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Biology is a study of living objects and their life processes. It examines all aspects of living organisms such as their occurrence, classification, internal and external structure, nutrition, reproduction, inheritance, etc. The term “biology” is commonly replaced by the terms “life sciences” and “biological sciences.” There are dozens of branches of biology. Some of the major ones include:

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The Tanzanian Mt Kanga was at first visited by Tamás Pócs in 1987 when he collected foliicolous lichens in lowland rainforest between 800 and 900 m elevation and in submontane rainforest between 900 and 1,250 m. Later, in 1989 he returned there with participants of the Nguru Mts expedition, when the author collected further lichens including foliicolous ones in three different forest types (dry evergreen and semi-evergreen forest at 600–800 m, submontane rainforest at 850–1,200 m and rocky forest at 1,200–1,300 m). Altogether 37 species became known from the area. The comparison of collections revealed that submontane rainforests (including rocky forests) are the richest of the studied forest types in foliicolous lichens. Mt Kanga is characterised by rare species like Calopadia editae discovered by Antonín Vězda in material from Mt Kanga, described and validated in 2011 by Chaves and Lücking based on materials from Mt Kanga and Costa Rica. The new combination Brasilicia dimerelloides (Vězda) Farkas is introduced. The palaeotropical Fouragea viridistellata (Sérus., Lücking et Sparrius) Ertz et Frisch described in 2008 is reported here as new for Tanzania.

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Microalgae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for fatty acid production. Since the various fatty acid profiles (chain length, degree of unsaturation, and branching of the chain) of the different sources influence biodiesel fuel properties, it is important to possess data on how the presence of NaNO3 as nitrogen source can influence the profile of produced fatty acids from algae. The fatty acid profiles of Desmodesmus quadricaudatus and Chlorella sp. were detected in pure batch cultures experiments. BG-11 nitrogen free medium and the medium contained 1.5 g NaNO3 l–1 were used in this investigation. At late stationary growth phase in nitrogen free medium, Chlorella sp. produced 58.39% saturated fatty acids and 41.60% unsaturated fatty acids. While in medium contained 1.5 g NaNO3 l–1 Chlorella sp. produced 62.08% saturated fatty acids and 37.92% unsaturated fatty acids. In nitrogen free medium D. quadricaudatus produced 66.92% saturated fatty acids and 33.07% unsaturated fatty acids. While in cultures contained 1.5 g NaNO3 l–1 D. quadricaudatus produced 51.62% saturated fatty acids and 48.37% unsaturated fatty acids.

The fatty acid profile of Chlorella sp. and D. quadricaudatus that isolated from Egyptian water body and grown in nitrogen free medium may be suitable for biodiesel production. The results discussed and compared to fatty acid profiles produced by other algal species.

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The checklist contains 135 names in current use for taxa of former Bacidia s. l. and 99 synonyms or invalid names. Place of description or new combination, basionym, synonyms, type, distribution is given for species. Type species, substrate, number of foliicolous species, systematic position, distribution is given for genera. Data are edited similarly with the online checklist on foliicolous lichens last updated by Lücking and his co-authors in 2000. The list contains the following 7 new combinations: Bacidina cinnamomea (Kremp.) Farkas, Bacidina clauzadei (Sérus. et Lambinon) Farkas, Brasilicia foliicola (Vězda) Farkas, Brasilicia ituriensis (Vězda) Farkas, Brasilicia olivaceorufa (Vain.) Farkas, Brasilicia subsimilis (Vězda) Farkas, Szczawinskia permira (Vězda) Farkas. The genus Bacidia De Not. is excluded from the checklist of foliicolous lichens, as all of its former foliicolous species are now belonging to other genera. Current names are in the following 12 genera: Bacidina, Badimia, Badimiella, Baflavia, Bapalmuia, Barubria, Brasilicia, Eugeniella, Fellhanera, Fellhaneropsis, Scoliciosporum and Szczawinskia.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
S. Y. Kondratyuk
,
L. Lőkös
,
E. Farkas
,
S.-O. Oh
, and
J.-S. Hur

One new genus, i.e. Ivanpisutia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, similar to the genera Carbonea and Lecidella of the Lecanoraceae, and eleven new species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi, i.e. Agonimia cavernicola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Caloplaca chujaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Lichenochora makareviczae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, and Rusavskia coreana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from South Korea; Caloplaca neobaltistanica S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from China; and Caloplaca mandshuriaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Ivanpisutia oxneri S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Lecanora lojkahugoi S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Lecidella mandshurica S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Opegrapha verseghyklarae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur and Rusavskia ussurica S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur from the Russian Far East, are described and illustrated, compared with closely related taxa.

Fourteen species of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are reported as new for South Korea (i.e. Arthonia molendoi, Caloplaca arenaria, C. sideritis, Candelariella coralliza, Lecanactis cf. dilleniana, Micarea misella, Porina aff. ahlesiana, P. distans, Protoparmeliopsis pseudogyrophorica, Pyxine subcinerea, Stigmidium rivulorum, Stigmidium squamariae, Vouauxiomyces ramalinae, Zwackhiomyces lithoideae); 8 for Russia or the Russian Far East (i.e. Absconditella baegasanensis, Bactrospora cf. corticola, Biatoridium aff. monasteriense, Collemopsidium cf. halodytes, Lecanora cf. hafelliana, Opegrapha phaeophysciae, Phacopsis oxyspora, Polycoccum clauzadei, Vouauxiomyces ramalinae; and 2 species new to China (Caloplaca zoroasteriorum, Seirophora blumii).

