The link was not copied. Your current browser may not support copying via this button.
Link copied successfully
Browse Our Biology and Life Sciences Journals
Biology is a study of living objects and their life processes. It examines all aspects of living organisms such as their occurrence, classification, internal and external structure, nutrition, reproduction, inheritance, etc. The term “biology” is commonly replaced by the terms “life sciences” and “biological sciences.” There are dozens of branches of biology. Some of the major ones include:
Anatomy – the study of the internal structure of living organisms
Botany – the study of plants
Biochemistry – the study of the chemical processes occurring in living organisms
Ecology – the study of living organisms in relation to other organisms and the environment
Evolution – the study of the origin of life and new types of organisms that arise due to genetic changes and adaptations of the past organisms
Genetics – the study of genes, genetic variations, and heredity in living organisms
Histology – the study of tissue structure and organization
Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms
Molecular biology – the study dealing with the structure and function of proteins and nucleic acids
Parasitology – the study of parasitic organisms
Physical anthropology – the study of biological and behavioral aspects of human beings and their ancestors
Virology – the study of viruses
Zoology – the study of behavior, physiology, structure, and classification of animals
Biology journals are peer-reviewed journals that publish reviews, research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, letter articles, guest-edited single-topic issues, and communications in related biology disciplines. Some journals are open-access, while others are subscription-based.
These journals constitute an essential and reliable source of present information in the biology field developments. Their goal is to be a reliable source of information in the many fields of biological sciences. The aim is to encourage scientists to publish experimental and theoretical results and make their work accessible to other scientists and academics. There is often no restriction in length in order to present results in detail.
The biology journals cover topics related to biology, with the scientific fields of interest including biochemistry, biodiversity, botany, cell biology, evolutionary biology, medical biology, genetics, microbiology, paleontology, reproductive biology, virology, zoology, and so on.
The primary target audience of these journals are academics, scientists, biology students, researchers working in the many fields of biology, and everyone interested in the latest findings in these fields.
AKJournals has a collection of seven active, and the archives of three ceased biology journals. Below are short descriptions of the active publications including their main subject fields. They all have English as primary language.
Acta Botanica Hungarica – plant anatomy and histology, molecular phylogeny, plant geography and sociology, vegetation science, tropical botany, and other botanical science fields
Biologia Futura – experimental biology fields including cytology, functional morphology, embryology, genetics, neurobiology, ethology, chemical ecology, environmental biology with emphasis on toxicology, and many others
Community Ecology – plant, animal, and microbial communities from the terrestrial, marine, or freshwater systems
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology – medical microbiology and immunology of infection with major focus on pathogenic bacteria and parasite-provoked infections, molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, antimicrobial chemotherapy, and other subjects
Biologia Futura, Cereal Research Communication and Community Ecology are published jointly with Springer Nature.
With growing attention to health and lifestyle changes, functional foods have become crucial and in demand. These foods are a rich source of probiotics and prebiotics, but most probiotic products are dairy-based, making them inappropriate for people with lactose intolerance or milk protein allergies. Nevertheless, egg white offers a viable substitute and is considered one of the best sources of functional proteins. As an alternative food matrix, they come highly recommended for those who are hypersensitive to dairy products or who follow a high-protein diet, such as athletes. In this context, egg-white drink with different carbohydrate sources, including monosaccharide (fructose) and oligosaccharide (fructooligosaccharide), was fermented by Lacticaseibacillus casei 01. After 24 h of fermentation, the total cell count was higher than 8 log10 CFU mL−1 thus, the egg white drink was suitable for L. casei 01 to grow. Additionally, the survival of L.casei 01, the pH value, and the rheological properties of fermented beverages within three weeks of refrigerated storage were also investigated. Throughout the storage period, the control samples exhibited considerably lower cell count and higher pH values compared to the samples with carbohydrate sources, also, samples containing the same carbohydrate source showed no noticeable changes. Viscosity measurements of the studied samples showed a shear thickening behaviour during the time.
In recent years response surface analysis has been increasingly used to optimise membrane separation. It has many advantages, such as reducing the number of experiments to be performed, which requires lower energy consumption and significantly less laboratory work. For more accurate data analysis and forecasting, mathematical models are used that analyse the relevance of the factors examined and the interaction effects between the factors. In this research, two experimental designs that use response surface methodology are presented, namely, the central composite design and the Box–Behnken design. After the general characterisation of the experimental designs, their application in membrane technology is presented.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is grown worldwide in open fields and greenhouses in a range of climate conditions. Hedgerows are a type of agroforestry systems that monitors ecological and influence microclimate conditions. An experiment was conducted at the Soroksár experimental field of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences in 2022 to investigate the influence of hedgerow technology on tomato plant leaves, N, P, K, chlorophyll, and carotene mineral levels from different distances, Exposed sides W1-3m, W2-9m and W3-15m and Protected sides NP1-3m, NP2-9m and NP3-15m, meters from the hedgerow trees.
The results investigate potassium and carotene, as well as chlorophyll b levels, are less differed among the protected and exposed side of the hedgerows trees, while the others were impacted to a certain extent; nitrogen and chlorophyll content was generally higher on the exposed side regardless of variety, while in the case of phosphorus adverse effects were observed. Distance from the hedge showed similar patterns for all traits. The results will help to better understand the impact of alternate technologies on tomato production in open-field conditions.
