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Biology is a study of living objects and their life processes. It examines all aspects of living organisms such as their occurrence, classification, internal and external structure, nutrition, reproduction, inheritance, etc. The term “biology” is commonly replaced by the terms “life sciences” and “biological sciences.” There are dozens of branches of biology. Some of the major ones include:

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Abstract

As the world is facing numerous global ecological issues at once, the question arises of what will help mitigate and solve contemporary matters related to resource management or climate change without devastating the economies. Fortunately, the widespread application of the circular economy would help countries worldwide simultaneously ensure economic growth without significant environmental deterioration, essentially decoupling the two factors. While Hungary’s contribution to environmental problems is not significant in absolute terms, the economic sector’s circular transition could help the country decrease its impact in relative terms and pave the path for a green economy. Nevertheless, companies, especially SMEs, tend to struggle the most with the initial phases of the shift thus it is crucial to assess the factors that prevent and support their transition.

Open access

Abstract

As the world is facing numerous global ecological issues at once, the question arises of what will help mitigate and solve contemporary matters related to resource management or climate change without devastating the economies. Fortunately, the widespread application of the circular economy would help countries worldwide simultaneously ensure economic growth without significant environmental deterioration, essentially decoupling the two factors. While Hungary’s contribution to environmental problems is not significant in absolute terms, the economic sector’s circular transition could help the country decrease its impact in relative terms and pave the path for a green economy. Nevertheless, companies, especially SMEs, tend to struggle the most with the initial phases of the shift thus it is crucial to assess the factors that prevent and support their transition.

Open access

Abstract

Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.

Open access

Abstract

Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.

Open access

Abstract

Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.

Open access

Abstract

Wastewater issues became a complex challenge in the world. There are several methods in wastewater treatment, such as chemical, physical, biological, and the combination of each method. However, each process has advantages and disadvantages. The physicochemical methods are common methods used in wastewater treatment, such as adsorption and coagulation. Adsorption and coagulation are excellent methods to remove pollutants. The adsorption process is greatly influenced by pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. Coagulant dose, settling time, and pH are the main factors in the coagulation process. Chemical material as an adsorbent and coagulant has been studied in previous research, but recently, to substitution chemical materials is a challenging subject. Natural substances are potential new materials in wastewater treatment and became popular due to their efficiency and environment friendly characteristics. This review investigated the role of adsorption and coagulation in wastewater treatment and the utilization of natural materials as adsorbents and coagulants.

Open access

Abstract

An overview on the representatives of the host plant specialist phyline genus Macrotylus Fieber, 1858 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) distributed in Hungary is presented, including key, diagnoses, along with taxonomic, biogeographic, and ecological notes to the discussed species. First occurrences of Macrotylus quadrilineatus (Schrank, 1825) in Hungary are reported.

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Abstract

Built elements and structures are a prominent component of our historic gardens, both in terms of function and artistic composition and garden scenery. The surveys of historic garden structures are important research tasks, which also underpins and validates restoration work.

In most cases, the neglected state of historic gardens and sites and the unavailable archival materials do not allow an authentic restoration of historic gardens to their original state. Nevertheless, there is a real need to reconstruct our historic gardens, based not only on historical authenticity but also on a systematic reinterpretation of the relationship between society and landscape.

The objective of this article is to present a general methodology for renewal of historic gardens through examples of specific garden reconstructions. The case studies are the authors' own design works, which demonstrate the application of different design approaches, highlighting details of the reconstruction of specific built garden elements.

Open access

Abstract

Built elements and structures are a prominent component of our historic gardens, both in terms of function and artistic composition and garden scenery. The surveys of historic garden structures are important research tasks, which also underpins and validates restoration work.

In most cases, the neglected state of historic gardens and sites and the unavailable archival materials do not allow an authentic restoration of historic gardens to their original state. Nevertheless, there is a real need to reconstruct our historic gardens, based not only on historical authenticity but also on a systematic reinterpretation of the relationship between society and landscape.

The objective of this article is to present a general methodology for renewal of historic gardens through examples of specific garden reconstructions. The case studies are the authors' own design works, which demonstrate the application of different design approaches, highlighting details of the reconstruction of specific built garden elements.

Open access

Abstract

Fifteen new occurrences of ragweed leaf beetle (Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986) are presented from Hungary based on targeted faunistic investigations and the results of our call for citizen scientists. All records are concentrated on the nearby regions of Budapest, suggesting that the species was introduced to this northern central region of the country by human activity. The high number of new occurrences indicates that the species is steadily established in this region. In contrast, the natural dispersal from the neighbouring southern countries seems not to cross the Hungarian borders yet.

Open access

Abstract

Evaluation studies were carried out to simulate realistic field exposures of sulfoxaflor and flonicamid against Aphis gossypii at foraging time of Apis mellifera. Semi-field trials of field rates of sulfoxaflor and flonicamid against A. gossypii laboratory strain at 48 h of exposure had equipollent overall mean of mortality of 62.50 and 63.50%, respectively in season of 2020, likewise 60.50 and 62.50%, respectively in season of 2021. Lethal time values (LT1) had ranges of 51.33–32.46 days for sulfoxaflor and 49.00–39.55 days for flonicamid. Laboratory trials on foraging honeybees (∼21 days old) at 5 h of exposure showed an excellence for sulfoxaflor (5.00%) in overall mean of mortality compared to flonicamid (2.75%) in season of 2020. Likewise, sulfoxaflor (4.75%) surpassed flonicamid (2.75%) in season of 2021. The highest LT1s on honeybees for sulfoxaflor and flonicamid reached 27.45 and 10.94 days, respectively. International Organization for Biological Control classified both insecticides to be harmless on honeybees. Survival foraging bees exposed to LD50s of the tested insecticides had malformed digestive tracts gradually vanished along week of exposure. Suggestions for foliar spray stoppages prior to flowering period were mentioned for both insecticides.

