsolódik a gyerekeik nemzeti identitáshoz tartozó nézeteihez, hanem a szülői nemzeti identitással kapcsolatos nézetein, valamint a kollektív áldozati vélekedésen keresztül. A saját csoport felsőbbrendűségét, illetve a saját csoport áldozatiságát illető vélekedések tehát kapcsolatban állnak a szülők által vallott értékekkel.

Open access

Abstract

Though several treatments effectively address the pervasive impact of trauma, they do not achieve complete symptom resolution for all clients, inspiring the search for alternatives. Internal Family Systems (IFS) therapy has grown popular, especially in informal psychedelic-assisted treatments (PAT). Compared to stereotypes of empirically validated, exposure-based treatments, IFS has novel facets with widespread appeal. The model encourages improved quality of interactions among multiple, naturally arising “parts” or subpersonalities potentially generated by traumatic experience. The body of IFS literature is extensive, enthusiastic, and thought-provoking. Outcome data for applying the model to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are limited. Attempts to operationalize and falsify the theory's assumptions and proposed mechanisms will likely prove challenging. Nevertheless, the model's popularity underscores a problem with perceptions of the empirically-supported treatments. Contemplating ethical ways to present the IFS approach given the state of relevant research, we note strategies that would apply to recommendations for PAT of any type. These strategies include detailed psychoeducation about empirically-supported treatments, candid description of the experimental nature of alternatives, frequent assessments of improvement, and detailed monitoring of potential iatrogenic effects. Drawing on facets of IFS to improve perceptions of the empirically validated treatments might provide an efficient way to appeal to more clients, decrease drop out, and increase gains as we await results of empirical investigations of IFS-influenced PAT. These steps can allow clients to choose an approach consistent with their own impressions of a credible intervention, potentially leading to better outcomes.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Emerging research indicates that psychedelics may have therapeutic potential by fostering meaningful experiences that act as “inflection points” in people's narratives of personal development. However, psychedelic research has largely failed to address pertinent developmental considerations. We investigated whether attachment-related variables were associated with psychedelic experiences and whether psychedelic experiences moderated expected links between perceived attachment history and current adult attachment orientations.

Methods

We administered an online survey to an international Jewish sample (N = 185) with psychedelic experience. The survey included measures about recollection of attachment interactions with parents (perceived attachment history), adult attachment orientations (anxiety, avoidance), and psychedelic phenomenology (mystical experiences, challenging experiences, emotional breakthrough, ego dissolution, sensed presence) associated with respondents' most memorable psychedelic experiences.

Results

Perceptions of an insecure attachment history were positively linked to all measures of psychedelic phenomenology (r's = 0.19–32, p's mostly < 0.01). In contrast, adult attachment orientations were unrelated to psychedelic phenomenology. Also, psychedelic phenomenology mostly did not moderate the links observed between perceptions of an insecure attachment history and adult attachment orientations.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that perceptions of early attachment experiences may be relevant to psychedelic phenomenology. However, subjective experiences associated with naturalistic psychedelic use do not typically attenuate links between a perceived insecure attachment history and attachment insecurity at present.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Nicholas Spiers
,
Beatriz Caiuby Labate
,
Anna O. Ermakova
,
Patrick Farrell
,
Osiris Sinuhé González Romero
,
Ibrahim Gabriell
, and
Nidia Olvera
Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Pedro Romero
,
Andrea Czakó
,
Wim van den Brink
, and
Zsolt Demetrovics

Abstract

Gambling disorder is a severe mental health and behavioural problem with harmful consequences, including financial, relationship and mental health problems. The present paper initiates discussion on the use of psychedelics combined with psychotherapeutic support as a potential treatment option for people living with a gambling disorder. Recent studies have shown promising results using psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) to treat anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and various substance use disorders. Considering the similarities in the underlying psychosocial and neurobiological mechanisms of gambling disorder and other addictive disorders, the authors suggest that psychedelic-assisted therapy could be effective in treating gambling disorder. The paper also underscores the need for further research into the viability and effectiveness of psychedelic-assisted therapy for gambling disorder.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Problematic Social Networking Site Use (PSNSU) is not a formally recognised addiction, but it is increasingly discussed as such in academic research and online. Taking a quantitative, exploratory approach, this study aims to (1) determine whether PSNSU is presented like clinically defined addictions by the affected community and (2) address how well measurements of PSNSU fit with the thematic content found within the associated discourse.

