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Biology is a study of living objects and their life processes. It examines all aspects of living organisms such as their occurrence, classification, internal and external structure, nutrition, reproduction, inheritance, etc. The term “biology” is commonly replaced by the terms “life sciences” and “biological sciences.” There are dozens of branches of biology. Some of the major ones include:

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Abstract

In this paper, three new species of the alycaeid genus Dicharax Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1900 are described, namely Dicharax floridus n. sp., Dicharax spatiosus n. sp. (Both from Shan State, Myanmar) and Dicharax kosztarabi n. sp. (from Thailand). All three new species are known from their holotypes.

http://zoobank.org/28168F06-CFBF-405F-90F7-A3399060D88C

Open access

Abstract

Oleogels have been extensively investigated in the food processing in recent years, and they have become one of the healthier alternative. The possibility of constructing oleogel material in a manner similar to hydrocolloid gel has now been gradually becoming a reality. In this regard, this review provides coverage of the latest developments and applications of oleogels in terms of preparation strategies, physicochemical properties, health aspects, and potential food applications. Both solid fat content and crystallisation behaviour are discussed for oleogels fabricated by gelators and under different conditions. Oleogels could replace hydrogenated vegetable oils in food product, reduce the fatty acid content, and be used to prepare food products such as meat, ice-cream, chocolate, bread, and biscuits with desirable properties. The aims were to assess the formation mechanism, construction methods of oleogels and the advance on the application of oleogel structures in the food field, as well as the further exploration of oleogels and in complex food systems in the future.

Open access

Abstract

Effect of microwave drying on milling, cooking, and microstructure characteristic of paddy rice in comparison to hot air drying was assessed in the present study. Results revealed that modified microwave drying significantly (P < 0.05) affected the milling quality of paddy. Raw paddy had head rice recovery of 49.63%, while after microwave drying, the head rice recovery increased by 6.73% in comparison to hot air drying. Microwave drying brought significant changes in the colour characteristic of rice as it had total colour change of 13.50 in comparison to 10.93 by hot air drying. Cooking time and water uptake ratio after microwave drying increased to 31.46 min and 3.16%, in comparison to 27.05 min and 2.65% for hot air dried samples, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope images revealed that both hot air and microwave dried rice had a coarse surface and large starch particles, while starch structure was more damaged in hot air drying, however, agglomeration of protein-starch matrix was more uniform in microwave dried samples due to modification of the microwave applicator that prevented thermal decomposition. It was recommended that paddy may be dried using a modified microwave applicator with a shorter duration and a better quality.

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Abstract

This study aimed to develop and characterise emulgels based on aqueous γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) solutions with sunflower oil in the presence of Tween 20, 40, and 60 emulsifiers. The main physical, structural, and rheological properties of γ-CD-MOF emulgels were investigated. The emulgels prepared with 5% and 10% γ-CD-MOF were durable. The X-ray diffraction patterns proved the existence of β polymorph type lipid crystals. The rheological analyses showed that the gel strength increased with increased γ-CD-MOF concentration, and thixotropic behaviour was observed depending on the gel strength at 10 °C. In addition, the samples were heat resistant proved by rheological temperature ramp tests. Finally, addition of the emulsifiers did not cause any change in the centrifuge stability and colour properties of the emulgels. These samples could be used to prepare different emulsion type food products.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
C.Y. Zhou
,
Q.W. Cheng
,
T. Chen
,
L.L. Meng
,
T.G. Sun
,
B. Hu
,
J. Yang
, and
D.Y. Zhang

Abstract

To study the feasibility of evaluating the quality characteristics of banana based on the browning area. The texture characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, relative conductivity, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in banana peels were detected during storage. A linear model was made by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression between the banana browning area and characteristic indices. The results showed that the changes in the physiological characteristics of bananas were significantly different during different storage periods. The main factors that affected the banana browning area were relative conductivity, PAL, TSS, and MDA, indicating that lipid peroxidation, respiration, and metabolism of phenylpropanoids had significant influence on the banana browning area during storage. Thus, it is feasible to predict banana quality based on changes in browning area, which could be a rapid and non-destructive detection of banana quality during storage.

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The Indian Himalayan sector is well known to support the diversified bryophyte species and communities due to varied phytoclimatical conditions met within different dissected topographical zones. Many potential wilderness areas are still waiting to be explored in terms of their exuberant bryodiversity. During a bryoexploratory survey of an unexplored high-altitude area in the Garhwal Himalayan region, we came across an interesting rheophytic moss Bryocrumia L. E. Anderson. The genus Bryocrumia is represented in India by two species, viz. B. vivicolor (Broth. et Dixon) W. R. Buck and B. malabarica Manju, Prajitha, Prakashkumar et W. Z. Ma. Both of these pleurocarpous species are known to be confined in the southern part of the country. From the Indian Himalayan sector, this moss genus has never been documented earlier. Recently, B. vivicolor has been reported for the first time from the Tungnath area (2,100–3,000 m above sea level) in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state as a new addition to the Western Himalayan moss flora, indicating its new distributional range. This hypnaceous moss was found colonising the slopy, wet, submerged rock surfaces along small streams and seepages in mixed oak forests on way to Tungnath. The key characteristics include its rheophilic habit, stem lacking central strand, variable leaf forms, indistinct double costa and round to obtuse leaf apex with prorate tip cells. The present paper provides taxonomic details of this rare moss, representing its wide geographical distribution in India.