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Abstract

Acanalonia conica (Say, 1830), the first representative of the Nearctic planthopper family Acanaloniidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea), introduced to Europe, is reported for the first time from multiple locations in Hungary. Diagnosis, detailed illustration of male genitalia and notes on ecology are provided along with the distributional records.

Open access

Abstract

Till now, no published study is available on the variation in pathogenicity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens in relation to their isolation origin in barley head. To end this, two barley cultivars of contrasting quantitative resistance were artificially infected by four FHB species under field conditions over two consecutive growing seasons. Then, pathogenicity tests were conducted under in vitro conditions on single-spore cultures originated from both kernels and glumes in the heads. Different pathogenicity was detected among Fusarium species originated from both kernels and glumes, indicating that the same isolate from glumes and kernels differs in pathogenicity on leaves/seedlings. Isolates of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium verticillioides originated from infected kernels had shorter latent periods and higher area under disease progress curves compared to isolates originated from glumes, and the reverse was observed for the Fusarium equiseti isolate. In the case of Fusarium solani, isolates originated from kernels or from glumes were equally pathogenic. Primarily findings in this first in-depth study have implications for breeding programs relied principally on actual quantification of pathogenicity in Fusarium species present in a given environment. The sampling of fungi should take into account the presence of Fusarium species of interest on kernels or glumes.

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Abstract

Effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi and Rhizobium leguminosarum were studied on growth and biochemical parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) in three soil types. Plants grown in 20% fly ash attained higher plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid followed by loam soil and 20% sand. Inoculation of R. leguminosarum resulted in increased plant growth, nodulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid over control. Root nodulation and proline contents were high in plants grown in 20% sand and least in 20% fly ash. Inoculation of M. incognita prior to P. syringae pv. pisi resulted in a greater reduction in plant growth, nodulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid content and least where P. syringae pv. pisi was inoculated prior to M. incognita. Inoculation of pathogens increased proline contents. Galling and population of M. incognita was high in 20% sand followed by loam soil and fly ash amended soil. P. syringae pv. pisi and R. leguminosarum had adverse effect on galling and nematode population. The principal component analysis identifies interaction of pathogens and showed segregation of various treatments in the plots.

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Abstract

Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873) is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in the world. Since the chemical pesticides play a key role in managing of potato tuber moth (PTM), the present study was conducted to assess the efficacy of Proteus®, Takumi®, Avaunt®, Dorsban®, Decis®, Consult® and Vertimec® against neonate larval penetration and one-day-old eggs of P. operculella. But adverse effects of chemical insecticides, actuated researchers to seek secure tools such as medicinal plants and biopesticides like Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1715 for pest managements. Hence, we also examined toxicity of savory, ziziphora and cumin methanolic extracts against the pest under laboratory conditions. We also surveyed the synergistic/antagonistic interactions between the most effective insecticide and methanolic extract with Bt against PTM. Our results showed that both Vertimec® and savory synergized the performance of Bt against neonate larval penetration of P. operculella. Probit analysis of insecticides and methanolic extracts demonstrated that Vertimec® and Takumi® had high toxicities to the neonate larval penetration of PTM which exhibited LC50 values equivalent to 7.09 ppm and 0.008 g L−1, respectively. Savory was the most effective extract against larval penetration and hatching rate of the pest (LC50 = 440.36 and 635.93 ppm, respectively). Oviposition preference demonstrated that Vertimec® and Decis® exhibited inhibitory ovipositional effects against P. operculella.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: Zsolt Kárpáti, Csengele Bognár, Erzsébet Voigt, Miklós Tóth, and Béla Péter Molnár

Abstract

Three sawfly species (Hoplocampa minuta, Hoplocampa flava, Hoplocampa fulviicornis) have been monitored in plum orchards during the flowering period in three consecutive years at three different locations in Hungary using chromotropic white sticky traps. Black and yellow sawflies (H. minuta and H. flava) are one of the most important pests in plum orchards, however plum-fruit sawfly (Hoplocampa fulvicornis) has not yet been documented from plum orchards in Hungary. In almost all locations and years, H. minuta was the most dominant species, except in Cegléd, 2014, where H. flava was the most abundant one. In terms of sex ratio, in all three species, more males than females were caught in the traps except in 2016 at Érd, where more H. flava females flew into the traps.

Open access

Abstracts

Zygosaccharomyces species are among the most problematic food spoilage yeasts. The two most infamous species are Zygosaccharomyces balii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, although they may also take a positive role during the production of some fermented foods. DNA sequence based yeast identification aided by freely available reference databases of barcoding DNA sequences has boosted the description rate of novel yeast species in the last two decades. The genus Zygosaccharomyces has been considerably expanded as well. Especially the number of the extremely osmotolerant Zygosaccharomyces species, related to Z. rouxii and regularly found in high-sugar foods, has enlarged. A brief account of recent developments in the taxonomy and biodiversity of this important food associated genus is given in this review.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Alexis Lacout, Marie Mas, Julie Pajaud, Véronique Perronne, Yannick Lequette, Michel Franck, and Christian Perronne

Abstract

Introduction

Ticks are frequently polyinfected and can thus transmit numerous microorganisms. A large number of bacteria, parasites and viruses are transmitted by tick bites and could cause different signs and symptoms in patients. The main goal of this study was to search for these numerous microorganisms in patients presenting with persistent polymorphic syndrome possibly due to a tick bite (SPPT).