Methods

Four corpora were created for this study: a corpus concerning PSNSU and three control corpora concerning established addictions, including Alcohol Use Disorder, Tobacco Use Disorder and Gaming Disorder. Keywords were identified, collocates and concordances were explored, and shared themes were compared.

Results

Findings show broad thematic similarities between PSNSU and the three control addictions as well as prominent interdiscursive references, which indicate possible confirmation bias among speakers.

Conclusions

Scales based upon the components model of addiction are suggested as the most appropriate measure of this emerging disorder.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Nerilee Hing
,
Alex M.T. Russell
,
Vijay Rawat
,
Gabrielle M. Bryden
,
Matthew Browne
,
Matthew Rockloff
,
Hannah B. Thorne
,
Philip Newall
,
Nicki A. Dowling
,
Stephanie S. Merkouris
, and
Matthew Stevens

Abstract

Background and aims

COVID-19 lockdowns limited access to gambling but simultaneously elevated psychosocial stressors. This study assessed the relative effects of these changes on gambling risk status during and after the Australian COVID-19 lockdown from late-March to late-May 2020.

Methods

The study administered three surveys to people who had gambled within the past year at T1. Wave 1 asked about before (T1, N = 2,125) and during lockdown (T2, N = 2,125). Subsequent surveys focused on one year (T3; N = 649) and two years after lockdown (T4, N = 458). The dependent variable was changes in reporting any problem gambling symptoms (PGSI 0 vs 1+). Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression tested for significant associations with: demographics, psychosocial stressors (perceived stress, psychological distress, loneliness, health anxiety about COVID, financial hardship, stressful life events), gambling participation and gambling frequency.

Results

Gambling participation and at-risk gambling decreased between T1 and T2, increased at T3, with little further change at T4. When gambling availability was curtailed, decreased gambling frequency on EGMs, casino games, sports betting or race betting, and lower psychosocial stress, were associated with transitions from at-risk to non-problem gambling. When gambling availability resumed, increased EGM gambling frequency, decreased online gambling frequency, and higher psychosocial stress were associated with transitions from non-problem to at-risk gambling.

Discussion and conclusions

Gambling availability appears a stronger influence on gambling problems, at the population level, than psychosocial risk factors. Reducing the supply of high-risk gambling products, particularly EGMs, is likely to reduce gambling harm.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Decisions and learning processes are under metacognitive control, where confidence in one's actions guides future behaviour. Indeed, studies have shown that being more confident results in less action updating and learning, and vice versa. This coupling between action and confidence can be disrupted, as has been found in individuals with high compulsivity symptoms. Patients with Gambling Disorder (GD) have been shown to exhibit both higher confidence and deficits in learning.

Methods

In this study, we tested the hypotheses that patients with GD display increased confidence, reduced action updating and lower learning rates. Additionally, we investigated whether the action-confidence coupling was distorted in patients with GD. To address this, 27 patients with GD and 30 control participants performed a predictive inference task designed to assess action and confidence dynamics during learning under volatility. Action-updating, confidence and their coupling were assessed and computational modeling estimated parameters for learning rates, error sensitivity, and sensitivity to environmental changes.

Results

Contrary to our expectations, results revealed no significant group differences in action updating or confidence levels. Nevertheless, GD patients exhibited a weakened coupling between confidence and action, as well as lower learning rates.

Discussion and conclusions

This suggests that patients with GD may underutilize confidence when steering future behavioral choices. Ultimately, these findings point to a disruption of metacognitive control in GD, without a general overconfidence bias in neutral, non-incentivized volatile learning contexts.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Haishan Tang
,
Yuanyuan Li
,
Wanglin Dong
,
Xiajun Guo
,
Sijia Wu
,
Chaoran Chen
, and
Guangli Lu

Abstract

Objective

Many studies have explored the relationship between childhood trauma and internet addiction from different theoretical perspectives; however, the results have been inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and internet addiction.

