Investment in fixed capital determines the prospects of expanded reproduction and innovative development of the economy of any country. This is why interstate investment activity is one of the key factors in passing to a new stage: a period of economic growth and fundamental restructuring of the CIS economies, effective interaction for the purpose of pulling them out of crisis and the stabilisation and recovery of national economies. These matters are of strategic importance and are common to all the CIS countries, although each of them has its own specific features requiring different tactical approaches and adjustment to real national conditions. Investment activity in each country depends largely on the possibilities and behaviour of national investors, but interstate cooperation plays an important role as well. The substantial decline in production and investment activity calls for a special approach, namely one considering that investment support for pilot sectors and projects in the real economy could become the main line of the efforts in the CIS states aimed at general stabilisation and the revival of production.
The author reflects on the conditions of possibility of ethical profit making. In his view a sustained success of a firm depends on the professional competences and the climate of trust in the organisation. Only intrinsically ethical behaviour is able to create and sustain trust. If the rush for profits makes short-term shareholder value creation to become the only objective of the company, it is certainly on the wrong track. The objective of the company cannot be a short-term maximisation of profit, but an optimisation of it on the middle and long term.
The paper gives a brief account of von Neumann's contribution to the foundation of game theory: definition of abstract games, the minimax theorem for two-person zero-sum games and the stable set solution for cooperative games with side payments. The presentation is self-contained, uses very little mathematical formalism and caters to the nonspecialist. Basic concepts and their implications are in focus. It is also indicated how von Neumann's groundbreaking work initiated further research, and a few unsolved problems are also mentioned.
Tibor Scitovsky draws our attention to problems which, while researching into the so-called “joyless economy”, go far beyond the world of economic theories. Everything points to the fact that we need a social study environment which accommodates rather than excludes. In this environment active cognitive behaviour based on personal participation is regarded as a primary value. Consequently, we could only act if we possessed the courage and freedom to think. Thus we ourselves would become the living “legitimators” of our own cultural and human history. The spread of differentiating pedagogy may contribute to this but its success could only be measured if social co-existence is simulated in a study environment in which schools themselves can experience how to influence their own ability to act. The differentiating pedagogy (although it is the pedagogy of uncertainty) can only become the pedagogy of “joyful schools” if it goes beyond ideas and is able to help us in the organisation of our study habits.
The author shows that the application of Jewish ethical precepts derived from the Halakhah (Bible, Talmud, Rabbinic writings and related sources) to 21st century concerns is not easy. Notwithstanding this difficulty, the basic precepts and overall ethical approach - the meta-ethics - are highly instructive for resolving modern-day business problems. Judaism has much to offer by way of insights and experience concerning the conduct of ethical business activity. The author points out that it is a profound insight in the Jewish tradition that Wealth (broadly defined as economic productivity) and Righteousness (broadly defined as ethical behaviour, justice, integrity) go hand in hand. This is what we, moderns, would all do well to ponder and to implement.
Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy multidiszciplináris módszerrel megvizsgálja a Közel-Kelet gazdasági és politikai fejlődését az ezredfordulón. A bipoláris nemzetközi rendszer összeomlását követően az arab országokban is „újból” megkezdődött a modernizáció, amely előtt hosszú távon négy kihívás áll: a demokratizáció, a demográfiai robbanás, az iszlám fundamentalizmus és a gazdasági reformok. Rövid távon azonban az USA elleni terrortámadás és az arab-izraeli konfliktus elmélyülése olyan politikailag instabil légkört teremtett, amely nem kedvezett a reformoknak. A tanulmány négy lehetséges forgatókönyvet elemez az arab-izraeli válság és a terrorizmusellenes koalíció jövőjének tükrében. A legvalószínűbbnek az a forgatókönyv tűnik, amely szerint Izrael újból megszállja a Palesztin Hatóság területeit, ugyanakkor nem lesz újabb terrorizmus elleni koalíció. Megállapítható, hogy az amerikai külpolitika az 1990-es években inkább a politikai stabilitást és a status quo-t támogatta a demokrácia és az emberi jogok helyett. A 2001. szeptember 11-i eseményeket követően azonban új alapokra kell helyezni az arab országok és az Egyesült Államok kapcsolatát.
The present transition from industrial to knowledge-based societies is characterised by major changes in working conditions and labour-market requirements. This process has resulted in a historically very fast restructuring in the scale of values. For example the flexibility, non-hierarchic structure and high adaptation capacity are becoming key factors both at individual and organisational level. The traditional educational system is slow to react effectively to this challenge, which may raise walls against further technical developments. Three interdependent parallel processes should be managed successfully in order to enjoy the advantages of our new age: (1) the renewal of knowledge, (2) the high-speed changes in labour-market demands and (3) the changes of applied tools and methods in learning. The existing mismatch between supply and demand in the labour market may lead to a very dangerous situation: a sharp division of the society into two groups by knowledge-based society skills, namely to small number of winners and a large majority of losers. Countries (like Hungary) should listen to these lessons and based on their best traditions they must react to the challenges in time and in a proper way. Otherwise the favourable foundations created by social, economic and political transformation in the 1990s may not serve the real adjustment to the global trends and the prices of social modernisation will become extremely high.
An OECD document has defined knowledge-based economies as new systems directly based on the production, distribution and application of knowledge and information. However, the role of knowledge has always been important. Since the earliest analysis of modern economic growth, knowledge and technology have been recognised as factors of key importance. The notion that information and knowledge are of central importance both in the process of production, as well as an essential part or the final commodity produced, is uncontroversial and it always has had some weight. Knowledge was needed to make a spear, as well as to make a microchip. What have changed, apparently, are the quantity, the quality, and the density of knowledge and information, the speed in which they circulate and change, the proportion of them which is embodied in the final product.