Patients and methods

The following microorganisms were searched for in saliva, urine, venous and capillary blood by using real time PCR: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Borrelia miyamotoi, Borrelia hermsii, Bartonella spp., Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Babesia spp., Theileria spp.

Results

104 patients were included. 48% of the patients were poly-infected, and 25% harboured at least three different microorganisms. Borrelia spp. were not the most frequent bacteria observed, observed far behind Mycoplasma spp., Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. which were the most frequent microorganisms observed. Piroplasms were found in a significant number of patients. The most sensitive matrix was saliva, followed by urine, capillary blood and venous blood.

Conclusion

Our prospective study has shown that patients with SPPT, a syndrome close to fibromyalgia, could harbour several tick borne microorganisms.

Open access

Abstract

There have been contradicting observations regarding the prebiotic efficacy of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) extracted from different varieties of cereals with varying oligosaccharides and ferulic acid (FA) levels. The present study was performed to determine whether the mass ratio of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) to FA influences their combined effects on faecal FA content, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) output, and gut stress of d-galactose-treated aging rats. The results show that there was no significant difference in the faecal FA levels of rats fed with 5:1 and 10:1 XOS:FA diet, although the FA level in the 5:1-supplemented diet was twice as much as in the 10:1 diet. More utilisation of FA decreased butyric acid and SCFA output in the faeces for diet 5:1 compared with diets 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone. Furthermore, compared with 10:1 XOS:FA or XOS alone treatments, the 5:1 XOS:FA diet resulted in increased 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl activity and higher ratios of Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus to Escherichia coli (P < 0.05), while not increasing the number of probiotic Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. These findings suggest that under the specific stress level set for this study, the sufficient amount of FA added to XOS (5:1) can stimulate FA utilisation to modify gut redox balance, while reducing faecal SCFA output.

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The checklist includes tree, shrub, dwarf shrub, woody liana and epiphyte species that occur or have occurred in Hungary except the settlements and other intensively utilised objects. 437 dendrotaxa were included and evaluated in this list. This means 281 species, 22 subspecies, 128 nothospecies and 6 nothosubspecies. Based on the indigenat, 260 native, 92 alien and 9 cryptogenic dendrotaxa live in Hungary, furthermore 54 cultivated dendrotaxa and 22 dendrotaxa with questionable occurrence. Analysing the invasive status of alien species, 19 invasive or being in the early stages of invasion, 12 naturalised and 61 casual dendrotaxa can be distinguished. According to residence time status, the number of archaeophytes is 16 and that of neophytes is 76. Of the 260 native dendrotaxa, 9 were extinct or presumably extinct. 44 dendrotaxa are considered to be proven endemic, and there are 8 subendemic. Of the 134 nothotaxa on the list, 14 are artificial and 120 are of natural origin.

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The genus Dracocephalum L. (Lamiaceae) with about 60 to 70 species is a genus in the sub-tribe Nepetinae, tribe Mentheae of Lamiaceae family, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are mostly perennial herbs, and rarely annual. Flora Iranica reports 8 Dracocephalum species and the Flora of Iran reports 10 Dracocephalum species in Iran out of which, 4 species are endemic. We collected 7 Dracocephalum species and studied species delimitation and species relationship by morphometric and anatomic results. The species were efficiently delimited by morphological and anatomical characters. Morphological and anatomical characters revealed closer affinity between D. moldavica and D. subcapitatum and D. thymiflorum were placed with distance from these species.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, M.-H. Jeong, S.-O. Oh, A. S. Kondratiuk, E. Farkas, and J.-S. Hur

Seven genera new to science, i.e.: Helmutiopsis, Huriopsis, Johnsheardia, Klauskalbia, Kudratovia, Kurokawia and Poeltonia of the Physciaceae are proposed for the ‘Rinodina’ atrocinerea, the ‘Rinodina’ xanthophaea, the ‘Rinodina’ cinnamomea, the ‘Heterodermia’ obscurata, the ‘Rinodina’ straussii, the ‘Anaptychia’ isidiata and the ‘Physconia’ grisea groups consequently that all form strongly supported monophyletic branches in a phylogeny analysis based on a combined matrix of nrITS and mtSSU sequences.

Phylogenetic positions of species belonging to the genera Kashiwadia s. l., Leucodermia, Mischoblastia,Oxnerella, Phaeorrhiza s. l., Polyblastidium and Rinodinella s. l. are discussed. Oxnerella afghanica which for the first time recorded as parasitic lichen species from both epiphytic and saxicolous crustose lichens is designated as type species for the genus Oxnerella.

Sequences of the recently described Physcia orientostellaris as well as Huriopsis xanthophaea and additional sequences of Kashiwadia aff. orientalis and Mischoblastia aff. oxydata are submitted to the GenBank.

The positions of Polyblastidium casaterrinum from Costa Rica, ‘Rinodinaefflorescens from Białowieża, Poland, and ‘Mischoblastiaconfragosula from Cambodia in the Physciaceae are confirmed in a phylogeny analysis based on the nrITS sequences.

The presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen associations is exemplified with earlier incorrect identifications of Heterodermia, Kashiwadia, Kurokawia,Oxnerella and Poeltonia specimens.

Fifty-six new combinations are presented: Helmutiopsis alba (for Rinodina alba Metzler ex Arn.), Helmutiopsis aspersa (for Lecanora aspersa Borrer), Helmutiopsis atrocinerea (for Parmelia atrocinerea Fr.), Huriopsis chrysidiata (for Rinodina chrysidiata Sheard), Huriopsis chrysomelaena (for Rinodina chrysomelaena Tuck.), Huriopsis lepida (for Lecanora lepida Nyl.), Huriopsis luteonigra (for Rinodina luteonigra Zahlbr.), Huriopsis plana (for Rinodina plana H. Magn.), Huriopsis thiomela (for Lecanora thiomela Nyl.), Huriopsis xanthomelana (for Rinodina xanthomelana Müll. Arg.), Huriopsis xanthophaea (for Lecanora xanthophaea Nyl.), Johnsheardia cinnamomea (for Rinodina mniaroea var. cinnamomea Th. Fr.), Johnsheardia herteliana (for Rinodina herteliana Kaschik), Johnsheardia jamesii (for Rinodina jamesii H. Mayrhofer), Johnsheardia reagens (for Rinodina reagens Matzer et H. Mayrhofer), Johnsheardia zwackhiana (for Lecanora zwackhiana Kremp.), Kashiwadia austrostellaris (for Physcia austrostellaris Elix), Kashiwadia jackii (for Physcia jackii Moberg), Kashiwadia littoralis for Physcia littoralis Elix), Kashiwadia nubila (for Physcia nubila Moberg), and Kashiwadia tropica (for Physcia tropica Elix), Klauskalbia crocea (for Heterodermia crocea R. C. Harris), Klauskalbia flabellata (for Parmelia flabellata Fée), Klauskalbia obscurata (for Physcia speciosa (Wulfen) Nyl. *obscurata Nyl.), Klauskalbia paradoxa (for Heterodermia paradoxa Schumm et Schäfer-Verwimp), Kudratovia bohlinii (for Rinodina bohlinii H. Magn.), Kudratovia candidogrisea (for Rinodina candidogrisea Hafellner, Muggia et Obermayer), Kudratovia luridata (for Buellia luridata Körb.), Kudratovia metaboliza (for Rinodina metaboliza Vain.), Kudratovia pycnocarpa (for Rinodina pycnocarpa H. Magn.), Kudratovia roscida (for Lecanora roscida Sommerf.), Kudratovia straussii (for Rinodina straussii J. Steiner), Kudratovia terrestris (for Rinodina terrestris Tomin), Kurokawia bryorum (for Anaptychia bryorum Poelt), Kurokawia isidiata (for Anaptychia isidiata Tomin), Kurokawia mereschkowskii (for Physcia mereschkowskii Tomin), Kurokawia palmulata (for Psoroma palmulatum Michx.), Kurokawia runcinata (for Lichen runcinatus With.), Kurokawia stippea (for Parmelia aquila var. stippea Ach.), Lecania safavidiorum (for Oxnerella safavidiorum S. Y. Kondr., Zarei-Darki, Lőkös et Hur), Leucodermia erinacea (for Lichen erinaceus Ach.), Mischoblastia confragosula (for Lecanora confragosula Nyl.), Mischoblastia destituta (for Lecidea destituta Nyl.), Mischoblastia moziana (for Lecanora moziana Nyl.), Mischoblastia moziana subsp. parasitica (comb. et stat. nova for Rinodina moziana var. parasitica Kaschik et H. Mayrhofer), Mischoblastia ramboldii (for Rinodina ramboldii Kaschik), Mischoblastia vezdae (for Rinodina vezdae H. Mayrhofer), Oxnerella afghanica (for Rinodina afghanica M. Steiner et Poelt), Oxnerella castanomelodes (for Rinodina castanomelodes H. Mayrhofer et Poelt), Physciella nigricans (for Lecanora nigricans Flörke), Poeltonia elegantula (for Physconia elegantula Essl.), Poeltonia grisea (for Lichen griseus Lam.), Poeltonia isidiomuscigena (for Physconia isidiomuscigena Essl.), Poeltonia perisidiosa (for Physcia perisidiosa Erichsen), Poeltonia venusta (for Parmelia venusta Ach.), and Polyblastidium albicans (for Parmelia albicans Pers.) are proposed.

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Sacred groves are the fairly well-protected system of community-based conservation of tree patches on account of their association with village gods, and repository of many rare and threatened elements of biodiversity. There are, however, few publications on lichens of sacred groves. The lichens have long been regarded as sensitive indicators for monitoring environmental state. The present study reports one hundred and sixteen species of lichens from forty-four genera of nineteen families in four selected sacred groves of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. These lichens represent two different growth forms, i.e. crustose (105 species) and foliose (11 species). Shorea robusta, a dominant tree species in two sacred groves bears the highest lichen diversity with seventy-four species. To better understand the related biodiversity and climate, this work is likely to promote further studies on lichen diversity in other regions of West Bengal.