Methods

The PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP electronic databases were searched to identify studies examining the correlation between childhood trauma and adolescent internet addiction. The databases were searched from inception to December 31, 2022. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias of the included studies. Then, Stata 17.0 software was used to perform meta-analysis.

Results

This study was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42023388699). A total of 19 studies involving 21,398 adolescents were included in this meta-analysis. The random effects model was used for pooled analysis, and the results revealed a strong positive association between childhood trauma and internet addiction (r = 0.395, 95% CI [0.345, 0.442]). The relationship between childhood trauma and internet addiction was moderated by sample size, survey area, and internet addiction measurement tools. There were significant differences between the associations based on the various child trauma measurement tools and study quality scores. However, interstudy heterogeneity was not significantly affected by study year, sample source, or participant age.

Conclusion

Internet addiction is positively correlated with childhood trauma. Therefore, it is extremely important for parents to provide a good growth environment during childhood to enhance the physical and mental development of adolescents. A warm family atmosphere helps individuals develop a healthy personality, thereby reducing or preventing the occurrence of internet addiction. Due to the limited number and low quality of the included studies, the above conclusions need to be verified by additional high-quality studies.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Maja Finkenstaedt
,
Daniel Biedermann
,
Johanna Schröder
,
Rose Gholami Mazinan
,
Johannes Fuss
, and
Sarah V. Biedermann

Abstract

Background and aims

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex mental health condition characterized by emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and unstable interpersonal relationships. Some individuals with BPD regularly engage in sexual risk behavior such as unprotected sex and are at higher risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections. This study investigates discounting of condom- or dental dam-protected sex in women with BPD compared with a control group.

Methods

Data were collected from 40 women diagnosed with BPD and 40 healthy controls with an average age of 27.28 years (SD = 6.14) using the Sexual Delay Discounting Task (SDT), the Borderline Symptom List-23 (BSL-23), and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale-19 (CSBD-19).

Results

Women with BPD were less likely to use an immediately available condom or dental dam and more likely to discount safer sex than controls. Partner desirability and the perceived STI risk influenced the participants' likelihood of having protected sex. Women with BPD showed more symptoms of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) than controls. However, sexual delay discounting was not significantly correlated with borderline symptoms or CSB in the BPD group.

Discussion and conclusions

These findings contribute to our understanding of sexual impulsivity in women with BPD and highlight the omission and delayed availability of safety measures as important contributors to sexual risk behavior and STI risk in women. Impulsive sexual behavior, as well as the accompanying sexual health concerns, should receive special attention in the treatment of women with BPD.

Open access
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Nicholas Spiers
,
Beatriz Caiuby Labate
,
Anna O. Ermakova
,
Patrick Farrell
,
Osiris Sinuhé González Romero
,
Ibrahim Gabriell
, and
Nidia Olvera

Abstract

This annotated bibliography comprises 49 texts concerning psilocybin mushroom practices developed by Indigenous peoples. The books and articles have been selected for their academic rigor, relevance, and historical significance, and to foreground overlooked research and subject matter. This includes research on a plurality of contemporary practices and evidence of historical uses, from cultural traditions in Mexico and other regions of the world. The curated texts are sourced from various disciplines, including anthropology, history, archaeology, ethnolinguistics, and ethnomycology. Employing diverse methodological and analytical frameworks, the texts explore the diversity of ways Indigenous cultures have related with, utilized, and conceptualized psilocybin mushrooms and the effects occasioned by their consumption. The annotations include brief summaries of the texts, contextualization of the research, and more critical appraisals. The aim of this annotated bibliography is to offer the reader a diverse overview of the research to date and provide an accessible resource for further exploration of historical and contemporary Indigenous psilocybin practices. The team of psychedelic researchers behind this annotated bibliography hope it will contribute to more nuanced dialogue around Indigenous people and practices in the context of the so-called psychedelic renaissance.

Open access

From greenwashing to screenwashing?