Polyphenols from agro-industrial waste particularly of fruit origin are a reliable source of antioxidants and antimicrobials that can be used as natural food additives. Organic solvents play an important role in extracting the polyphenols, however, inefficiency in exerting bioactivity and interference with the organoleptic properties are among the reasons that hinder their use as food additives. These problems can be alleviated by purification. In this study, the effect of resin types and elution solvent for purification of the apple pomace extracts on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidants were investigated. Crude ethanolic extracts were purified using amberlite resins (XAD7HP and FPX66) in a glass column (25 × 310 mm). The sorption flow rate was 2 Bed volume (BV) per hour, rinse 2 BV per hour, and desorption was 2 BV per hour. Final wash and regeneration were each done by 2 BV per hour. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were quantified spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays respectively. Polyphenol recovery was 50% in XAD7HP (Lowest) using ethanol and 69% in FPX66 (Highest) using acetone. For the case of FRAP recovery, 76% (Lowest) was observed in FPX66 using ethanol while 93% (Highest) was observed in XAD7HP using acetone. Conclusively, FPX66 is the ideal resin for the purification of apple pomace extracts for enhancing antioxidant activity compared to XAD7HP. Further, acetone seems to be a good desorption solvent compared to ethanol.
This study investigates the effect of 2% lactic acid and 2% ascorbic acid mixture on the quality parameters of red deer meat and beef. After treatment samples were stored at 4 ± 1 °C. The following meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, color, and microbiological count on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. The results showed that at the end of the experiment, the pH of the treated samples was slightly higher than the non-treated samples, indicating that the lactic acid and ascorbic acid mixture had a mild acidifying effect on the meat. The color of the treated and non-treated samples did not show any significant difference. However, the microbiological count in the treated samples was lower than the non-treated samples. These findings suggest that an acid mixture could be used as a natural preservative to enhance the microbial safety of red deer meat and beef.
This study focuses on the contribution of maturity stages and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to the quality of ‘Zebra’ apricot. Samples were harvested at mature-green, yellow and orange maturity stages. Fruit were treated with gaseous 1-MCP (24 h at 1 °C), followed by cold storage at 1 °C for 6 weeks. Non-destructive measurements were used to evaluate the quality changes of apricot during storage. The results showed that the maturity stages significantly affected the weight loss. The loss of weight increased rapidly for orange ripeness stage fruit, more than others during storage. Both maturity and 1-MCP affected the stiffness of apricot. The 1-MCP could delay the softening of fruit. The green and yellow maturity stages retained higher values in stiffness compared to orange. No significant difference in hue angle values was observed between 1-MCP treated and control fruit, however hue angle value decreased strongly in mature-green harvested fruit. The maturity stages and 1-MCP treatment had the effect on quality changes of apricot over storage. The maturity stage was an important factor contributing to the effectiveness of 1-MCP application as it was observed in slower softening after harvest.
Besides their unique taste and texture, mushrooms are a promising source of important nutrients, including dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Fresh mushrooms, however, can only endure for a brief time, typically up to three days at ambient conditions. Different methods have been used to preserve mushrooms for a prolonged period, such as drying, cooking, frying, irradiation and fermentation. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of different pre-treatments and fermentation on physicochemical, textural, and microbial properties of oyster mushrooms. The fresh oyster mushroom was considered as control and 6 alternative pre-treatment methods were used as; blanching in water, steaming, oven cooking, microwave, High Hydrostatic Pressure and UV Light treatment. Moisture, pH, yield, color, texture, and microbiological analyses were performed on each pre-treatment group before and after fermentation. Our results showed that the quality attributes of oyster mushrooms were significantly affected by the usage of different pre-treatments.
The presented study investigated the effects of edible coatings with concentration of 2%, 3% and 4% of starch (w/v) on the weight loss and firmness loss of green asparagus during 4 days of storage at room temperature (26 ± 2 °C, 65–70% RH). According to the results, the coated asparagus exhibited significantly slower deterioration rate than the uncoated control samples. This was indicated by the decrease in weight loss and increase in firmness (P < 0.05). After the storage period, the samples treated with 4% starch formula retained the highest quality. Furthermore, the assessment of asparagus quality throughout the storage period involved the use of the line laser scattering technique. Extracted parameters of laser scattering signal discriminated samples with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), in which the correct recognition rate of the treated groups was 75.26% and the storage time was 70.54%. This study showed the potential of laser scattering as a rapid, non-invasive, and practical optical method for assessing the quality of asparagus during storage.
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of two reverse osmosis membranes (RO99 and X20) plus one nanofiltration membrane (NF270) at concentrating hawthorn fruit and anise seed extracts. Extracting the anise was done using water at a temperature of 37 °C over a period of 100 min. For hawthorn, ethanol-water (56%) was used as the solvent and extraction occurred at 55 °C for 80 min. The transmembrane pressure (TMP), temperature, and recirculation flow rate of the membrane separation process were monitored and set at 35 bar, 30 °C, and 400 l/h respectively. Using a spectrophotometer, the quantification of valuable compounds was examined. After studying the flow levels, it was discovered that the X20 membrane had the tiniest alterations in permeability, followed by RO99 and NF270. Moreover, in terms of efficiency, the X-20 outperformed RO-99 and NF-270 membranes, where TPC was increased (20 and 18-fold) for anise seed and hawthorn fruit extracts respectively, and TFC was increased 8-fold for both of the extracts. While using NF-270, TPC was increased only (11 and 6-fold), and TFC (4 and 2-fold) for anise seed and hawthorn fruit extracts respectively. For the antioxidant activity, the process using X-20 showed an improvement of around 12-fold for anise extracts and 15-fold for hawthorn extracts for antioxidant activity. In terms of brix, the anise extracts saw a 3-fold increase and the hawthorn extracts saw a 4-fold boost after going through the X-20 membrane concentration process. Additionally, the X-20 membrane exhibits the highest retention rates for both anise and hawthorn extracts and is least affected by fouling during the concentration process.
The food robotics revolution is driving a shift in the vending machine sector from conventional pre-packaged sales to on-site food manufacture. As these machines develop into small-scale food processing points, it is critical to guarantee food safety. The implementation of automated Clean-in-Place (CIP) techniques, in addition to manual cleaning, is modelled after food production practices, where hygiene is maintained without direct human intervention. These days, running these modern, multifunctional vending machines requires giving the highest priority to food safety and putting rigorous control measures in practice.