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Results of bryoindication mapping based on calculation of an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) of towns of the Left Bank Ukraine, i.e. the smallest Romny (Sumy oblast) and Myrhorod (Poltava oblast) towns, small Pryluky (Chernihiv oblast) and Lubny (Poltava oblast) towns as well as medium size Poltava town (Poltava oblast), are provided. It is found that isotoxic bryoindication zones of moderately polluted air are predominate and often forming entire areas in the centre / industrial / densely built-up areas of Poltava, Lubny and Pryluky towns while isotoxic zones with slightly polluted or unpolluted air are predominant or more widely distributed in smaller towns Romny and Myrhorod. Correlation of data on species diversity, community composition of bryophytes as well as data of the IAP zoning of the territory of all towns mentioned as well as natural conditions of their territory and anthropogenic pressure is discussed.

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This is the second manuscript about a series of papers dedicated to study the flora of Los Farallones de Cali, an Andean natural region in Colombia. The general purpose is to make an inventory of plants, algae and fungi by studying different locations in Los Farallones. This paper deals with aroids (Araceae family), from a low montane forest at Pico de Águila (Valle Department, Colombia). Data about altitudinal and geographical distribution in Colombia of aroids found are presented here, along with some drawings for facilitating field identification.

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The genus Diplasiolejeunea is added to the liverwort flora of India from the Kerala part of the Western Ghats reporting two species: Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia Steph. and D. cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph. The genus is known from tropical Asia with eight species. Among them Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia is widespread, but still the genus was not yet recorded from India.

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Solanum

(Solanaceae) comprises cultivated and wild plants with 1400 species in the world and 14 species in Iran. Solanum is a taxonomically complex genus due to morphological similarities, phenotypic plasticity and hybridisation. Limited studies were done on anatomical features of this important genus. In this project, 10 native and exotic species of Solanum in Iran belonging to two subgenera were examined anatomically. Leaf mesophyll and midrib and indumentum were analysed using light microscope. Hand-made cross section method and Toluidine blue as colouring agent were used. Characters as length and width of main vascular bundle, thickness of collenchyma, trichome density, thickness of parenchyma strand, thickness of lamina and length and shape of midrib were diagnostic features among species studied. In UPGMA tree and PCA ordination, species of two subgenera were separated from each other. Results of this study confirmed the taxonomic importance of anatomical characters in Solanum species studied.

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This work presents research materials, the purpose of which is to grow seedlings of coniferous trees in the open field using artificial substrates of mycorrhizal macromycetes in forest nurseries of Central, North and Northeast Kazakhstan. The success of mycorrhiza formation in seedlings Pinus sylvestris and Picea obovata from forest nurseries of Akmola and Karaganda regions, and the survival rate of seedlings from forest nurseries of Akmola, Karaganda and Pavlodar regions of Kazakhstan are analysed. In the future, we want to expand the range of studied species and compare artificially mycorrhized seedlings with naturally mycorrhized species from natural forests. If we compare the survival rate of seedlings in nurseries, the highest in P. sylvestris seedlings in Shaldai is about 78%, low in Novodolenskoe, about 27%, and for P. obovata, on average, 66%. In the future, we want to expand the range of studied species and compare artificially mycorrhized seedlings with naturally mycorrhized species from natural forests.

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Sphinctrina pertusa Falswal A. is described as a new species of lichenicolous fungus from India. It is characterised by eight non-septate, broadly ellipsoidal, uniseriate, ascospores with olive green tint and irregular ridge like ornamentations. This fungus is growing on known lichen host Pertusaria but differs from five closely related species i.e., S. anglica, S. leucopoda, S. tubaeformis, S. turbinata, S. paramerae with different taxonomic characters. A detailed comparative analysis with non-septate closely related species is provided.

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A liverwort collection by Bence Pócs from the Venezuelan Guayana resulted in 31 species of liverworts, including Cololejeunea bencei new to science and C. cardiocarpa, C. obliqua, C. platyneura, C. schusteri, C. verwimpii, Lejeunea pulchra and Plagiochila crispabilis new to Venezuela. The distribution and differentiation of C. schusteri is discussed.

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The present paper interprets a new species and a new record of the lichenicolous fungus Pyrenidium from India. The new species P. dimelaenae Y. Joshi was found on the thallus of saxicolous lichen species Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman and is characterised by globose to subglobose black perithecia with light greenish blue tint in ostiolar channel. The new species shares many morphological characters with other Pyrenidium species but differs in its number of spores and hosts. In addition, two new records, i.e. Lichenostigma dimelaenae Calat. et Hafellner and P. borbonicum Huanraluek, Ertz et K. D. Hyde are also being reported from India for the first time.

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Two lichen species, Variospora kudratovii and Zeroviella laxa, and a lichenicolous species, Polycoccum clauderouxii are reported for the first time from Pakistan and represent first generic records as well. Detailed macro- and micromorphological descriptions and spot test results are provided along with ITS-based molecular phylogenetic analysis.

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Syzygiella securifolia is newly recorded for Thailand. The species is described and illustrated, together with ecology and geographical distribution.

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of wheat shorts, a milling by-product, on some properties of pasta. For this purpose, wheat semolina was replaced with wheat shorts at 15, 30, and 45% levels in pasta formulation. Some physical, chemical, and sensory properties of pasta samples were evaluated and compared with control samples prepared with durum wheat semolina. As the concentrations of shorts increased in the pasta formulation, the brightness values decreased and the redness values increased. The ash, fat, total dietary fibre, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and mineral content increased with the use of shorts. The highest solid loss value (10.28%) was found in pasta samples containing 45% shorts. The addition of shorts up to 30% presented similar overall acceptability scores to control pasta samples. As a result, it was observed that as the shorts content of the samples increase, the nutritional value and the levels of some components that affect health positively, increase as well. So, the samples containing 30% shorts appear to be at forefront due to health effects and overall acceptability scores.