Detailed locality data and annotations are given for further 27 noteworthy species, which are rare in South Korea (i.e. Arthonia epiphyscia, Buellia griseovirens, Caloplaca austrocoreana, C. chejuensis, C. micromera, C. multicolor, C. subconcilians, C. trassii, Catillaria atomaroides, Enterographa leucolyta, Fellhanera chejuensis, Fellhanera subtilis, Fuscidea austera, Fuscopannaria incisa, Ionaspis lacustris, Lecania rinodinoides, Lobaria japonica, Lobaria spathulata, Micarea coreana, Phaeophyscia endococcinodes, Physcia stellaris, Pyxine limbulata, Scoliciosporum chlorococcum, S. umbrinum, Sculptolumina japonica, Trapelia coarctata, T. placodioides); and for 3 species rare in Russia (i.e. Dactylospora lobariella, Megalospora tuberculosa, Nipponoparmelia perplicata); and Dimelaena aff. oreina in China.

Arthonia epiphyscia is for the first time recorded from Anaptychia isidiata, and Arthonia molendoi is for the first time recorded from Caloplaca subscopularis.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
S. Y. Kondratyuk
,
L. Lőkös
,
N. V. Kapetz
,
L. Ya. Pleskach
,
J. Kim
,
A. S. Kondratiuk
, and
J.-S. Hur

Physcia ucrainica sp. n. from the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine, sharing diagnostic morphological characters of the Physcia adscendens and P. stellaris groups (Physciaceae, Ascomycota) and its transitional position between the mentioned groups in the phylogenetic tree of the Physciaceae based on combined ITS1/ITS2 nrDNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences is presented.

A few additional, rare for the “Novy Svit” Botanical Reserve area, the Crimean Peninsula, and Ukraine, taxa of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi are mentioned as well.

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The new Psychotria species belongs to the panamensis-mexiae complex with its large long deciduous ferrugineous terminal stipules, but differs from them by having shorter inflorescence, 2–3 times larger flowers, smaller leaves and less numerous secondary nerves. It is of allopatric distribution being endemic to Jalisco state, while the area of P. mexiae Standl. extends from Veracruz to Costa Rica and the populations of P. panamensis Standl. are found from Veracruz to Colombia.

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The collection of epiphyllous bryophytes in the lowland rainforests of Phang-Nga province and in the neighbouring Phuket and Surat Thani provinces resulted in 54 liverwort and one moss species, of which 14 are new records for the bryoflora of Thailand. Epiphyllous bryophyte assemblages from nine localities are evaluated for species richness and beta diversity, as well as for their phytogeographical status.

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Xeromorphism and halomorphism were investigated in five species of Chenopodiaceae grown under natural growth conditions in the saline soil in Mirzachul (Uzbekistan, Province Sirdarya) and Kyzylkum (Uzbekistan, Province Buhora, Navoiy, Karakalpakstan, Province Miskin). The structure of leaf epidermis and mesophyll was analysed. The adaptation mechanism of succulent species with Kranz anatomy to xero- and halofactors was identified. In leaves two types of mesophyll cells were found: on the basis there is a Kranzventro- dorsal structure. In the middle part and the tip, however, the structure is close to Kranz-centric (Salsoloid type), but differs from species of the genus Salsola by not having dense chlorenchyma at the adaxial side and between peripheral conductive bundles and a Kranz-facing it is located 1–3 numbers small water-bearing cells. At species of genus Salsola conductive bundles adjoin to Kranz-facing cells. We consider this structure as specific of Climacoptera and term it, therefore, Climacoptera type. High analogy coefficients of the same section species under different growing conditions were found using cluster analysis.

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Govind Wild Life Sanctuary in the Western Himalayas with its diverse vegetation types provides excellent habitats and microclimates for a lush growth of bryophytes. During investigations on the bryophytes of this region Plagiothecium euryphyllum (Cardot et Thér.) Z. Iwats. and P. cavifolium (Brid.) Z. Iwats. have been identified for the first time from India. P. euryphyllum is characterised by bright green to yellowish green plants, irregularly branched, complanate. Central strand developed. Leaves erectopatent, imbricate, ovate oblong, margin entire, acute to acuminate at apex, costa two forked, decurrent with hyaline, rectangular cells. Seta reddish, capsule erect to inclined, while plants of P. cavifolium are yellowish green, glossy, prostrate, irregularly branched, branches julaceous. Leaves appressed to stem, closely imbricate, erectopatent, ovate lanceolate, symmetrical, margin minutely dentate at apex, cells at alar region rectangular costa two short. Seta reddish brown, capsule erect, pyriform. A morpho-taxonomic account of above two taxa is provided.

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A new isoepitype of Chrysanthemum zawadzkii is reported from the higher plant collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest (BP).

