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Biology is a study of living objects and their life processes. It examines all aspects of living organisms such as their occurrence, classification, internal and external structure, nutrition, reproduction, inheritance, etc. The term “biology” is commonly replaced by the terms “life sciences” and “biological sciences.” There are dozens of branches of biology. Some of the major ones include:

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Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on glucose tolerance, triglyceride levels, and adipose tissue in rats with MS induced by high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Fifty rats were allocated in 5 groups: control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. In the course of 10 weeks, the control group was on a regular rat diet while the other groups received HFHF diet. During the experiment, control and MS groups were treated daily orally with distilled water (10.0 mL kg−1) and the other three groups – with AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. In MS rats, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, visceral obesity, and increased adipocyte size were observed. In AMFJ-treated groups, the serum glucose and triglycerides, as well as visceral fat and adipocyte size decreased significantly and did not differ from those of the control group. AMFJ at doses 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg−1 showed an anti-apoptotic activity in adipocytes, while at the dose of 10 mL kg−1 a pro-apoptotic effect was detected. In conclusion, AMFJ could antagonise most of the negative consequences of HFHF diet on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat MS model.

Open access

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common chronic liver diseases with unclarified pathomechanism and without evidence-proven therapy. Dietary polyphenols, targeting oxidative stress, are at the center of investigations. Our aim was to examine the effects of a polyphenol rich extract on metal element homeostasis and transmethylation ability in non-alcoholic fatty liver model. A ten-day rat model was used (control group, hyperlipidemic group with fat-rich diet, hyperlipidemic group with fat-rich diet and polyphenol supplementation, N = 8 in each group). The hyperlipidemic diet increased the concentration of the majority of the elements with significantly higher contents of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Si, and Zn in the liver. Further elevation of Al, Pb, and Sn concentrations could be observed in polyphenol supplemented animals. The polyphenol supplement unexpectedly decreased the transmethylation ability of the liver (132.00 vs. 114.15 vs. 92.25 HCHO μg g−1) further. The results emphasize the possible role of altered metal and non-metal element concentrations and decreased transmethylation ability in the pathomechanism of fatty liver disease. Dietary supplementation with natural compounds may have undesirable effect as well, there is the necessity to improve the efficacy of polyphenol formulations because of their low oral bioavailability.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: K.O. Bartha, L. Csengeri, A. Lichthammer, A. Erdélyi, J. Kubányi, and Zs. Szűcs

Abstract

COVID-19 lockdown affects people's daily routine and has an impact on their lifestyle. Recent studies documented associations between body weight changes and children's lifestyle during social isolation. Childhood obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the effects of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on children's sleep, screen time, physical activity, and eating habits. 387 parents of five elementary school students between 16 and 26 June 2020 were interviewed through an online questionnaire. Physical activity level decreased (63.8%), sleep (60.9%) and screen (5.64 ± 3.05 h/day) times and food intake (39.8%) increased. 80.6% of parents reported changes in children's diet: increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (32.4%), breakfast (15.5%), water and sugar-free beverages (17.6%), snacks (40.4%), sugary drinks (9.9%) was observed. Body weight increased in 44.4% of children. The results of the survey conducted under GYERE®-Children's Health Program are in line with the international literature findings: body weight change during the quarantine is significantly associated with food intake, snacking, sugary drinks, and we also found association with fruit and vegetable consumption and lack of breakfast. Effective strategies and electronic health interventions are needed to prevent sedentary lifestyle and obesity during lockdown.

Open access

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the effects of green tea on lipid profile, liver tissue damage, and oxidative stress in rats fed a diet including high fructose. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (C), Fructose (F), Green Tea (GT), and F+GT. F and F+GT groups were given 20% fructose in the drinking water for eight weeks. Green tea (2 mg kg−1) was administrated to GT and F+GT groups by oral gavage for eight weeks. Biochemical parameters in serum and oxidative stress markers in the liver were analysed. The liver sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin. As of the 3rd week of the experiment, the body weight of rats in the F group showed a statistically significant increase in comparison with the F+GT group. The serum glucose and triglyceride levels of the F+GT group significantly decreased when compared with the F group. The fructose-induced degenerative changes in the liver were reduced with green tea. Green tea may serve a protective role against hyperlipidaemia and liver injury in rats fed a high fructose diet.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: B. Raposa, E. Antal, J. Macharia, M. Pintér, N. Rozmann, D. Pusztai, M. Sugár, and D. Bánáti

Abstract

Several misconceptions exist about foods and nutrition. Many believe, that the human body can “acidify”, thus, an “alkaline diet” should be followed. The acid-base balance is a characteristic of a normally functioning human body. Throughout our metabolic processes, acids and substances with acidic pH are produced continuously, which, in the case of a healthy person, does not affect the pH of the human body. In those rare cases, when an overall pH imbalance evolves in the human body due to its life-threatening nature, it requires urgent medical intervention. Furthermore, it cannot be influenced by dietary interventions.

This paper highlights evidence regarding acidification and the acid-base balance, with special attention to certain food groups. Foodstuffs have different specific pH value (acid-base character), they can be acidic, alkaline, or neutral in elemental state. Beside their chemical nature, the effect they have on the human body depends on the mechanism of their metabolism, as well. Diet and ingredients have direct and indirect effects on the human body's intracellular and extracellular compartments (especially blood and urine), still they do not influence its pH significantly.

Alkaline diets were born in the absence of evidence-based information and/or the misunderstanding and wrong interpretation of the available and up-to-date scientific facts. The convictions of consumers and the promotion of the alkaline diet lack the scientific basis, so it can be harmful or even dangerous in the long run.

In summary, scientific evidence on the efficacy or prophylactic effects of an alkaline diet is not available.

Open access

Abstract

Naturally-occurring compounds are acknowledged for their broad antiviral efficacy. Little is however known about their mutual cooperation. Here, we evaluated in vitro efficacy of the defined mixture of agents against the RdRp complex of the original SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron variant. This composition of vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, resveratrol, theaflavin, curcumin, quercetin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli extract showed to inhibit activity of RdRp/nsp7/nsp8 both these variants. In vitro exposure of recombinant RdRp complex to individual compounds of this composition pointed to quercetin as the driving inhibitory compound. The outcome of this study supports the motion of antiviral efficacy of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and Omicron and implies that their reciprocal or mutual interaction may augment antiviral action through simultaneous effect on different mechanisms. Consequently, this makes it more difficult for an infectious agent to evade all these mechanisms at the same time. Considering the urgency in finding effective prevention, but also side-effects free treatment of COVID-19 our results call for clinical affirmation of the benefits of this micronutrient combination in both preventive and therapeutic aspects. Whether observed effects can be achieved, by concentrations of the active agents used in these in vitro experiments, in in vivo or clinical setting warrants further study.