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Abstract

In this study, 14 yeast cultures from 62 isolates from traditional sourdoughs collected from 6 different regions of Turkey were selected by FT-IR identification and characterised to reveal their probiotic properties. Four yeast strains were genotypically identified and compared with FT-IR identification. In all analyses, it was observed that mostly Saccaromyces cerevisiae strain exhibited high hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation feature, and all yeast isolates in this study showed tolerance to 0.3%, even salt concentration. In addition, all yeast strains were susceptible to anti-yeasts agents, although they were resistant to all antibiotics used in the study. All selected yeast isolates exhibited high antimicrobial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, this study investigated the potential probiotic properties of yeast strains isolated from sourdough.

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Abstract

Phenolic compounds provide important quality attributes to red wines interacting with the organoleptic impact of wines. Yeast mannoproteins can interact with grape phenolic compounds, responsible for colour and antioxidant activity of wines. The aim of this work was to perform oenological characterisation and specific selection of Calabrian strains of Saccharomyces sensu stricto. Among the considered traits, the aptitude of the yeast to preserve grape pigments and colour intensity was included. Among the best six yeast strains – Sc2731, Sc2742, Sc2756, Sc2773, Sc2774, and Sc2823 – strain Sc2742 exhibits the highest Folin–Ciocalteu index and strain Sc2774 the highest colour intensity. These two selected yeasts may be used as starter for the production of red wines in order to preserve grape pigments and colour intensity.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Mardani, L. Somogyi, I. Szedljak, I. Prauda, J. Farmani, and K. Badakné Kerti

Abstract

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) with high antioxidant capacity is distributed all over the world, but has never been used as a natural antioxidant in oils to replace synthetic antioxidants. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of sea buckthorn extract in comparison to a common natural antioxidant rosemary extract and a synthetic antioxidant on retarding lipid oxidation. First the extracts were characterised, and it was found that sea buckthorn extract had higher polyphenol contents, radical scavenging activity, and higher antioxidant capacity. Then the proper concentrations for the use of these antioxidants were determined. Additionally, the progress of lipid oxidation during cycles of frying was assessed in terms of free fatty acids content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, colour, total polar compounds, and Induction period. The general order of effectiveness for inhibition of high oleic sunflower oil degradation during frying was: sea buckthorn > BHT > rosemary > control (P <0.05).

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: C. Cano-Molina, A. López-Fernández, N. Díaz-González, R. González-Barrio, N. Baenas, M.J. Periago, and F.J. García-Alonso

Abstract

Tomato is rich in different bioactive compounds, especially the carotenoid lycopene, which intake is associated with various health benefits. Post-harvest use of ultraviolet light (UV) and light-emitting diode (LED) has been shown to increase the concentration of tomato bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (A and C) and red-blue LED light on the concentration of carotenoids during a 7-days storage trial of mature green tomatoes. Exposure to combined UV and LED light nearly doubled the total carotenoid concentration and had no negative impact on sensory attributes.

Open access

Abstract

The contribution of food production to the environmental burden is considerable, therefore, numerous countries have been trying to create a sustainable food supply chain to ensure food and nutrition security. The scope of this study was to analyse the association between water footprint and healthiness based on dietary records. Furthermore, it was aimed to create a classification of integrative dietary indicators of sustainable nutrition. With these methodological aims, the dietary records of 25 healthy adults were assessed. The dietary quality scores and dietary water footprint were calculated and Spearman's rank correlation was tested between them. The indicator nutrients were classified based on their advantageous or disadvantageous health impact and association with water footprint. There was a significant positive correlation between the meat consumption and water footprint, while significant negative correlations were found between the dietary quality score and water footprint and dietary quality score and meat consumption (P < 0.05). Protein, energy, sodium, and saturated fatty acids as integrated indicator nutrients could be identified for both dietary quality and water footprint. The improvement in dietary quality could simultaneously decrease the dietary water footprint. The integration of environmental impact into the analysis of diets could be the future direction in the counseling practice of nutritionists.

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Abstract

After wheat, rye is the second most important raw material for bread and bakery products, and it is one of the most excellent sources of dietary fibres and bioactive compounds. Besides, rye is utilised in more and more other food products as well, such as breakfast cereals, porridges, pasta, snack products, etc. Interestingly, its production is decreasing worldwide, probably because of the expansion of other cereals (e.g. triticale), but also the effect of climate change can also play a role therein. However, there is no doubt that scientific research aimed at studying the possible health benefits and the potential of rye in the development of novel food products has intensified over the past decade.

The aim of our paper is to make a comprehensive review of the latest results on the compositional and technological properties of rye that fundamentally influence its utilisation for food purposes. Furthermore, this review aims to identify the current development directions and trends of rye products.

Open access

Abstract

Nitrate and nitrite ions taken from food are the sources of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) in the nitrogen cycle. Some beneficial effects of honey on health are attributed to the ability of honey to increase NO production. The variation of nitrate and nitrite levels of honey samples collected from different Anatolia regions were clarified using capillary electrophoresis technique. The sensitivities of both anions were improved with the application of the sample stacking method. Separation buffer consisted of 30 mmol L−1 formic acid and 30 mmol L−1 sodium sulfate at a pH of 4.0. The CE technique revealed that 18 honey samples contained nitrate anion ranged between 2.53 and 31.8 mg kg−1. Nitrite amounts were found in lower amounts in the honey samples as between non-detected and 0.533 mg kg−1. The observed differences in nitrate levels between honey varieties may be a way to determine honey's origin.