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Colura acroloba

(Prantl) Jovet-Ast an interesting species rare in India, having a unique leaf morphology, characterised by club shaped leaf lobule, which ends in a sac is reported for the first time from the Western Ghats of Kerala.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
S. Y. Kondratyuk
,
P.-E. Persson
,
M. Hansson
,
L. Lőkös
,
A. S. Kondratiuk
,
I Fayyaz
,
R. Kouser
,
N. S. Afshan
,
A. R. Niazi
,
R. Zulfiqar
,
A. N. Khalid
,
I. Kärnefelt
,
E. Farkas
,
J.-S. Hur
, and
A. Thell

The new genus Kudratoviella for the former Caloplaca zeorina group having the highest level of bootstrap support in the phylogenetic tree of the Teloschistaceae, based on combined dataset of nrITS, 28S nrLSU DNA and 12S SSU mtDNA sequences, which does not belong to any other earlier proposed genera of the subfamily Xanthorioideae, is described. The genus Oceanoplaca Arup, Søchting et Bungartz found to be a new synonym of the genus Loekoeslaszloa S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell et Hur, and Villophora onas Søchting, Søgaard et Arup appeared to be new synonym of Raesaeneniana maulensis (S. Y. Kondr. et Hur) S. Y. Kondr., Elix, Kärnefelt et A. Thell. Sixteen new combinations are proposed, i.e. Honeggeria leoncita (for Xanthomendoza leoncita Bungartz et Søchting), Honeggeria wetmorei (for Xanthoria wetmorei S. Y. Kondr. et Kärnefelt), Kudratoviella anularis (for Caloplaca anularis Clauzade et Poelt), Kudratoviella bohlinii (for Caloplaca bohlinii H. Magn.), Kudratoviella rajasthanica (for Caloplaca rajasthanica S. Y. Kondr., Upreti et G. P. Sinha), Kudratoviella scrobiculata (for Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn.), and Kudratoviella zeorina (for Caloplaca zeorina B. G. Lee et Hur), Loekoeslaszloa caesioisidiata (for Caloplaca caesioisidiata Arup et van den Boom), Loekoeslaszloa caesiosorediata (for Caloplaca caesiosorediata Arup et van den Boom), Loekoeslaszloa chemoisidiosa (for Oceanoplaca chemoisidiosa Søchting et Bungartz), Loekoeslaszloa isidiosa (for Placodium isidiosum Vain.), Loekoeslaszloa sideritoides (for Oceanoplaca sideritoides Søchting et Bungartz), Raesaeneniana darwiniana (for Villophora darwiniana Søchting, Søgaard et Arup), Raesaeneniana patagonica (for Villophora patagonica Søchting et Søgaard), Raesaeneniana rimicola (for Villophora rimicola Søchting), and Raesaeneniana wallaceana (for Villophora wallaceana Søchting et Søgaard). Iqbalia kashmirensis is for the first time confirmed from South Korea and India on the basis of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ (sensu Kondratyuk et al. 2019 b).

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With 22 taxa reported from the country so far, Epipactis is the most species-rich orchid genus in Hungary. Many of them are rare, threatened species. To protect endangered species effectively, it is crucial to explore their ecology. Our work aimed to select and examine factors that are influencing the distribution of Epipactis species. Our data collection (2014–2018) was carried out in the Keszthely Hills, in the northeastern part of the Zala Hills and the Southern Bakony Mountains. We assigned ecologically relevant data from databases of local forestries, terrain models and geological maps to each occurrence. We examined the factors that result in the best differentiation between the studied species. At 1,261 localities, a total of 5,223 individuals of 15 taxa were found. We found three factors (tree species composition of the forest, genetic soil type, bedrock type) that significantly influenced the distribution of Epipactis species. Our results can help understand the distribution patterns of these species and allow for more effective, targeted protection of their potential habitats on a regional level.

Open access

Wild plant species are among the most important candidates for reinforcing food safety in the world. Worldwide increases in population and food shortages have caused the rate of hunger to rise rapidly. Therefore, there is an urgent need to review indigenous knowledge on the traditional uses of wild edible plants so as to apply this knowledge in modern agricultural policies. The current study aims to investigate and document the indigenous knowledge of the diversity of wild food species in one region of Kerman province, Iran. A total of 66 local informants were interviewed using an open, semi-structured questionnaire. Ethnobotanical data for 37 plant species belonging to 35 families was analysed using the use value (UV) index. Asteraceae with 6 species was the largest family, and leaves were the most frequently used plant part. Overall, the most favourite wild food species is Matricaria aurea (UV 1.697), followed by Capparis spinosa (UV 1.515) and Zataria multiflora (UV 1.455). Given the widespread use of wild food species and their importance in people’s daily lives, it is suggested that the conditions for the domestication and promotion of the most commonly used wild food species be further explored.

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Nutlet pericarp structure is important in the taxonomy of Lamiaceae (Labiatae) at different taxonomic levels. Within the family it has also been found that variation in pericarp structure is strongly correlated with the phylogenic results obtained from molecular DNA analyses. The genus Nepeta L., with more than 200 species mainly centred in SW Asia, is one of the taxonomically most complex genera within the family. Traditional taxonomic treatments of Nepeta are mainly based on gross morphology. As in other groups of Lamiaceae, pericarp structure provides some of the diagnostic characters in this genus. In order to investigate patterns of pericarp evolution within Nepeta, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine nutlet surfaces and pericarp cross sections and explored variation of these characters against a molecular phylogeny based on ITS sequences. Based on this phylogenetic analysis, Nepeta in its present circumscription is not monophyletic. Evolutionary trends in structure of nutlet pericarps are apparent although they require confirmation with more robust phylogenies. In particular, nutlets with tuberculate/thorny-like pericarp may have evolved once within this genus, in the common ancestor of five of the six subclades identified within Nepeta, and have been lost independently several times. We also show that evolution of tubercules in Nepeta is not related to plant life span. Our results also indicate that more genetic markers (both plastid and nuclear) are necessary to reconstruct a reliable and robust organismal phylogeny.

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The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the most important fruit-bearing crop in arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa. About 3,000 date varieties or cultivars are known worldwide that differ in flowering time, several agronomic traits, and fruit-related traits including moisture and sugar content. Phoenix dactylifera is the second most important horticultural crop of Iran that is cultivated mainly in the southern part of the country. It has about 400 known cultivars in Iran and therefore comprises an important part of the whole world date palm genetic resources. We have no detailed information on its population genetic structure. The present study was an attempt to provide the population genetic data on 14 date palm cultivars for the first time. The present study tried to identify genetic diversity of a few cultivars and provide data on their genetic structure with REMAP molecular marker. The results revealed a moderate level of genetic diversity both among and within the studied cultivars. We obtained mean genetic polymorphism of 20.8%.

