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Fusarium wilt of tomato is one of the most prevalent and economically important diseases of tomato worldwide especially in tropical regions. The aims of the present study were to isolate and characterize Bacillus bacteria from tomato rhizospheric soil of various regions in Iran and determine the isolates that exhibit high levels of antagonistic efficiency against tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and growth promotion activity. In this study, 303 Bacillus isolates were obtained from tomato rhizospheric soil. Dual culture and volatile metabolite tests were used to screen for antagonism of Bacillus isolates against Fol. Among them, 20 isolates were found to inhibit pathogen growth by 67.77% and 33.33% in dual culture and volatile metabolite tests, respectively. Based on the results of physiological tests and 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequence analysis of 20 effective isolates, 11, seven and two isolates were identified as B. subtilis, B. velezensis and B. cereus, respectively. The results of greenhouse assessment showed that KR1-2, KR2-7 and A2-9 isolates which were characterized as Bacillus subtilis, reduced the disease index to 16.67% and promoted the plant growth by 80%. These isolates may serve as potential promising biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt of tomato.

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High molecular weight (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits play a significant role in bread making quality and extensibility, though they signify merely 10% and 40% of the entire seed storage proteins. For the estimation of bread quality on the basis of allelic difference in HMW-GS and LMW-GS at Glu-1 and 3 loci, wheat germplasm (77 genotypes) was collected from diverse agro-climatic regions of Pakistan and characterized by using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Thirty distinct allelic arrangements were identified with a sum of thirteen Glu-1 alleles. Maximum frequency of allele 1 was found in twenty-nine genotypes at Glu-A1 locus while high proportion of subunit pairs 13 + 16 and 2 + 12 was detected in 33 and 32 genotypes at Glu-B1 as well as Glu-D1 locus, respectively. Few rare alleles were also separated out. The quality scores ranged from 4–10, however highest quality score of ten was more recurrent (36.36%). A good quality score of 8 and 6 were found in 32.47% as well as 19.48% of genotypes individually. In LMW-GS, seventeen diverse combinations of alleles with aggregate of ten Glu-3 alleles were detected. Glu-A3c and Glu-B3d alleles were observed in 33 (42.85%) genotypes, encoding high sedimentation and protein contents. Hence, this will enable the breeders to utilize both glutenin subunits as biochemical indicator for selecting superior wheat genotypes possessing enhanced bread making quality.

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Background and aims

Studies combining brain activity measures with behavior have the potential to reveal more about animal cognition than either on their own. However, brain measure procedures in animal studies are often practically challenging and cost-prohibitive. Therefore, we test whether a simple measure of ear temperature can be used to index hemispheric brain activation using a handheld thermoscanner. Cortisol levels are correlated with the activation of the right cortical region, implying that, when stressful situations are experienced, increased right hemisphere activation occurs. This leads to corresponding locally detectable increases in ipsilateral ear temperature.

Methods

We compared right- and left-ear temperatures of 32 domestic dogs under non-stressful and partially stressful conditions.

Results

We detected significant elevations in right-ear temperature – but not left-ear temperature – relative to baseline readings in the partially stressful condition that were not detected in the non-stressful condition.

Discussion

These findings provide encouraging support for the notion that tympanic membrane temperature readings can provide a simple index for canine hemispheric brain activation, which can be combined with data on behavioral decision-making, expectancy violations, or other measures of emotional processing. Devices are cheap, simple to use, portable, and only minimally invasive providing a means for real-time brain and behavior measurements to be conducted in real-world settings.

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Water deficit is a most limiting factor for wheat in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. The effects of drought stress on some root features and yield and yield components in wheat (Trticum aestivum L.) were carried out in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, under greenhouse condition. The four experimental irrigation regimes, irrigation after 75% of the water was depleted (control), irrigation after 65% of the water was depleted (mild stress), irrigation after 55% of the water was depleted (moderate stress) and irrigation after 45% of the water was depleted (severe stress) were randomized for the main plots. The subplot treatments included eight wheat genotypes. Results showed that Interaction Drought stress with Variety had significantly affected on Total Root Volume and Dry Matter, Number of Tiller and also Shoot Dry Matter. Value of Total Root Volume and Dry Matter, Shoot Dry Matter and Number of Tiller in irrigated varieties were more than rainfed in whole of Drought stresses. N-87-20 variety had most amounts of Total Root Dry Matter, Total Root Volume (exception of control) in all of stresses and control. Root properties influence on yield and other morphological traits of wheat. Stress intensification increase root growth than plant organ so that wheat root can uptake water from soil to compensate damage caused by stress.

