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Authors: Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill and Markus M. Heimesaat

Humans have lost their vitamin C-synthesizing capacities during evolution. Therefore, the uptake of this essential compound from external sources is mandatory in order to prevent vitamin C-deficient conditions resulting in severe morbidities such as scurvy. The potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antiinfectious effects of vitamin C are known since the 1930s. We here (i) review the impact of vitamin C on innate and adaptive immune functions, (ii) provide an overview of its antimicrobial, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, and antifungal properties, and finally, (iii) discuss vitamin C as an adjunct treatment option for the combat of human infections by bacteria, particularly by emerging multidrug-resistant species.

Open access

Higher plant population and nitrogen management is an adopted approach for improving crop productivity from limited land resources. Moreover, higher plant density and nitrogen regimes may increase the risk of stalk lodging, which is a consequence of complex interplant competition of individual organs. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic change in morphology, chemical compositions and lignin promoting enzymes of the second basal inter-nodes altering lodging risk controlled by planting density and nitrogen levels. A field trial was conducted at the Mengcheng research station (33°9′44″N, 116°32′56″E), Huaibei plain, Anhui province, China. A randomized complete block design was adopted, in which four plant densities, i.e., 180, 240, 300, and 360 × 104 ha−1 and four N levels, i.e., 0, 180, 240, and 300 kg ha−1 were studied. The two popular wheat varieties AnNong0711 and YanNong19 were cultivated. Results revealed that the culm lodging resistance (CLRI) index of the second basal internodes was positively and significantly correlated with light interception, lignin and cellulose content. The lignin and cellulose contents were significantly and positive correlated to light interception. The increased planting density and nitrogen levels declined the lignin and its related enzymes activities. The variety AnNong0711 showed more resistive response to lodging compared to YanNong19. Overall our study found that increased planting densities and nitrogen regimes resulted in poor physical strength and enzymatic activity which enhanced lodging risk in wheat varieties. The current study demonstrated that stem bending strength of the basal internode was significantly positive correlated to grains per spike. The thousand grain weight and grain yield had a positive and significant relationship with stem bending strength of the basal internode. The results suggested that the variety YanNong19 produces higher grain yield (9298 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1, and 180 kg ha−1 nitrogen, while AnNong0711 produced higher grain yield (10178.86 kg ha−1) at density 240 × 104 plants ha−1 and with 240 kg ha−1 nitrogen. Moreover, this combination of nitrogen and planting density enhanced the grain yield with better lodging resistance.

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The genetic diversity of 12 Atriplex halimus L. populations collected throughout its natural range in Morocco has been studied by using sequences of nrDNA ITS region. Within-population genetic diversity was high in comparison to others species with similar life histories and ecological traits. Most of genetic variation detected by AMOVA resided within populations (94%), relative to the amount of variation among populations (6%). The level of populations differentiation (FST = 0.06) was low, which corresponds with the high level of gene flow (4.00) revealed between populations. Differentiation among ecological groups of populations accounted only for 1.23% of the total ITS variation, which indicates that climatic conditions did not have an effect of population's structuration or that this differentiation is obviously not related to ITS markers. Furthermore, very low genetic differentiation (FCT = 0.015) was observed between regions (Moroccan populations versus American population). Strangely enough, geographic distances were not correlated to genetic differentiation between the populations (r = 0.06, P = 0.5). The structuration of populations in five groups was not operated according to their bioclimatic type. The data obtained in this assay could play a crucial role to establish efficient strategies for genetic resources conservation and to work out the scheme of breeding programs of Atriplex.

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Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix and Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix

The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in rural Mexico is largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in rural people in a northern Mexican state. We performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study of 641 people living in rural Durango State including 282 subjects of the general population, 214 subjects of Huichol ethnicity, and 145 subjects of Mennonite ethnicity. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Three (0.5%) of the 641 subjects tested were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Of the 3 Toxocara seropositive subjects, two were females, aged 19 and 39 years, and one was male, aged 59 years. They had contacted with dogs, cleaned cat excrement, consumed unwashed raw fruits, contacted soil, or lived in a house with soil floors. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was similar among the 3 groups of population studied: 0.4% for the general population, 0.9% for Huicholes, and 0.0% for Mennonites (P = 0.41). In conclusion, the Toxocara seroprevalence found in subjects in rural Durango is low as compared with those reported in people from rural areas in other countries.

Open access
Authors: N. Niu, Y.X. Bai, S. Liu, Q.D. Zhu, Y.L. Song, S.C. Ma, L.J. Ma, X.L. Wang, G.S. Zhang and J.W. Wang

Studies of the pollen abortion mechanism in thermo-sensitive male sterile lines may provide a strong foundation for breeding hybrid wheat and establishing a theoretical basis for marker-assisted selection. To investigate the cause of pollen abortion in Bainong thermo – sensitive male sterile (BNS) lines, we analyzed the properties of pollen grains, changes in the tapetum and microspores in different anther developmental stages, and the distribution and deposition of nutrient substances in microspores. We found that tapetum degraded in the early uninucleate stage in sterile BNS (S-BNS), which was earlier than that of fertile BNS (F-BNS) tapetum. Large amounts of insoluble polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins were deposited until the trinucleate pollen stage in the nutritive cells in F-BNS. At the binucleate stage, the vacuoles disappeared and pollen inclusion increased gradually. At the trinucleate stage, these nutrients would help pollen grains mature and participate in fertilization normally. Therefore, early degradation of the tapetum, which inhibits normal microspore development, and the limited content of nutrient substances in pollen may be the main factors responsible for male sterility in BNS lines.

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The polyamine (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are small aliphatic amines that ubiquitous in all living organisms. PA metabolism in higher plants is involved in both biotic and abiotic stress responses, and also influenced by nutrient deficiency. Accumulated evidence suggests that in plants the cellular titers of PAs are affected by various nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, the present study analyzed the effects of different nitrogen levels viz. recommended doses of nitrogen (RDN, 120 kg N/ha), sub-optimal N dose (RDN −25%, 90 kg N/ha) and supra-optimal N dose (RDN +25%, 150 kg N/ha) on PA metabolism in grains of six wheat genotypes at 15 days post anthesis (DPA) and 30 DPA. The activities of polyamine synthesizing enzymes (arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase), catabolizing (diamine oxidase, polyamine oxidase) and the PA content were increased at supra-optimal nitrogen dose as compared to RDN. Whereas at sub-optimal nitrogen dose, higher activity of polyamine catabolizing enzymes results in speeding up oxidation of various PAs to cope up with nitrogen deficiency in plant. In relation to PA content, Put was found to be higher at early stage whereas Spd and Spm were found to be higher towards mature stages of grain indicating the use of Put in grain filling process. Highly significant correlation was observed between PA metabolism, yield and nitrogen use efficiency at sub-optimal N dose as compared to supra-optimal dose.

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Authors: M. Sheidai, S. Darini, S. M. Talebi, F. Koohdar and S. Ghasemzadeh-Baraki

The genus Linum L. is an important plant genus as it contains the species with economic values and particularly Linum usitatissimum L. that is source of fibre and linseed oil. This genus contains 230 species throughout the world and has about 22 species in Iran. Little is known about Linum species relationship and phylogeny. Therefore, the aim of present study was molecular phylogenetic investigation of the Linum species growing in Iran and to present data on their biogeography. We used both ITS and chloroplast DNA sequences (psbA-trnHGUG region) for inferring the species phylogeny and relationship. We also used cpDNA for inferring the species time of divergence and with ISSR markers to identify the path of species distribution in the country. The phylogenetic trees obtained for both ITS and cpDNA sequences were almost congruent. NeighborNet diagram and BEAST tree based on Bayesian method separated the outgroup species Hugonia and Anisadenia from the other species studied. The subspecies studied in Linum macronicum were placed close to each other and along with L. corymbulosum comprised a separate clade. The clades obtained showed divergence time between 5–20 mya. The present study revealed that the species of the sect. Linum are monophyletic, while members of the sections Linastrum and Syllinum are intermixed and seem to be paraphyletic.