This case study aimed to implement a CIP procedure in a vending machine and assess microbial contamination. Water, blender, and smoothies were microbiologically analyzed to evaluate the microbial safety of ingredients, equipment, and the final product.
Microbiological analysis showed that none of the samples was contaminated with three major pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli. This study showed the importance of the Clean-in-Place (CIP) process in automated vending machines.
The aim of the present study was to find the best extraction parameters to obtain the highest amounts of polyphenols and antioxidants from the walnut. Walnut kernels from ‘Alsószentiváni 117’ cultivar were used for extraction. The extraction methods were as the follows:
Method 1: shaking water-bath at 50 °C for 30 min.
Method 2: shaking water-bath at 50 °C for 30 min, then storing at 5 °C for 20 h.
Method 3: shaking water-bath at 40 °C for 30 min.
Method 4: shaking water-bath at 40 °C for 30 min, then storing at 5 °C for 20 h.
According to our results Method 1 showed the highest FRAP value (34.43 mg AAE g−1), the DPPH value (52,94%) and the highest HPLC peaks for chlorogenic acid, epicatechin and rutin were also seen in extracts obtained using Method 1. TPC values of Method 3 were 26.06 mg GAE g−1 for Method 1 it was 25.65 mg GAE g−1. The results of color values, L* and ΔE* were similar in all extracts as well. In our experiments extraction Method 1 proved to be better than others.
Ethylene has key roles in triggering and speeding up ripening processes, which in tomatoes take the form of various qualitative changes. Tomatoes, just like all climacteric fruits, need a continuous ethylene exposure to accelerate ripening. Therefore, it is possible to use ripening regulators preventing ethylene binding. According to some studies, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be used at least as efficiently as tristimulus colorimetry classifying tomatoes based on maturity. Measurements were carried out by treating fresh tomatoes with 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) at six different stages of ripening and studying the changes in chlorophyll content related quality characteristics (e.g. surface colour, chlorophyll fluorescence) during postharvest storage (two-week refrigerated storage at 15 °C followed by a two-week shelf life). According to our results, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the treated samples decreased much less than those of untreated ones. Additionally, anti-ripening treatment proved to be more effective on tomatoes at an earlier stage of ripening.
In this work, the simulated adulteration of coconut drink by dilution with water was investigated using laser-light backscattering (LLB) imaging. The laser vision system consisted of six low power laser modules, emitting 1 mm diameter beams at wavelengths of 532, 635, 780, 808, 850 and 1,064 nm. The backscattering images were acquired by a grey scale camera with 12 bit resolution. Eight parameters were extracted to describe the backscattering profile. The methods of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were performed on LLB parameters for classifying and predicting dilution level of adulterated coconut drink samples. Based on the results, LLB signals responded sensitively to adulteration. LDA results showed that adulterated samples were correctly recognized with accuracies between 60 and 100%. PLS models were able to estimate the adulteration level of samples with coefficients of determination of 0.57–0.97 in validation. This result demonstrated the potential of laser-light backscattering imaging as a rapid and non-destructive optical technique for evaluation of coconut drink adulteration.
Measurement of soil water content is complicated due to the soil heterogeneity and environmental variability. No single efficient method has been developed to map the different soil moisture zones at great depth at the field scale without disturbing the soil structure and paths of the waterflow.
Partially or completely non-destructive measurement of soil moisture is provided by ground-penetrating radar (GPR), which offers high resolution and significant penetration depth for medium-scale soil moisture measurements, bridging the methodological gap between small-scale point-based and large-scale remote sensing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used with better time efficiency compared to other destructive or non-destructive procedures.
GPR has been used for soil water content estimation including measuring soil water content profile, identifying specific soil water depths or soil water variation under irrigation conditions.
Despite the high potential of GPR for hydrological investigations, it is important to realize that no single geophysical method is able to perform optimally under all conditions. For example, GPR is mostly restricted to areas with relatively low electrical conductivity (low attenuation of the electromagnetic wave). In addition, some of the GPR interpretation methods require the presence of well identifiable and continuous GPR reflections, which requires sufficient and spatially continuous subsurface contrast in dielectric permittivity.
Soil moisture (considering its flow) is a key variable in the fields of agriculture. It is the essential requirement for plants to grow. Consequently, soil moisture is important for irrigation management particularly in semiarid and arid regions.
In this paper, the literature of the principles of GPR measurements and utilization possibilities is summarized with the emphasis on the agricultural sector. GPR can be a beneficial measuring device that can help in mapping soil moisture distribution, taking into account infiltration, but also water loss caused by evaporation and plant water absorption. Consequently, it can be used in agriculture, due to its precision at high central frequency values, even (fine)root characteristics of the plants, essentially the xylem-water relationship can also be determined (xylem transports water and water-soluble minerals and supply water used during photosynthesis). In addition, GPR can provide valuable information regarding natural stratification and soil compaction. The data interpretation of GPR measurements, in addition to soil compaction causing a decrease in the moisture of soils (as three-phase systems), can in principle be extended to other aspects of agrotechnology, such as soil contamination studying. However, it has not been sufficiently explored, as no recent literature can be found on this subject.
Soil radar can be a useful part of “Smart farming”, which can help in the selection of soil moisture measuring sensors placed in the soil as part of it. Especially when associated with the recently released new simultaneous multi-offset and multi-channel (SiMoc) GPR system, which enables fast soil profile mapping with seven receivers, but at the speed of a traditional single-channel GPR.
If complete non-destruction is the goal, air-coupled GPRs mounted on a drone can provide an opportunity. It should be noted, however, that due to the significant signal attenuation (wave scattering) occurring at the soil-air interface, only a small penetration depth can be achieved.