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Authors: Kálmán Czeibert, Attila Andics, Örs Petneházy and Enikő Kubinyi

Background and aims

Dogs have recently become an important model species for comparative social and cognitive neuroscience. Brain template-related label maps are essential for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, to localize neural responses. In this study, we present a detailed, individual-based, T1-weighted MRI-based brain label map used in dog neuroimaging analysis.

Methods

A typical, medium-headed dog (a 7.5-year-old male Golden Retriever) was selected from a cohort of 22 dogs, based on brain morphology (shape, size, and gyral pattern), to serve as the template for a label map.

Results

Eighty-six 3-dimensional labels were created to highlight the main cortical (cerebral gyri on the lateral and medial side) and subcortical (thalamus, caudate nucleus, amygdala, and hippocampus) structures of the prosencephalon and diencephalon, and further main parts of brainstem (mesencephalon and rhombencephalon).

Discussion

Importantly, this label map is (a) considerably more detailed than any available dog brain template; (b) it is easy to use with freeware and commercial neuroimaging software for MRI and fMRI analysis; and (c) it can be registered to other existing templates, including a recent average-based dog brain template. Using the coordinate system and label map proposed here can enhance precision and standard localization during future canine neuroimaging studies.

Open access
Authors: Matthias F. Emele, Matti Karg, Helmut Hotzel, Linda Graaf-van Bloois, Uwe Groß, Oliver Bader and Andreas E. Zautner

Campylobacter fetus is a causative agent of intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections and meningitis. C. fetus currently comprises three subspecies: C. fetus subspecies fetus (Cff), C. fetus subspecies venerealis (Cfv), and C. fetus subspecies testudinum (Cft). Cff and Cfv are primarily associated with mammals whereas Cft is associated with reptiles.

To offer an alternative to laborious sequence-based techniques such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ribotyping for this species, the purpose of the study was to develop a typing scheme based on proteotyping.

In total, 41 representative C. fetus strains were analyzed by intact cell mass spectrometry and compared to MLST results. Biomarkers detected in the mass spectrum of C. fetus subsp. fetus reference strain LMG 6442 (NCTC 10842) as well as corresponding isoforms were associated with the respective amino acid sequences and added to the C. fetus proteotyping scheme.

In combination, the 9 identified biomarkers allow the differentiation of Cft subspecies strains from Cff and Cfv subspecies strains. Biomarkers to distinguish between Cff and Cfv were not found. The results of the study show the potential of proteotyping to differentiate different subspecies, but also the limitations of the method.

Open access

Zymoseptoria tritici, a globally distributed pathogen, is responsible of Septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most damaging wheat diseases. In Italy the incidence of STB has increased during the past few years. The presence of Z. tritici on flag leaves of susceptible durum wheat plants, cultivar San Carlo, after a single artificial inoculation with two inoculum concentrations at different vegetative stages has been evaluated in the plain of Bologna (North of Italy), in a two year field study (2012–2013). The pathogen presence was also assessed in natural infection conditions after a fungicide application in the second year (2013). The results obtained, by visual examination (Incidence, Disease Severity) and DNA quantification by Real time PCR, demonstrated that BBCH 39 (flag leaf stage) is the most susceptible vegetative stage, independently of inoculum concentration and climatic conditions. A good correlation between Disease Severity and DNA quantity was observed in either sampling methods, entire flag leaves and flag leaf discs. Thereafter the most suitable period to obtain the best crop protection with only one fungicide treatment is the flag leaf stage.