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Authors: M.Z. Islam, M.A. Siddique, N. Akter, M.F.R.K. Prince, M.R. Islam, M. Anisuzzaman and M.A.K. Mian

Genetic diversity of 28 restorer lines of rice was studied under irrigated condition through Mahalanobis D2 statistics and simple sequence repeat (SSR) banding patterns. The cluster analysis grouped the lines into five clusters. The principal component analysis showed that the first four components with vector values > 1 contributed 76.32% of the total variations. The intra- and inter-cluster distances were the maximum in cluster V (0.86) and between clusters II and V (15.14), respectively. Flag leaf area, plant height, panicle length, five panicle weight, primary branches per panicle and secondary branches per panicle had maximum contribution towards genetic divergence. A total of 24 alleles varied from 2 to 5 with an average of 2.67 alleles per locus were detected for the nine microsatellite markers across 28 lines. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.12 to 0.71 with an average of 0.29. RM229 was considered as the best markers on the basis of the highest PIC value. Phylogenetic cluster analysis of the SSR data based on distance divided all lines into three groups (A, B and C), whereas the cluster analysis divided these lines into five groups (I, II, III, IV and V). Besides, evaluation of yield contributing traits demonstrated that the restorer lines under the current study possessed a considerable genetic diversity. Potential lines such as BU1IR, China2R, China1R, BHD3R, IR509R and Heera5R can be used as pollen parent in developing new commercial hybrid varieties. Therefore, potential restorer lines need to be conserved in Genebank for future hybrid rice breeding programs.

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Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, S.-H. Jang, D. Liu, J. Halda, P.-E. Persson, M. Hansson, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, Z. Fačkovcová, Y. Yamamoto and J.-S. Hur

The new for science genus Loekoeslaszloa S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, confirmed by three gene phylogeny of the subfamily Teloschistoideae of the Teloschistaceae based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences, and ten new to science species from Eastern Asia, i.e. from South Korea: Bacidina loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Fauriea jejuensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Gyalecta ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Loekoeslaszloa huriana S. Y. Kondr., Orientophila dodongana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, O. imjadoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, O. incheonensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Oxneriopsis taehaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Yoshimuria ivanpisutiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur and Y. seokpoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa.

Molecular data for the recently described species Flavoplaca laszloana are for the first time provided. Position of Tassiloa magellanica in the subfamily Teloschistoideae as well as Yoshimuria stipitata in the Ikaerioideae ad int. is for the first time illustrated.

An identification key to Fauriea species (including six species, i.e.: F. chujaensis, F. jejuensis, F. orientochinensis, F. patwolseleyae, F. tabidella and F. yonaguniensis), a key to Orientophila species of the Eastern Asian region (of the Orientophila loekoesii and the O. diffluens groups), and a key to Yoshimuria and Loekoeslaszloa species of the Eastern Asian region (including four species, i.e.: Y. galbina, Y. ivanpisutiana, Y. seokpoensis, and Y. spodoplaca, as well as Loekoeslaszloa geumohdoensis and L. huriana) are presented. Seven new combinations, i.e. Fauriea patwolseleyae (basionym: Caloplaca patwolseleyae S. Y. Kondr., U. Jayalal et J.-S. Hur), Fauriea tabidella (basionym: Lecanora tabidella Nyl.), Loekoeslaszloa geumohdoensis (basionym: Mikhtomia geumohdoensis S. Y. Kondr., D. Liu et Hur), Niesslia coarctatae (basionym: Stigmidium coarctatae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Opeltia epiphyta (basionym: Caloplaca epiphyta Lynge), Tassiloa magellanica (basionym: Caloplaca magellanica Søchting et Sancho) and Yoshimuria stipitata (basionym: Caloplaca stipitata Wetmore) are proposed. Yoshimuria galbina and Lecanora ussuriensis are for the first time recorded from Japan.

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Zoopsidella grahamii sp. nov., related to the Australasian Z. caledonica, is described from the Andes of Central Peru (Oxapampa Province) and southern Ecuador. It is distinguished from Z. caledonica by the smaller plant size, much lower number of lobe cells and different leaf shape, and by the much more elongate perianth mouth lobes consisting of a row of 6-7 narrowly rectangular cells. Riccardia gradsteinii sp. nov., from the same general area in Peru as Z. grahamii, is unique among all dendroid species of the genus by the broad, frilled wings of the main axis, being split into complicatedly bent and strongly crispate scales.

Open access
Authors: T. Pócs, N.-K.-T. Tram, Q. He, T. Katagiri and T.-T. Luong

After the examination of the Cryptogam collection in the Herbarium of the University of Science, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City (PHH), 25 species proved to be new to Vietnam, including one hornwort and 24 liverworts. Among them, four genera: Denotarisia Grolle, Gongylanthus Nees, Leiomitra Lindb. and Lepicolea Dumort. are new records for the country. Diagnostic characters and illustrations are given for some taxa, as well as locality notes and habitat descriptions are provided for each collecting area.

Open access

Fungal diseases pose a great challenge to Canadian barley production, among which are Fusarium head blight (FHB), yellow rust and scald. An integrated management approach is needed to mitigate these diseases, in which breeding for host resistance is the most effective component. Constant evaluation of advanced breeding lines for their resistance to the diseases is important for making steady progression. The main objective of this study was to screen 1,174 barley accessions, from a collaborative project between the Field Crop Development Center (FCDC), Alberta, Canada, and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico for their reactions to the three diseases. For FHB a 1-5 scale was employed to discard the very susceptible material in 2012 and 2013. In 2014, 514 most resistant lines having the score 1 in 2013 were re-evaluated in a replicated experiment. The most promising 166 genotypes were selected and advanced for their last evaluation in 2015 where FHB index was measured. Simultaneously, these 166 genotypes were subjected to two more experiments to test their reactions against stripe rust and scald. Eighteen two-rowed barley genotypes exhibiting broad-spectrum resistance to all of the three evaluated diseases were identified in addition to 40 lines combining FHB resistance with resistance to Mexican isolates and natural fungal population of either of the two foliar diseases and could be utilized in breeding programs aimed at improving resistance to multiple barley leaf and head blight diseases.

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Authors: R. Tabaripour, M. Sheidai, S. M. Talebi and Z. Noormohammadi

A cogent medicinal and aromatic plant, Ziziphora clinopodioides (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb, its aerial parts is used as a wild vegetable or additive in foods to proffer pleasant aroma and flavour. There are many discussions about the intraspecific classification of this species and several subspecies have been introduced for it in different flora. These subspecies are morphologically very similar and identification of them is very difficult and in some cases, impossible. Therefore, in the present study, the pollen grains morphology of nine subspecies (32 specimens) of Z. clinopodioides were probed and documented in details utilising the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In total, eleven pollen morphological characteristics were investigated and analysed by PAST software. The obtained results showed that pollen grains were hexacolpate and their equatorial views were sub-oblate to prolate. The exine ornamentation types of the pollen grains are bireticulate, microreticulate, reticulate and bireticulate-reticulate. The ANOVA test did not show significant difference for the studied quantitative traits. Although, the results of the multivariate analysis revealed a high diversity amongst the specimens even in the specimens of a single subspecies; it did not confirm the separation of subspecies in Z. clinopodioides.

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Authors: K. Wajdzik, G. Gołębiowska, M. Dyda, K. Gawrońska, M. Rapacz and M. Wędzony

The increasing economic importance of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) makes this synthetic hybrid cereal an interesting object of genetic studies. Genomic regions (QTL) of morphological winter triticale traits were determined using the mapping population of 89 doubled haploids lines (DHs) developed from F1 hybrid of cv. ‘Hewo’ and cv. ‘Magnat’ accompanied with the genetic map consisting of 20 linkage groups assigned to the A (7), B (7), and R (6) genomes (total of 3539 DArT, SNP-DArT and SSR markers, length of 4997.4 cM). Five independent experiments were performed in the field and greenhouse controlled conditions. A total of 12 major QTLs located on 2B, 5A, 5R, and 6B chromosomes connected to the stem length, the plant height, the spike length, the number of the productive spikelets per spike, the number of grains per spike, and the thousand kernel weight were identified by a composite interval mapping (CIM).

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Barley recombinant lines obtained from crosses and backcrosses of common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars Emir and Golden Promise with bulbosus barley grass (H. bulbosum L.) were tested against differential set of 14 Blumeria graminis D.C. Golovin ex Speer f. sp. hordei – synamorph Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. hordei Em Marchall isolates, pathogenic fungus causing powdery mildew. Powdery mildew resistance was found in 22 from 24 lines tested. Presence of unknown genes was postulated in 13 lines. In six of these lines the unknown genes were postulated present besides Mla12 allele originated from H. vulgare parent (cv. Emir). The only line resistant to infection, from all isolates used, was 181P94/1/3/1/1/1-2. Four other lines could be considered highly resistant, because they were susceptible to only one powdery mildew isolate. The possibilities to use the hybrid lines with identified resistance to powdery mildew, especially line 181P94/1/3/1/1/1-2 in barley breeding programs were discussed.