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A new species of Chomelia is described; at this time it has been collected only at the type locality. It is similar to the Mexican–Mesoamerican species Chomelia longituba (Borhidi) Borhidi, but can be easily distinguished by the position of the inflorescence, by the form of the stigma lobes and the size of the fruit.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Juhász
,
P. Merész
,
I. Dalmadi
,
N. Adányi
,
A. Halász
,
A. Lugasi
,
I. Magyar
, and
R. Tömösközi-Farkas
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Caffeine content of 377 food samples obtained from the Hungarian market was measured by a validated HPLC technique. The highest caffeine levels were observed in different instant coffees (3954±2355 mg/100 g) and ground coffee beans (1634±389 mg/100 g). Significant amount of caffeine could be detected in energy drinks (119 mg in 100 ml at the highest end). The caffeine content of different coffee drinks varied between 40 and 203 mg/100 ml. Significant amount of caffeine could be measured in special instant coffees called 2in1 and 3in1 (120 mg per serving at the highest end), cacao powders (125 mg in 100 g), in chocolates (on average, 16.1 mg and 52.5 mg in 100 g milk and dark chocolate, respectively), breakfast cereals (between 5.7 and 15.8 mg per 100 g), and ice creams (1.7–24.8 mg in 100 g).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
O. Csernus
,
J. Beczner
,
F. Sebők
,
M. Tóth
, and
Cs. Dobolyi

The surface microbial contamination is of great interest in case of fruit because of the threat of postharvest spoilage. Apple is a valuable product from growing, commercial, as well as from nutritional points of view. Apple diseases during the growing season can be satisfactorily controlled by different plant protection technologies, but postharvest decay of apples caused by the so called storage moulds cannot be completely avoided. Cold storage — alone, or in combination with other methods — is the main technology used to successfully prolong the shelf life of apples. The origin of the moulds causing the decay of apples during storage is not well understood. In this work the surface mycobiota of apple fruit grown in Soroksár, in the orchard of the Corvinus University of Budapest was investigated.

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Laetiporus sulphureus (chicken of the woods) is a wood decaying mushroom with positive medicinal and biological effects. The aim of this study was to determine its chemical composition including the main organic components (protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents, different protein fractions, the free amino acid level, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides, phenolics), the in vitro digestibility, the free radical scavenging activity, and twenty mineral elements.Our data demonstrate the characteristic in general valuable chemical composition of the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Protein content in fruiting bodies is not too high (10.6% d.m.), but the biological value (in vitro digestibility, rate of protein fractions, free amino acid content, etc.) is good (including fat and energy levels). Occurrence of “bioactive” components (phenolics, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides) and the measured free radical scavenging activity are similar to these parameters in Pleurotus (oyster) species. Potassium and phosphorus contents are remarkable (28 940 mg kg−1 d.m. and 4890 mg kg−1 d.m., respectively); levels of some poisonous microelements (As, Cd, Cr) are very low or undetectable. Chicken of the woods (Laetiporus sulphureus) is not only a suitable species for human consumption, but can be a new cultivable mushroom of valuable bioactive substances.

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Six coloured and six non-coloured waxy rice varieties were analyzed by determining amylose, fat, and protein content, pasting, and thermal properties. Significant differences in protein content as well as pasting properties between coloured and non-coloured waxy rice were identified. It was demonstrated that protein may have a main influence on pasting and thermal properties of waxy rice. In addition, the optimal linear relationship between protein and pasting or thermal properties was found by combining RVA and DSC data using Principal component analysis (PCA). Typical indicators, which can classify coloured and non-coloured waxy rice, could be identified by Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). In pasting properties, trough and consistency viscosity were typical indicators; in thermal properties, enthalpy and stop temperature were typical indicators.

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In this study, pressed apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) juice was concentrated using complex membrane technology with different module combinations: UF-RO-OD, UF-RO-MD, UF-NF-OD and UF-NF-MD. In case of the best combination a cross-flow polyethylene ultrafiltration membrane (UF) was applied for clarification, after which preconcentration was done using reverse osmosis (RO) with a polyamide membrane, and the final concentration was completed by osmotic distillation (OD) using a polypropylene module. The UF-RO-OD procedure resulted in a final concentrate with a 65-70 °Brix dry solid content and an excellent quality juice with high polyphenol content and high antioxidant capacity.Nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) were not proper economic solutions.The influence of certain operation parameters was examined experimentally. Temperatures of UF and RO were: 25, 30, and 35 °C, and of OD 25 °C. Recycle flow rates were: UF: 1, 1.5, and 2 m3 h−1; RO: 200, 400, and 600 l h−1; OD: 20, 30 and 40 l h−1. The flow rates in the module were expressed by the Reynolds number, as well. Based on preliminary experiments, the transmembrane pressures of UF and RO filtration were 4 bar and 50 bar, respectively. Each experimental run was performed three times. The following optimal operation parameters provided the lowest total cost: UF: 35 °C, 2 m3 h−1, 4 bar; RO: 35 °C, 600 l h−1, 50 bar; OD: 20, 30 and 40 l h−1; temperature 25 °C.In addition, experiments were performed for apricot juice concentration by evaporation, which technique is widely applied in the industry using vacuum and low temperature.For description the UF filtration, a dynamic model and regression by SPSS 14.0 statistics software were applied.

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Shelf-life of plant oils is determined by oxidative stability. The consumers use their own criterion to assess oil’s quality. The occurrence of perceptible changes in oxidized food provides information that the product is no longer safe and should not be accepted. The present study was aimed to determine the shelf-life of rapeseed and sunflower oils in terms of consumer acceptance. The results of sensory consumer acceptability tests followed by survival analysis were integrated with conventional chemical marker of oils’ quality and shelf-life (peroxide value).The important finding is that consumers sometimes do not recognize the advanced oxidative processes in food. This may increase the safety risk because of the harmful effect of oxidative processes on human health. Consumers differentiated quality of oils with similar state of oxidation: the rapeseed oil with peroxide value on the level 5 meq O2 kg−1 was rejected by three quarters of consumers, sunflower — by only 3%. It proves that the consumer perception of oxidative changes is specific to the product and does not coincide with the accepted chemical criterion of shelf-life.