How the tech industry plays around with children's future

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ina Maria Koning
,
Regina J.J.M. van den Eijnden
, and
Helen G.M. Vossen

Abstract

In this viewpoint, we introduce the term ‘screenwashing’, which describes the phenomenon whereby social media platforms, such as TikTok and Instagram, pretend to be more socially responsible than they actually are. That is, social media platforms pretend to be thoughtful about children's health and the prevention of problematic social media use, but this often turns out to be nothing more than “a lick of paint”. We describe how features like the one-hour notification on TikTok and Instagram are considered screenwashing and why we believe so. Screenwashing, an unethical practice, has the potential to mislead parents and young users. Consequently, we advocate for increased government intervention to protect our youth from the potential hazards associated with problematic social media use.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Increasing research has examined the factors related to smartphone use disorder. However, limited research has explored its neural basis.

Aims

We aimed to examine the relationship between the topology of the resting-state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) brain network and smartphone use disorder using minimum spanning tree analysis. Furthermore, we examined how negative emotions mediate this relationship.

Methods

This study included 113 young, healthy adults (mean age = 20.87 years, 46.9% males).

Results

The results showed that the alpha- and delta-band kappas and delta-band leaf fraction were positively correlated with smartphone use disorder. In contrast, the alpha-band diameter was negatively correlated with smartphone use disorder. Negative emotions fully mediated the relationship between alpha-band kappa and alpha-band diameter and smartphone use disorder. Furthermore, negative emotions partially mediated the relationship between delta-band kappa and smartphone use disorder. The findings suggest that excessive scale-free alpha- and delta-band brain networks contribute to the emergence of smartphone use disorder. In addition, the findings also demonstrate that negative emotions and smartphone use disorder share the same neural basis. Negative emotions play a mediating role in the association between topological deviations and smartphone use disorder.

Discussion

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the neural basis of smartphone use disorder from the perspective of the topology of the rs-EEG brain network. Therefore, neuromodulation may be a potential intervention for smartphone use disorder.

Open access

Abstract

In 2021, the final series of phase 3 clinical trials looking at MDMA-AT for treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) found that 71.2% of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) full-dose participants no longer met criteria for PTSD. MDMA-assisted therapy is not US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in treating borderline personality disorder (BPD), and while PTSD is quite different from BPD, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects of MDMA-assisted therapy may be applicable in treating BPD. Interviewing two clinicians utilizing dialectical behavioral therapy treatment and two MDMA-assisted therapy clinicians was one way to examine the phenomenology of MDMA-assisted therapy with BPD individuals in a thoughtful manner. An exploratory, qualitative, interview-based study assessed clinicians' perspectives of MDMA-assisted therapy and BPD and increased our understanding of underlying therapeutic mechanisms and processes and the role of pharmacological factors in these treatment modalities, optimizing treatment context, and leading to improved clinical responses and patient recovery. The codes generated unique perspectives of the participants revealing a chronological narrative which included three phases of treatment.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Scientific interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelics has been experiencing significant growth. Understanding the perceptions of psychedelic assisted psychotherapy (PAP) among health professional, patients, and the public is essential to guide future research objectives, trial protocols, and identify any barriers to future implementation.

Methods

A comprehensive search of the databases (Medline, EMBASE, PSYCHinfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Science) was conducted on the 29th of November, 2022. This review included cross-sectional, longitudinal, and quasi-experimental studies published in peer-reviewed journals exploring perceptions of PAP among the three stakeholder groups. Studies were limited to English-language and the years 2012–2022. The protocol and review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results

The sample consisted of 29 studies, including n = 17 health professional, n = 6 patients, and n = 6 public. Broadly, knowledge of PAP was low among all three stakeholder groups. There was mixed to positive belief in the therapeutic potential of psychedelics, with male gender, younger age, and personal psychedelic experience/knowledge being key predictors of more favourable views. The majority of findings reported strong endorsement of further research. Consistent themes were identified surrounding concerns about legal status, funding, access, side-effects, and implementation.

Conclusion

The evaluated research indicates a need for further research that will provide clarity about safety and elucidate how PAP may be implemented in public health settings. Further education of health professionals and the public should be a priority.

Open access