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Szélerózió okozta talaj-, humusz- és tápanyag-áthalmozás különbségeinek feltárása különböző szerkezeti adottságú csernozjom talajokon terepi szélcsatorna kísérletek alapján

Exploring the differences in soil, humus and nutrient accumulation caused by wind erosion on chernozem soils with different structural properties by field wind tunnel experiments

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Farsang Andrea, Barta Károly, Szatmári József, and Bartus Máté

Kutatásunk során Magyarország két dél-alföldi réti csernozjom talajú területét vizsgáltuk azon céllal, hogy in situ körülmények között számszerűsítsük a különböző szélesemények által okozott talajveszteség mértékét, az ezzel együtt járó humusz- és tápanyagáthalmozás nagyságrendjét, valamint a két terület defláció érzékenységében tapasztalt különbségek okait.

Vizsgálati területeink Békés megyében, Makótól K-re mintegy 10 km-re, Apátfalva külterületén, valamint Csongrád megyében Szegedtől ÉNy-ra 2 km-re helyezkedtek el. Kutatásunk célkitűzései az alábbiak voltak: terepi szélcsatornás mérésekre alapozott laboratóriumi mérések alapján különböző szerkezeti állapotú csernozjom talajokra meghatározni

  1. az indítósebességet,
  2. a szélerózióval áthalmozott szedimentben mért makroelem, és humuszanyag feldúsulását,
  3. valamint az ezekre ható talajtani tényezőket.

A hasonló mechanikai összetételű, Szeged és Apátfalva melletti réti csernozjom talajok aggregátum összetételében, valamint a CaCO3 és humusztartalomban megfigyelhető különbségek hatására a Szeged melletti csernozjom mintaterület talaja defláció érzékenyebb. A Szegedtől É-ra eső csernozjomokon 6,5–9,0 m s–1 közötti indítósebesség értékeket mértünk, míg Apátfalván 13,0 m s–1 volt az indítósebesség értéke. Az apátfalvi terület talajának magasabb karbonát- és humusztartalma, valamint aggregátum összetételében mért magasabb morzsa arány az indítósebességérték növelésének irányába hat. A feltalajban a 0,5 mm-nél kisebb aggregátumok magasabb aránya következtében nemcsak kisebb indítósebesség értékeket, hanem nagyobb áthalmozódó talajmennyiséget, valamint ezzel együtt nagyobb mennyiségű humusz- és foszfor elmozdulást mértünk az egységesen 10-10 perces fújatási kísérleteink alkalmával a szegedi mintaterületen. Megállapítható tehát, hogy egyazon talajtípusba eső, s azonos textúrájú (homokos vályog) talajok esetében az aggregátum összetételben, valamint a CaCO3 és humusztartalomban megfigyelhető eltérések hatására jelentős különbségek tapasztalhatók a defláció érzékenység, az indítósebesség, a szediment szállítás módja és a humusz- és elemáthalmozás mértéke között.

In our research, two Chernozem soil areas were examined in the southern part of the Great Hungarian Plain in order to quantify the amount of the soil loss, humus and nutrient transport caused by different wind events and in order to show the causes of the differences in the sensitivity of deflation between the two areas.

Our study areas were located in Békés County, one of them was near Apátfalva, about 10 km east of Makó, and the other one was 2 km northeast of Szeged in Csongrád County. Our in situ wind tunnel experiments were accomplished on 2–4 June 2011 at Apátfalva and in July 2013 in Szeged. The objectives of our research were the followings:

  1. determination of the enrichment ratios for humus, macro- and microelements in the wind eroded sediments in the case of Chernozem soils with different structures based on field experiments and laboratory measurements;
  2. determination the affecting actual soil factors;
  3. estimation of soil loss and element rearrangement trends on Chernozem arable lands under different wind velocity on plot scale.

Because of the differences in the aggregate size distribution, CaCO3 and humus content, Chernozem soil near Szeged is more sensitive to deflation than near Apátfalva. Threshold friction velocity was measured between 6.5 and 9.0 m s–1 near Szeged, while the same parameter was 13.0 m s–1 at Apátfalva. The higher carbonate and humus content and the higher crumb ratio of the soil on the Apátfalva area result increasing threshold friction velocity. Due to the higher proportion of aggregates smaller than 0.5 mm in the topsoil, we have measured not only lower threshold friction velocities, but also a larger quantity of transported soil and a larger humus and phosphorus loss during the uniform 10-10 minute long wind tunnel experiments in the Szeged sample area. It can be concluded that even in spite of the same soil type and same texture there are significant differences between deflation sensitivity, threshold friction velocity, sediment transport mode, humus and nutrient transportation because of the significant differences in aggregate size distribution, CaCO3 and humus content.

It means that the agronomic structure of the soils greatly influences the mitigation and aggravation of the soil the stress effects caused by climate change. Extreme weather situations have drawn attention to the fact that improperly applied cultivation methods, tools, and overuse of Chernozem soils can modify the soil structure. One of the most serious affect is the dusting of the surface layer of the soil. During this process the larger macroaggregates disintegrate into microaggregates and the resulting smaller fractions are more exposed to wind erosion.