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Triticale is derived from a cross between wheat and rye and the leaf rust pathogen of wheat, Puccinia triticina (Pt), and that of rye, P. recondita sensu stricto (Pr), can potentially cause disease in this crop. Recent studies showed that wheat rust fungi could adapt to warmer temperatures. In this paper, we report on the comparative virulence of three Pt races and one Pr isolate (all were collected in South Africa) on triticale as well as their in vitro response to temperature. Seedling infection types (SITs) of 169 triticale entries to Pt races 3SA144 (North American code SDDN), 3SA145 (CCPS) and 3SA248 (CFPS) and Pr isolate UVPr2 revealed that 3SA144 is the most virulent with 106 triticale entries found susceptible to this race. The three Pt races were avirulent to the four rye cultivars included as controls. UVPr2 was avirulent on all the triticale entries and 49 entries were considered resistant to the Pt races tested. Freshly harvested urediniospores of the above isolates were tested at constant temperature regimes of 10 °C, 22.5 °C and 35 °C to study germination characteristics. Mean urediniospore germination percentages as determined for 3SA144 (61.3%) and UVPr2 (62.6%) were significantly lower when compared to 3SA145 (83.7%) and 3SA248 (84.9%). Race 3SA144 was most sensitive to the higher temperature regime of 35 °C (5.2% germination). Among the investigated races, 3SA144 showed significantly lower mean germ tube elongation rates at all three incubation temperatures. This is the first report of differences in temperature adaptation between Pt races from SA.

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The separate roles of ethylene and gibberellins on seed germination have not been clearly established. This has limited full utilisation of these hormones in barley malting. This study was carried out to investigate the roles of gibberellins and ethylene on the germination physiology of ‘Puma’ barley seeds. Germination curves, percent germination, rootlets length and respiration rates of seeds treated with ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), gibberellic acid (GA3), daminozide (B-nine), GA3 + ethylene, GA3 + 1-MCP, ethylene + B-nine, 1-MCP + B-nine and the control were compared after 24, 48 and 72 h from soaking, respectively. GA3 and ethylene treatments were used to investigate the effects of increasing endogenous ethylene and GA3 levels, respectively. B-nine and 1-MCP treatments were used to assess the effects of inhibiting gibberellins synthesis and ethylene perception, respectively. Combination treatments were used to assess hormonal interactions. GA3 and ethylene treatments suppressed germination after 24 h, but, had no effect after 48 and 72 h, respectively. B-nine, ethylene + B-nine and 1-MCP + B-nine suppressed germination, rootlet elongation and respiration after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. 1-MCP and GA3 + 1-MCP stimulated germination after 24 h, but, had no effect after 48 and 72 h, respectively. GA3 + ethylene treatment suppressed germination and rootlet elongation but stimulated respiration after 24 h. Ethylene suppressed rootlets elongation after 24, 48 and 72 h from soaking, respectively. GA appeared to be the dominant germination hormone, and ethylene, to regulate the rate of germination through suppression of rootlets elongation.

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Authors: Sebei Abdennour, Bchini Houcine, Sayar Rhouma, Ferjaoui Sahbi and Sghaier Tahar

Introduction

Stability and adaptability of 25 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were evaluated for genotype × environment interaction (G × E) and yield stability across two environments over 2 years (2014 and 2015).

Materials and methods

Five improved varieties (Haidra, Salammbô, Tahent, Utique, and Vagua) released in Tunisia and 20 introduced genotypes (V1–V20) have been tested under two contrasted environments during 2 years characterized by different precipitations in the northwest of Tunisia. Several statistical approaches were conducted to evaluate yield stability: (a) regression coefficient (bi), (b) deviation from regression (Sdi), (c) ecovalence (Wi), (d) Hühn stability (Sli), and (e) AMMI stability value.

Results

A standard multifactor analysis of variance test showed that the main effects due to genotypes, locations, and the interaction (genotype × locations) were highly significant. The highly significant interactions indicate that genotypes need to be tested during several years and at different locations for selecting the most stable one. The results showed that all statistical analyses allowed classifying the 25 studied genotypes according to their grain yield level (low, medium, or high), their adaptability to different environments.

Conclusion

Tahent variety was confirmed to be most valuable due to its high production level, stability and its adaptability to variable environments including unfavorable ones.

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Authors: Isabel Stephany-Brassesco, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M. Heimesaat and Matthias F. Melzig

Antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae has risen to worrying levels in the past few decades worldwide, and subsequently, effective treatment of respiratory tract infections has become even more challenging. While the need to develop new strategies to combat bacterial infections is urgent, novel antibiotic compounds are no longer a priority of the pharmaceutical industry. However, resistance-modifying agents can alleviate the spread of antibiotic resistance and render existing antibiotics effective again. In the present study, we aimed to determine the combinatory antimicrobial effects of the commercial herbal product Cefabronchin® and antibiotic compounds, such as amoxicillin and clarithromycin, on 6 clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. Therefore, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each agent before and after adding Cefabronchin® at different concentrations was determined by applying the checkerboard method. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of the added Cefabronchin® were found to reduce the MIC down to between 3.4% and 29.2% of the amoxicillin MIC and down to between 10.4% and 45.8% of the clarithromycin MIC in all 6 strains. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the improved antimicrobial effects of commonly used antibiotics in combination with Cefabronchin® in order to combat infections with antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae strains.

Open access
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, S.-H. Jang, D. Liu, J. Halda, P.-E. Persson, M. Hansson, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell and J.-S. Hur

Three new genera Coppinsidea, Vandenboomia and Wolseleyidea are described and the genera Ivanpisutia, Lecaniella and Myrionora are resurrected on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Ramalinaceae including the nuclear protein-coding marker rpb2, the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the small mitochondrial subunit. The genus Hertelidea was positioned within the Ramalina clade of the phylogenetic tree of the Ramalinaceae. Bacidia sipmanii, Phyllopsora chlorophaea, P. castaneocincta and Ramalina subbreviuscula were recorded from South Korea for the first time here confirming by molecular data, too.

Forty-eight new combinations are proposed: Bacidia alnetorum (basionym: Biatora alnetorum S. Ekman et Tønsberg), Biatora amazonica (basionym: Phyllopsora amazonica Kistenich et Timdal), Biatora cuyabensis (basionym: Lecidea cuyabensis Malme), Biatora halei (basionym: Pannaria halei Tuck.), Biatora kalbii (basionym: Phyllopsora kalbii Brako), Biatora subhispidula (basionym: Psoroma subhispidulum Nyl.), Coppinsidea alba (basionym: Catillaria alba Coppins et Vězda), Coppinsidea aphana (basionym: Lecidea aphana Nyl.), Coppinsidea croatica (basionym: Catillaria croatica Zahlbr.), Coppinsidea fuscoviridis (basionym: Bilimbia fuscoviridis Anzi), Coppinsidea pallens (basionym: Bilimbia pallens Kullh.), Coppinsidea ropalosporoides (basionym: Gyalidea ropalosporoides S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Coppinsidea scotinodes (basionym: Lecidea scotinodes Nyl.), Coppinsidea sphaerella (basionym: Lecidea sphaerella Hedl.), Ivanpisutia hypophaea (basionym: Biatora hypophaea Printzen et Tønsberg), Ivanpisutia ocelliformis (basionym: Lecidea ocelliformis Nyl.), Lecaniella belgica (basionym: Lecania belgica van den Boom et Reese Naesb.), Lecaniella cyrtellina (basionym: Lecanora cyrtellina Nyl.), Lecaniella dubitans (basionym: Lecidea dubitans Nyl.), Lecaniella erysibe (basionym: Lichen erysibe Ach.), Lecaniella hutchinsiae (basionym: Lecanora hutchinsiae Nyl.), Lecaniella naegelii (basionym: Biatora naegelii Hepp), Lecaniella prasinoides (basionym: Lecania prasinoides Elenkin), Lecaniella sylvestris (basionym: Biatora sylvestris Arnold), Lecaniella tenera (basionym: Scoliciosporum tenerum Lönnr.), Mycobilimbia albohyalina (basionym: Lecidea anomala f. albohyalina Nyl.), Mycobilimbia cinchonarum (basionym: Triclinum cinchonarum Fée), Mycobilimbia concinna (basionym: Phyllopsora concinna Kistenich et Timdal), Mycobilimbia ramea (basionym: Bacidina ramea S. Ekman), Mycobilimbia siamensis (basionym: Phyllopsora siamensis Kistenich et Timdal), Myrionora australis (basionym: Biatora australis Rodr. Flakus et Printzen), Myrionora ementiens (basionym: Lecidea ementiens Nyl.), Myrionora flavopunctata (basionym: Lecanora flavopunctata Tønsberg), Myrionora globulosa (basionym: Lecidea globulosa Flörke), Myrionora hemipolia (basionym: Lecidea arceutina f. hemipolia Nyl.), Myrionora lignimollis (basionym: Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. et Printzen), Myrionora malcolmii (basionym: Phyllopsora malcolmii Vězda et Kalb), Myrionora vacciniicola (basionym: Lecidea vacciniicola Tønsberg), Phyllopsora agonimioides (basionym: Coenogonium agonimioides J. P. Halda, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur), Phyllopsora sunchonensis (basionym: Agonimia sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur), Vandenboomia chlorotiza (basionym: Lecidea chlorotiza Nyl.), Vandenboomia falcata (basionym: Lecania falcata van den Boom, M. Brand, Coppins, Magain et Sérus.), Wolseleyidea africana (basionym: Phyllopsora africana Timdal et Krog), Wolseleyidea byssiseda (basionym: Lecidea byssiseda Nyl. ex Hue), Wolseleyidea canoumbrina (basionym: Lecidea canoumbrina Vain.), Wolseleyidea furfurella (basionym: Phyllopsora furfurella Kistenich et Timdal), Wolseleyidea ochroxantha (basionym: Lecidea ochroxantha Nyl.), and Wolseleyidea swinscowii (basionym: Phyllopsora swinscowii Timdal et Krog). The combination Biatora longispora (Degel.) Lendemer et Printzen is validated here. The new names Biatora vezdana for Lecania furfuracea Vĕzda and Coppinsidea vainioana for Lecidea sphaeroidiza Vain. are proposed. The phenomenon of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen association, i.e. DNA, belonging neither to mycobiont nor photobiont or to endophytic fungi is for the first time illustrated. So the presence of nrITS and mtSSU sequences of crustose lichen Coppinsidea ropalosporoides in thalli of crustose Verrucaria margacea and foliose Kashiwadia orientalis, as well as nrITS of Phyllopsora sp. KoLRI in Agonimia pacifica and Biatora longispora, or nrITS and mtSSU of Biatora longispora in thalli of Agonimia pacifica, Oxneriopsis oxneri and Pyxine limbulata, Ivanpisutia oxneri in thalli of Rinodina xanthophaea, etc. is documented. Scarce cases of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in representatives of the Teloschistaceae, Physciaceae known from literature data are discussed, too.