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and type of muscle on the mineral content of beef. Altogether 62 young bulls from Angus, Charolais, Holstein, Hungarian Simmental, Hungarian Grey, and Charolais×Hungarian Grey were used. The calcium content varied between 26–46 mg kg−1, in longissimus muscle of Hungarian Simmental it was significantly higher than for other genotypes except for Angus. Psoas major of Holstein had the highest phosphorus content, it significantly differed from the longissimus of Angus. Longissimus muscle of Angus was the poorest for magnesium, and the richest was the psoas major of Holstein and Hungarian Grey. Charolais had higher level of potassium in psoas major than Angus and Charolais×Hungarian Grey. Sodium content of semitendinosus in Charolais×Hungarian Grey was lower than in Holstein. Present data showed that levels were detected in the longissimus of Angus and semitendinosus of Holstein. Concerning zinc, a higher level was found in longissimus, especially for Holstein. The results confirmed that beef mineral content depends on genotype, and is related to muscle type, too.

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Whole cereal flours (buckwheat, barley, and oat) and wheat bran were used to substitute 20% of white bakery wheat flour to prepare round rolls. Round roll quality was evaluated by determining total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, antioxidative capacity, the content of lipid hydroperoxides (primary oxidation products), and sensory profiling. Moreover, the stability of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant behaviour throughout processing was studied. Technological processing does not cause any significant loss of phenolics (less than 5%). A significant increase in antioxidants and phenolics of the flour mixtures and final products were observed compared to those of white wheat round rolls (as control). Buckwheat and barley round roll crumbs contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and were the most effective in enhancing antioxidant activity, which increased 15-fold and 8-fold, respectively, when compared to the control roll. The tested cereals effectively retarded formation of lipid hydroperoxides (from over 50% to control), which are undesirable from both a nutrition and storage/shelf life perspective. The results of sensory analyses showed that such bakery products are accepted by consumers with the exception of the product made with oat flour, where a reduction in the oat content would be preferable.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Kadivec
,
M. Kopjar
,
D. Žnidarčič
, and
T. Požrl

In this study ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds contents of eggplant flesh and eggplant peel were determined. Among the investigated eggplant cultivars generally eggplant peel had higher ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds contents than eggplant flesh. Ascorbic acid content in eggplant flesh ranged from 33.62 to 92.75 mg kg−1 and in eggplant peel from 12.45 to 111.01 mg kg−1. Phenolic compounds content ranged from 11.77 to 22.18 g kg−1 in eggplant flesh and from 13.46 to 29.42 g kg−1 in eggplant peel. Eggplant peel is usually treated as waste, i.e. byproduct, omitting its potentially beneficial characteristics. Due to higher ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds contents, further investigations should be directed on possible use of eggplant peel as natural ingredient for functional products formulation.

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Even if plants can contain high levels of nitrate and nitrite, milk and dairy products are not described as sources of these anions. The purpose of this paper was to measure the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in forage, cow blood, and milk.The results show that the nitrate ratio of milk to plasma is very low, suggesting that milk contamination with nitrate is unlikely to occur. This finding also proves the lack of an active transport mechanism to transfer nitrate from blood to milk. The nitrite anion almost disappears from milk through an enzymatic conversion; usually levels of μg l−1 were measured.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
G. Gulyás
,
L. Czeglédi
,
B. Béri
,
S. Harangi
,
E. Csősz
,
Z. Szabó
,
T. Janáky
, and
A. Jávor

The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the proteome patterns of musculus longissimus dorsi between Charolais bulls slaughtered at 500 kg and 700 kg live weight using two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Three hundred fifty protein spots were visualised on gels of which 10 showed different expression levels (P<0.05) between groups. After mass spectrometric analysis of spots, beta-enolase (ENO3) in five different spots, alpha-enolase (ENO1), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1) in two different spots, alpha-actin (ACTA1), and heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) were identified. ENO3, ENO1, TPI1, and ACTA1 had higher expression levels in bulls of 700 kg live weight group. ENO3, ENO1, and TPI1 are involved in energy metabolism, while ACTA1 is a structure protein in skeletal muscle. Up-regulation of heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), which protein is reported to have correlation with tenderness, was observed in 500 kg weight group. Our result demonstrates that proteomic tools are useful in identifying markers associated with muscle development.

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Eight descriptive sensory textural attributes of whole date fruit were evaluated by twenty trained panel members and correlated with sixteen physicochemical properties. All sensory parameters, except gumminess, significantly correlated (Ps<0.05) with pectin, crude fibre, and moisture content. In addition, sensory hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, and resilience correlated significantly with length of whole fruit (P<0.05), sensory adhesiveness with glucose content (P<0.05), sensory chewiness with mass of whole fruit (P<0.05), and sensory gumminess with fructose, glucose, and total sugar content (P<0.10). Sweetness, however, correlated only with moisture content (P<0.05). CA and the biplot (i.e. including all products, their sensory texture and physicochemical attributes) generated through PCA recognized three groups of dates as hard-chewy, soft-(medium-chewy), and soft-(non-adhesive).