Open access

Abstract

To overcome the problems of seasonality and geographical location in fruit production and processing, the production of aseptic semi-finished juice is an excellent solution. Even without refrigeration, aseptic pressing has a shelf life of more than a year, making it possible to produce finished products all year round. The production technology involves the addition of ascorbic acid to the pulp to fix or preserve colour. There is an increasing customer demand for ascorbic acid substitutes on the international market. In Hungary, one of the most important exports is aseptic sour cherry juice. In our work, ascorbic acid used for colour fixation was replaced by acerola concentrate. The anthocyanin content and colour coordinate values (L*, a*, b*, H, C) of aseptically filled sour cherry juice were determined and compared with the control sample during the 12 months of storage.

Open access

As a means of assisting the selection of promising soil classification systems, a set of criteria were presented and tested. Inside the studied slightly saline plot World Reference Base (WRB) and Hungarian soil classification (HU) were compared at all four levels in terms of class separability, correlation to biomass, parsimony and homogeneity of classes. WRB surpassed HU in terms of the very important homogeneity of classes only, but HU performed better in terms of class separability, correlation to biomass and parsimony of classes. With many possible classification units WRB categorized the soil into a large number of classes, but 67% and 78% of them were single-profile classes at levels 3 and 4, respectively inside the ca 0.9 km2 area.

Open access

Szarvasmarhatartó telepen alkalmazott ivarzásindukáló hormonok megjelenése a hígtrágyában

Appearance of on-farm bovine reproductive hormones in the resulting slurry

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Eduárd Gubó, Tibor Molnár, Pál Szakál, Dóra Pordán-Háber, Ákos Bede-Fazekas, and Judit Plutzer

A review of the international literature also found that the amount and the presence in slurry of oestrus inducer hormone preparations used in intensive dairy cattle production has not been investigated. In our study, we followed the path of 5 different sex-inducing drugs (alfaglandin, PGF, dinolytic, gonavet, ovarelin) including three active pharmaceutical ingredients (D-Phe6-Gonadorelin, Kloprostenol and Dinoprost-tromethamine) used in a cattle farm in Pest County from their use until their appearance in the slurry from 2017 to 2020. The study included a review of drug consumption and a seasonal analysis of the hormonal effects of slurry produced on the farm in quarterly cycles each year. We also tested separately the hormonal effects of the hormone preparations used on the farm. For the estrogenic effect tests, the yeast test with the human estrogenic receptor was used according to ISO 19040. Statistical evaluation of the results (Pearson correlation and Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify relationships between the use of sex inducers, the reproductive biology of the colony and the estrogenic effect of the slurry. We found that the estrogenic effects of slurry and sludge are strongly correlated. All three pharmaceuticals tested showed a strong correlation with the estrogenic effect of slurry/sludge. Our investigations confirm that slurry among other reasons due to its hormone and drug content shall be considered as a material that needs to be disposed of by new treatment methods before application to the field, because of its environmental and health risks.

Open access

Abstract

Black plum sawfly (Hoplocampa minuta) is an important pest species of plum (Prunus domestica). In organic plum orchards, the yield loss caused by H. minuta larval damage can reach almost 100% occasionally. Adults feed on pollen and nectar of the plum flower; therefore, we hypothesize that, besides visual cues, also olfaction plays an important role in habitat and host finding. To understand the chemical communication mediated by flower volatiles to black sawflies, we investigated the chemical signals released from plum flowers, which can trigger the peripheral physiological responses of adult sawflies. First, using gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD), we selected 18 physiologically active compounds from the headspace volatile collection of plum flowers, which triggered the H. minuta male and female antennae. Subsequently, we determine the volatilome of plum flower and identified those compounds, which elicited physiological responses, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These antennally active components in flower volatiles could be candidates for potential kairomone, which could later be used for attracting males and females of H. minuta and could contribute to developing pesticide-free, effective monitoring and lure and kill strategy against this pest.

Open access

Abstract

Consumption of infected plant tissues by decomposing organisms is an important part of ecosystem services. We tested how the common woodlouse (Porcellionides pruinosus, Isopoda: Oniscidea) may contribute to the decomposition process in a laboratory experiment in which Mycosphaerella pyri-infected pear leaves with or without the aecia of Gymnosporangium sabinae were offered as food. We recorded the loss of healthy and infected leaf tissues. Isopod survival rate was also monitored. We found (1) a certain pattern of preference in the consumption of infected leaf material; and (2) that the presence of G. sabinae reduced leaf consumption but had no effect on the ingestion of Mycosphaerella-infected spots; and (3) the mortality of P. pruinosus was adversely influenced by G. sabinae, but the results were highly dependent on confinement conditions. Our results suggest that woodlice consume plant pathogenic fungi, and therefore offer the ecosystem service of neutralizing infective plant remnants during decomposition.

Open access

Cover crops serve as an essential source of nutrients in the soil and generally improve the soil’s properties. Cover crops’ production is considered a benefit of the soil quality; by protecting the soil from erosion, reducing the weeds and the so-called soil-borne plant pathogens. Different varieties of cover crops can be cultivated such as legumes, non-legumes, brassica, and grass-type of plants with a variability of the symbiosis. A pot experiment was carried out with five cover crops, as non-symbiont (Brassica carinata B.c.), single-symbiont with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) (Phacelia tanacetifolia P.t., Avena strigosa A.s.) and double symbiont with AMF and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Vicia benghalensis V.b., Vicia faba V.f.) crops; and a mixture of the five species, placed in sandy soil (arenosol) in plastic pots (5000 g soil) in 4 repetitions. One of the pots with mixed cover crops was inoculated by AM fungi industrial product. We measured soil biological activity of dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein-diacetate (FDA) enzymes, the frequency of AM fungi (F%), the all protein, glomalin content and electrical conductivity (EC) of the soils. Mixture of all the cover crops resulted maximum EC and significantly enhanced the enzymatic, DHA, FDA activities in comparison with single plants. Mycorrhiza colonization frequency was high in all cover crops except the mustard (B.c.), as nonsymbiont. Vetch (V.b.), as double symbiont was responding very positively to AMF inoculation, and enhanced the performance of its growth. It was found in the pot experiment, that vetch, has the highest capacity to retain soil-protein, glomalin concentration, as well. The mixture of five cover crops could be suggested to use, due to the synergistic positive performance of the individual crops, and the better functioning of beneficial fungal / bacterial symbiosis.