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The lack of knowledge on the traits related to the germination and establishment of native plant species represents obstacles to restoration. Seed mass, germination and emergence variability from two characteristic grasses (Festuca vaginata and Stipa borysthenica), and two dicots (Centaurea arenaria and Dianthus serotinus) of Hungarian sandy grasslands from altogether 34 localities were tested. Our results showed that seed mass had a significant positive effect on germinability of the dicots and on seedling emergence of all species. The laboratory germination capacity of S. borysthenica was low due to dormancy. We found a significant variability among seed traits and emergence between localities in all the species except for the germination of S. borysthenica. This significant variation among populations might be explained by local adaptation or maternal effects. We conclude that germination under laboratory-regulated conditions is a good predictor of seedling emergence for restoration projects, but limited to species with non-dormant seeds.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
S. Y. Kondratyuk
,
L. Lőkös
,
I. Kärnefelt
,
T. O. Kondratiuk
,
I. Yu. Parnikoza
,
Y. Yamamoto
,
J.-S. Hur
, and
A. Thell

Seven species new to science are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Of them, one species, i.e.: Coppinsidea vernadskiensis S. Y. Kondr., T. O. Kondratiuk et I. Yu. Parnikoza is from the Argentine Islands, Western Maritime Antarctic Peninsula, Jacke lixia hosseussii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, from South America (Argentina and Uruguay), Loekoeslaszloa reducta Yoshik. Yamam. et S. Y. Kondr. from Eastern Asia (Japan), Orientophila viticola S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur from Eastern Asia (South Korea), Ovealmbornia ovei S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt et A. Thell, and Xanthokarrooa elsiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, I. Kärnefelt et A. Thell from Africa, as well as Oxneria imshaugii S. Y. Kondr. from North America. The new combination Jackelixia australis (for Xanthoria parietina var. australis Zahlbr.) is proposed. Jackelixia hosseussii is for the first time recorded as host for the lichenicolous fungus Arthonia anjutii S. Y. Kondr. et Alstrup. The latter species is for the first time recorded from South America. Intralichen christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. et Cole is for the first time recorded from South Korea.

Open access

Altogether 322 taxa of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported from Ecuador of which many are probably new records for the country. These include five species which are described as new to science: Bacidia andina, Bacidina pulverula, Distopyrenis epidiorygma, Pertusaria lucidotetra and P. pseudoparnassia. From the separately treated genera Lepra and Pertusaria, 12 species are recorded for Ecuador and/or other Neotropical countries. Notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given.

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During lichenicolous fungal studies in India, lichen genus Ochrolechia was found infected with a black lirellate fungus. Critical microscopical examination of the fungus revealed that it is a new species of Labrocarpon, which differs from L. canariense in having narrow exciple (15.0–20.0 µm vs 20.0–50.0 µm thick), 4-spored asci, 1-septate to submuriform, constricted ascospores with larger l/w value [(2.5–)2.9–3.4–3.9(–4.5) vs (1.9–)2.1–2.5(–2.8)], habitat preference (corticolous vs saxicolous) and host selection (Ochrolechia vs Pertusaria). The new species Labrocarpon submuriforme is described in detail.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
A. Gyalus
,
S. Barabás
,
B. Berki
,
Z. Botta-Dukát
,
M. Kabai
,
A. Lengyel
,
B. Lhotsky
, and
A. Csecserits

New plant trait measurements collected during the field sampling in Pannonian sandy grasslands in Hungary and Serbia are presented. Selected traits include canopy height, leaf area (LA), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). The leaf area measurement procedures of overlapping, 3-dimensional or otherwise difficult-to-measure leaves and shoots are described in details.

Open access

The Persian walnut, also known Juglans regia of the genus Juglans is cultivated throughout the temperate regions of the world for its high-quality wood and edible nuts. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation of cultivated walnut are important for effective conservation, management, and utilisation of germplasm. Recent study on genetic diversity and genotype differentiation in Persian walnut of Iran, revealed that these genotypes can be differentiated by ITS and ISSR, however, these markers show a low degree of genetic variability. ITS sequences revealed a lower degree of genetic difference of the studied Persian walnut genotypes compared to that of ISSR molecular markers. Therefore, it is important to investigate these genotypes by the other molecular markers to find out which one can produce more data on genetic structure and variability in these important genotypes. For the same reason, we continued this study by using cp-DNA (psbA-trnhG) gene, IRAP, and REMAP. To provide barcode for Iranian genotypes of Juglans regia is an other objective of this study. For IRAP and REMAP analyses studies, we randomly selected 60 plants from 6 populations including 3 wild and 3 cultivated populations. For cp- DNA analysis we used 21 plants of Juglans regia randomly selected from 6 studied populations. The present study revealed a high level of genetic variability in Juglans regia genotypes in those sequences investigated by IRAP and REMAP molecular markers. We reported that IRAP and REMAP molecular markers cannot be efficiently used in walnut germplasm genetic screening.

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Abstract

A plethora of research and empiric observation supported the claim that–among other symptoms–diseases often affect the ability to smell and the sense of taste, possibly affecting the taste- and food preferences as well.

The aim of the present study was to shed light on the impact of COVID-related smell- (dysosmia/anosmia) and taste function-disorder/loss (dysgeusia/ageusia) on the food and taste preferences COVID-19 patients of different symptomatic and pre-existing conditions and demographic backgrounds.

The research based on a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. In total, 514 participants filled our self-administered online questionnaire. Thirteen participants were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test for correlation coefficient, were performed.

