Thirty Trichoderma isolates isolated from compost, various crops and soil with roots of adjacent sites to the phosphate mines of Morocco, were tested in vitro for their potential to solubilize phosphorus from phosphate rock. The qualitative assessment of phosphate solubilization by Trichoderma isolates was performed on Modified Pikovskaya Agar (MPA) solid medium. The visual observation of the 3- and 6-day-old cultures did not show any clear zone around the colony. However, all the isolates were able to grow on the culture medium 3 days after incubation, the maximum recorded diameter was 58.6 mm for isolate TR-B 98 (3) and the minimum value was 34.8 mm for isolate TS-EM-98 (2). After 6 days, they showed good radial growth that exceeded 79.8 mm with variable appearance of the mycelial density such as the isolates TS-B 98, TS-EM-98 (1) and TR-CB 2000 (1) that presented, respectively, high, regular and low mycelial density. Also, the Trichoderma isolates produced variable number of conidia on MPA medium. Quantitative estimation on the Modified Pikovskaya Broth (MPB) liquid medium showed a variable potential of the Trichoderma isolates to solubilize phosphate when the amount of soluble phosphorus remained low in the liquid medium without the fungus (0.26 mgL−1). The maximum concentration of soluble phosphorus was 11.92 mgL−1 with percentage of soluble phosphorus equal to 95.39% recorded by the isolate TR-TB 2000 after 9 days of incubation, followed by the isolates TR-B 98 (3), TS-B 98 and TR-EM 2 respectively, 11.20, 10.47 and 9.61 mgL−1 and 89.6, 83.76 and 76.38%. In addition, treatments with Trichoderma isolates provided a lower final broth pH which varied between 6.81 for TOL isolate and 3.40 for TS-B-2000 (2) compared to initial pH (7.2). The isolates that proved potent for phosphate solubilization displayed the highest fresh and dry weights such as TR-TB 2000 (FW = 4.11 g and DW = 2.56 g), while the lowest fresh and dry weight were noted in the weakest isolates for phosphate solubilization such as T27 (FW = 1.025 g and DW = 0.58 g).
The high solubilization potential of Trichoderma isolates can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphorus present in the soil, thus improving soil fertility and plant growth.
Agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. The purpose of this study was to show the convulsion-reducing effect of agomelatine, in both clinical and electrophysiological terms, in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced experimental epilepsy model in rats.
The anticonvulsant activity of agomelatine (25 and 50 mg/kg) was evaluated in rat models of PTZ (35 and 70 mg/kg) and compared with the control groups.
Agomelatine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg resulted in a statistically significant decrease in convulsion scores and time to onset of myoclonic jerks compared to the control groups. In addition, comparison of the two doses employed showed that high-dose agomelatine (50 mg/kg) was significantly more effective than the lower dose. In addition to previous studies, we investigated the anticonvulsant effect of agomelatine using electroencephalogram (EEG). Administration of agomelatine at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg in PTZ-induced seizures caused a significant decrease in the percentage of peak at EEG.
Our results suggest that agomelatine has anticonvulsant activity shown in PTZ-induced seizure model. The results also give some evidences that agomelatine can use on epileptic seizures, but more studies are needed.
Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of common root rot (CRR), is a devastating fungal pathogen of barley that can cause significant yield losses worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars has proven difficult, therefore, in this work, CRR-resistant barley germplasm was developed by crossing three resistant-by-susceptible cultivars currently used in Europe and West Asia. Following greenhouse evaluations of 150 doubled haploid lines derived from these crosses, 40 lines were evaluated under artificial infection conditions using incidence and severity parameters during two consecutive seasons. Data showed significant differences among barley lines with a continuum of resistance levels ranging from highly susceptible to resistant which were consistent in both seasons. However, five promising lines had slightly lower CRR disease than the others. Additionally, significant differences (P <0.05) in mean incidence and severity values were found among lines, with values being consistently higher in the susceptible ones. However, CRR severity increased linearly as incidence increased in both seasons. All together, the present study suggests that, the newly identified resistance lines can serve as potential donors for ongoing CRR resistance breeding program to generate high-yielding commercial barley cultivars, and that the positive correlation between CRR parameters I and S may be beneficial for many types of studies on this disease.
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is an economically important fruit tree species with complex flowering characteristics. To obtain accurate expression pattern analysis results, it is vital to select a reliable gene for the normalization of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal internal control gene among six candidate genes for gene expression analysis in different persimmon organs and developmental stages.
Materials and methods
This analysis was conducted using geNorm and NormFinder software to show differences in the stability of the six reference genes among tissues and floral developmental stages of the same plant.
Although genes that exhibited moderate expression in NormFinder revealed slightly different expression stabilities than those obtained by geNorm, both sets of results showed that GAPDH was the best reference gene in different organs and floral buds at different developmental stages, whereas 18SrRNA was the least stable gene.
Based on the overall ranking, GAPDH is the most suitable reference gene and is highly recommended for gene expression studies in different organs and different developmental stages of persimmon. This study provides useful reference data for future gene expression studies and will contribute to improving the accuracy of gene expression results in persimmon.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is found within the first five most common tumors worldwide. Sorafenib is an approved agent in HCC treatment. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The aim of the study is to investigate the combination of sertraline and sorafenib at hepatocellular cancer cell proliferation and death.
HepG2 cells were treated with drugs and viability test XTT was performed. Cells were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examination or with anti-Bcl-2 antibody and Hoechst 33258 for immunofluorescence.
Viability results supported dose-dependent antiproliferative effect for both sertraline and sorafenib. Microscopic evaluation of stained cells exerts morphological changes.