Acute campylobacteriosis caused by oral infections with the enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni represent serious threats to global human health. Since novel treatment options with safe and antibiotics-independent compounds would be highly appreciable, we here investigated the anti-bacterial and disease-alleviating effects of carvacrol, butyrate, ellagic acid, and 2′-fucosyl-lactose in acute murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, secondary abiotic IL-10−/− mice were perorally infected with C. jejuni and treated with either compound alone or all four in combination via the drinking water starting two days post-infection.
On day 6, the duodenal pathogen loads were lower in mice of the combination versus the vehicle treatment cohort. Importantly, mice treated with carvacrol and the combination presented with less distinct diarrheal symptoms, colonic histopathology, epithelial cell apoptosis, and immune cell responses when compared to vehicle counterparts on day 6 post-infection. Furthermore, the combination treatment did not only diminish colonic IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 secretion in C. jejuni infected mice, but also dampened extra-intestinal and even systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations to basal levels as measured in liver, kidneys, lungs, and serum samples.
Our preclinical placebo-controlled intervention trial provides evidence that the combined oral application of carvacrol, butyrate, ellagic acid, and 2′-fucosyl-lactose alleviates acute campylobacteriosis in the vertebrate host.
In order to improve the thermal performance of heat exchangers and air collectors, we insert various forms of artificial roughness, known as ribs, into the useful duct. These ribs promote the creation of turbulent flows and enhance heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.
However, the introduction of these ribs leads to an increase in pressure drop, requiring higher mechanical power to pump the heat transfer fluid. This experimental study focuses on estimating, using empirical approaches, the pressure losses induced by rectangular ribs with an inclined top. The ribs are made from 0.4 mm galvanized sheet steel.
An experimental set-up was designed to measure the head losses generated by the ribs, from the point of entry to the point of exit from the useful duct. Using the dimensional analysis method, correlations were established to evaluate head losses as a function of flow regime and rib geometry and configuration (including different geometries for rib arrangement over the configuration area).
We sought to determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection of the central nervous system and suicide in a sample of decedents in Mexico City. One hundred and forty-seven decedents (87 who committed suicide and 60 who did not commit suicide) were studied. Brain tissues (amygdala and prefrontal cortex) of decedents were examined for the detection of T. gondii using immunohistochemistry. Detection of T. gondii was positive in 7 (8.0%) of the 87 cases (6 found in prefrontal cortex and one in amygdala), and in one (1.7%) of the 60 controls (found in prefrontal cortex) (OR: 5.16; 95% CI: 0.61–43.10; P = 0.14). Results suggest that T. gondii infection in brain is not associated with suicide. Further studies to confirm this finding are needed.
The genus Tamarix has about 60 species growing mainly in saline areas of deserts and semi-deserts in Asia, Europe, northeastern and southwestern Africa. Thirty-five species of Tamarix are grown in Iran, which have been used in fields to prevent deforestation, control soil erosion or for ornamental purposes. We have limited information on anatomical features of these species. We used 15 anatomical characters for our investigation in 10 species. PCoA ordination of the studied species based on anatomical data separated some of these species from the others. We identified 5 species that were well delimited by anatomical analysis.
Banana is a cash crop in Mediterranean Region of Türkiye, which is grown mainly in greenhouses and open fields. In weed flora surveys carried out in 2021 and 2022, an Eastern Asian plant, Cardamine occulta Hornem. (Brassicaceae), was determined first time in 60% of banana greenhouses in Türkiye. The species had been recorded in Europe in the second half of the 20th century, and then spread especially in urban areas of many European countries and Mediterranean Basin, which implies many habitats in Türkiye under the threat of C. occulta. The main diagnostic morphological features and an identification key are presented in comparison with those for allied C. flexuosa With. and C. hirsuta L. An eradication program is suggested because it is not scattered but limited with banana greenhouses in Türkiye.
Parietaria L. is a genus comprised of 20 species distributed throughout temperate and subtropical areas of the world. The leaf and pollen characters of four species of Parietaria from different locations in Iran were investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assess their diagnostic significance to provide additional evidence on species delimitation. All pollen grains were small in size and found to be porate. Most of the pollen characters, such as shape and sculpturing of pollen grains, exine diameter, were overlapped between species and indicated limited taxonomic value. The pore and annulus diameter could be provided additional taxonomic characters that can be used for species delimitation in the genus. Moreover, the leaf epidermis provided new qualitative data (laminar hydathodes, bladder-based trichomes) that could delimit the species. The characters like twin stomata and laminar hydathode observed in P. officinalis were reported for the first time in this genus.
The epiphyllous liverwort collection was continued after the Covid pandemic in 2023 at the low and medium elevations of Batanta Island in the tropical rainforest belt by the entomolo-gist Tibor Kovács and his colleagues, which were identified by Tamás Pócs. The collection resulted in 35 species of which 9 liverworts proved to be new to Batanta Island along the species already known from the previous collections: Cheilolejeunea trapezia, Cheilolejeunea vittata, Cololejeunea schmidtii, Cololejeunea tenella, Colura herzogi, Drepanolejeunea cyclops, Leptolejeunea maculata, Microlejeunea punctiformis, and Radula javanica. Further three taxa are new even to science: Cololejeunea tiberii, Cololejeunea touwii subsp. batantae subsp. nov. and Drepanolejeunea levicornua var. incurviloba var. nov., which were described and illustrated by macro and microphotos. One previous identification was corrected. The results of 7 years of collecting activity resulting in 48 epiphyllous liverwort taxa known from Batanta Island are summarised.