The most common long COVID symptom was fatigue/weakness (53.1%) followed by anosmia (50.9%) and tachycardia (33.5%). Many participants reported dysgeusia/ageusia during the acute phase of the disease, which sometimes prevailed as a long COVID symptom. A high percentage of participants reported that they rejected all kinds of meat of animal origin except cold cuts for their duration of recuperation, which proved to be the most common dietary change during the post-COVID period so far.

Open access

The paper presents new records of Taraxacum parnassicum, the most common member of Taraxacum section Erythrosperma in Slovakia. The species has been recorded in most of the 31 phytogeographical districts of Slovakia. At least 25 new localities were discovered, and many old ones were confirmed. T. parnassicum prefers natural and semi-ruderal sites on limestone, rarely on volcanic and sandy soils, predominantly not shaded. The majority of populations occur from the lowland to supracolline vegetation belt, mainly at elevations of 140–700 m a.s.l., with the altitudinal maximum at 1,410 m a.s.l. A distribution map is given with the list of localities from the whole territory of Slovakia as well as short discussion about its taxonomy and ploidy level.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
Andrei Frolov
,
Anna Shchenikova
,
Oksana Selitskaya
,
Inna Grushevaya
,
Marianna Zhukovskaya
,
Nazar Fedoseev
,
Alexander Kuzmin
,
Elena Lastushkina
,
Dmitry Kurenshchikov
,
Valery Kurenshchikov
, and
Miklós Tóth

Abstract

Host plant-derived semiochemicals are becoming the most promising attractants to lure corn borers to traps in the field. Following success with the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a two-component blend bisexual lure (phenylacetaldehyde and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethanol) of the host plant odor was tested in wind tunnel and field trapping experiments on the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) (ACB). To be able to compare the lure's performance with synthetic pheromone, a new route for the sex pheromone components (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate and (E)-12-tetradecenyl acetate was also developed, and the biological activity of the products was confirmed. The bisexual lure attracted both males and females of ACB in laboratory wind tunnel, and also in the field. Field trapping results indicated that traps with the bisexual lure attracted somewhat more ACB (both sexes) than pheromone baited traps, but this indication needs further confirmation. Traps baited with the bisexual lure may offer a new tool for monitoring ACB for practical purposes.

Open access

Abstract

Date-locality-host records for 37 mite species of 15 families are presented for Hungary and Austria. These results include the first record of eight species for Hungary, viz. Charletonia krendowskyi (Feider, 1954), Marantelophus rudaensis (Haitlinger, 1986), Cunaxa gazella (Berlese, 1916), Eupalopsellus oelandicus Sellnick, 1949, Tydeus lindquisti (Marshall, 1970), Neoseiulus dungeri (Karg, 1977), Neoseiulus tauricus (Livshitz et Kuznetzov, 1972) and Proctolaelaps drosophilae Karg, Baker et Jenkinson, 1995. Observations on habitat preferences, plant associations, co-occurrences and feeding behaviour are also provided.

Open access

Abstract

Wafer cream is an important product used in many foods, especially confectionery products, and consumed with delight. Therefore, nutritional enrichment of this product is of great importance. In this study, a new functional product was developed by adding carob molasses pulp (CMP) flour obtained from carob fruit, which has unique nutritional and bioactive properties, to wafer cream, increasing its nutritional value and antioxidant activity. When 15% CMP flour was added to the wafer cream formulation, there was an increase of approximately 58.43 and 78.77%, respectively, in total polyphenol and antioxidant levels compared to the control group (without CMP flour). In addition, since the product developed is in cocoa colour, consumer preference has increased. It has been determined that phytochemical and nutritive components of the wafer cream increased as a result of the use of carob flour.

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Abstract

In this work, functional liquorice powder beverage (FLPB) with standardised glycyrrhizin (GL), glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), carbenoxolone (CBX), and liquiritin (LQ) contents, was produced by encapsulating Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with maltodextrin (MD) by spray drying. Encapsulation parameters of the FLPB were optimised as MD:GL 3.4:1, inlet temperature: 149 °C, and air flow: 8.9 L min−1. GL, GA, LQ, CBX, and yield in powdered beverage produced using these optimised parameters were 6.8 g L−1, 81.1 mg L−1, 24.7 mg L−1, 0.79 g L−1, and 30.95%, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the encapsulation on the bioaccessibility of GL, GA, CBX, and LQ bioactives in G. glabra was evaluated. According to the obtained results, FLPB exhibited a higher bioaccessibility index for GL, GA, CBX, and LQ compared to the aqueous extract.

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Húsz éves avarmanipulációs kísérlet hatásai barna erdőtalaj szén tartalmára és vízkapacitására: Síkfőkút DIRT Project

The effects of a twenty-year litter manipulation experiment on the carbon content and water retention capacity of the examined Luvisols: Síkfőkút DIRT Project

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
István Fekete
,
Áron Béni
,
Katalin Juhos
, and
Zsolt Kotroczó

A talajok a szárazföldi széntároló rendszerek egyik legjelentősebb tagját jelentik, melyek szénelnyelése, illetve szénkibocsátása jelentős mértékben hat a klímára, ugyanakkor a klímaváltozás is befolyásolja a talajok szénraktározó képességét. Az avar produkció mennyiségi és minőségi változásai jelentősen befolyásolják ezeket a folyamatokat, azonban ezek mértéke, sőt időnként iránya sem ismert pontosan.

A klímaváltozás mellett a területhasználat változások is befolyásolják a talajba kerülő szerves anyagok mennyiségét és ezen keresztül számos egyéb talajfizikai, kémiai és biológiai paramétert. Ezeknek a hatásoknak a rendszerszintű vizsgálatát segítik a nemzetközi avarmanipulációs projektek, melyek azonos kezeléseket alkalmazva, de eltérő klímaviszonyok mellett vizsgálják a mesterségesen átalakított avar inputok hatását a talajrendszerekre. A Síkfőkút project területén, mely 2000-ben csatlakozott a nemzetközi DIRT projecthez, vizsgáltuk az avar input növekedésének és csökkenésének hatásait egy cseres tölgyes erdőben a talajok szén körforgalmára, illetve a vízháztartására. Ezeken a kutatásokon belül vizsgáltuk a kezelések talajaiban a talajnedvesség tartalmat, vízkapacitást és térfogatsűrűséget, valamint CNS analizátorral a talajok szerves szén tartalmát.