Open access
Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: László Simon, Marianna Makádi, Zsuzsanna Uri, Szabolcs Vigh, Katalin Irinyiné-Oláh, György Vincze, and Csilla Tóth

Open-field small plot long-term experiment was set up during 2011 with willow (Salix triandra × S. viminalis ‘Inger’), grown as a short rotation coppice energy crop in Nyíregyháza, Hungary. The sandy loam Cambisol with neutral pH was treated three times (2011, 2013, and 2016) with 15 t ha–1 municipal sewage sludge compost (MSSC) and with 600 kg ha–1 (2011, 2013) or 300 kg ha–1 (2016) wood ash (WA). In 2018 the MSSC-treated plots were amended with 7.5 t ha–1 municipal sewage sediment (MSS), and 300 kg ha–1 WA. MSSC and WA or MSS and WA were also applied to the soil in combinations during all treatments. Control plots remained untreated since 2011. Repeated application of wastewater solids (MSSC, MSS) and wood ash (WA) significantly enhanced the amounts of As (up to +287%), Ba, Cd (up to +192%), Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the topsoil of willows. The combined application of MSSC+MSS+WA resulted in significantly higher Mn and Zn and lower As Ba, Cd Cr, and Pb concentrations in topsoil than MSSC+MSS treatment of soil without WA. Nitrogen concentrations in leaves of treated plants were generally slightly lower or similar to control. All soil treatments significantly enhanced the uptake or accumulation of nutrient elements (Ca, K, Mg, P) and potentially toxic elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the leaves of willows during 2018, 2019, and 2020. Significantly higher Mn or Zn concentrations were measured in MSSC+MSS+WA than in MSSC+MSS treatments. Significant amounts of Cd (up to 1.11 mg kg–1) or Zn (up to 183 mg kg–1) can be translocated (phytoextracted) from a soil amended with wastewater solids or wood ash to willow leaves. In 2018 the treatments decreased the chlorophyll fluorescence values, while in 2019 and 2020 the light adapted fluorescence yield (Y) values were higher in treated than in control plants.

Open access

In this study PTEs, [potentially toxic elements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn)] were investigated in the upper layer of floodplain soils that occurred as a result of accident in the area of two mine tailings in Northwestern Romania. A large amount of sediment was deposited on the soil of floodplains along the Hungarian section of River Tisza, which could represent a threat to the environment. Floodplain soil samples were collected from four locations in Hungary from an area of the river stretching to about 250 km. BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence) sequential extraction method was used to analyze both post-flood and present samples. Most of the analyzed elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were found in the residual fraction, but there is a notable soluble amount in hydroxylammonium chloride extractable fraction. The results allow a comparison of the changes that have taken place over time, in addition to serving as a basis for further studies.

Open access

Abstract

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is widely known to have multiple physiological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the cultivation parameters for GABA production by a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain isolated from a tuna gut sample. Among 60 tuna gut LAB, only 7 Limosilactobacillus fermentum isolates, i.e. NG01, NG12, NG13, NG14, NG16, NG23, and NG27, were capable of GABA fermentation, with NG16 being the most potent GABA producer. The GABA production by isolate NG16 was therefore thoroughly characterised. The optimal batch culture conditions for GABA production were an initial cell density of 5×106 CFU mL−1, a monosodium glutamate concentration of 2%, an initial pH of 7, a fermentation temperature of 35 °C, and an incubation time of 96 h. Under this cultivation conditions, NG16 produced a maximum GABA yield of 25.52 ± 0.41 mM.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Á. Ribárszki, D. Székely, B. Szabó-Nótin, B. Góczán, L. Friedrich, Q.D. Nguyen, and M. Máté

Abstract

Quality and storability are crucial factors in production of apple juice. The main goal of this study was investigation of the effects of ascorbic acid and acerola juice on the changes of some sensorial parameters and bioactive compounds of aseptically filled and industrial scale produced apple juice during storage for 12 months. While the viscosity and pH of apple juice did not change significantly, the ΔE* peaked (20–30) at month 6 of the storage period. The colour of apple juice was lighter than at the beginning of storage. Maximum total phenolic contents were 1,100, 1,400, and 1,250 mg L−1 in the control, ascorbic acid supplemented, and acerola added samples, respectively. Other parameters (antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, browning index, etc.) peaked in month 4. Acerola was a good alternative anti-browning and antioxidant agent for the treatment of apple juice in the processing. The antioxidant capacity of apple juice treated with acerola was higher than with ascorbic acid. The results were obtained with industrial samples, thus, they can serve as a very good base for the optimisation process and industrial production without the need for scale-up.

Open access

Abstract

Fusarium spp. are phytopathogens causing fusarium head blight in wheat. They produce mycotoxins, mainly fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone. The study was conducted during two growing seasons (2020 and 2021) at the experimental field and laboratories of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of growing season, nitrogen fertilisation, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was not detected during the two growing seasons and deoxynivalenol was only detected in 2020. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation and wheat variety did not have statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The growing season had statistically significant influence on Fusarium infection and fumonisins production due to higher rainfall in 2021 compared to 2020 during the flowering period when the wheat spike is the most vulnerable to Fusarium infection.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: B. Schmidt-Szantner, M. Gasztonyi, P. Milotay, and R. Tömösközi-Farkas

Abstract

A three-year (2016–2018) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation, fertilisation, and seasonal variation on the main bioactive components, such as carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and tocopherols of processed Uno Rosso F1 tomato. The statistical evaluation of measurements proved that the multi-year data set cannot be evaluated as combined data set; the values obtained in different years must be evaluated separately. The impact of irrigation on the content of bioactive components varied from year to year. The correlation was negative between irrigation and α-tocopherol content in 2016 and 2018 (r = –0.567 and –0.605, respectively), polyphenol content in 2016 (r = –0.668), γ-tocopherol content in 2017 (r = –0.662), while positive correlation was observed between concentration of vitamin C (r = 0.533) in 2017, lycopene content (r = 0.473) in 2018 and irrigation intensity. A weak correlation was proved between K levels and concentrations of lycopene and polyphenols in 2016 (r = 0.301 and r = 0.392, respectively).