To carry out a floristical inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in the HaouzRehamna region, a series of ethnobotanical surveys were conducted during five campaigns (2012–2017) with a representative sample of 1,700 people. These researches are completed by the determination of species collected in the field. It is worth mentioning that, taking into account the recent changes at the international level on taxonomy, the results obtained allowed us to elaborate a catalogue of 415 plant species (bryophytes (2 species); lichens (1), superior mushrooms (1), pteridophytes (4), gymnosperms (8), chlamydosperms (2) and angiosperms (397)) belonging to 291 genera and 99 botanical families, of which nine are the most representative and total 53.49%, namely: Asteraceae (11.33%), Lamiaceae (10.12%), Fabaceae (8.43%), Apiaceae (6.50%), Solanaceae (4.34%), Poaceae (3.86%), Rosaceae (3.37%), Brassicaceae (3.13%) and Cucurbitaceae (2.41%). On the contrary, the other 90 families represent a specific number less than or equal to 1.93%. The data also reflect a high degree of monotypic, where a single species represented 47.48% of the recorded families, and 79.03% of the genera were monotypic. The spontaneous plants occupy the first place with 241 species (58.07%). In addition, the classification by genus showed that the genus Mentha is the most used by its number of species (8 species). Moreover, we noted the use of 12 hybrid species. The chorological analysis revealed the domination of taxa with Mediterranean distribution for spontaneous species. Therophytes (27%) and phanerophytes (23.36%) are the most represented life forms. The results of this study could serve as a basis for future research in the field of floristics and ecology for the conservation of biodiversity.
Haloxylon aphyllum is a significant species adapted to salinity conditions and plays an important role in stabilising soil, providing forage, and serving as a source of firewood for residents. In this study, the genetic diversity of four populations of H. aphyllum in Iran was examined using four primers to assess genetic diversity, which produced a total of 41 bands. The AMOVA test showed that the studied populations differed in their genetic content. Specifically, 46% of genetic variability occurred within populations, while 54% arose between populations, indicating a high degree of genetic variation among H. aphyllum populations. The Mantel test presented a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. Additionally, the STRUCTURE analysis presented comprehensive information on the genetic structure of the studied H. aphyllum populations. The presence of genetic diversity and heterozygosity among H. aphyllum populations suggests local adaptation among populations, which may be due to the heterogeneity of environmental factors such as soil moisture and nutrients that create genetic heterogeneity.
A new parasitic lichenicolous fungus Knudsenia, with the type species, K. flavoparmeliarum, growing on the thallus of the corticolous lichen Flavoparmelia caperata in subalpine and alpine regions of Central Himalaya (Uttarakhand, India) is described, illustrated, and compared with other morphologically similar lichenicolous fungi. It is characterised by having inconspicuous galls; stromatic ascomata with sterile brownish black to black tissue which is K+ majenta, N–, I–; hymenial gel K/I–; exciple evident; paraphyses simple to sparsely branched, apically not pigmented; asci bitunicate, elongate, clavate to subcylindrical with an indistinct ocular chamber with a very short stalk, 8-spored, K/I+ reddish brown; ascospores hyaline, spherical to ellipsoid at maturity, simple to rarely 1-pseudoseptate [(9.0–)9.5–10.5–11.5(–12.0) × (1.0–)1.2–1.5–2.0(–2.5) µm], I–, perispore absent. Since the species lacks molecular data, hence, it was tentatively placed in the family Planistromellaceae pending further studies.
Pierre Tixier deposited a large amount of bryophyte collections, including epiphylls, in the Cryptogamic Herbarium of the Natural History Museum in Paris (PC). A very large part of his valuable epiphyllous specimens collected between 1957 and 1965 in the southern half of Vietnam remained unidentified. Based on study of a small portion of these collections, 44 species are reported including six new to the country (Dendroceros subplanus, Ceratolejeunea singapurensis, Cheilolejeunea rigidula, Cololejeunea angulata, C. stephanii and Thysananthus aculeatus). Ceratolejeunea and Dendroceros are genera new to Vietnam.
Bellevalia Lapeyr. (Asparagaceae) underwent numerous changes in infrageneric classification based on morphological characteristics between 1854 and 1980. In 1939, a comprehensive classification was proposed, based on the morphological features of the flowers and leaves of 45 species. This classification, which was unique at the time, divided the genus into four sections and six subsections. In 2021, a phylogenetic study was conducted on 14 Bellevalia species using four plastid genes. The study led to a revised infrageneric classification determined by the presence or absence of cilia at the leaf margins. In this study, morphological characteristics, particularly the presence of cilia at the leaf margins, were assessed for of 40 Bellevalia species and categorised according to the recent infrageneric classification. The results showed that 13 species exhibited glabrous or smooth leaf margins while 27 displayed non-glabrous leaf margins. Three types of cilia were observed in non-glabrous species: a) ribbon-shape, b) turbinate or conical, and c) papilla. Notably, the species with glabrous leaf margins were exclusively found in the Irano-Turanian region, whereas non-glabrous species were distributed throughout the Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean and Saharo-Sindian regions.
In this study, palynological characteristics of 23 specimens of Helichrysum Mill., representing 12 Iranian species were investigated. We evaluated pollen grains (25 per specimens) and tested them by 15 qualitative and quantitative characteristics using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pollen grain descriptions of most species were presented for the first time in the world. The pollen grains were tricolporate, radially symmetrical and isopolar in all examined samples. They were small, and rarely medium in size. The polar outline view (amb) was the same among the species. The overall views of pollen grains were prolate-spheroidal, oblate-spheroidal, subprolate, prolate and spheroidal. However, the more abundant type was prolate-spheroidal. The exine sculpture was echinate, and tectum is perforate. The ANOVA test revealed a significant variation (P < 0.001) for all the quantitative characteristics. In PCA analysis, the colpus length, width, and length/width ratio traits, polar and equatorial axes length, were the most variable features and some species were characterised by these characters. Results indicated that a few qualitative characteristics such as polar outline view and exine sculpture lack taxonomic importance via their stability among species. Also, the palynological traits had enough potential to separate the taxonomic boundaries of H. rubicundum and H. globiferum, but approximately the species clustering pattern did not agree with Flora Iranica.