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Abstract

Existing networks of nature reserves contain a biased sample of biodiversity. In Patagonia Argentina, most nature reserves focus their protection objectives on a particular ecosystem, geoform or scenic value, and usually are located in inaccessible areas. However, unique species or assemblages could inhabit less protected ecosystems, areas or habitats, which could be threatened depending of management. In this study, we assessed the conservation value of different ecosystem types and areas (fjords) in Isla de los Estados Provincial Reserve (RPIE, Argentina), using birds as study case. We chose three fjords (east, central and west) and five ecosystems types (forests at low and high elevation, open-lands at low and high elevation, and sea coasts). Bird's assemblage richness, density, biomass, trophic level, migratory status, and use of strata per ecosystems and fjords were characterized in 75 points (3 fjords × 5 ecosystems × 5 replicates) and evaluated using ANOVA and multivariate methods. Also, Shannon (H') and Pielou (J) indices were estimated for fjords and ecosystems. Passerine was the most abundant group, being mainly residents, omnivorous and carnivorous-scavenger, and they were observed mainly flying or in the canopy. Assemblage structure and function varied with ecosystem types, with higher richness and biomass in coasts and open-lands than in other ecosystems, but with greater density in forests. Multivariate analyses showed conspicuous groups for forests and coast sampling units, with significant differences among all ecosystem types except between low and high forests. Also, east fjord significantly differed in density and biomass from the others, but west fjord also differed in structure, function and bird assemblage. We conclude that greater conservation value must be assigned to ecosystem types or areas inhabited by threatened species (as open-lands at high elevation) and highest richness and variety of use of strata (as sea coasts). However, bird assemblage patterns have particularities in less valuable ecosystems and areas, which also justify their importance for conservation, or at least, prescriptions of low impact uses and activities in the management planning. Nature reserves are opportunities to preserve endemic species, habitats or areas of special interest, as low latitude or unique isolated landscape communities, and ecosystems underrepresented in the network of local, regional or world protected areas.

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Abstract

Biofouling is predicted to increase in the course of global warming, making the study and monitoring of its ecological and economic consequences of great importance. The present study describes, for the first time, recruitment and successional patterns of fouling communities in the Caspian Sea. During one year, short-term panels (STP; replaced every 2 months) and long-term panels (LTP; retrieved after 4, 8 and 12 months) were deployed in the Western Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea. Temporal trends in both sets of panels were evaluated through Generalized Additive Models and discussed in light of the environmental variables registered in each sampling event. Recruitment and successional patterns observed at the community level were mainly driven by barnacles and bryozoans, the dominant taxa over the entire sampling period. Panel coverage, biomass and inorganic to organic matter ratio exhibited clear seasonal patterns in STP, following temperature and chlorophyll a trends. In LTP, coverage and biomass increased over the study period, while the inorganic to organic matter ratio peaked in summer and decreased during autumn and winter months. These results represent a baseline for future studies on biofouling communities in the Caspian Sea, where this topic has been completely neglected.

Open access
Authors: R. Olmo Gilabert, A. F. Navia, G. De La Cruz-Agüero, J. C. Molinero, U. Sommer and M. Scotti

Abstract

Anthropic activities impact ecosystems worldwide thus contributing to the rapid erosion of biodiversity. The failure of traditional strategies targeting single species highlighted ecosystems as the most suitable scale to plan biodiversity management. Network analysis represents an ideal tool to model interactions in ecosystems and centrality indices have been extensively applied to quantify the structural and functional importance of species in food webs. However, many network studies fail in deciphering the ecological mechanisms that lead some species to occupy the most central positions in food webs. To address this question, we built a high-resolution food web of the Gulf of California and quantified species position using 15 centrality indices and the trophic level. We then modelled the values of each index as a function of traits and other attributes (e.g., habitat). We found that body size and mobility are the best predictors of indices that characterize species importance at local, meso- and global scale, especially in presence of data accounting for energy direction. This result extends previous findings that illustrated how a restricted set of traitaxes can predict whether two species interact in food webs. In particular, we show that traits can also help understanding the way species are affected by and mediate indirect effects. The traits allow focusing on the processes that shape the food web, rather than providing case-specific indications as the taxonomy-based approach. We suggest that future network studies should consider the traits to explicitly identify the causal relationships that link anthropic impacts to role changes of species in food webs.

Open access

Abstract

Seagrass meadows represent key ecosystems in coastal areas worldwide, hosting a great biodiversity of associated communities and thereby providing a large range of ecosystem services. In this study we present an experimental approach to investigate the effects of seagrass losses on related macrofauna assemblages. Over a three year period, seagrass canopies were removed in experimental plots and changes in epifauna, infauna and respective functional groups were recorded. The experimental removal of seagrass leaves resulted in a decline of 74% of overall macrofaunal abundance and the loss of several taxa. The immediate response of associated communities was followed by the establishment of an alternative assemblage, characterized by an increased number of bioturbators and deposit feeders. The colonization of disturbed seagrass plots by burrowing shrimps (Callianassidae) might have hindered the reestablishment of seagrass after the removal. Our findings highlight the important role of seagrasses as habitat forming species that provide relevant functioning and services in coastal ecosystems.

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Authors: M. Idbella, M. Zotti, G. Cesarano, T. Fechtali, S. Mazzoleni and G. Bonanomi

Abstract

Plant litter decomposition is a crucial process of nutrient cycling within ecosystems. However, many studies have shown that, apart from its several beneficial effects, organic matter decomposition can be disadvantageous to seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological activity of plants. Litter decomposition was reported to affect both plants and their associated soil microbial communities. The aim of this work was to test the relationships between seed-associated endophytic fungi on the either positive or negative plant's response to different litter types. Leaf material of four species was collected and used in a decomposition experiment inside a growth chamber for 120 days. The plant growth experiment was set in a greenhouse using Trifolium repens and Triticum durum with and without their associated endophytic fungi in the presence of the different litter species at two decay levels (fresh litter and after 120 days of decomposition). Results demonstrated that fresh litter exerted a strong inhibition effect on the plant total biomass when compared to decomposed litter. Moreover, seed-associated endophytic fungi enhanced the inhibitory effect of litter in the observed experimental conditions. The removal of seed-associated endophytic fungi improved the capacity of tested plants to resist to litter inhibitory effect.

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Abstract

Artificial light at night can impact numerous diurnal species by influencing their distribution and habits. In this study, artificial lights placed on the Jacques Cartier bridge in Montreal, Canada were evaluated to determine their impact on insects, insectivorous birds and peregrine falcons. The impact was measured the year the illumination begun and the year following (two years in total). Insect distribution and abundance at three different sites around the bridge was measured. Insectivorous bird abundance and activity were evaluated by observing the cliff swallow as a proxy. Peregrine falcon presence and nesting behavior at the bridge was measured. Insects (aerial and aquatic) were found to be more abundant closer to the illuminated part of the bridge and particularly in the year following the illumination's beginning. Similarly, cliff swallows were more abundant at the bridge the year following the start of the illumination and their activity was more important closer to the illuminated section. Peregrine falcons were only present at the bridge in the year following the beginning of the illumination and specifically at the illuminated part of the bridge. No nesting was detected. These three groups are connected to each other through a food chain in which insect abundance impacts insectivorous bird abundance, which in turn impacts peregrine falcon presence. The illumination therefore positively impacts these three groups separately and together through their food chain. This research highlights the importance of monitoring bird and insect population close to the bridge and further continuation of these observations are necessary to determine if the observed tendency will continue to develop throughout the years.