Open access

Abstract

Nitrogen (N) is one of the most essential nutrients affecting the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.). A field experiment was conducted at the experimental plot of the Department of Agronomy, The Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hungary, to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the yield and quality of maize. The experimental site included four observation plots with a net of 2 × 5 m size. Four N levels of T1, T2, T3, and T4 were sprayed at indicated plants in four replications according to treatment viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha−1. Nitrogen application in general does not significantly affect maize yield, its components, or grain quality. However, out of the four N treatments, the optimal N application between 50–100 kg N ha−1 potentially increased the yield, also the total expression of protein and starch contents in maize can be achieved with the right amount of N fertiliser, indicating that the treatment could produce a high grain yield as well as high protein and starch contents. Good N fertilising practice will boost the maize's nutritional value and make it more significant in the agriculture in the future. In addition, more research and assessment are essential to acquire the most benefit from the effect of optimal N application on maize yield and quality, and the findings could be beneficial to researchers and growers.

Open access
Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Norbert Túri, János Körösparti, Balázs Kajári, György Kerezsi, Mohammed Zain, János Rakonczai, and Csaba Bozán

Due to extreme meteorological and soil hydrological situations the agricultural production security is highly unpredictable. To release the extent and duration of inland excess water (IEW) inundations or two-phase soil conditions during the period intended for cultivation, subsurface drainage (SD) has been used as a best practice in several countries. SD interventions took place between 1960’s and 1990 in Hungary. After 1989, land ownership conditions changed, thus professional operation and the necessary maintenance of the SD networks designed as a complex system became insignificant. In this paper, our aim was to present the IEW hazard in one of the most equipped areas by SD in Hungary. The occurrence frequency of IEW inundations in drained and non-drained (control) areas in different time intervals were compared. According to our results, we could state that the frequency of IEW on the subsurface drained areas was moderately lower in only a few periods compared to the control areas. IEW hazard of the arable areas at the Körös Interfluve was classified as nonhazarded in 52.7% of the area. Another 38.2% were moderately hazarded, 8.26% of the lands were meanly hazarded and less than 1% were highly hazarded area by IEW.

Open access

The Westsik’s long-term crop rotation experiment was set up in 1929 at the Nyíregyháza Experimental Station (NE Hungary) on a slightly acidic Arenosol. Besides fallow crop rotation (CR), effects of different organic amendments (lupine as green manure, lupine as main crop, straw manure, and farmyard manure (FYM) were studied with or without N or NPK-fertilizers. The crop rotation consisted of rye, potato, lupine, and oat with common vetch. The soil of potato plots was analysed in 2019 at the 90th anniversary of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment.

The following chemical and microbiological soil parameters were determined: soil pH, available nutrient contents, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (ON) contents, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), soil respiration, net nitrification, and activity of some soil enzymes.

In the CRs, the soil pHH2O varied from acidic to weakly alkaline and it largely differed from pHKCl. The results showed a significant increase in the content of nitrate, available phosphorus and potassium in most of the fertilized plots. Applying straw, green manure, or FYM significantly increased the OC and ON contents. The total count of cultivable bacteria increased upon the application of the organic manures. Combined application of straw manure and N-fertilization heavily improved the abundance of the microscopic fungi.

While all the applied organic manures significantly enhanced the MBC, the MBN increased only by the green manure amendment. Our results revealed higher soil respiration rate in the plots receiving straw or FYM than in the control. Both green manure and FYM elevated the net nitrification rate. Phosphatase, saccharase, urease, and dehydrogenase enzymes showed a hesitating response to the manure application in the different CRs.

The soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity correlated to most of the measured chemical parameters. Among microbiological properties, the MBC and MBN, as well as dehydrogenase and other enzyme activities displayed a positive correlation. Results proved the need for the exogenous application of organic matter in the form of organic manures to enhance the nutritional status and health of the soil.

Open access

Greenhouse plastic contaminations in agricultural soils were studied to quantify and examine the macroplastic and microplastic contaminants on the soil surface, soil profile, and groundwater under greenhouse farmland. Random sampling was used to select three areas in a greenhouse farm where macroplastic and microplastic data were collected. Four composite samples were collected from shallow (0–20 cm) and deep (20–40 cm) soils for each sampling point, respectively. Three soil profiles were dug, and samples were collected at intervals of 20 cm. Groundwater samples were also collected from the same profiles at a depth of 100 cm. Microplastics were extracted using predigestion of organic matter with 30% H2O2 and density separation with ZnCl2. The total mass of macroplastics in the greenhouse farmland was 6.4 kg ha–1. Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride were the dominant plastic structures, and the dominant sizes were 1–5 and 0.5–1.0 cm, respectively. Overall, the average abundance of microplastics in the greenhouse soil was 225 ± 61.69 pieces/kg, and the dominant size structure was 2–3 mm. The average microplastic concentrations at depths of 0–20 and 20–40 cm were 300 ± 93 and 150.0 ± 76.3 pieces/kg, respectively. The average microplastic concentration in the groundwater was 2.3 pieces/l, and fibers were the dominant plastic structure. Given that microplastics were found in greenhouse soil, soil profiles, and groundwater, we recommend the careful cleaning and disposal of plastics on greenhouse farmland and further research to shed light on the level of microplastic contamination in the soil profiles and groundwater.

Open access

Abstract

Soybean seeds were germinated on an industrial scale after soaking for 0–56 h to produce a special additive for food industrial use. The germination process of three soybean varieties was monitored with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy based on changes in the amount, status, or character of the water. This paper evaluates the “waterless” NIR spectra of sound, germinated, and heat treated seeds to try to follow the fine details of the germination process. The germination process was analysed with the help of cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and polar qualification system (PQS) as statistical and chemometric methods. PCA proved to be the most sensitive spectrum evaluation method to follow the fine details of germination. The applied NIR method is suitable for non-destructively, real-time monitoring of the non-linear nature of germination.

Open access
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: József Vuts, István Szarukán, Zsolt Marczali, Éva Bálintné Csonka, Antal Nagy, Arnold Szilágyi, and Miklós Tóth

Abstract

Pollen beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) rank among the most important pests of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). For their timely detection in early spring, yellow sticky or water pan traps are used; however, it has been suggested that the addition of chemical lures to attractive visual cues could improve trap efficacy. During the course of field trials in Hungary, we have developed a 3-component synthetic floral lure consisting of (E)-anethol + (E)-cinnamyl alcohol + (E)-cinnamyl acetate, which attracted large numbers of pollen beetles into large capture-capacity fluorescent yellow funnel traps. There was no apparent difference between the pollen beetle species Brassicogethes aeneus F. 1775 (earlier Meligethes aeneus), Brassicogethes viridescens F. 1775, Brassicogethes coracinus Sturm 1845 and Fabogethes nigrescens Sturm 1845 in their responses to the 3-component lure, which can therefore be used to trap all of them. Funnel traps with the new ternary floral lure were more efficient in catching beetles than those with lures containing 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate, a previously described plant-derived attractant for pollen beetles. However, the effect of the addition of the isothiocyanate to the ternary blend was not completely clear from these experiments and thus requires further studies.