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The purpose of the study was to assess the sodium and potassium intake among Hungarian children and adolescents. The study was undertaken to estimate daily sodium and potassium intake by measuring 24-h urinary electrolyte excretion rate in 200 Hungarian children (age 1–18 years). Daily sodium and potassium intake positively correlated with age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. As a result of the parallel trend and time course of urinary sodium and potassium excretion the sodium to potassium ratio, the important risk factor for essential hypertension remained practically unchanged with age. We did not find a significant difference in this ratio between hypertensive and normotensive, or obese and non-obese children. Sodium and potassium intake expressed per kilogram body weight decreased steadily with age, but there was no significant difference between boys and girls. When adjustment was made for age and body mass index, using multivariate regression analysis, the systolic blood pressure proved to be independent of urinary sodium excretion and daily potassium intake. Compared with Dietary Reference Intake values, the present study demonstrates that, on average, Hungarian children and adolescents have a diet rich in sodium, and poor in potassium, although during the last 20 years a favourable trend can be detected.

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Basil has traditionally been used for a long time in medicine and gastronomy. Essential oil is the most important active substance of the drug, which influences the aroma and the effect of the plant. Although the compositions of essential oils vary in different basil cultivars, the main components are oxygenated monoterpenes and phenylpropane derivates. The high chemical variation is most likely caused by interspecific hybridization. Various factors, like genetic background, ontogenesis, morphogenesis, abiotic factors, essential oil extraction method, drying, and storage, are responsible for the variant essential oil composition.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
V. Szente
,
O. Szigeti
,
Zs. Polereczki
,
Á. Varga
, and
Z. Szakály

In Hungary, organic food market has both demand and supply oriented aspects: several times not necessary products are distributed, while the selection and volume of certain products are not satisfactory. Thus, our aim was to develop a coordinated benchmark strategy to increase the trade of organic products. To get more details on the Hungarian organic milk market, we conducted professional deep interviews and simultaneously applied the “mystery shopping” method. Nowadays, the market of organic milk and dairy products is slowly increasing in Hungary, however, there is no available statistical data. In the selection there are mostly Hungarian originated products, but some yoghurt, milk, and butter assortments are imported. Partial responsibility belongs to small sale shops’ habit of risk-avoidance. Without a proper selection of products, stores are unable to satisfy consumers’ needs; thus they focus on pushing certain products to increase demand. According to our results, ‘low price category’, ‘local/regional product’, and ‘prestige product’ strategies with attached in-store marketing elements are able to reverse the effects of an unfavourable marketing process.

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There is an ever-increasing trend in advanced food analysis and foodomics to use more and more sophisticated analytical platforms that generate large and complex data structures, which in turn require more and more sophisticated data analysis tools for converting data into information. The choice of multivariate chemometric methods is primarily determined by the design of the study, type of the data, and the conclusions sought. In order to validate multivariate models, scientists are required to have basic chemometric knowledge and to be familiar with the variance structure of the investigated data. This review outlines some of the key aspects of applying common chemometric methods used within foodomics and provides selected examples of current applications. The review aims to provide simple insight into various multivariate methods and to illustrate pros and cons of unsupervised and supervised methods. The main analytical platforms used in foodomics are briefly discussed from the application point of view and the utilization of the generated data is illustrated. In addition, advanced data pre-processing tools, prior to multivariate analysis, are explained and relevant tools are demonstrated.

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Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely used to determine gluten contamination in gluten-free and low gluten food samples. ELISA assays developed using monoclonal antibodies against known toxic peptides have an advantage in the identification of toxic prolamin content in protein extracts of different food samples, as well as raw materials. R5 and G12 monoclonal antibodies specific for two known toxic peptides used in commercially available gluten ELISA assays were applied to test toxic peptide contents in wheat relatives and wild wheat species with different genome composition and complexity. Although the R5 peptide content showed some correlation with ploidy levels in Triticum species, there was a high variance among Aegilops species. Some of the analysed diploid Aegilops species showed extremely high R5 peptide contents. Based on the bioinformatics analyses, the R5 peptide was present in most of the sulphur rich prolamins in all the analysed species, whereas the G12 epitope was exclusively present in alpha gliadins. High variation was detected in the position and frequency of epitopes in sequences originating from the same species, thus highlighting the importance of genotypic variation within species. Identification of new prolamin alleles of wheat relatives and wild wheat species is of great importance in order to find germplasm for special end-use quality purposes as well as development of food with reduced toxicity.

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With microbiome research being a fiercely contested playground in science, new data are being published at tremendous pace. The review at hand serves to critically revise four microbial metabolites widely applied in research: butyric acid, flagellin, lipoteichoic acid, and propionic acid. All four metabolites are physiologically present in healthy humans. Nevertheless, all four are likewise involved in pathologies ranging from cancer to mental retardation. Their inflammatory potential is equally friend and foe. The authors systematically analyze positive and negative attributes of the aforementioned substances, indicating chances and dangers with the use of pre- and probiotic therapeutics. Furthermore, the widespread actions of microbial metabolites on distinct organs and diseases are reconciled. Moreover, the review serves as critical discourse on scientific methods commonly employed in microbiome research and comparability as well as reproducibility issues arising thereof.