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Abstract

Plant community diversity is a major research focus in community ecology. The relationship between diversity patterns and different diversity indices is important for developing and improving biodiversity protection. In order to fully understand multi-dimensional diversity patterns of the subalpine meadow on Heyeping peak of Luya Mountain, we used a systematic sampling method and set 150 1 m × 1 m plots in June of 2018. Based on an analysis of the subalpine meadow community on Heyeping peak, we measured multiple diversity indices, carried out a correlation analysis between diversity and environmental factors, and compared correlations among different diversity indices. The goal was to clarify the ecological mechanisms and variation among various diversity indices and environmental factors. The main results were as follows: (1) The species diversity distribution was uniform, the taxonomic level was narrow, functional differences were small, and different pedigree structures were present in each plot. (2) A stable correlation between pedigree diversity index (PD) and species diversity index indicated niche conservativism; the net relatedness index (NRI) of community lineage structure was significantly correlated with the nearest species taxon index (NTI), species richness, and evenness index, indicating that plant community composition in the study area is mainly affected by habitat filtration. (3) The average taxonomic distinctness index (Λ+) and the average taxonomic distinctness index (Λ+) had a stable correlation; only the functional richness index (FRic) and Patrick species richness index were closely related. (4) Among the selected environmental factors, only the forest line had a stable correlation with species diversity index and PD and showed a negative correlation change, indicating an “edge effect” distribution of species diversity in the study area. In summary, the forest line was the key factor affecting the distribution of species diversity in the study area and the species relationships within the community. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400358).

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Authors: D. M. S. Abessa, B. R. F. Rachid, L. P. Zaroni, M. R. Gasparro, Y. A. Pinto, M. C. Bícego, M. A. Hortellan, J. E. S. Sarkis, P. Muniz, L. B. Moreira and E. C. P. M. Sousa

Abstract

The Santos Estuarine System (SES) is a complex of bays, islands, estuarine channels, and rivers located on the Southeast coast of Brazil, in which multiple contaminant sources are situated in close proximity to mangroves and other protected areas. In this study, the composition and structure of the macrobenthic communities of SES were described and ninety-nine species were identified, with the predominance of polychaetes and bivalve mollusks. The benthic assemblages also showed strong signs of stress, as indicated by the low abundance, richness and diversity, and the dominance of opportunistic species. Integrated analysis including sediment characteristics related to natural and anthropogenic factors (e.g., sediment chemistry, and toxicity) indicated that benthic fauna from the inner portions of the SES and vicinities of the SSOS diffusers as Santos Bay were affected. Some locations at the mouths of Santos and Sao Vicente estuaries exhibited moderate disturbance. In other sites from the mouth of São Vicente and Bertioga channels, and Santos Bay, the benthic fauna were considered not degraded. Our results suggest that a combination of both environmental factors and contaminants were responsible for the benthic community structure.

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Abstract

Environmental changes have been rapidly increasing in the last decades, causing unprecedented shifts in biodiversity. The impacts of biodiversity changes on ecosystem processes depend on the traits of affected species and their functional redundancy at the community level. The generated data on biodiversity-functioning in marine environments are still fragmentary and predictions on how species, communities and ecosystems will respond to the ongoing global changes are still uncertain. This selection of manuscripts presents the efforts of researchers around the world towards a better understanding on the mechanisms driving biodiversity and functioning patterns in marine ecosystems. The issue is composed of studies about first records of diversity and single species patterns in overlooked marine communities, effects of pollution in shaping species composition, foundation species and the impact of their loss on local communities, and the relevance of ecological interactions and species’ traits in structuring marine food webs. We conclude that more field and experimental studies combined to modelling are needed for understanding mechanisms that currently determine the structure and functioning of ecosystems and for improving predictions under global change scenarios.

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Authors: H. Essekhyr, K. Khalil, Z. Damsiri, G. Derhy and K. Elkalay

Abstract

The Moroccan Atlantic coast is considered as one of the richest fishing areas in the world, having rich biodiversity, and supporting the fisheries sector. However, studies have shown that the ecosystem presently suffers from overexploitation of fishery resources and environmental degradation. To quantify these impacts, the characterization of the ecosystem is essential. In this work, an Ecopath model (EwE), which assumes steady-state and mass-balanced conditions for the Moroccan Atlantic coast ecosystem, was developed and balanced. Network analysis included in the Ecopath software package was used to estimate trophic interactions and the maturity of the ecosystem. The model consisted of 29 functional groups. The results showed a Total System Throughput (TST) which is comprised mainly of flows into detritus, followed by export, consumption, and respiration. Systemic indicators, suggest that the Moroccan Atlantic coast is an immature and developing ecosystem. Further observations on the functioning and dynamics of the ecosystem are discussed.

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Authors: Ralf Ignatius, Christiane Berg, Chris Weiland, Angela Darmer, Thilo Wenzel, Marion Lorenz, Jörg Fuhrmann and Michael Müller

Stool antigen tests are recommended for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Here, we compared two novel assays, i.e., one enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and one immunochromatography assay (ICA), with a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) that had previously been compared with rapid urease test, histology, and urea breath test. Two hundred sixty-six frozen stool samples with defined CLIA results (42 positives, 219 negatives, and 5 samples with borderline results) collected between January and May 2018 were thawed and immediately tested by EIA, ICA, and CLIA.

In 248 samples with repeatedly positive/negative CLIA results, EIA and ICA were positive for 40 and 37 of 41 CLIA-positive samples and yielded negative results for 206 and 201 of 207 CLIA-negative samples, respectively. There was a high positive percent agreement (EIA, 97.6%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 86.3–100%; ICA, 90.2%; 95% CI, 76.9–96.7%), as well as a negative percent agreement between the assays (EIA, 99.5%; 95% CI, 97.0–100%; ICA, 97.1%; 95% CI, 93.7–98.8%). This was further supported by kappa values indicating very good agreement (CLIA vs. EIA, 0.971; CLIA vs. ICA, 0.857). In conclusion, both EIA and ICA comprise valuable assays for the detection of H. pylori antigen in stool samples.

Open access

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are among the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, particularly in Africa. Poultry remains a major source of Campylobacter species and a vector of transmission to humans.

This pilot study was aimed at isolating and determining the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter spp. from fresh poultry droppings collected from poultry farms in Lagos State, Nigeria. Susceptibility was assessed using the CLSI standards.

Standard microbiological methods were used in isolation, identification, and characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.

Of the 150 poultry droppings analyzed, 8 (5.3%) harbored Campylobacter spp. All isolates proved to be C. coli since they were all negative for the hip gene. A percentage of 100% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin, and streptomycin. While 87.5% were susceptible to amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 62.5% were susceptible to tetracycline. Surprisingly, 62.5% of C. coli had decreased (intermediate) susceptibility to erythromycin.

Although there was a low prevalence of C. coli from poultry in this study, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains circulating the food chain could result in treatment failures and difficulty in case management if involved in infections of humans.

Open access
Authors: Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Slimane Khayi, Said Oulghazi, Brahim Bouchrif, Abdellah El Allaoui, Bouchra Ouhmidou and Mohieddine Moumni

Salmonella is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide, and the infection with multidrug-resistant strains can cause severe diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, to detect the virulence genes, and to study the genetic diversity of isolated Salmonella strains using 16S rRNA sequences. For this, 34 Salmonella strains isolated from sausages were identified using biochemical and serological methods. Molecular tools were used to evaluate the presence of virulence genes (orgA, sitC, sipB, spiA, iroN, and sifA) using simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to sequence 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analysis. The susceptibility to 24 selected antibiotics was also studied. The results of this study showed that all isolated Salmonella were positive for targeted virulence genes and were resistant to at least one antibiotic. However, the multidrug resistance was observed in 44% of isolated strains. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences highlighted that Salmonella isolates were divided into 3 clusters and 3 sub-clusters, with a ≥98% similarity to Salmonella enterica species. From this study, we conclude that sausages are considered as a potential source of Salmonella, which could be a major risk to public health.