Open access

Abstract

Fungal disease resistant (PIWI) interspecific grape varieties are playing an important role as an alternative for organic wine production. Organic (bio) wines are demanded by numerous conscious consumers around the globe. They choose this kind of wines predominantly because of the absence of synthetic pesticides, fertilisers and sustainable agriculture. Resistant grape growing moreover results in additional environmental and health benefits. Nero and Bianca are among Hungary's most promising interspecific grape cultivars gaining international interest recently, there are, however, limited vitivinicultural knowledge on them. Our aim was to examine the flavonoid and anthocyanin composition for both interspecific varieties during different harvest times in two consecutive vintages. The date of harvest and vintage played a significant effect on grape and wine quality.

Open access

Abstract

The widespread misuse of antibiotics leads to a rapid development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens all over the globe, resulting in serious difficulties when treating infectious diseases. Possible solutions are not limited to the development of novel synthetic antibiotics but extend to application of plant-derived products either alone or in combination with common antibiotics. The aim of this actual review was to survey the literature from the past 10 years regarding the antibacterial effects of distinct Artemisia species including Artemisia absinthiae constituting an integral component of the Absinthe drink. We further explored the synergistic antibacterial effects of the Artemisia plant products with established antibiotics. The survey portrays the Artemisia derived compounds as potent antibacterial agents that can even restore the efficacy of antibiotics against MDR bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and MDR Escherichia coli. This, in turn, is presumably triggered in part by the interaction of the Artemisia ingredients with the efflux pumps of MDR bacteria. In conclusion, biologically active molecules in Artemisia plants enhance the antibiotic susceptibility of resistant bacteria, which provide promising future therapeutic strategies to combat MDR bacterial pathogens.

Open access

This paper contains 142 Campylopoideae records from 10 collecting trips of the author with his colleagues in the East African islands. Among the 27 taxa 15 records were new to a certain island, of which 4 were known before only from continental Africa. With these the known number of species on the Indian Ocean islands raises from 30 to 34. Observations on the ecology, distribution and illustrations of most species are also given.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: T. Pócs, J. G. Graham, M. von Konrat, and J. Larraín

Enumeration and distributional data of 28 liverworts new to Peru are presented, accompanied by taxonomic annotations, phytogeographical evaluation and illustrations. Remarkable new Peruvian records include the very rare northern Andean endemic Platycaulis renifolia as well as Frullania pearceana, hitherto known only from its type locality in Bolivia. Oil bodies are described for the first time in the genus Platycaulis and male branches are newly observed in Radula yanoella, a species hitherto known only in sterile state.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Mohsen Heidary, Maryam Shirani, Melika Moradi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran, Tayebe Rezaeian, and Saeed Khoshnood

Abstract

Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), followed by effective treatment, is the cornerstone of global TB control efforts. An estimated 3 million cases of TB remain undetected each year. Early detection and effective management of TB can prevent severe disease and reduce mortality and transmission. Intrinsic and acquired drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) severely restricted the anti-TB therapeutic options, and public health policies are required to preserve the new medications to treat TB. In addition, TB and HIV frequently accelerate the progression of each other, and one disease can enhance the other effect. Overall, TB-HIV co-infections show an adverse bidirectional interaction. For HIV-infected patients, the risk of developing TB disease is approximately 22 times higher than for persons with a protective immune response. Analysis of the current TB challenges is critical to meet the goals of the end TB strategy and can go a long way in eradicating the disease. It provides opportunities for global TB control and demonstrates the efforts required to accelerate eliminating TB. This review will discuss the main challenges of the TB era, including resistance, co-infection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Open access

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance constitutes a global threat to the health care systems. The number of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria increases progressively resulting in an estimated annual number of 750,000 fatal cases worldwide. Additionally, the lack of novel antibiotic compounds worsens the dilemma. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative ways to fight antibiotic resistance. One option may be natural compounds with antibacterial properties such as hop and its biologically active ingredients which are used in traditional medicine since ancient times. This prompted us to perform an actual literature survey regarding the antibacterial properties of biologically active ingredients in hop including humulone, lupulone and xanthohumol. The 20 included studies revealed that lupulone and xanthohumol do in fact inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. In combination with distinct antibiotic compounds the hop ingredients can even exert synergistic effects resulting in enhanced antibiotic activities against defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, biologically active ingredients in hop including lupulone and xanthohumol may be potential antibiotic compounds which either alone or in combination with other antibacterial substances open novel avenues in the combat of infections caused by pathogenic including MDR bacteria.

Open access

Egy köles tájfajta műtrágya-reakciójának vizsgálata

Examination of the reaction to fertilization of regional millet variety

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Zsembeli Zsadány, Sinka Lúcia, Tüdősné Budai Júlia, Kovács Györgyi, Tuba Géza, and Zsembeli József

Kutatómunkák általános célja olyan kísérletek végzése, amelyek feltárják az adott régióban perspektivikusan termeszthető fajták, illetve tájfajták optimális műtrágyázási igényeit. Tanulmányunkban a Karcagon nemesített és fenntartott ’Maxi’ köles tájfajta tápanyagreakciójának vizsgálatából származó eredményeinket mutatjuk be a módosított Országos Műtrágyázási Tartamkísérlet (OMTK) 2017. évi és az annak figyelembevételével 2021-ben beállított Műtrágyázási Kísérleti Kert (MKK) adatai alapján. A kísérleteket Karcagon, a MATE Karcagi Kutatóintézetben, egy mélyben szolonyeces réti csernozjom talajon állítottuk be. 2017-ben a módosított OMTK kezelései 4 nitrogén (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha 1), 4 foszfor (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha 1) és 3 kálium (0, 60, 90 kg ha 1) dózis kombinációjából adódtak, illetve volt egy műtrágyázás nélküli abszolút kontroll. 2021-ben az MKK kezelései 3 nitrogén (40, 80, 120 kg ha 1), 3 foszfor (0, 40, 80 kg ha 1) és 2 kálium (0, 60 kg ha 1) dózis kombinációját foglalták magukba, illetve mindegyik parcella felére növénykondicionáló szert juttatunk ki. A termesztett növény mindkét évben a karcagi nemesítésű ’Maxi’ kölesfajta volt. A különböző kezeléscsoportok termésre gyakorolt hatásának statisztikai értékelését egytényezős varianciaanalízissel végeztük el. Mindkét vizsgálati évben a 80 kg ha 1 hatóanyag mennyiségben kijuttatott nitrogén műtrágyázás bizonyult a leginkább megfelelőnek. A magas foszfor dózisok a legtöbb esetben termésdepresszióhoz vezettek. Eredményeink alapján még a közepes – jó kálium ellátottságú karcagi talajokon is hasznos lehet a kálium kijuttatása, bár a káliumtrágyázás termésre gyakorolt hatását a varianciaanalízis nem igazolta. Az Algomel PUSH szerrel végzett növénykondicionálás statisztikailag is igazolhatóan, mintegy 10%-kal növelte a termés nagyságát. Kutatómunkánk folytatásával pontosabban meghatározható lesz számos tájfajta tápanyagreakciója és fajtaspecifikus, a helyi agroökológiai viszonyokat is figyelembe vevő tápanyag dózisok és kombinációk ajánlhatók a gazdálkodóknak.