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We assessed IgA antibodies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of pertussis in nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) samples from outpatients in Australia.A total of 1700 patients (849 adults, 851 children) from Western Australia and the Northern Territory fulfilled the laboratory case definition for pertussis between 2004 and 2013: 732 specimens were positive by NPA IgA alone, 559 by PCR alone, and 409 by both tests. Overall, 968 cases (56.8%) were positive by PCR and 1141 cases (67.2%) by IgA [p < 0.00025]. Among pediatric patients, PCR was positive in 524 (61.3%) and IgA in 569 (67%). In 849 adult cases, the respective proportions were 52.3% and 67.4% [p < 0.00025].The duration of cough in 507 patients was shorter in 262 pediatric cases (mean, 2.51 weeks; standard deviation [SD], 2.25) than 245 adult patients (3.27 weeks; SD, 2.79) [p = 0.0009]. PCR positivity showed a season-dependent variance (range, 5.6 to 85.9%) and peaked in the second week (71.7%) of illness. IgA antibodies peaked in the fifth week (89.5%) postinfection, and the positivity rate for NPA IgA was less variable (range, 38.3–97.2%).Nasopharyngeal Bordetella pertussis-specific IgA antibodies are valuable in diagnosis of pertussis in Australia. Reliance on PCR alone misses a significant proportion of pertussis cases, especially those with a delayed presentation.

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Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) shows morphological plasticity influenced by environmental factors such as radiation and temperature. The effect of row orientation, exposition of leaves and orchard altitude on leaf morphological traits was evaluated. Grapevine cultivar ‘Furmint’ was investigated in this study with the new version of the GRA.LE.D. raster graphic software. The standard OIV (International Organization of Vine and Wine) descriptors were used with additional size parameters. High morphological variability was observed among the leaves collected from 4 different row orientations and 5 levels of expositions. Exposition levels were assigned according to the estimated total radiation collected by leaves at their position. Selected parameters also responded sensitively to changing elevation in the range of 110–289 m. According to the results, traditional leaf morphological investigations performed with machine vision systems may be recommended to reveal significant ecological factors on ampelometric traits.

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Concerns about climate change and fossil fuel shortages are encouraging interest in stumps, as alternative energy sources. Stumps are an almost unused resource in the context of bio fuels. Stump harvesting signifies an intensification of forest management compared with conventional stem-only or above-ground biomass-only harvesting. There are many benefits of stump harvesting. These include: the production of wood fuel, fossil fuel substitution, and improved soil preparation.Removing tree trunks in Hungary has been going on according to the principle of stump extraction, which means stumps are removed by grabbing technology. Experiments have been carried out to reduce the extraction force. In the Great Hungarian Lowland, where large areas require the operation implementation, stump extraction is done by special, hydraulic driven baggers equipped with a special bucket. During operation of the equipment, we carried out measurements of the extraction force and the time requirement. The experiments are designed to carry out the measurements with different soils and different tree species. According to our proposal the suitable force and torque required to remove stumps can be significantly reduced if before the lifting the soil — root connection is loosened. One of the possible ways to implement this task is the use of vibration. Since relatively great vibration power and wide domain of frequency are necessary, therefore we prepared the loosening machinery elements of alternating-current hydraulics system. Based on constructions variants we created a tractor-mounted experimental alternating-current hydraulic stump-loosening machine. It was designed with the ability to produce horizontal vibration in order to loosen stumps.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel
,
Sandy Pacheco-Vega
,
Jesús Hernández-Tinoco
,
Diana Saldaña-Simental
,
Luis Sánchez-Anguiano
,
Misael Salcedo-Jáquez
,
Agar Ramos-Nevárez
,
Oliver Liesenfeld
,
José Márquez-Conde
,
Sandra Cerrillo-Soto
,
Lucio Martínez-Ramírez
, and
Carlos Guido-Arreola

The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined.Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01).No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii.

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The possible effect of shaker harvest on root damage of 10-year-old cherry trees was studied on a simple tree structure model. The model was composed of elastic trunk and rigid main roots, the ends of which were connected to the surrounding soil via springs and dumping elements. Equations were set up to be able to calculate the relation between shaking height on the trunk and strain in the roots. To get the data for root break and their elongation at different shaking heights on the trunk, laboratory and field experiments were carried out on cherry trees and on their roots. Having evaluated the measured and calculated data it could be concluded that root damage is to be expected even at 3.6% strain and the risk of it increases with increased trunk amplitudes, i.e.

  1. with the decrease of shaking height
  2. at smaller stem diameters (i.e. in younger plantation), and
  3. if the unbalanced mass of the shaker machine is too large for the given tree size.

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Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Sai Duraisingham
,
Steven Hanson
,
Matthew Buckland
,
Sofia Grigoriadou
, and
Hilary Longhurst

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is commonly isolated from the respiratory secretions of antibody deficiency patients, but the significance of this has not been well studied. We have reviewed our adult antibody deficiency cohort of 179 patients and assessed the prevalence and characteristics of PA infection and the effects of early antibiotic eradication treatments. Of the 34 patients with PA, 55.9% (19) underwent successful eradication and were infection-free, 38.2% (13) had intermittent infection, and 5.9% (2) had chronic PA. PA infection was significantly associated with bronchiectasis (p < 0.0001), with 36.1% (22 out of 61) of patients with bronchiectasis developing a PA infection. Infection status was also significantly associated with chronic sinusitis (p < 0.0001). Most treated PA exacerbations were symptomatic and with colony counts of ≥1000 cfu/ml. Current eradication protocols used at our center involve early treatment at first positive isolate with ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks and nebulized colomycin for 3 months, and if eradication fails, intravenous ceftazidime and gentamycin or colomycin is administered for 2 weeks. Continued sputum surveillance and early eradication treatments upon positive PA culture may help to limit chronic PA infection in antibody deficiency patients.