Open access

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench contains various phenolic compounds such as anthocyanin. Eleven sorghum accessions were classified into five groups by grain colour and their antioxidant activities were measured as well as the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and anthocyanins in sorghum grains. The grain colour was related to TPC content, but not to monomelic anthocyanin content. Moreover, the overall patterns of antioxidant activity levels in 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay were similar to those of the TPC content. Correlations between TPC and anthocyanin contents were statistically significant and positive (P < 0.05). TPC content showed also a strong positive correlation to DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activities. The results provide the basic data for breeding of sorghum varieties containing large amounts of antioxidants.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat causing significant yield and quality losses globally. Breeding for host plant resistance is an economic approach to FHB control and management. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of resistance from newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat. A total of 778 RILs were developed through a bi-parental mating design followed by continuous selfing and selection. The RILs along with their eight parental lines (Baviaans, Buffels, Duzi, #910, #936, #937, #942 and #1036) and FHB resistant check cultivar ‘Sumai 3’ and susceptible check ‘SST 806’ were field evaluated across four environments in South Africa. Fusarium graminearum isolates were artificially inoculated to initiate infection and disease development. The percentage of wheat spikes showing FHB symptoms were scored. The research identified six percent of the RILs with disease resistance. Heritability for FHB resistance was the highest (64%) indicating the possibility of achieving higher selection gains for FHB resistance across the selected environments. The following five RILs were identified as potential sources of resistance: 681 (Buffels/1036-71), 134 (Duzi/910-8), 22 (Baviaans/910-22), 717 (Baviaans/937-8) and 133 (Duzi/910-7) with mean FHB scores of 6.8%, 7.8%, 9.5%, 9.8% and 10%, respectively. The selected lines expressed comparatively similar levels of resistance compared with that of Sumai 3. The identified RILs are useful genetic resources for resistance breeding against FHB disease of wheat. Since the presence of the F. graminearum is associated with deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation, the DON levels amongst the selected lines should be determined to ensure the release of improved wheat cultivars with reduced levels of DON accumulation.

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The biology of Sesamia inferens (Walker) was studied at 25±1 °C and 70±5 per cent relative humidity on PMH 1 maize hybrid. The incubation period was 6.82±0.05 days. There were six larval instars and the larval development was completed in 29.95±0.16 days. The duration of instars I-VI was 4.17±0.09, 3.60±0.08, 4.47±0.02, 4.40±0.03, 6.18±0.06 and 7.13±0.05 days, respectively. The pre-pupal period was 2.83±0.02 days. The male and female pupa had duration of 8.05±0.12 days and 10.33±0.16 days, respectively. The adult emergence was 93.02±0.01 per cent, with a sex ratio of 1:1.05. The males had shorter longevity of 3.92±0.23 days, while females had 5.05±0.28 days. The pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition period was 1.11±0.10, 2.96±0.19 and 0.79±0.10 days, respectively. The fecundity was 211.92 ±11.92 eggs with 53.69±10.78 eggs per cluster. The egg hatchability was 92.19±0.01 per cent. The total life cycle was completed in 47.65±0.24 days (Male) and 49.93±0.21 days (female). The observations on the biology will help in developing efficient strategies to manage S. inferens on maize in the north western plains of India.

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Authors: E. Sapi, K. Gupta, K. Wawrzeniak, G. Gaur, J. Torres, K. Filush, A. Melillo and B. Zelger

Our research group has recently shown that Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease bacterium, is capable of forming biofilms in Borrelia-infected human skin lesions called Borrelia lymphocytoma (BL). Biofilm structures often contain multiple organisms in a symbiotic relationship, with the goal of providing shelter from environmental stressors such as antimicrobial agents. Because multiple co-infections are common in Lyme disease, the main questions of this study were whether BL tissues contained other pathogenic species and/or whether there is any co-existence with Borrelia biofilms. Recent reports suggested Chlamydia-like organisms in ticks and Borrelia-infected human skin tissues; therefore, Chlamydia-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were performed in Borrelia-positive BL tissues. Analyses of the sequence of the positive PCR bands revealed that Chlamydia spp. DNAs are indeed present in these tissues, and their sequences have the best identity match to Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Fluorescent immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods demonstrated the presence of Chlamydia antigen and DNA in 84% of Borrelia biofilms. Confocal microscopy revealed that Chlamydia locates in the center of Borrelia biofilms, and together, they form a well-organized mixed pathogenic structure. In summary, our study is the first to show BorreliaChlamydia mixed biofilms in infected human skin tissues, which raises the questions of whether these human pathogens have developed a symbiotic relationship for their mutual survival.

Open access

The seed-borne (Pyrenophora graminea; Pg) and foliar (Blumeria graminis; Bg) are two economically important fungal pathogens of barley worldwide. Barley plant resistance genes, as the pathogenesis related proteins play an important role in defense mechanisms. This study aimed to monitor the expression of PR2 and PAL pathogenesis related genes during compatible/incompatible barley interaction with Pg and Bg at different time points of disease development using the Quantitative Real-time PCR technique (qRT-PCR).

Comparison of data showed that PR2 and PAL were significantly over expressed in infected resistant and susceptible plants as against their lower expression in controls,. Upregulation of these defense-related genes during Pg and Bg infections was companied with a slow development of disease symptoms at the time course in the resistant genotype. qRT-PCR analysis revealed higher gene expression in resistant barley plants inoculated with Pg as compared with Bg, with a maximum expression for PR2 (13.8 and 5.06-fold) and PAL (14.8 and 4.51-fold) respectively, at the latest stage of each disease development. It was also noteworthy that PR2 and PAL genes, had higher constitutive expression and faster induction for the both pathogens in the resistant genotype as compared with the susceptible one.

Obtained results suggest that both genes, PR2 and PAL, positively regulate Pg- and Bg-resistance in barley plants during disease progress. These expression patterns can provide useful insights to better understanding of the barley–fungus interactions with different fungal lifestyles.

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Fusarium wilt of tomato is one of the most prevalent and economically important diseases of tomato worldwide especially in tropical regions. The aims of the present study were to isolate and characterize Bacillus bacteria from tomato rhizospheric soil of various regions in Iran and determine the isolates that exhibit high levels of antagonistic efficiency against tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and growth promotion activity. In this study, 303 Bacillus isolates were obtained from tomato rhizospheric soil. Dual culture and volatile metabolite tests were used to screen for antagonism of Bacillus isolates against Fol. Among them, 20 isolates were found to inhibit pathogen growth by 67.77% and 33.33% in dual culture and volatile metabolite tests, respectively. Based on the results of physiological tests and 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequence analysis of 20 effective isolates, 11, seven and two isolates were identified as B. subtilis, B. velezensis and B. cereus, respectively. The results of greenhouse assessment showed that KR1-2, KR2-7 and A2-9 isolates which were characterized as Bacillus subtilis, reduced the disease index to 16.67% and promoted the plant growth by 80%. These isolates may serve as potential promising biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt of tomato.

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High molecular weight (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight (LMW-GS) glutenin subunits play a significant role in bread making quality and extensibility, though they signify merely 10% and 40% of the entire seed storage proteins. For the estimation of bread quality on the basis of allelic difference in HMW-GS and LMW-GS at Glu-1 and 3 loci, wheat germplasm (77 genotypes) was collected from diverse agro-climatic regions of Pakistan and characterized by using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Thirty distinct allelic arrangements were identified with a sum of thirteen Glu-1 alleles. Maximum frequency of allele 1 was found in twenty-nine genotypes at Glu-A1 locus while high proportion of subunit pairs 13 + 16 and 2 + 12 was detected in 33 and 32 genotypes at Glu-B1 as well as Glu-D1 locus, respectively. Few rare alleles were also separated out. The quality scores ranged from 4–10, however highest quality score of ten was more recurrent (36.36%). A good quality score of 8 and 6 were found in 32.47% as well as 19.48% of genotypes individually. In LMW-GS, seventeen diverse combinations of alleles with aggregate of ten Glu-3 alleles were detected. Glu-A3c and Glu-B3d alleles were observed in 33 (42.85%) genotypes, encoding high sedimentation and protein contents. Hence, this will enable the breeders to utilize both glutenin subunits as biochemical indicator for selecting superior wheat genotypes possessing enhanced bread making quality.

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Background and aims

Studies combining brain activity measures with behavior have the potential to reveal more about animal cognition than either on their own. However, brain measure procedures in animal studies are often practically challenging and cost-prohibitive. Therefore, we test whether a simple measure of ear temperature can be used to index hemispheric brain activation using a handheld thermoscanner. Cortisol levels are correlated with the activation of the right cortical region, implying that, when stressful situations are experienced, increased right hemisphere activation occurs. This leads to corresponding locally detectable increases in ipsilateral ear temperature.

Methods

We compared right- and left-ear temperatures of 32 domestic dogs under non-stressful and partially stressful conditions.

Results

We detected significant elevations in right-ear temperature – but not left-ear temperature – relative to baseline readings in the partially stressful condition that were not detected in the non-stressful condition.