The general objective of our research is to carry out experiments that are suitable to reveal the optimal fertilization demand of regionally bred or potentially producible crop varieties for a specific region. In our recent study, the results gained from the examination of the nutrient reaction of the regional millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred and maintained in Karcag are introduced based on the data originating from the modified Long-term National Fertilization Experiments (OMTK) in 2017 and from the Fertilization Experimental Garden (MKK) established at Karcag in 2021. Both experiments were set up in the MATE Research Institute of Karcag on a meadow chernozem soil salty in the deeper layers. In 2017, there were 4 nitrogen (40, 80, 120, 160 kg ha−1), 4 phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 100 kg ha−1), and 3 potassium (0, 60, 90 kg ha−1) dosage combinations applied and one unfertilized absolute control in the OMTK trial. In 2021, in the MKK experiment, treatments involved 3 nitrogen (40, 80, 120 kg ha−1), 3 phosphorus (0, 40, 80 kg ha−1), and 2 potassium (0, 60 kg ha−1) dosage combinations, furthermore, on half of the plots a plant conditioner was sprayed. Millet variety ‘Maxi’ bred at Karcag was the indicator crop in both years. For the statistical analysis of the effect of the various treatment groups on yields, One-way ANOVA tests were used. We considered the 80 kg ha−1 nitrogen substance dose the most suitable in both years. High dosage of phosphorus application resulted in yield depression in most of the cases. Based on our results, potassium fertilization can be effective even on the soils of Karcag with medium to good potassium supplies, though the analysis of variance did not justify the effect of K-fertilization on yields. The 10% yields increase due to plant conditioning with Algomel PUSH was statistically proven. By continuing or research, the reaction to fertilization of several regional crop varieties can be determined more precisely, and variety-specific nutrient doses and combinations can be determined and suggested to the local famers taking the regional agri-ecological conditions into consideration.

Open access

Abstract

Its ability to survive under different environmental conditions makes Listeria monocytogenes a critical concern for food safety. When the microorganisms are exposed to sublethal heat treatment above their optimum growth temperature, they increase stress adaptation for further heat treatments. In order to investigate heat stress resistance of L. monocytogenes, L. innocua as a surrogate was exposed to sublethal heat at 46 °C for 30 and 60 min, prior to heat treatment at 60 °C. There was no significant difference in D60°C values between samples exposed to sublethal heat for 30 min and non-pre-heat-treated samples (control) (P > 0.05). In comparison, sublethal heat treatment for 60 min caused a significant increase in D60°C values compared to control samples (P < 0.05). Additionally, cluster analysis of mass spectra obtained from MALDI-TOF was analysed by discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) for sublethal heat treatment at 46 °C for 30 min and control group to check stress response at the proteomic level. However, differentiation of stress responses by distinct clusters was not revealing.

Open access

Abstract

Gluten-free (GF) breads are often described with low quality, rapidly staling, dry mouthfeel and crumbling texture attributes. In lack of recent texture profile data on commercially available, preservative-free, freshly-baked GF bread, this study aimed to compare different types of GF products with their wheat-based counterparts during a 4-day-long storage test. Texture analysis data showed that GF loaves performed better than or comparable to the wheat-based ones in hardness, springiness and cohesiveness. Among sensorial properties mouth-feel, softness and aroma were evaluated as significantly better or similar for GF versus wheat-based products. GF cob had a saltier taste, which reduced the flavour experience. Both the texture results of the storage test and sensory data showed that the quality of GF bread products improved in recent years; they stayed comparable with their wheat-based counterparts even during a 4-day-long storage period.

Open access

Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of ethylene treatment on ripening of 1-MCP treated pear after 6 months of cold storage. Pear treated with gaseous 1-MCP at 625–650 ppb for 24 h at 0 °C was stored at 0 °C for 6 months with normal air, and treated groups were exposed to 100 ppm ethylene at 20 °C for 24 h. After that, samples were kept at 0, 10, and 15 °C for 2 weeks. Stiffness, chlorophyll fluorescence, ethylene and CO2 production of fruit were investigated during 2 weeks. Application of ethylene resumed the ripening of pear after long term storage. The results showed that fruit treated with ethylene achieved more homogeneous surface colour in comparison with non ethylene treated pears. In addition, the ethylene and carbon dioxide production of ethylene treated pears had higher values than that of control. The ethylene treatment could accelerate the softening of pear. Temperature also has significant effect on ripening during storage. This study found that ethylene treatment could accelerate the normal ripening of 1-MCP treated pears.

Open access

Abstract

This study validated the performance of the reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) based Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay against the TIB MOLBIOL E-gene/EAV, a standard laboratory rRT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 assay. Upper and lower respiratory tract samples (nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tracheal aspirate) were obtained from patients suspected to have contracted COVID-19. Results from the Xpert® Xpress and standard rRT-PCR assays were compared for positive and negative agreement and analyzed for precision, reproducibility, 95% confidence intervals, and coefficients of variation. The Xpert® Xpress assay demonstrated 100% agreement with the standard lab rRT-PCR for both upper and lower respiratory tract samples. Both the Xpert® Xpress and lab rRT-CPR identified weakly positive (Ct values 35–39) sample replicates with 100% reproducibility and showed 100% precision in identifying triplicates of upper respiratory tract samples. The single-cartridge Xpert® Xpress system has a short turnaround time and can be employed to improve patient management and hospital bed allocation. Further verification of the system is required before implementation and consideration must be paid to its higher cost and impracticality for high-throughput use.