Eredményeink azt mutatták, hogy az avar produkció mennyiségi változása, éghajlati viszonyoktól függően, eltérően hat a talajok SOC tartalmának változásaira. A kezelésekkel modellezett avar produkció változások nemcsak közvetlen úton hatnak a talajok szerves anyag tartalmára, de közvetett módon a megváltozott mikroklimatikus viszonyok révén is befolyásolják a talajok szén és vízforgalmi viszonyait. A nagyobb avar produkció a szárazabb síkfőkúti erdőben növelte a talajok szén tartalmát (szemben a nedvesebb amerikai területeken tapasztalt visszaeséssel, vagy stagnálással) és magasabb szerves anyag tartalom társulva a vastagabb avartakaróval magasabb átlagos talajnedvességet és vízmegtartó képességet eredményezett az avar elvonásos kezelésekkel szemben. Ezek a hatások összefüggésben lehetnek azzal is, hogy az avarelvonásos kezeléseknél szignifikánsan magasabb térfogattömeg értékeket mértünk, ami a pórustérfogat csökkenését jelentheti ebben az esetben, csökkentve ezzel a talajban tárolható víz mennyiségét.

Az általunk végzett avarmanipulációs kísérletek nemzetközi kontextusában közelebb juthattunk a biogeokémiai ciklusok, ezáltal a mineralizáció és a humifikáció közötti összefüggések megértéséhez különböző erdőtípusokban és különböző klimatikus feltételek között.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Miklós Neményi
,
Attila J. Kovács
,
Judit Oláh
,
József Popp
,
Edina Erdei
,
Endre Harsányi
,
Bálint Ambrus
,
Gergely Teschner
, and
Anikó Nyéki

Abstract

If we want to increase the efficiency of precision technologies to create sustainable agriculture, we need to put developments and their application on a new footing; moreover, a general paradigm shift is needed. There is a need to rethink close-at-hand and far-off innovation concepts to further develop precision agriculture, from both an agricultural, landscape, and natural ecosystem sustainability perspective. With this, unnecessary or misdirected developments and innovation chains can be largely avoided. The efficiency of the agrotechnology and the accuracy of yield prediction can be ensured by continuously re-planning during the growing season according to changing conditions (e.g., meteorological) and growing dataset. The aim of the paper is to develop a comprehensive, thought-provoking picture of the potential application of new technologies that can be used in agriculture, primarily in precision technology-based arable field crop production, which emphasizes the importance of continuous analysis and optimisation between the production unit and its environment. It should also be noted that the new system contributes to reconciling agricultural productivity and environmental integrity. The study also presents research results that in many respects bring fundamental changes in technical and technological development in field production. The authors believe that treating the subsystems of agriculture, landscape, and natural ecosystem (ALNE) as an integrated unit will create a new academic interdisciplinarity. ICT, emphasizing WSN (Wireless Sensor Network), remote sensing, cloud computing, AI (Artificial Intelligence), economics, sociology, ethics, and the cooperation with young students in education can play a significant role in research. This study treats these disciplines according to sustainability criteria. The goal is to help management fulfil the most important expectation of reducing the vulnerability of the natural ecosystem. The authors believe that this article may be one of the starting points for a new interdisciplinarity, ALNE.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the physicochemical, structure, pasting, and morphological properties of corn. Germination improved total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of flour showed that some starch granule was destroyed with germination. In the same way, pasting values decreased due to changes in the starch granule. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectra confirmed that germination leads to changes in the chemical structure. The XRD (X-ray diffractometer) analysis showed that patterns did not change with germination. In addition, raw and germinated corn flour were used in gluten-free cookie preparation. The cookie dough was evaluated for stickiness. The physical, textural, colour, TPC, and AC of cookie samples were determined. Gluten-free cookies prepared with germinated flour exhibited significantly higher AC due to increase in TPC. Germination could be used to enhance functional properties of corn.

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Abstract

Hungarian pond fish production is based on grains, but in the last few years, new ideas and efforts have appeared to intensify carp production technology. The basic objective was to change grain-based feeding to nutritionally complete feeds, which ensure rapid growth and more efficient feed conversion rates. This study aimed to utilise empty ponds during the summer period for carp production. Thus, there is no need for fish producers to catch fish in large ponds at the operating water level to satisfy smaller market demands appearing during the summer.

The other aim was to compare the meat quality of fish raised on traditional and nutritionally complete feed until market size in the last year of production. Fatty acid profile and the levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fillets were specified, and their ratios were analysed. The result showed that nutritionally complete feed with different fatty acid composition affects the fatty acid composition of carp fillet during the rearing period. Quality of the fillet of carp fed with higher unsaturated fatty acid content became more favourable to the consumers due to health promoting effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Open access

Abstract

Human milk (HM) of healthy, well-nourished, lactating mothers is a unique and ideal source of nutritive factors, like hormones, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors that ensures the proper growth and development of infants. Among the main components of HM, fat is an important energy source and a regulatory factor. The quality of milk fat depends on its fatty acid (FA) composition. Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionisation detection is one of the most common methods for analysis of the FA profile of HM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FA composition of HM, collected from mothers with different health conditions (normal Body Mass Index (nBMI); overweight and obese) using GC-FID method. The results showed that saturated FAs were present in the highest amount in the HM samples, of which palmitic acid was the main representative. The major monounsaturated FA was oleic acid, while linoleic acid was the most abundant of the polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA). Overweight and obese women have lower levels of PUFA in their breast milk. The data were subjected to principal component and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). QDA classified nBMI and overweight and obese mother milk samples with 88.24% accuracy. Significant differences were found between normal and overweight and obese HM samples in case of C10:0 and C18:3 FAs. Higher maternal BMI was associated with a higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio.