Discussion

These findings provide encouraging support for the notion that tympanic membrane temperature readings can provide a simple index for canine hemispheric brain activation, which can be combined with data on behavioral decision-making, expectancy violations, or other measures of emotional processing. Devices are cheap, simple to use, portable, and only minimally invasive providing a means for real-time brain and behavior measurements to be conducted in real-world settings.

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Water deficit is a most limiting factor for wheat in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. The effects of drought stress on some root features and yield and yield components in wheat (Trticum aestivum L.) were carried out in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design, under greenhouse condition. The four experimental irrigation regimes, irrigation after 75% of the water was depleted (control), irrigation after 65% of the water was depleted (mild stress), irrigation after 55% of the water was depleted (moderate stress) and irrigation after 45% of the water was depleted (severe stress) were randomized for the main plots. The subplot treatments included eight wheat genotypes. Results showed that Interaction Drought stress with Variety had significantly affected on Total Root Volume and Dry Matter, Number of Tiller and also Shoot Dry Matter. Value of Total Root Volume and Dry Matter, Shoot Dry Matter and Number of Tiller in irrigated varieties were more than rainfed in whole of Drought stresses. N-87-20 variety had most amounts of Total Root Dry Matter, Total Root Volume (exception of control) in all of stresses and control. Root properties influence on yield and other morphological traits of wheat. Stress intensification increase root growth than plant organ so that wheat root can uptake water from soil to compensate damage caused by stress.

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Authors: Kálmán Czeibert, Attila Andics, Örs Petneházy and Enikő Kubinyi

Background and aims

Dogs have recently become an important model species for comparative social and cognitive neuroscience. Brain template-related label maps are essential for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, to localize neural responses. In this study, we present a detailed, individual-based, T1-weighted MRI-based brain label map used in dog neuroimaging analysis.

Methods

A typical, medium-headed dog (a 7.5-year-old male Golden Retriever) was selected from a cohort of 22 dogs, based on brain morphology (shape, size, and gyral pattern), to serve as the template for a label map.

Results

Eighty-six 3-dimensional labels were created to highlight the main cortical (cerebral gyri on the lateral and medial side) and subcortical (thalamus, caudate nucleus, amygdala, and hippocampus) structures of the prosencephalon and diencephalon, and further main parts of brainstem (mesencephalon and rhombencephalon).

Discussion

Importantly, this label map is (a) considerably more detailed than any available dog brain template; (b) it is easy to use with freeware and commercial neuroimaging software for MRI and fMRI analysis; and (c) it can be registered to other existing templates, including a recent average-based dog brain template. Using the coordinate system and label map proposed here can enhance precision and standard localization during future canine neuroimaging studies.

Open access
Authors: Matthias F. Emele, Matti Karg, Helmut Hotzel, Linda Graaf-van Bloois, Uwe Groß, Oliver Bader and Andreas E. Zautner

Campylobacter fetus is a causative agent of intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections and meningitis. C. fetus currently comprises three subspecies: C. fetus subspecies fetus (Cff), C. fetus subspecies venerealis (Cfv), and C. fetus subspecies testudinum (Cft). Cff and Cfv are primarily associated with mammals whereas Cft is associated with reptiles.

To offer an alternative to laborious sequence-based techniques such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ribotyping for this species, the purpose of the study was to develop a typing scheme based on proteotyping.

In total, 41 representative C. fetus strains were analyzed by intact cell mass spectrometry and compared to MLST results. Biomarkers detected in the mass spectrum of C. fetus subsp. fetus reference strain LMG 6442 (NCTC 10842) as well as corresponding isoforms were associated with the respective amino acid sequences and added to the C. fetus proteotyping scheme.

In combination, the 9 identified biomarkers allow the differentiation of Cft subspecies strains from Cff and Cfv subspecies strains. Biomarkers to distinguish between Cff and Cfv were not found. The results of the study show the potential of proteotyping to differentiate different subspecies, but also the limitations of the method.

Open access

Zymoseptoria tritici, a globally distributed pathogen, is responsible of Septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most damaging wheat diseases. In Italy the incidence of STB has increased during the past few years. The presence of Z. tritici on flag leaves of susceptible durum wheat plants, cultivar San Carlo, after a single artificial inoculation with two inoculum concentrations at different vegetative stages has been evaluated in the plain of Bologna (North of Italy), in a two year field study (2012–2013). The pathogen presence was also assessed in natural infection conditions after a fungicide application in the second year (2013). The results obtained, by visual examination (Incidence, Disease Severity) and DNA quantification by Real time PCR, demonstrated that BBCH 39 (flag leaf stage) is the most susceptible vegetative stage, independently of inoculum concentration and climatic conditions. A good correlation between Disease Severity and DNA quantity was observed in either sampling methods, entire flag leaves and flag leaf discs. Thereafter the most suitable period to obtain the best crop protection with only one fungicide treatment is the flag leaf stage.

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Authors: Y.G. Shi, Y. Lian, H.W. Shi, S.G. Wang, H. Fan, D.Z. Sun and R.L. Jing

Senescence in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf is a programmed degeneration process leading to death. During this process, green leaf area duration (GLAD) and green leaf number of main stem (GLNMS) are gradually reduced. In this study, the two traits of Hanxuan10/Lumai14 DH population at different development stages after anthesis were evaluated under rainfed and irrigated conditions, and QTLs were detected. GLAD and GLNMS of two parents and DH population under rainfed condition were less than those under irrigated condition, and close correlations (P < 0 05) were found between GLAD and GLNMS after 25 DAA under both water conditions. GLAD and GLNMS were co-controlled by major and minor genes. QTLs for GLAD were stably expressed at different development stages after anthesis under both water conditions, such as QGlad22-1B-1, QGlad25-1B-1, QGlad28-1B-2 detected under irrigated condition and QGlad25-1B-3, QGlad28-1B-4 mapped under rainfed condition were located at a 20.7 cM marker interval of Xgwm273-EST122 on 1B chromosome. But QTLs for GLNMS were inducibly and specifically expressed at specific developmental stages after anthesis under both water conditions. The findings provide dynamic genetic information related to wheat senescence.

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Authors: I. El Aymani, S. El Gabardi, M. Artib, M. Chliyeh, K. Selmaoui, A. Ouazzani Touhami, R. Benkirane and A. Douira

The diversity of endomycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Crocus sativus has been studied at five sites in the Taliouine region (Tinfat), located in Taroudant Province (Morocco), according to the number of years of soil exploitation by Saffron cultivation. In all sites, the roots of Crocus sativus carry structures of endomycorrhizal fungi. Root mycorrhizal frequencies are very high in site 1 (93.33%); site 2 (96.67%); site 4 (90%) and in site 6 (93.33%). In these sites, the spore density is, respectively, 39, 58, 138, 99 spores / 100 g of soil. The frequency of root mycorrhization is lower at the site (76.66%) which also exhibited a spore density of 27 spores / 100 g of soil.

The identification of isolated spores made it possible to note the presence of 36 species belonging to 6 genera: Glomus (15 species), Acaulospora (10 species), Scutellospora (6 species), Gigaspora (2 species), Pacispora (2 species), Entrophospora (1 species). Species such as Glomus clarum, G. etunicatum, G. aggregatum, G. intraradices, Acaulospora laevis, Scutellospora coralloidea, were present in all studied sites.

The greatest richness of MA fungi was registers in the site at four successive years of exploitation by Saffron (24 species), with a Shannon diversity index H ‘= 2.82 which is the highest among all studied sites, followed by the site at six years of occupation by Saffron (21 species), with H ‘= 2.61, while the lowest number of species was recorded in sites of two, three and ten years of exploitation of sol by Saffron, with H ‘= 1.77, respectively; 2.12 and 2.44.

This decrease in endomycorrhizal species richness confirms that Crocus sativus residues are probably the cause. In fact, the prolonged occupation of plots with safrana has an allelopathic effect on mycoflora and on the yield of Saffron.

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Authors: Ivaylo Borislavov Iotchev, Anna Egerer, Serena Grafe, András Adorján and Enikő Kubinyi

Introduction

The aim of this study was to explore spontaneous social interactions between dyads of unfamiliar adult dogs. Although intraspecific encounters are frequent events in the life of pet dogs, the factors that might influence encounters, such as sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, age, and state of cohabitation (keeping the dogs singly or in groups), remained unexplored.

Methods

In this study, we assigned unfamiliar, non-aggressive dogs to three types of dyads defined by sex and size. We observed their unrestrained, spontaneous behaviors in an unfamiliar dog park, where only the two dogs, the owners, and experimenter were present.