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Authors: Y.G. Shi, Y. Lian, H.W. Shi, S.G. Wang, H. Fan, D.Z. Sun and R.L. Jing

Senescence in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf is a programmed degeneration process leading to death. During this process, green leaf area duration (GLAD) and green leaf number of main stem (GLNMS) are gradually reduced. In this study, the two traits of Hanxuan10/Lumai14 DH population at different development stages after anthesis were evaluated under rainfed and irrigated conditions, and QTLs were detected. GLAD and GLNMS of two parents and DH population under rainfed condition were less than those under irrigated condition, and close correlations (P < 0 05) were found between GLAD and GLNMS after 25 DAA under both water conditions. GLAD and GLNMS were co-controlled by major and minor genes. QTLs for GLAD were stably expressed at different development stages after anthesis under both water conditions, such as QGlad22-1B-1, QGlad25-1B-1, QGlad28-1B-2 detected under irrigated condition and QGlad25-1B-3, QGlad28-1B-4 mapped under rainfed condition were located at a 20.7 cM marker interval of Xgwm273-EST122 on 1B chromosome. But QTLs for GLNMS were inducibly and specifically expressed at specific developmental stages after anthesis under both water conditions. The findings provide dynamic genetic information related to wheat senescence.

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Authors: I. El Aymani, S. El Gabardi, M. Artib, M. Chliyeh, K. Selmaoui, A. Ouazzani Touhami, R. Benkirane and A. Douira

The diversity of endomycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Crocus sativus has been studied at five sites in the Taliouine region (Tinfat), located in Taroudant Province (Morocco), according to the number of years of soil exploitation by Saffron cultivation. In all sites, the roots of Crocus sativus carry structures of endomycorrhizal fungi. Root mycorrhizal frequencies are very high in site 1 (93.33%); site 2 (96.67%); site 4 (90%) and in site 6 (93.33%). In these sites, the spore density is, respectively, 39, 58, 138, 99 spores / 100 g of soil. The frequency of root mycorrhization is lower at the site (76.66%) which also exhibited a spore density of 27 spores / 100 g of soil.

The identification of isolated spores made it possible to note the presence of 36 species belonging to 6 genera: Glomus (15 species), Acaulospora (10 species), Scutellospora (6 species), Gigaspora (2 species), Pacispora (2 species), Entrophospora (1 species). Species such as Glomus clarum, G. etunicatum, G. aggregatum, G. intraradices, Acaulospora laevis, Scutellospora coralloidea, were present in all studied sites.

The greatest richness of MA fungi was registers in the site at four successive years of exploitation by Saffron (24 species), with a Shannon diversity index H ‘= 2.82 which is the highest among all studied sites, followed by the site at six years of occupation by Saffron (21 species), with H ‘= 2.61, while the lowest number of species was recorded in sites of two, three and ten years of exploitation of sol by Saffron, with H ‘= 1.77, respectively; 2.12 and 2.44.

This decrease in endomycorrhizal species richness confirms that Crocus sativus residues are probably the cause. In fact, the prolonged occupation of plots with safrana has an allelopathic effect on mycoflora and on the yield of Saffron.

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Authors: Ivaylo Borislavov Iotchev, Anna Egerer, Serena Grafe, András Adorján and Enikő Kubinyi

Introduction

The aim of this study was to explore spontaneous social interactions between dyads of unfamiliar adult dogs. Although intraspecific encounters are frequent events in the life of pet dogs, the factors that might influence encounters, such as sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, age, and state of cohabitation (keeping the dogs singly or in groups), remained unexplored.

Methods

In this study, we assigned unfamiliar, non-aggressive dogs to three types of dyads defined by sex and size. We observed their unrestrained, spontaneous behaviors in an unfamiliar dog park, where only the two dogs, the owners, and experimenter were present.

Results

We found that the dogs, on average, spent only 17% of the time (less than 1 min) in proximity. Sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, and age influenced different aspects of the interactions in dyads. Female dogs were more likely to initiate the first contact in their dyad but later approached the partner less frequently, were less likely to move apart, and displayed less scent marking. Following and moving apart were more frequent in male–male interactions. Neutered dogs spent more time following the other dog and sniffed other dogs more frequently. The time companion dogs spent in proximity and number of approaches decreased with age.

Conclusion

The study provides guidance for dog owners about the outcomes of intraspecific encounters based on the dog’s age, sex, and reproductive status, as well as the sex of the interacting partner.

Open access