Open access

Soil science, a relatively young field of research with a history of fewer than two centuries, experienced an exponential expansion in scientific output in the last decades. While the output of all sub-disciplines is growing, research efforts in these sub-disciplines differ, reflecting the importance of the subjects. The broadening focus of soil science can be detected by the content of the increasing number and diverting thematic sessions of the World Soil Science Congresses, which are held every four years since the beginning of the 20th century. The structure of the current world congress is supposed to reflect the contemporary understanding of the internal structure of soil science, including its subdivision by major themes. Considering these soil themes/sub-disciplines, we assessed the evolution of soil science in the last three decades using scientific publications as indicators. Furthermore, we evaluated the inter-linkages of soil topics within soil research using network analysis and assessed the contribution of science to the broader fields of studies, from agriculture to engineering and environmental sciences. Results show that scientific interest towards all sub-disciplines is exploding, but environment-related topics, including subjects related to climate and contamination, show an even sharper increase. As far as the internal structure of soil science is concerned, research efforts are organised around the major topics of microbiology, soil contamination, nutrients, soil physics and water management. Our study reveals that currently the highest interest towards soil is coming from ecology and environmental sciences, followed by agriculture, engineering, geology and plant sciences, respectively.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: N. Kellner, E. Antal, A. Szabó, and R. Matolcsi

Abstract

Guignardia bidwellii, indigenous to North America, is a significant pathogen of grapes long known in Hungary, infecting only the growing green parts of the vine (leaves, petioles, shoots, and bunches). In the absence of adequate plant protection and extreme weather conditions such as a predominantly humid, warm year, black rot of grapes can be expected. The pathogen can cause high yield losses due to grape rot and reduce wine quality if the infection is severe.

The evolution of certain biogenic amine compounds were investigated under the influence of grape black rot. The results obtained showed that they were present in low concentrations from an oenological point of view. Polyphenol composition was consistent with the literature, blackening affected mainly the concentration of catechin. Black rot fungus does not produce β-glucosidase enzyme. In terms of resveratrol content, black rot has no particular effect. However, like Botrytis cinerea, it produces glycerol and, proportionally, gluconic acid in lower concentrations.

It can be concluded that black rot of grapes does not cause health problems when introduced into wine processing.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: József Mihalkó, Dóra Szepesi-Bencsik, Gabriella Zsarnóczay, and László Ferenc Friedrich

Abstract

Animal food, especially meat, has played an important role in the history of mankind. Different meats can be used in the production of meat products. In addition to lean meats, mechanically deboned meat (MDM) and mechanically separated meat (MSM) can also be used in meat products. However, the latter does not qualify as meat due to damage to the muscular structure due to the high pressure applied during the separation, therefore cannot be included in the meat content of products.

The aim of our experiment was to compare whole, minced meat, MDM and MSM from turkey (raw and in the form of meat paste). Technofunctional tests (water-holding and -binding capacity), color measurement, chemical composition (moisture, protein and fat content), electron microscopic recording, rheological properties show that the quality of MSM is inferior to other meat raw materials. These properties can also result in the production of lower quality products.

Open access

Abstract

Transcription factors of the nuclear factor kappa‐light‐chain‐enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB) family control important signaling pathways in the regulation of the host innate immune system. Various bacterial pathogens in the human gastrointestinal tract induce NF-ĸB activity and provoke pro-inflammatory signaling events in infected epithelial cells. NF-ĸB activation requires the phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis of inhibitor of ĸB (IĸB) molecules including the NF-ĸB precursors through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The canonical NF-ĸB pathway merges on IĸB kinases (IKKs), which are required for signal transduction. Using CRISPR-Cas9 technology, secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter assays and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we demonstrate that the actin-binding protein cortactin is involved in NF-ĸB activation and subsequent interleukin-8 (IL-8) production upon infection by Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our data indicate that cortactin is needed to efficiently activate the c-Sarcoma (Src) kinase, which can positively stimulate NF-ĸB during infection. In contrast, cortactin is not involved in activation of NF-ĸB and IL-8 expression upon infection with Campylobacter species C. jejuni, C. coli or C. consisus, suggesting that Campylobacter species pluralis (spp.) induce a different signaling pathway upstream of cortactin to trigger the innate immune response.

Open access

Abstract

Despite vaccine availability, the global spread of COVID-19 continues, largely facilitated by emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutations. Our earlier research documented that a specific combination of plant-derived compounds can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 binding to its ACE2 receptor and controlling key cellular mechanisms of viral infectivity. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a defined mixture of plant extracts and micronutrients against original SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa, and Mu variants. The composition containing vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, resveratrol, theaflavin, curcumin, quercetin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli extract demonstrated a highest efficacy by inhibiting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) binding of SARS-CoV-2 to its cellular ACE2 receptor by 90%. In vitro exposure of test pseudo-typed variants to this formula for 1 h before or simultaneously administrated to human pulmonary cells resulted in up to 60% inhibition in their cellular entry. Additionally, this composition significantly inhibited other cellular mechanisms of viral infectivity, including the activity of viral RdRp, furin, and cathepsin L. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 including its mutated forms through pleiotropic mechanisms. Our results imply that simultaneous inhibition of multiple mechanisms of viral infection of host cells could be an effective strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Open access

Abstract

A number of methods have been applied to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), including FRAP, which is based on reducing the amount of iron ions in a complex compound. Researchers often use measurement of absorbance 10 min after mixing a sample with the FRAP reaction solution to calculate TAC. The FRAP solution has been shown to alter absorbance over time by ca 0.0010–0.0020 per hour, under storage conditions. This article intends to show that some substances do not fully or sufficiently react within the common analysis period. It is evident from the results that some substances react more quickly and others very slowly. Absorbance in relation to various phenols was measured. Compared to the levels of absorbance at 10 min, mean absorbance at 48 h was higher by 5,395% for vanillin, 426% for caffeic acid, 170% for sinapinic acid, 67% for gallic acid, 19% for syringic acid, and only by 4% for Trolox. Results for vanillin and caffeic acid indicate potential auto-catalysis.

Open access

Abstract

Hungarian fruit vinegars were characterised in terms of physicochemical attributes (total polyphenol content, antioxidant characteristics/FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS/, ascorbic acid content, pH, total soluble solids), sensory profiles, and antimicrobial properties.

Both compositional and sensory profiles showed distinct patterns depending on the type of vinegar (Tokaj wine, balsamic or apple) and the additional fruit used. Balsamic vinegars maturated on rosehip, sea buckthorn, and raspberry showed outstanding antioxidant performances. Rosehip, raspberry, and quince vinegars, as well as vinegars produced from Tokaji aszú and balsamic apple obtained high scores for fruity and sweet notes.