Open access

Abstract

This study optimised the hydrolysis process of chicken plasma protein and explored the in vivo antioxidant activity of its hydrolysates. The results showed that alkaline protease provided the highest degree of hydrolysis (19.30%), the best antioxidant effect in vitro. The optimal hydrolysis process of alkaline protease was: temperature 50 °C, time 8 h, [E]/[S] 7000 U g−1, pH 7.5. Antioxidant studies in vivo showed that the low, medium, and high dose groups significantly reduced the serum MDA and protein carbonyl content (P < 0.05) and significantly increased the serum SOD and GSH contents (P < 0.05). The results of HE staining of the liver showed that the liver cells in the model group were severely damaged, but the chicken plasma protein hydrolysates could alleviate this pathological damage. Chicken plasma protein hydrolysis products had certain antioxidant activity.

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Szántóföldi szénmérleg egy közép-magyarországi mintaterületen

Carbon balance of a cropland site in Middle-Hungary

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
János Balogh
,
Krisztina Pintér
,
Szilvia Fóti
,
Giulia De Luca
,
Ádám Mészáros
,
Meryem Bouteldja
,
Malek Insaf
,
Gábor Gajda
, and
Zoltán Nagy

2017. októberétől 2021. októberéig terjedő időszakban vizsgáltuk egy középmagyarországi szántóföld szénforgalmát gázcseremérések segítségével. A mért nettó ökoszisztéma gázcsere (NEE) adatokból kumulált összegeket számoltunk éves bontásban, illetve az egyes növényállományok és ugar időszakok szerint. Gazdálkodási adatok segítségével számoltuk a területre behozott (import) és onnan elvitt (export) szénmennyiségeket, valamint az NEE, az import és az export áramokat összesítve szénmérleget (NECB) számítottunk az NEE összegekhez hasonló bontásban.

Az eredmények alapján a szántóföld minden évben szénelnyelőnek bizonyult, annak ellenére, hogy a vizsgált időszak során több vízhiányos periódus is hátráltatta a növények megfelelő fejlődését és ezzel a szénfelvételt. A mért éves átlagos NEE összeg –69,6 g C m–2 év–1 volt. Ezzel szemben a teljes – laterális áramokat is tartalmazó – szénmérleg minden évben és minden növényállomány esetében veszteségesnek bizonyult, átlagosan –168 g C m–2 év–1 volt a szénveszteség mértéke. Ennek a deficitnek a jelentős része a vízhiányos időszakok alatti lecsökkent szénfelvételnek köszönhető, ezt jól mutatja a két őszi búza állomány szénmérlege közötti 66 g C m–2-es különbség, ahol az első állomány jó vízellátás mellett, a második pedig vízhiányos időszak alatt fejlődött. Nedvesebb időszakban vélhetően kevésbé jelentős a szénveszteség mértéke.

A szakirodalom alapján nincs olyan módszer, amellyel önmagában kompenzálni lehet egy ilyen mértékű veszteséget, azonban több olyan eljárás is létezik, amelyek kombinációjával jó eredményeket lehet elérni. Fontos lenne a hazánkban jól alkalmazható módszerek feltárása és azok szénmérlegben játszott szerepének számszerűsítése.

Open access

Koncepcióváltás a belvízgazdálkodásban: talajtani és vízminőségi kérdések

Conceptual Change in Excess Water Management: Soil and Water Quality Issues

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Benjámin Pálffy
,
István Fekete
, and
Károly Barta

Munkánk során igyekeztünk a belvízminőséggel, annak időbeli változásaival kapcsolatos kérdéseket megválaszolni.

Az eddig vizsgált nehéz agyag talajtextúrájú algyői mintaterületről származó eredmények rávilágítanak arra, hogy tápanyagok tekintetében számottevő terhelés érheti az elvezetés során a belvizet befogadó felszíni víztestet különösen a belvízelöntés kezdeti időszakában. A terhelést kiemelten a lebegőanyaghoz kötött tápanyagformák adják, míg emellett a felszíni vízborítás kialakulását követő első napokban és hetekben jelentős, környezetvédelmi határértéket is átlépő mineralizált nitrogéntartalomra is kell számítani.

A belvizes környezet reduktív jellemzőinek erősödésével a nitrát – külső utánpótlás nélkül – hamar átalakul, míg a hőmérséklet és a biológiai aktivitás emelkedésével a lebegőanyagtartalom koagulációja és flokkulációja is jelentősen csökkenti a tápanyagterhelést.

Ezen a mintaterületen képződött belvíz öntözővízként való hasznosítását az öntözőrendszer eltömődéséhez vezető magas lebegőanyagtartalom, illetve esetenként magas vas- és mangántartalom nehezítheti jellemzően szintén a tavaszi időszakban, amikor pl. kelesztő öntözéshez használhatjuk fel a vizet a magasabb térszíneken.

Általános érvényű következtetések levonásához a kutatás későbbi szakaszában két új, eltérő talajtani és hidrológiai adottságú mintaterületre is kiterjesztjük vizsgálatunkat. A helyszíni mérésekkel párhuzamosan összeállítunk egy laboratóriumi kísérletet kiemelten a talajtényező hatásának megfigyeléséhez. Ez lehetőséget fog nyújtani arra is, hogy a tápanyagformák időbeli átalakulásáról is pontosabb képet kapjunk.

Open access

Abstract

Defoliation reduces photosynthetic area, negatively effecting overall plant vitality, which at the end, severely impacts seed quality and production. The economic importance of the loss in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to larvae of the cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus, CLB) generated studies investigating the significance of the flag leaf. Simultaneously, the role of other leaves remains rather undiscovered. We simulated herbivory caused by CLB larvae in a two-year study between 2017 and 2018. We removed different amounts of leaf material from two winter wheat cultivars, either from the flag leaves only, or from all leaves. The impact of artificial defoliation was measured in grain production per ear, and related to natural CLB larval herbivory. Removing all leaves simulated CLB larval herbivory more closely than the artificial defoliation of flag leaves only. Our results suggest that the relative importance of flag leaves in seed production may be lower than previously assumed. Further studies involving various cultivars are invited to enhance the knowledge on the significance of the damage done by CLB larvae.