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In this study, the influences of various pre-treatments and combined drying (CD) on the drying kinetics and quality parameters of sour cherry were investigated. Prior to freeze drying (FD), sour cherry was pre-treated by blanching in boiling water (100 °C, 3 and 6 min), immersion in sugar solution (20% w/w, 10 and 20 min) and blanching (100 °C) in sugar solution (20% w/w, 3 and 6 min). Freeze-drying of raw samples was taken as a control. Combined drying (CD) can be accomplished in two distinct ways: freeze drying assisted with hot-air drying application (FD-HAD) and hot-air drying followed by freeze drying (HAD-FD). The quality of the dried sour cherry was evaluated in terms of water activity, color, texture and rehydration. Our research results have shown that all of the pre-treatments can effectively reduce the freeze drying time, the best treatment methods are FD-HAD, HAD-FD and blanching in boiling water (6 min). CD involves much less drying time and energy consumption than conventional freeze drying methods. The highest values of hardness and rehydration were found in blanching in sugar solution with water at 100 °C for 6 min. The better color retention was observed for samples pre-treated with blanching in boiling water (6 min).

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The resistance of commensal bacteria to first and second line antibiotics has reached an alarming level in many parts of the world and endangers the effective treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, the influence of the plant-derived natural saponins glycyrrhizic acid, β-aescin, α-hederin, hederacoside C, and primulic acid 1 on the susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) against antibiotics of clinical relevance was investigated in 20 clinical isolates. Furthermore, the antibacterial properties of saponins under study against VRE were determined in vitro. Results reveal that the susceptibility of VRE against gentamicin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin was enhanced in the presence of the saponin glycyrrhizic acid. Most importantly, glycyrrhizic acid (1 mg/ml) diminished the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin in gentamicin low-level intrinsic resistant VRE from 2 − >8 mg/l to ≤ 0.125−1 mg/l. The adding of β-aescin, α-hederin, hederacoside C, and primulic acid 1 to the antibiotics under study showed, compared to glycyrrhizic acid, less influence on the antibiotic potency. Only glycyrrhizic acid (1 mg/ml) and α-hederin (0.2 mg/ml) showed weak antibacterial properties against the clinical isolates. Our study points towards a therapeutic potential of saponins in the coapplication with antibiotics for bacterial infections.

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Increased levels of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (also referred to gelatinase-A and -B, respectively) can be detected in intestinal inflammation. We have recently shown that selective gelatinase blockage by the synthetic compound RO28-2653 ameliorates acute murine ileitis and colitis. We here investigated whether RO28-2653 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in acute Campylobacter jejuni-induced enterocolitis of gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice generated following antibiotic treatment. Mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni (day 0) and either treated with RO28-2653 (75 mg/kg body weight/day) or placebo from day 1 until day 6 post infection (p.i.) by gavage. Irrespective of the treatment, infected mice displayed comparable pathogen loads within the gastrointestinal tract. Following RO28-2653 administration, however, infected mice exhibited less severe symptoms such as bloody diarrhea as compared to placebo controls. Furthermore, less distinct apoptosis but higher numbers of proliferating cells could be detected in the colon of RO28-2653-treated as compared to placebo-treated mice at day 7 p.i. Remarkably, gelatinase blockage resulted in lower numbers of T- and B-lymphocytes as well as macrophages and monocytes in the colonic mucosa of C. jejuni-infected gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice. Taken together, synthetic gelatinase inhibition exerts anti-inflammatory effects in experimental campylobacteriosis.

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High concentrations of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide (O2 •−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contribute to the induction of plant cell and tissue death (necrosis). In an effort to create transgenic plants with high antioxidant capacity that could resist necrotic symptoms we produced two transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1) lines (S1 and S2) overexpressing a tomato chloroplast superoxide dismutase (SlChSOD). SOD genes encode for antioxidant enzymes that dismutate superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, SOD-overproducing plants may contain high levels of hydrogen peroxide and are sensitive to stress-related necrosis unless sufficient degradation of hydrogen peroxide is conferred by elevated expression of antioxidants like e.g. catalases and peroxidases. Indeed, line S1 displayed elevated expression of a glutathione peroxidase (NtGPX) and a glutathione S-transferase (NtGSTU1b), as compared to wild type plants. Interestingly, however, expression of a catalase (NtCAT1) was repressed in both SOD-overexpressing lines. This predicts that such plants could be sensitive to localized necrosis (HR) caused by virus infection, since repression of NtCAT1 has been shown to occur during virus-induced HR (e.g. Dorey et al., 1998; Künstler et al., 2007). To elucidate whether other catalases might play a role in resistance to virus induced HR-type necrotic symptoms, a maize catalase (ZmCat2) was transiently overexpressed in Nicotiana edwardsonii and N. edwardsonii var. Columbia plants by agroinfiltration. Inoculation of agroinfiltrated plants with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) revealed that ZmCat2 confers enhanced resistance to HR-type necrosis during TMV infection. It seems that catalases may play different roles in influencing resistance to virus-induced hypersensitive necrosis.