Forest regeneration is a natural process of forest resource reclamation through production of young ones (saplings and seedlings). Tree species show variable regeneration potential in different associations and response to natural and man-made factors. Banj oak (Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus), one of the important forest forming tree species in western montane Himalaya, is facing regeneration failure in different locations. The present study attempted to assess the population structure and regeneration of Q. leucotrichophora and associated tree species in five different stands (sites) of a less explored region (Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya). To investigate the phytosociological attributes, ten sampling quadrats (400 m2) were laid in random sampling manner in each forest stand for surveying tree layer, 2 sub-quadrats (25 m2) for saplings, and 5 sub-quadrats (1 m2) for seedlings in each sampling quadrat. Among the studied forest stands, tree species richness ranged 8 to 11 (8.8±1.3), total stem density (ind/ha) 750 to 950 (846±85.6), and total basal area (m2/ha) 18.68 to 29.18 (24.1±3.9). Based on abundance data the banj oak showed ‘good’ regeneration statuses (density of seedling > saplings > adult trees) in all forests. The distribution of adult tree individuals into different size classes (DBH classes) also indicate ‘good’ regeneration pattern (higher density in lower size classes and gradual decrease in density towards higher classes or forming a reverse J-shaped pattern). However, majority of the banj oak associated species (e.g. Prunus cerasoides, Pyrus pashia, Rhododendron arboreum, etc.) represented ‘fair’ regeneration statuses (seedlings > or ≤ saplings ≤ adult trees). Overall, the results of this study shed light on the positive prospects for Q. leucotrichophora regeneration and the importance of sustainable coexistence between human communities and these vital forest ecosystems.
The fungal genus Fusarium encompasses a diverse group of species responsible for synthesizing mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, and zearalenone and inducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. The research was undertaken over a period of two consecutive growing seasons (2020 and 2021) on the premises and facilities of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of growing season, nitrogen fertilization, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection as well as mycotoxin contamination in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was absent throughout the course of the two growing seasons, whereas deoxynivalenol was found solely in 2020. The findings demonstrate that nitrogen fertilization failed to exhibit a statistically significant impact on both Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The impact of wheat variety on Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol was not found to be statistically significant. However, it exerted a significant effect on fumonisin production. The growing season exerted a statistically significant impact on the incidence of Fusarium infection and the ensuing contamination with mycotoxins, attributable to augmented precipitation levels in 2021 compared to 2020, specifically during the flowering period when the spike of wheat is highly susceptible to Fusarium infection.
The acreage of English walnut (Juglans regia L.) is constantly expanding in Hungary, due to the favorable climatic conditions and economic importance. Last years, serious damage was reported from several orchards with high percentage of rotted, moldy kernels. The aim of this research was to identify the pathogens at different growth stages. Fungi were cultured from the spotty, shriveled and rotted kernels, and monosporic isolates were identified based on morphological characters and molecular markers (ITS region and tef1 locus sequences). Botryosphaeria dothidea and Diaporthe eres were identified in high proportion from symptomatic kernels. These species were also isolated from different parts of walnut trees in different seasons. D. eres was detected in a high proportion from asymptomatic buds in March, while the presence of both species was observed in symptomatic husks with Overnight Freezing-Incubation Technique (ONFIT) in June. Their optimal growth temperature defined to be between 20–25 °C, and the growth of D. eres isolates was completely inhibited at 35 °C.
One of the major and yet unsolved threats for viticulture is the group of vascular fungal infections, the so-called grapevine trunk diseases. Besides their latent nature and the enormous number of associated pathogens, their control is also hampered by the lack of effective fungicides, directing growing attention toward the use of biocontrol agents. In the present study the isolation, identification, and characterization of a bacterial strain are presented, showing biocontrol potential against some main causal agents of grapevine trunk diseases. The strain was isolated from the wood of an asymptomatic grapevine and selected for the fungicidal activity against the pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. According to 16S rDNA, gyrA, and gyrB sequences, the isolate belongs to Bacillus velezensis species. Confrontation tests with the bacterium or with its fermentation broth further revealed growth inhibition and fungicide activity against Botryosphaeria dothidea, Eutypa lata and Diaporthe ampelina pathogens. Fractionation of the bacterial culture filtrate suggests that the antifungal agents secreted by the B. velezenzis isolate are mainly lipoproteins. Phytotoxicity tests were also carried out with the isolate, showing no harmful effects on grapevine foliar disks.
Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) is well recognised for its remarkable effectiveness in promoting human health. This study utilised response surface methodology to evaluate the optimal conditions required to extract SDF (U-SDF) from Lentinula edodes via the ultrasonic-assisted hot-water method, and evaluated the hypolipidemic effects and anti-inflammatory effects of U-SDF. The optimal extraction conditions for U-SDF were ultrasonic power of 182 W, extraction time of 2 h, extraction temperature of 81 °C, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:24 (g mL−1). Under these conditions, the extraction rate of U-SDF reached 8.08%. U-SDF treatment significantly improved liver and kidney indices in diabetic mice, markedly reduced the levels of plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and significantly increased the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner. U-SDF also improved adipose tissue injury in diabetic mice, significantly decreased the levels of cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and alleviated inflammation of the abdominal aorta. In conclusion, U-SDF from L. edodes is an excellent source of dietary fibres, which exhibit good hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting potential applications as a functional additive in diverse food products.
Food industrial bacterial cells eliminate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at different ratios. The study aimed to investigate the effect of AFM1 on probiotic industrial bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis R703, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12, and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 431) and evaluating their AFM1 binding ability in naturally contaminated milk. The growth of the R703 strain was affected by AFM1 at 1.47 μg L−1 concentration. Peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall fractions of R703 and BB12 bound a significant amount of AFM1 from naturally contaminated milk under one-hour treatment, while L. paracasei 431 was not effective. PG was better absorbent for AFM1 than viable cells of BB12, while the difference was insignificant for the R703 strain. Increasing the time did not significantly change the mycotoxin binding of BB12, while for R703 PG the absorption seemed reversible. BB12 PG needs further analysis for biotechnological application in dairy products.