This is the first study to show that sorafenib and sertraline have synergistic effect in hepatocellular cancer.
Introduction: The study was performed to estimate the prevalence and determinants of occurrence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in paratroopers and navy soldiers by anonymously analyzing medical records from the medical departments of two large German barracks in order to assess the need for medical STI prevention.
Methods: Medical records from 80 paratroopers and 80 navy soldiers were screened for records of STI. Results were anonymously collected next to information on risk factors, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic management, and comparatively assessed.
Results: Proportions of suspected STIs were 17.5% and 20%, and proportions of diagnosed STIs were 13.9% and 11.3% for paratroopers and navy soldiers, respectively. Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, and genital scabies were observed in paratroopers and navy soldiers, while Gardnerella vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, Molluscum contagiosum virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis were additionally identified in navy soldiers.
Conclusions: Although clinical hints for STIs were frequently observed, clinical management was usually restricted to syndrome-based antibiotic treatment without detailed diagnostic workup, leaving room for procedural improvement. Ongoing need for medical STI prevention in the military could be confirmed.
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t) is well known for its biocontrol potential against a variety of insects. Nematicidal potential of ten B.t isolates was tested against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood) in vitro, under greenhouse as well as in field conditions. Eggs and second stage juveniles (J2) were exposed to 5 and 25% concentrations of bacterial cell-free aqueous extracts up to 96 h. B.t isolates showed lesser degrees of nematicidal activity at 5% concentration. However, some B.t isolates (B.t-14, B.t-16 and B.t-64) greatly reduced egg hatching and increased J2. All B.t isolates revealed suppressed egg hatching and increased mortality of J2 at 25% concentration. Soil applications with most of the B.t isolates under greenhouse and field conditions significantly improved height and fresh weights of root-knot nematode parasitized okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench). Some isolates, including B.t-64 reduced the number of galls and egg masses. B.t-64 reduced gall formation up to 70% under greenhouse conditions. However, 29% of decrease was observed in field conditions. Similarly, B.t-64 treated plants showed a 56% decreased in eggs/egg mass in a field experiment. Population of root-knot nematodes in the rhizosphere was decreased up to 61% in the field experiment as compared to control.
Climate change has significantly affected wheat yield. Many studies have suggested that rising temperatures could be harmful to cereals around the world. Thus, the valorization of the desert wheat resources is essential to improve the resistance of this species to climate change. In this context, twenty-eight different local Saharan bread wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) genotypes were described using ten preselected SSR markers. The tested SSRs produced a total number of 20 alleles with an allelic size ranged from 100 pb (WMC261) to 400 pb (WMC257). The allele frequency varied from 0.1 for the allele 230 pb (WMC156) to 1 for the alleles 187 pb, 310 pb (WMC97, WMC168). Likewise, the PIC values ranged from 0 (WMC97, WMC168) to 0.5 (WMC327, WMC233), with an average of 0.34 and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0 to 0.88, with an average of 0.55. The molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest level of intra-population differentiation of local Saharan bread wheat (97%) and the statistical geometric distributions based on PCoA, NJ method and structure analysis confirmed the existence of four major classes of bread wheat. These results substantiate the previous researches based on the morphological markers and contribute for the first time in Algeria to create the genetic fingerprint of the Saharan bread wheat resources and to valorize their drought resistance potential through breeding programs.
Leaf litter breakdown is an important process in riparian ecosystems, regulated by the concomitant fluctuations of allochthonous organic matter input (quality and quantity), the environmental conditions, and the decomposer community. Our objective was to assess the effects of temporal variability of litter quantity and quality over the stream's decomposer community. We hypothesized that the litter effects over the decomposer community would be overruled by Cerrado's harsh environmental conditions. Precipitation fluctuations, especially during dry and rain seasons, did modify the litterfall periodicity, but not the average organic matter entering the system or the litterfall triggers. Fifteen riparian species were identified contributing with organic matter into the stream, however, Richeria grandis contributed with 48% of litter biomass, helping explain the nutritional intra-annual balance given by the litter chemistry, that would be determinant for ecosystem stability. Higher aquatic hyphomycetes sporulation rates and invertebrate density during the dry season suggest that the decomposer community required a more stable environment (consistent low current) in order to colonize and exploit leaf litter. Our results point out that physical fragmentation was the predominant driver of litter breakdown for our system, due to high decomposition rates, litter remaining mass correlated negatively with precipitation, and low decomposer abundance and activity. Invertebrate collectors' abundance was negatively correlated with litter remaining mass and showed no temporal variation, suggesting that this functional group may have benefited from the particulate organic matter produced by physical fragmentation. Therefore, annual temporal variations on Brazilian savanna stream systems may drive the functioning of the ecosystem.
The methods for data presentation are important in bioinformatics as data processing algorithms. The article describes the software package for the extensive analysis of tables with estimates of bacterial abundance levels in environmental samples. The package was designed to be executed in a distributed hardware environment, with powerful packages in Python in the backend and interactive front-end forms. Most of microbial ecology-specific functionality is implemented by the scikit-bio Python package, together with the other Python packages intended for big data analysis. Interactive visualisation tools are implemented by the D3.js software library, therefore, the software project is named D3b. The package is a suite of tools for the analysis of microbial ecology data implemented as a web-service and as a desktop application. It supports a substantial part of the graphical and analytical descriptions of microbial communities used in scientific publications. Source codes are available at github (sferanchuk/d3b_charts) and the on-line version of the system is accessible at d3b-charts.bri-shur.com.