Antimicrobial activities were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, including probiotic bacteria. Generally, only weak activities were obtained, which was attributed to the natural sugar content of the samples, depending on the type of the vinegar and the fruit. Similar results, but more pronounced bacterial growth inhibitions were obtained for probiotic strains, however, some probiotic strains were resistant to at least two of the vinegars. Based on these, balsamic apple, raspberry, rosehip, quince, and sea buckthorn may qualify as potential functional components of probiotic preparations containing some of the strains tested.

Open access

Abstract

Aroma components of wines play an important role in the sensory quality of wines. In our paper we investigate the effect of commercially available yeast nutrients under different fermentation parameters. Caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, and different fatty acid esters were used as markers of the alcoholic fermentation process. The optimal temperature for the fermentation of different white wines was at 15–16 °C, in the case of examined wines lower concentrations of fatty acids and fatty acid esters were found at this temperature. At 25–26 °C fermentation temperature very high concentrations of fatty acids and fatty acid esters were detected. Applying different nitrogen-containing wine additives we managed to achieve better aroma profiles for white wines even using musts of lower quality.

Open access

Abstract

The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RSCB PDB) provides a wide range of digital data regarding biology and biomedicine. This huge internet resource involves a wide range of important biological data, obtained from experiments around the globe by different scientists. The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) represents a brilliant collection of 3D structure data associated with important and vital biomolecules including nucleic acids (RNAs and DNAs) and proteins. Moreover, this database accumulates knowledge regarding function and evolution of biomacromolecules which supports different disciplines such as biotechnology. 3D structure, functional characteristics and phylogenetic properties of biomacromolecules give a deep understanding of the biomolecules’ characteristics. An important advantage of the wwPDB database is the data updating time, which is done every week. This updating process helps users to have the newest data and information for their projects. The data and information in wwPDB can be a great support to have an accurate imagination and illustrations of the biomacromolecules in biotechnology. As demonstrated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, rapidly reliable and accessible biological data for microbiology, immunology, vaccinology, and drug development are critical to address many healthcare-related challenges that are facing humanity. The aim of this paper is to introduce the readers to wwPDB, and to highlight the importance of this database in biotechnology, with the expectation that the number of scientists interested in the utilization of Protein Data Bank’s resources will increase substantially in the coming years.

Open access
Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Birkás Márta, Balla István, Gyuricza Csaba, Kende Zoltán, Kovács Gergő Péter, and Percze Attila

A magyar talajművelésben a kezdetektől az 1900-as évek közepéig a hagyományos szántásos rendszerek domináltak. Az ekék tökéletesedése révén a mélyebb szántások hozzájárultak a talajminőség romlásához.

Az 1900-as évek első évtizedeiben a külföldön kidolgozott művelési módszerek még kevesek érdeklődését keltették fel, azonban a szántásnál kedvezőbb körülmények létrehozása érdemi figyelmet keltett.

Az 1970-es évektől a talajvédő művelés Magyarországon is kedvező fogadtatásra talált. Kísérletekkel igazolódott, hogy a direktvetés előnyei – folyamatosság esetén – a hatodik-hetedik évtől észlelhetők. A mulcshagyó művelés kultivátor alkalmazása esetén rövidebb idő alatt nyújtotta a várt talajvédelmi előnyöket, ennek tudható be a gyorsabb terjedése. A kultivátoros művelés értékét a felszínvédő mulcshagyás, a talajminőség megóvás és a biológiailag aktív talaj erősítette meg.

Az időjáráshoz kapcsolható szélsőségek megjelenése az 1980-as évektől újabb művelési megoldások felé fordították a figyelmet. A talajlazítás a vízbefogadás és tárolás, a mulcshagyás, valamint a növények mélyebb gyökerezése révén került a korábbinál szélesebb körű alkalmazásra. A sávos művelési rendszer a nemzetközileg bizonyított eredmények hátterével számos magyar gazdálkodónál is sikeressé vált.

A magyar talajművelés előrehaladásában a talajközpontú szemlélet kiszélesedése, a növényközpontú szemlélet felváltása révén eredményezett kedvező változásokat a talajállapot javulásában.

Tekintettel a talajok sokféleségére és a talajállapot eltéréseire, jelenleg a termőhelyhez, talajhoz adaptált művelési rendszer alkalmazása látszik eredményesnek. Az időjárási szélsőségek fokozódása általában és adott termőhelyen is rangsorba állítja a lehetséges módszereket. A korábban jónak tartott megoldások, beleértve a szántást, ugyanis már egyre kevésbé biztonságosak.

A talajkímélő művelés iránti érdeklődés közel százhúsz évre tekint vissza Magyarországon. Sajátos, de az előrehaladás és a visszatartás tényezői a talajművelésben párhuzamosan jelentek meg az eltelt évek alatt. A művelési előrehaladást visszafogó tényezők között a sok évtized óta fennálló hiedelmek voltak a leginkább hátráltatók, mivel figyelmen kívül maradt a talajvédelem, továbbá a klímaváltozással kapcsolatos veszélyek enyhítésének igénye. Az előrehaladást a talajvédelem felvállalása, a gazdálkodási színvonal emelésének esélye és a klímakár csökkentés kényszere mozdította elő. Az előrehaladást alátámasztó tényezők között legfontosabbak a talajállapot tartós javulása és a klíma eredetű károk enyhítése, továbbá a termés biztonság megtartása és javulása.

Open access

Abstract

As the world is facing numerous global ecological issues at once, the question arises of what will help mitigate and solve contemporary matters related to resource management or climate change without devastating the economies. Fortunately, the widespread application of the circular economy would help countries worldwide simultaneously ensure economic growth without significant environmental deterioration, essentially decoupling the two factors. While Hungary’s contribution to environmental problems is not significant in absolute terms, the economic sector’s circular transition could help the country decrease its impact in relative terms and pave the path for a green economy. Nevertheless, companies, especially SMEs, tend to struggle the most with the initial phases of the shift thus it is crucial to assess the factors that prevent and support their transition.

Open access

Abstract

Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.

Open access

Abstract

Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.

Open access

Abstract

Built elements and structures are a prominent component of our historic gardens, both in terms of function and artistic composition and garden scenery. The surveys of historic garden structures are important research tasks, which also underpins and validates restoration work.

In most cases, the neglected state of historic gardens and sites and the unavailable archival materials do not allow an authentic restoration of historic gardens to their original state. Nevertheless, there is a real need to reconstruct our historic gardens, based not only on historical authenticity but also on a systematic reinterpretation of the relationship between society and landscape.

The objective of this article is to present a general methodology for renewal of historic gardens through examples of specific garden reconstructions. The case studies are the authors' own design works, which demonstrate the application of different design approaches, highlighting details of the reconstruction of specific built garden elements.

Open access