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Abstract

The first author observed Homotoma ficus (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae on several street and garden fig trees in the city of Pécs in southern Hungary at the end of May 2022. In the first week of June 2022, imagoes were already flying. This is the first observation of this species in Hungary, together with the first report of the family Homotomidae. A diagnosis and illustrations of adults and larvae in Hungary with 21 figures are given.

Open access

Abstract

The non-invasive diagnostic methods represent a new branch of insect diagnostics, which can provide novel information especially about insects with hidden lifestyle. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most useful non-destructive techniques allowing for both qualitative and quantitative assessments. The aim of the present study was to attain entomological information through the implementation of CT imaging, hence contributing to the spread of non-invasive imaging in entomological research. Through monitoring the development of wood-dwelling cerambycid larvae in beech branches, we point out some outputs applicable in entomological studies, which originate from CT image post-processing. We present findings on the location, and size of specimens of some hidden arthropods, as well as cavities formed by them, stemming from the maximum and minimum intensity projections, windowing, 3D-reconstruction, or virtual endoscopy, as steps of the imaging. In summary, it is expected that our findings contribute to a wider recognition of the entomological information that can be gathered from these non-invasive imaging techniques.

Open access

Abstract

The present manuscript demonstrates the work undertaken to optimise and validate a slow-release amylase-assisted extraction of polyphenols from peach fruit peel. A careful investigation and optimisation revealed that peach peel when hydrolysed with 1.50% (w/w) of SRA containing enzyme formulation at 40 °C and 6.1 pH, for 35 min significantly (P < 0.05) increased the extraction yield, levels of polyphenol contents (242.89 ± 1.56 mg gallic acid equivalents – GAE), and coumaric, chlorogenic, ferulic acids or their conjugate esters in extracts. Moreover, the extracts produced through SRA-assisted extraction exhibited ample level of free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH IC50 2.67 ± 0.03 μg mL−1), Trolox equivalent (TE) antioxidant capacity (450.52 ± 24.58 µmol of TE g−1), inhibition of peroxides in linoleic acid (85.68 ± 0.21%), and ferric reducing power of 3.11 ± 0.20 ppm gallic acid equivalents. The results suggested that the incorporation of SRA containing enzyme formulation may enhance the recovery of peach peel polyphenols while hydrolysing the glycosidic linkages without deteriorating their antioxidant character.

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Abstract

Due to the increasing application of antibiotics not only in healthcare settings but also in conventional agriculture and farming, multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens are rising worldwide. Given the increasing prevalence of infections caused by MDR bacteria such as Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species (ESKAPE pathogen complex), it is pivotal to explore novel alternative or adjunct treatment options such as phytochemicals with antibiotic properties. Vanillin and vanillin acid represent biologically active ingredients in vanilla that has been known for long for its health-beneficial including antimicrobial effects besides its role as flavoring agent. Therefore, we performed a literature search from the past 10 years summarizing the knowledge regarding the effects of vanilla constituents against bacterial including MDR pathogens. Our survey revealed that vanillin and vanillic acid exerted potent effects directed against distinct Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by inhibiting growth, viability, biofilm formation, quorum sensing and virulence. Remarkably, when combining vanillin or vanillic acid with defined synthetic antibiotics pronounced synergistic effects directed against distinct pathogenic including ESCAPE strains could be observed. In conclusion, vanilla ingredients constitute promising alternative or adjunct options in the combat of infections caused by MDR bacterial pathogens.

Open access

Abstract

In line with the current development of individualized cancer treatments, targeted and specialized therapeutic regimens such as immunotherapy gain importance and factors improving its efficacy come into the focus of actual research. Given the orchestrated interaction of the intestinal microbiota with host immunity the modulation of the human gut microbiota represents a therapy-enhancing factor. We therefore performed an actual literature survey on the role of the gut microbiota composition and the effects of its modification during immunotherapy of cancer patients. The included 23 studies published in the past 10 years revealed that both, distinct bacterial species and genera including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium, respectively, enhanced distinct immunotherapy responses following PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 blockage, for instance, resulting in a better clinical outcome of cancer patients. Conversely, a high intestinal abundance of Bacteroidetes and Fusobacterium species correlated with a less efficient immunotherapy resulting in shorter progress-free survival outcomes. In conclusion, modifications of the gut microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation or application of probiotic compounds represent potential adjunct options for immunotherapy in cancer patients which needs to be further addressed in future trials to provide individually tailored and safe adjuvant therapeutic measures in the combat of cancer.

Open access

Abstract

Intestinal amoebiasis in a 35-year-old German patient with a 3 weeks travel history in Indonesia was initially misidentified as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory-drug associated colitis in colonoscopy and histopathological analysis. Furthermore, initial stool examination by microscopy and Entamoeba faecal antigen ELISA did not reveal any protozoan infection. When cessation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and mesalazine treatment did not lead to clinical improvement, the patient presented to a specialist for tropical diseases. An intensive reinvestigation including a workup of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colonic biopsies by molecular analysis with real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) proofed the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica colitis. Molecular methods including real-time PCR and FISH for the diagnosis of amoebiasis from histopathological samples are rarely used for the diagnosis of E. histolytica infections. Bloody diarrhoea vanished after the onset of metronidazole treatment. In conclusion, the here-presented case demonstrates how modern molecular diagnostics may help to diagnose E. histolytica-associated colitis, even from difficult specimens like paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue.