The dust load affecting our settlements is mainly originated from arable lands. The mitigation of this emission is fundamentally based on the regulation of land use, farming practices and deflation. “Best Management Practices” (BMPs) mean a group of selected tools that can reduce or eliminate the transport of pollutants from diffuse sources before, during and/or after agricultural activities. However, these diffuse agricultural loads caused by wind erosion can only be quantified if the magnitude and spatial movement of the dust and pollutants is monitored.

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Abstract

In the case of fruit syrups, consumers prefer thicker, deep-coloured ones because they remind them of good old homemade ones. Physical properties – as viscosity, colour, refractive index, soluble solid content (SSC), and electrical impedance - of fruit syrups flavoured with raspberry or orange juice were determined. The change of the measured physical properties was determined in three different experiments: 1. evaluating the effect of sugar and sweetener content 2. evaluating the effect of fruit juice composition and 3. evaluating the effect of sugar content on syrups containing raspberry or orange juice only. Variations in fruit and sugar content had a definite effect on the physical properties of squashes. Viscosity, SSC value, refractive index, and impedance magnitude increased with increasing sugar content and decreased with replacement of sugar with sweeteners although colour characteristics were defined mostly by the colorant added to the squash. Changes in the fruit composition of syrups could influence viscosity, refractive index, and SSC values but the magnitude of impedance showed little changes for all samples. The characteristics of squashes containing only raspberry or orange juice and different sugar content did not follow any trends, which emphasized that additives had a significant effect on the physical properties.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Červinka, P. Burg, I. Soural, V. Mašán, A. Čížková, J. Souček, V. Višacki, O. Ponjičan, and A. Sedlar

Abstract

Sauvignon Blanc represents an important grape variety. The wine made from this variety is known to have a wide range of aroma profiles from nettles to tropical fruits. Beside the raw material quality (grapes), the quality of wines can be fundamentally influenced by the technological conditions applied in the wine making process. Yeast and other microorganisms play a key role in the formation of metabolites during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, the effects of autochthonous or selected wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermentation temperatures (15 °C and 19 °C) were tested on major monoterpenes contents of wines during the period 2016–2017. The obtained values show that the highest contents of linalool (24.36 μg L−1) and hotrienol (11.84 μg L−1) were determined in wine samples produced with active (selected) wine yeast at lower temperature. Sensory evaluation results indicated that monoterpenes can have a positive effect on the overall sensory quality of Sauvignon Blanc wines, despite the fact that their determined concentrations in the evaluated samples were not higher than their threshold values.

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Abstract

Background

Little is known on the abundance of the pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Burkholderia pseudomallei in environmental samples in Cameroon. Therefore, 100 respective samples were assessed in a proof-of-principle assessment.

Methods

DNA residuals from nucleic acid extractions of 100 environmental samples, which were collected between 2011 and 2013 in the Mapé Basin of Cameroon, were screened for B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei by real-time PCR. The samples comprised soil samples with water contact (n = 88), soil samples without water contact (n = 6), plant material with water contact (n = 3), water (n = 2), and soil from a hospital dressing room (n = 1).

Results

B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei were detected in none of the samples assessed.

Conclusion

The results indicate that at least a quantitatively overwhelming, ubiquitous occurrence of B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei in the environment in Cameroon is highly unlikely. However, the number and choice of the assessed samples limit the interpretability of the results.

Open access

Abstract

Napping is one of the rapid sensory profiling methods, which was established recently to meet the needs of sensory and consumer researchers. This approach provides a holistic evaluation of the tested sample through their positioning in a 2-dimensional space. The protocol of the analysis is somewhat different from the traditionally applied descriptive methods, like Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. In our review, we focus on the applicability of Napping in the field of fermented goods. The accompanying procedures are also investigated (typically Flash Profiling, CATA, and further methods), in order to understand how the combined datasets facilitate the understanding of the sensory characteristics of the products.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Anna Visy, Karina Ilona Hidas, Annamária Barkó, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, László Friedrich, and Gábor Jónás

Abstract

Consuming enough protein is a very important part of a balanced and healthy diet. Complete proteins are those in which all essential amino acids are present. In meat products, like hams, many different reactions occur during ageing and storage. For example, the production of free amino acids or the production of biogenic amines is formed by decarboxylation. In this study, the presence of these amino acids and biogenic amines, as well as the quality properties of cured hams during curing and ageing, were investigated.

The meat samples were immersed into 100 g L−1 NaCl brine. The curing took 20 days, followed by smoking and ageing for 35 days (12 °C, 75% RH). The wet-cured ham samples were analysed for changes in NaCl concentration (at 3 parts: surface, core, bottom layer). Moreover, color, water activity, denaturation temperature and enthalpy (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), free amino acids (FAAs) and biogenic amines (BAs) were also evaluated.

Open access

Abstract

One of the most important components in spreads is the fat phase. The characteristics of the used fat determine most of the quality factors of the products such as viscosity, texture, colour, shelf life, etc. In these kinds of products, the commonly used fat is palm fat, however, in recent years it has had a bad press due to its negative environmental impact and health concerns. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a palm oil free hazelnut spread. We investigated the effect of replacing the fat in the fat phase with milk fat or coconut fat to the apparent viscosity, colour and texture properties of the product. According to our results the palm fat had the highest and coconut fat had the lowest viscosity. In texture analyses palm fat and milk fat showed no significant difference in hardness and in work of penetration. Coconut fat was significantly different in every texture attributes from the other samples. In the case of colour measurement all samples were significantly different. Despite the observed differences in some parameters the suitability of milk fat for hazelnut spread production should be further investigated (sensory analyses, shelf-life).

Open access