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Studies on Alzheimer’s disease have been highlighted due to increasing prevalence of this disease. Oldest hypothesis about the pathophysiology strengthens the research of cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment. Amaryllidaceae plants are well known for alkaloids showing cholinesterase inhibiting activity. Among them, Sternbergia species gained attention as a source of metabolites of these alkaloid contents. Studies have focused mainly on the bulbs of these plants. In this study the potential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of endemic Sternbergia candida Mathew & T. Baytop (Sc) species was evaluated in both bulbs and leaves in comparison with lycorine. We report for the first time that methanol and chloroform leaf extracts of the plant show AChE inhibitory (AChEI) activity. Among the leaf extracts methanolic extract was much more potent than chloroform extract by means of AChE inhibition. Although IC50 values for methanolic extract was found to be lower than reference drug lycorine; this value of inhibition did not reach to a statistically significant level. Future studies aiming at investigation of the AChE inhibitory activity could be considered using leaves of the plant.

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Seven species of the family Tetranychidae and five species of the family Tenuipalpidae are listed from Hungary. Several new occurrences from all areas of Hungary are given with notes to the host plants. New drawings and scanning micrographs of the seven species are represented and the new and already known occurrences of the rarely collected species are illustrated on maps.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Xiang-Rong Xu
,
Fu-Qing Tan
,
Jun-Quan Zhu
,
Ting Ye
,
Chun-Lin Wang
,
Yi-Feng Zhu
,
Hans-Uwe Dahms
,
Fan Jin
, and
Wan-Xi Yang

We used single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) to detect the integrity of sperm DNA of the teleost large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, cryopreserved with Cortland solution and a range of 5% to 30% DMSO concentrations in order to test how sperm cryopreservation affected the DNA stability of nuclei. Electrophoresis was conducted for 60 min at 130 mA and 15 V. The comet images were analyzed with software CometScore 1.5, and parameters such as comet length, tail length and percentage DNA in the tail were obtained. Then the comet rate and damage coefficient were calculated. Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences in motility, comet rate and damage coefficient between fresh sperm and cryopreserved sperm stored in 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% DMSO, while the sperm cryopreserved with 25% and 30% DMSO had a lower motility, higher comet length and damage coefficients than those of fresh sperm. There was a positive correlation between comet rate of cryopreserved sperm and the concentration of DMSO. Our results demonstrate that toxicity of the cryoprotectant is the main cause of DNA damage in cryopreserved sperm nuclei.

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The fitness cost associated with virulence was analyzed in a local Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) population. Pathogenic and molecular analyses were carried out on seven pathogen isolates including five progeny isolates of five P. halstedii races arising from two parental ones. P. halstedii isolates showed significant differences for all aggressiveness criteria and important genetic variations. Two cases of relationship (positive and negative) between virulence and aggressiveness for progeny isolates as compared with parental ones were found. Mean virulence cost values varied between 19.9% for positive relationship between the two components of pathogenicity and 50.8% for negative one. For solving the presence of two cases in pathogenicity, the relationship between virulence and aggressiveness among the isolates of three different races localized in the same genetic clade was positive. The hypothesis explaining these cases are discussed.

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Neocortical pyramidal neurons are capable of intrinsic regenerative firing. A mathematical model introduced by Delord et al. [2] of these neurons based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism, varied the values of two parameters of the model, i.e. the maximal persistent sodium conductance (g NaP) and the leakage one (g l ), and revealed the (g NaP, g l ) parameter space supporting regenerative firing. The present study focused on another parameter of this model, i.e. the maximal fast sodium conductance (g Na), to investigate the (g NaP, g Na) parameter space involved in regenerative firing. When g Na was completely blocked, regenerative firing was suppressed. In addition, the g Na threshold necessary to induce regenerative firing was almost independent of the g NaP level. Finally, our results were compared with those of other types of neurons.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Eszter László
,
P. Kiss
,
Gabriella Horváth
,
P. Szakály
,
Andrea Tamás
, and
Dóra Reglődi

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP ) is a multifunctional neuropeptide occurring in the nervous system as well as in the peripheral organs. Beneficial action of PACAP has been shown in different pathological processes. The strong protective effects of the peptide are probably due to its complex modulatory actions in antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. In the kidney, PACAP is protective in models of diabetic nephropathy, myeloma kidney injury, cisplatin-, gentamycin- and cyclosporin-induced damages. Numerous studies have been published describing the protective effect of this peptide in renal ischemia/reperfusion. The present review focuses on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury and gives a brief summary about the results published in this area.

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In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat.

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Recently, there has been considerable interest in genetic differentiation in the Cervidae family. A common tool used to determine genetic variation in different species, breeds and populations is DNA analysis, which allows for direct determination of the differences and changes within a group of animals. Because the analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in different Cervidae populations revealed considerable genetic variability in individual populations, it was important to test a set of markers in animals from these populations.The study was performed with muscle tissue and blood samples collected from a total of 793 red deer. Six groups (subpopulations) of red deer were defined according to region: Masurian (330 animals), Bieszczady (194 animals), Małopolska (80 animals), Sudety (76 animals), Lower Silesian (62 animals) and Lubusz (51 animals). The analysis involved 12 STR markers (BM1818, OarAE129, OarFCB5, OarFCB304, RM188, RT 1, RT 13, T26, T156, T193, T501, TGLA53), for which conditions for simultaneous amplification were established.Based on this study, it is concluded that the chosen set of 12 microsatellite markers could be used to evaluate the genetic structure and to monitor changes in Poland’s red deer population.

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