Open access

Abstract

Varroa mite, Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera worldwide, contributing to colony collapse. The development of alternative non-toxic methods against this pest is needed, as most of the wide-used acaricides in apiculture are banned in the European Union, which increase the risk of developing resistant mite populations against the remaining few products. In order to reveal biological basis of a new, semiochemical-based method, the aim of this study was to search for olfactory stimuli, used by female Varroa mites in orienting to drone brood for egglaying. Volatiles of uncapped drone brood were collected in situ, inside bee-hives, using either charcoal, or HayeSep® Q filters. Collections were analyzed by gas chromatograph linked to an electrotarsogram detector (GC-ETD), using the foreleg of female mite. Results showed that most components were present in collections trapped by any of these filters. However, some components appreared only in charcoal-, while others only in HayeSep® collections, respectively. Out of the large number of components, a few elicited electrophysiological responses. Structure elucidation of these active components are underways. Futher behavioral studies should reveal, which components play role in attraction of Varroa mites.

Open access

Abstract

New data are provided on the distribution of scale insect species based on the soil sample collection of Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain. Six species proved to be new to the scale insect fauna of Spain: 1 species of Ortheziidae (Ortheziola vejdovskyi Sulc), 3 species of Pseudococcidae (Fonscolombia graminis Lichtenstein, Peliococcus mathisi (Balachowsky), Rhodania porifera Goux) and 2 species of Rhizoecidae (Rhizoecus arabicus Hambleton, Ripersiella lelloi (Mazzeo)).

Open access

Abstract

Daffodil (Narcissus tazetta L.) is a bulbous ornamental plant which belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. It is popular for sweet-smelling beautiful flowers and is used for the fragrant oil and perfumes. It is also a source of alkaloids used in traditional medicines. Daffodil is commercially important ornamental plant, therefore, it is important to maintain its quality and production. Various type of viruses affect daffodil cultivation and among them, potyviruses are of great concern as they cause more economic losses to its commercial cultivation in term of reduction in bulb size, number of bulbs and the quality of daffodil flowers. In this review, a general overview of daffodils, genus Potyvirus, disease symptoms in daffodils linked to potyvirus infection, potyviruses described in daffodils, Potyvirus identification methods and possible management strategies of potyviruses in daffodil cultivation are described in detail. The study will be helpful to daffodil growers for improvement of the production/yield and quality of daffodil crop.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
Dominika Bodnár
,
Orsolya Viczián
,
András Juhász
,
József Fodor
,
Péter G. Ott
, and
Emese Mergenthaler

Abstract

Some jumping plant-lice species are economically important due to their capacity as vectors of phytopathogenic bacteria, for example phytoplasmas. Previous studies have identified 80 jumping plant-louse species from Hungary; however, little is known about their occurrence during winter. To extend our knowledge of overwintering sites of jumping plant-lice in Hungary, we sampled them from conifers in various regions of the country. One of our main objectives was to find Cacopsylla pruni (Scopoli, 1763), the vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum' during winter.

The period of this study extended from 2014 to 2020 in the winter months. Insects were collected at 18 sampling sites from Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county to Somogy county, located at Alsótekeres, Balatonvilágos, Boldogkőváralja, Budakeszi, Fenyőfő, Gyöngyöspata, Kecskemét, Martonvásár, Mátra Mountain, Nagykovácsi, Nagyszakácsi, Páty, Piliscsaba, Somogytúr, Soroksár, Sóskút and Verpelét.

A total of 1,600 jumping plant-louse specimens belonging to 20 species and three families (Psyllidae, Aphalaridae and Triozidae) were collected and identified during the study. In the case of plum psyllid (C. pruni) four shelter sites were identified as new records for Hungary.

The most common species were Trioza remota, Cacopsylla melanoneura, Trioza urticae, Bactericera albiventris, C. pruni and Cacopsylla crataegi.

Open access

Abstract

Gut microbiota depletion is a pivotal prerequisite to warrant Campylobacter jejuni infection and induced inflammation in IL-10-/- mice used as acute campylobacteriosis model. We here assessed the impact of an 8-week antibiotic regimen of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, metronidazole, and vancomycin (ABx) as compared to ampicillin plus sulbactam (A/S) on gut microbiota depletion and immunopathological responses upon oral C. jejuni infection. Our obtained results revealed that both antibiotic regimens were comparably effective in depleting the murine gut microbiota facilitating similar pathogenic colonization alongside the gastrointestinal tract following oral infection. Irrespective of the preceding microbiota depletion regimen, mice were similarly compromised by acute C. jejuni induced enterocolitis as indicated by comparable clinical scores and macroscopic as well as microscopic sequelae such as colonic histopathology and apoptosis on day 6 post-infection. Furthermore, innate and adaptive immune cell responses in the large intestines were similar in both infected cohorts, which also held true for intestinal, extra-intestinal and even systemic secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6. In conclusion, gut microbiota depletion in IL-10-/- mice by ampicillin plus sulbactam is sufficient to investigate both, C. jejuni infection and the immunopathological features of acute campylobacteriosis.

Open access

Abstract

Food, water, and energy scarcity threaten India's future, and they must be addressed first. To meet the country's ever-increasing population needs, agricultural productivity must be expanded. For the crop-land suitability, we have studied an area of about 6,539 km2 in Vizianagaram district. The majority of the land is used for paddy agriculture (Kharif). The crop-land suitability has been evaluated based on the different parameters identified in that study area. “Remote sensing (RS)” and “geographic information system (GIS)” were combined for the crop-land suitability using nine parameters. The slope, elevation, rainfall, soil texture, lithology, groundwater, land use–land cover (LULC), TWI, and land surface temperature are the primary criteria used to determine the crop-land suitability in the Vizianagaram district (AP). Thematic maps were created using Landsat 8 images and SRTM DEM images from USGS Earth Explorer. Based on these maps and the influence of these parameters, we may assign weights to the parameters and then rank them, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) allowing us to identify which area is more suitable for good crop productivity and which is not. In this study, the soils are divided into four categories: low suitability, moderate suitability, high suitability, and extremely high suitability. The suitability index is found to be in the range of 0–55.2%, which indicates the lack of outstanding agricultural lands in the sudy region.

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