Results

We found that the dogs, on average, spent only 17% of the time (less than 1 min) in proximity. Sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, and age influenced different aspects of the interactions in dyads. Female dogs were more likely to initiate the first contact in their dyad but later approached the partner less frequently, were less likely to move apart, and displayed less scent marking. Following and moving apart were more frequent in male–male interactions. Neutered dogs spent more time following the other dog and sniffed other dogs more frequently. The time companion dogs spent in proximity and number of approaches decreased with age.

Conclusion

The study provides guidance for dog owners about the outcomes of intraspecific encounters based on the dog’s age, sex, and reproductive status, as well as the sex of the interacting partner.

Open access
Authors: S. Tang, L. Li, Q.Y. Zhou, W.Z. Liu, H.X. Zhang, W. Z. Chen and Y.F. Ding

Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.

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Yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) are economically destructive viral diseases of cereal crops, which cause the reduction of harvested yield and quality of grains. Up to now the identification of such viruses was limited to monocotyledonous Poaceae weed hosts, and was not investigated in dicotyledons. In this study, using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR methods, 6 dicotyledonous weed species, collected from Trakya, Turkey, were examined for the presence of the YDVs pathogens BYDV-PAV, BYDV-MAV, BYDV-RMV, BYDV-SGV and CYDV-RPV. The screening tests revealed certain samples of Geranium dissectum L. and Juncus compressus Jacq. were infected with BYDV-PAV, while other samples of the same species were positive for BYDV-MAV. Additionally, RT-PCR tests of both weed species revealed cases of mixed infection by BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. Transmission experiments using the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. showed that BYDV-PAV was transmitted persistently from Geranium dissectum to barley cv. Barbaros seedlings. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Geranium dissectum and Juncus compressus as possible plant hosts of BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV in Turkey.

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Authors: A. Ansari Pour, S. Tirgari, J. Shakarami, S. Imani and A. F. Dousti

Flies damage the livestock industry in many ways, including damages, physical disturbances, the transmissions of pathogens and the emergence of problems for livestock like Myiasis. In this research, the fauna of flies of Marvdasht County was investigating, which is one of the central counties of Fars province in southern Iran. In this study, a total of 20 species of flies from 6 families and 15 genera have been identified and reported. The species collected are as follows:

  • Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758, Musca autumnalis* De Geer, 1776, Stomoxys calci-trans** Linnaeus, 1758, Haematobia irritans** Linnaeus, 1758
  • Fanniidae: Fannia canicularis* Linnaeus, 1761
  • Calliphoridae: Calliphora vomitoria* Linnaeus, 1758, Chrysomya albiceps* Wiedemann, 1819, Lu-cilia caesar* Linnaeus, 1758, Lucilia sericata* Meigen, 1826, Lucilia cuprina* Wiedemann, 1830
  • Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga africa* Wiedemann, 1824, Sarcophaga aegyptica* Salem, 1935, Wohl-fahrtia magnifica** Schiner, 1862
  • Syrphidae: Eristalis tenax* Linnaeus, 1758, Syritta pipiens* Linnaeus, 1758, Eupeodes nuba* Wiedemann, 1830, Syrphus vitripennis** Meigen, 1822, Scaeva albomaculata* Macquart, 1842

Species identified with * for the first time in the county and the species marked with ** are reported for the first time from the Fars province.

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A survey of gall-inducing aphids on elm and poplar trees was carried out during 2017 in Razavi Khorasan province, NE Iran. As a result, 15 species of gall-inducing aphids from 5 genera, all belonging to the subfamily Eriosomatinae, were recorded on 6 host plant species. The collected species included the genera Eriosoma, Kaltenbachiella, Pemphigus, Tetraneura and Thecabius. Pemphigus passeki Börner (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Pemphigus populinigrae (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Populus nigra var. italica (Salicaceae) were new records for the Iranian aphid fauna. Both new recorded species belong to the tribe Pem-phigini, subfamily Eriosomatinae. Among the identified species, 8 aphid species were new records for Razavi Khorasan province.

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Authors: R. Goswami, R.U. Zunjare, S. Khan, V. Muthusamy, A. Baveja, A.K. Das, S.K. Jaiswal, J.S. Bhat, S.K. Guleria and F. Hossain

Vitamin-A deficiency is a major health concern. Traditional yellow maize possesses low provitamin-A (proA). Mutant crtRB1 gene significantly enhances proA. 24 experimental hybrids possessing crtRB1 allele were evaluated for β-carotene (BC), β-cryptoxanthin (BCX), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEA), total carotenoids (TC) and grain yield at multi-locations. BC (0.64–17.24 µg/g), BCX (0.45–6.84 µg/g), proA (0.86–20.46 µg/g), LUT (9.60–31.03 µg/g), ZEA (1.24–12.73 µg/g) and TC (20.60–64.02 µg/g) showed wide variation. No significant genotype × location interaction was observed for carotenoids. The mean BC (8.61 µg/g), BCX (4.04 µg/g) and proA (10.63 µg/g) in crtRB1-based hybrids was significantly higher than normal hybrids lacking crtRB1-favourable allele (BC: 1.73 µg/g, BCX: 1.29 µg/g and proA: 2.37 µg/g). Selected crtRB1-based hybrids possessed 33% BC and 40% BCX compared to 6% BC and 5% BCX in normal hybrids. BC showed positive correlation with BCX (r = 0.90), proA (r = 0.99) and TC (r = 0.64) among crtRB1-based hybrids. Carotenoids didn't show association with grain yield. Average yield potential of proA rich hybrids (6794 kg/ha) was at par with normal hybrids (6961 kg/ha). PROAH-13, PROAH-21, PROAH-17, PROAH-11, PROAH-23, PROAH-24 and PROAH-3 were the most promising with >12 µg/g proA and >6000 kg/ha grain yield. The newly identified crtRB1-based hybrids assume significance in alleviating malnutrition.

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Introduction

Dog boots are being utilized to improve performance and welfare of dogs exposed to a range of adverse conditions; however, there is a lack of empirical evidence establishing the impact of these on gait characteristics. The aim of this research was to quantify alterations to ground force kinetics associated with the introduction of canine boots.

Methods

Six clinically sound beagles were analyzed on two separate occasions using a cross-over study design to enable randomization between barefoot and shod conditions. During each session, dogs were trotted by an experienced handler over an AMTI force plate sampling at 1,000 Hz to quantify stance time, peak vertical force, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate, and vertical impulse.

Results

Although there was no significant difference found between footwear conditions for stance time, peak vertical force, and vertical impulse, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate was significantly greater in shod when compared to barefoot.

Discussion

Findings suggest that while canine boots may provide environmental protection, increases in loading rate are indicative of alterations in foot strike that may result in overloading of musculoskeletal structures. Therefore, caution must be taken when introducing footwear to ensure an adequate adjustment period.

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Introduction

Converging evidence suggests that the presence of (attentive) others has a positive effect on people’s propensity to conform to social rules. It is also increasingly accepted that pet dogs are promising test subjects to study non-human analogues of “audience effect.” This study investigates whether dogs show a tendency to change their behavior according to the visual attention of familiar and unfamiliar human partners in a situation in which human partners disallowed the dog from eating a piece of food.

Methods

Dogs (n = 64) participated in two observational conditions (Attentive Owner and Attentive Experimenter) and a control condition in which both human participants engaged in distracting activity.

Results

The results showed that the identity of the attentive or inattentive partner has little relevance to the dogs’ gazing behavior (i.e., head orientation toward the different partners and the food) and their decisions about breaking or following the rule. This is in line with previous studies suggesting that the presence of the owner predominantly determines the dogs’ responses to such situations.

Discussion

Further analysis of dogs responding differently to the obedience challenge showed marked differences in the role of the “audience effect” might play in modulating “fully obedient,” “ignorer,” and “hesitating” dogs’ gazing behavior. These findings point to the context-dependent nature of the audience effect in dogs and highlight the importance of frequently ignored individual differences in dogs’ tendency to conform to the situational rules.

Open access

The addition of synthetic eugenol and benzyl acetate to the known floral chemical and moth attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the silver Y moth Autographa gamma, an important noctuid pest. Traps baited with the ternary blend caught 2 to 6 times more A. gamma moths than traps baited with phenylac-etaldehyde alone. Both female and male moths were attracted, supposedly in the natural sex ratio of the local population. More A. gamma were caught when the blend was formulated in dispenser types with higher release rates. Traps baited with the ternary lure in polyethylene bag dispensers caught 20% to 34% as many moths as were caught in traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone, suggesting that this improved bisexual lure could be efficient enough to yield a new tool for detection and monitoring of female and male A. gamma, for more reliable plant protection decisions.

The same ternary lure also improved trap catches of moths over phenylacetaldehyde alone for the plusiinae pests MacDunnoughia confusa (in Europe) and Autographa californica (in North America) and for the Noctuinae cutworm Xestia c-nigrum (in North America).

Open access