The aim of this work was to microencapsulate propolis phenolic compounds using polycaprolactone as wall material by double emulsion solvent evaporation (w1/o/w2). Microencapsulation experiments were carried out by investigating the effect of sample/solvent ratio (10–100 mg mL−1), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) concentrations (200–1,000 mg mL−1), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentrations (0.5–2.5 g mL−1), and stirring speed (200–1,000 r.p.m.) on the microencapsulation efficiency of total phenolic content (TPC%) and antioxidant activity of propolis. The best microencapsulation conditions were selected according to the total phenolic amount and their antioxidant activity. Experimental results showed that all microencapsulation conditions had significant effects (P < 0.05) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The best conditions were: 30 mg mL−1, 600 mg mL−1, 2 g mL−1, and 400 r.p.m. for sample/solvent ratio, PCL concentrations, PVA concentrations, and stirring speed, respectively, with values of 86.98 ± 0.03% for phenolic encapsulation efficiency, 53.81 ± 0.50% for free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), and 45,480 Trolox equivalent, mg TE/100 g dry weight for ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Under all encapsulation conditions, a significant positive correlation was observed between ferric reducing antioxidant power, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content.
The effects of milk from different species (sheep/cow) and pH adjustment in the production of Requeijão cremoso, a kind of processed cheese, were investigated. The results showed that the sheep's Requeijão cremoso had higher pH (∼3%), lower yellowness index (∼11%), and lower brightness (∼12%) after 5 days of storage, and at least 40% lower hardness compared to the Requeijão made from cow milk. The pH adjustment did not change the visual appearance of the samples but affected their hardness in different ways, with an increase of up to 16% for the cheese from cow milk and a reduction of up to 39% for the cheese produced from sheep milk. The results suggested that the protein-protein interactions were favoured in the Requeijão cremoso from sheep milk, while a protein network with higher water holding capacity and increased hardness was observed for the samples from cow milk.
This work used a carrageenan-based thrombosis model to determine the preventative effects of Lactobacillus plantarum YS1 (LPYS1) on thrombus. In thrombotic mice, LPYS1 improved the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), while decreasing the thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. In thrombotic mouse serum, LPYS1 decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), while also increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Moreover, LPYS1 upregulated the mRNA expression levels of copper/zinc-SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD), and CAT in the colon tissues of thrombotic mice, while downregulating those of NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA. In tail vein vascular tissues, LPYS1 suppressed the mRNA expression levels of NF-κB p65, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. The abundances of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria were altered by LPYS1. These findings show that LPYS1 has the capacity to protect mice from thrombosis, while also revealing some of the underlying mechanisms of this effect.
The activity and structural variation of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) at different phosphorylation levels during incubation at 4 °C were explored in this study. The GP was assigned into four treatments to obtain high/low phosphorylation levels, which were (1) treated with glycogen phosphorylase kinase (Phk) to obtain high phosphorylation level, (2) treated with protein kinase A to obtain high phosphorylation level, (3) treated with alkaline phosphatase to obtain low phosphorylation level, and (4) control. Compared with the control group, the content of α-helix and β-sheet increased and the secondary structure of GP changed from disorder to order after phosphorylation. The activity of GP was increased and its structure was more tightly in the Phk group than that in the control group. The phosphorylation at Ser277, Ser430, Ser809, Thr304, Tyr298, and Tyr525 resulted in tighter spatial structure. In conclusion, phosphorylation of GP enhanced its catalytic activity by making the secondary and spatial structure more orderly, which is of great significance for controlling meat quality by regulating glycolysis.
Carob pulp is a natural source of polyphenols, which have been shown to possess health benefits. These compounds play a crucial role in initiating, shaping, and modulating the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of carob pulp phenolic extracts on nine specific groups of human gut microbiota before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The effects of pure gallic and coumaric acids were also tested. The results showed that the treated phenolic compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of most pathogenic bacteria. Gallic acid, in particular, demonstrated the most potent antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes, reducing its growth to below 5%. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showed a growth reduction of up to 10%. Furthermore, both phenolic acids, before and after digestion, led to a slight reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. Probiotic bacteria experienced minimal decrease following exposure to phenolic extracts. However, the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus was significantly inhibited by almost 50%. Interestingly, the in vitro digestion process exhibited a stronger antibacterial effect against pathogenic bacteria compared to probiotic bacteria. These results highlight the potential of carob phenolic extracts in modulating the intestinal microbiota, thereby offering interesting prospects for the development of diet-based health strategies.
The bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, can disseminate and colonize various tissues and organs, orchestrating severe clinical symptoms including arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Previous research has demonstrated that breast cancer tissues could provide an ideal habitat for diverse populations of bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Recently, we demonstrated that infection with B. burgdorferi enhances the invasion and migration of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells which represent a type of breast tumor with more aggressive cancer traits. In this study, we hypothesized that infection by B. burgdorferi affects the expression of cancer-associated genes to effectuate breast cancer phenotypes. We applied the high-throughput technique of RNA-sequencing on B. burgdorferi-infected MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and normal-like MCF10A cells to determine the most differentially expressed genes (DEG) upon infection. Overall, 142 DEGs were identified between uninfected and infected samples in MDA-MB-231 while 95 DEGs were found in MCF10A cells. A major trend of the upregulation of C-X-C and C-C motif chemokine family members as well as genes and pathways was associated with infection, inflammation, and cancer. These genes could serve as potential biomarkers for pathogen-related tumorigenesis and cancer progression which could lead to new therapeutic opportunities.
Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are currently a worldwide threat affecting millions of individuals. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is associated with numerous virulence factors, including cell surface proteins, polysaccharides, and secreted toxins. The pore-forming α-hemolysin, known as α-toxin, is produced by nearly all virulent strains of S. aureus and is implicated in several diseases including skin and soft tissue infections, atopic dermatitis, and pneumonia. There are currently no vaccines available for the prevention of S. aureus infections and the efficacy of available antibiotics has been fading. In this study we examined the mode of antihemolytic activity of theaflavin-3,3′-digallate against α-hemolysin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus by molecular docking using AutoDock Vina as the molecular docking tool. The theaflavin-3,3′-digallate docked the molecular sequence of the Hla (PDB ID:7ahl). The scores of the top 10 binding modes obtained were between −9.0 and −8.5 kcal mol−1, and the best binding mode was −9.0 kcal mol−1. Direct binding sites of theaflavin-3,3′-digallate to the “stem” domain of Hla were revealed which primarily targeted of the residues Met113, Thr117, Asn139. The disclosure of this potential binding mode warrants further clinical evaluation of theaflavin-3,3′-digallate as an anti-hemolytic compound in order to practically validate our results.
Potato mulching practices and their effects often differ, and the results are sometimes contradictory in the literature, as they vary depending on climatic conditions and growing practices. In this study, we analysed 68 peer-reviewed publications to reveal which problems of potato cultivation were intended to be solved by mulching with organic materials. We have found that the main goals of mulching are the preservation of soil moisture, the reduction of soil temperature, and the suppression of weeds, in which mulching provides effective help. In different parts of the world, different organic mulches increased the yield of potatoes in 78% of the studies. Although the occurrence and damage of pests, pathogens and weeds are extremely understudied (16, 18, 29% of the studies), we can conclude that organic mulches effectively reduced their damage.
Effect of edible coatings based on zedo gum (ZG) containing thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (TEO) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) extract (CAE) on the quality and proteolysis of cheddar cheese was investigated. Four treatments were prepared using different coating formulas including: C (coated cheese with paraffin and wax mixture as commercial coating), Z treatment (coated cheese with ZG solution), TEO treatment (coated cheese with TEO), and CAE treatment (coated cheese with CAE). The results showed that the highest moisture content and proteolysis indices were related to sample C; the lowest moisture content and number of starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and the highest protein content, FDM content, proteolysis indices and number of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were related to sample Z; while the TEO and CAE treatments showed similar values. Also, TEO and CAE had an inhibitory effect on growth of moulds and yeasts, without affecting NSLAB and SLAB. Therefore, instead of commercial coating, zedo gum containing T. vulgaris essential oil or C. verum extract can be used as active coating on cheddar cheese.
In this study, we compile the findings to date on using several cellulose-based materials as adsorbents of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from wastewater. Furthermore, this review discussed the destiny of PTEs-loaded cellulose-based adsorbents and some sustainable methods for their management, hoping to close the pollution loop.
Wheat is a cereal of special importance in the world cereal production. Fusarium head blight is one of the most important diseases of wheat caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium species that significantly reduce wheat production. This disease reduces grain yield and quality and causes the presence of harmful mycotoxins. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters in two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj. The results showed that Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (91.47% and 95.20%) compared to 2020 (44.33% and 40.27%) in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj respectively. In Alföld, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, gluten content and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas falling number was not affected. In Mv Karéj, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas protein content and gluten content were not affected. Although Fusarium infection reduced wheat quality, Mv Karéj showed a stable protein and gluten content whereas Alföld showed a stable falling number. Thus, Mv Karéj is more tolerant to Fusarium infection compared to Alföld.
The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the physical attributes and chemical characteristics of dried apple cubes. The apple cubes were dried in vacuum and infrared dryers at 40 °C and freeze dryer individually and in combination. The physical properties – texture and rehydration – of vacuum drying-assisted freeze-dried apple dices were close to the freeze-dried products. The hardness of vacuum drying-assisted freeze-dried apples was better, by at least 15.8%, than those dried by infrared-freeze, but rehydration capacities were similar. The freeze-dried control samples achieved a lower water activity (0.145) in comparison with infrared, vacuum, and combined dried ones. The infrared-freeze-dried samples retained 3.6 and 11.6% more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than samples prepared by the other methods. The ascorbic acid content of the freeze-dried samples was significantly higher by about 59% than that of the hybrid dried samples.
The popularity of sweet potatoes in Central Europe has been increasing recently, mainly the high-quality, perfect, fresh tubers are in demand. However, out of class grade tubers could be marketed in dried, grounded form as sweet potato flour.
The aim of this study was to characterise some important nutritional properties of flours of three sweet potato genotypes with different tuber colours (white, purple, and orange) and to investigate how this raw material affects the rheological properties of sweet potato-wheat flour blends.
Dietary fibres are present in sweet potatoes in a significant proportion, orange coloured flour showed the highest values. The main free sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, but sucrose was the dominant one. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content also varied considerably, the purple flour had the highest values. Mineral composition showed significant variability, the purple flour contained the highest level of minerals. It was confirmed that adding sweet potato flour to wheat flour affected its rheological properties, however in a varied manner. For the orange flour these properties have lightly decreased, though it had no significant effect on dough quality, while the white and purple flours with a dosage of 5, 10 and 15% could improve the dough behaviour. Thus, sweet potato in this form is a valuable raw material.
The aim of our research was to study the water and ethanol extractable polyphenols of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) harvested in different seasons and to determine their antimicrobial activity against certain human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria and yeasts.
Our results indicate that the spring leaf extracts had higher polyphenol contents than the root one; however, close to the end of the vegetation period these values decreased considerably in both leaves and roots. Detection and quantification of the most abundant phenolic compounds in the spring extracts by HPLC revealed the occurrence of 12 different phenol carboxylic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoid compounds were more abundant than phenol carboxylic acids in the leaves; however, their proportion was equal in the case of the roots. Nettle leaf extracts had remarkable antimicrobial activity, the spring extracts were more efficient than the autumn ones. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to every leaf extract, while Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had reduced but remarkable sensitivity patterns. Among the yeasts, Candida glabrata was strongly inhibited by the aqueous leaf extracts. Most