A huszadik század hetvenes és nyolcvanas éveitől kezdve a közszektor területén egyre inkább törekedtek az üzleti szférában alkalmazott szervezési módszerek elterjesztésére. Ezzel összefüggésben egyre nagyobb jelentőséget tulajdonítottak az állami túlvállalás leépítésének, valamint a decentralizációnak. A kormányzatok önkormányzat-politikai gyakorlatának középpontjába az ún. alternatív közszolgáltatás-szervezési formák kerültek. Noha a nyugati „konzervatív”korszakváltás óta történtek újabb politikai fordulatok, a szóban forgó igazgatásszervezési értékek és megoldások maradandónak bizonyultak.
A kereskedelmi iskolákra vonatkozó történeti kutatás olyan figyelemre méltó, nagy formátumú tanár és szervezőegyéniségekkel ismertetett meg mint Schack Béla és Vincze Frigyes, akiknek gondos munkája mind a mai napig érezhető a kereskedelmi szakképzésben. Az ő gondolataik, nemzetközi rálátásuk segítette az első kereskedelmi iskolák beindítását, a színvonalas, európai szintű oktatást. A lendület a második világháborúig tartott. Az 1949-től bekövetkezett presztízsvesztést az 1985-ben elindult reformtörekvések, illetve folyamatos törvényi keretváltozások próbálják helyrehozni. Örvendetes, és bizakodásra adhat okot, hogy hazánk oktatáspolitikai és iskolavezetői, a pedagógus társadalom egy része a rendszerváltozás és a nemzetközi szervezetekhez való tartozás lehetőségeit kihasználva aktívan részt vesz a megújító munkában. A dolgozatban két fontos tárgy, a matematika és az idegen nyelv oktatásának részletes vizsgálatát végzem el. A matematika tanításával kapcsolatosan komoly problémának tűnik az emelt szintű érettségire való felkészítés a szakközépiskolában, hiszen ennek szintje meghaladja a központi felvételiét, és így még a mostaninál is kevesebb végzősnek lesz lehetősége továbbtanulásra. Az idegennyelv-ismeret mint kulcskvalifikáció - egy rövid időszakot kivéve - mindig megfelelő szerephez jutott a kereskedelmi képzésben, itt egy szemléletváltás esetén jó esélyünk van a megfelelő szint elérésére.
A külföldön befektetett működőtőke volumene a 80-as évektől az ezredfordulóig folyamatosan növekedett. 2001-ben azonban megfordult ez a tendencia: 2001-ben 41%-kal, 2002-ben pedig 21%-kal kevesebb tőkét fektettek be külföldön, mint az azt megelőző évben. Ez a fordulat arra készteti az államokat, hogy még élesebb versenybe kezdjenek a működőtőke megszerzéséért, illetve a már befektetett tőke megtartásáért. Ez különösen kritikus akkor, ha a tőke kilépési korlátja alacsony, vagy ha a vállalkozás döntően nem a hazai piacot szolgálja ki. Az államok elszántan próbálnak kedvezni a külföldi befektetőknek, s ez a törekvésük az ilyen irányú állami szabályozásban tükröződik.
A tanulmány a latens fejlettség dimenzióit és típusait elemzi. Ezen érték történelmi kontextusba helyezésével világítja meg Magyarország latens fejlettségi állapotát, majd ennek alapján fogalmaz meg következtetéseket a döntéshozók számára. A szerző rámutat: a latens fejlettség a magyar gazdaság egyetlen komoly muníciója a félperiférikus „gettóból” való kitörésre a magasan fejlett szféra felé.
The paper takes off from recent work on “agencification”, and seeks to demonstrate that there is much common ground between traditional non-departmental organisations (NDOs) such as public corporations or regulatory commissions and the recently emerged agencies. Presenting the characteristics of NDOs and agencies, and analysing the NDO-state relations, the paper argues that despite the different scholarly traditions, much advantage can come from allowing the two traditions to meet, share insights, and enrich each other.
In the face of globalisation, a fragmented society and lack of trust by citizens, governments have come to recognise that they cannot solve complex public policy problems on their own. Greater collaboration is evident not only between government and its non-governmental partners, but among departments which are managing policy files in a more horizontal manner. The purpose of this paper is to put the concept of horizontal governance to the test, using a case study of Canada's Voluntary Sector Initiative (VSI). The case examines how each of the four major components of governance - collaboration, instrument choice, horizontal management within government, and networks - played out in the process of two years of joint work between a national government and the voluntary sector.
The purpose of this work is to fill an existing void in descriptive data concerning local government budgeting in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In the terms of reference given to the project teams chosen for each of the countries included in the study, the project was designed to elicit three types of information: (1) the budgeting environment, (2) the budget process, and (3) a summary of best practices.
The paper focuses on the development of Romanian public administration since the 1989 revolution. Showing up the characteristics and weaknesses of regulation and operation, the authors give special attention to a managerial approach reform in public-administration institutions. They deal with NGOs as possibly valuable and efficient actors in public service. The article concludes, however, that European integration process is the only serious influence stimulating radical changes in Romania.
Az evolúciós szemléletmód jelen volt a 19. század gazdaságtani paradigmáiban: mind a munkaérték-elmélet, mind a szubjektív értékelmélet megengedett evolúciós gondolatmeneteket. A pénz kialakulásának magyarázata különösképpen vonzotta az evolúciós jellegű magyarázatokat. Az alábbiakban Marxnak és Mengernek a pénz evolúciójával kapcsolatos levezetéseit tekintjük át.
Based on both marketing and applied art approaches to industrial design, a two-phase study was conducted which measured consumer evaluations of competing product designs. Study 1 has proved that product design determines consumer-preference formation in choice situations: consumers consistently attach meanings to distinctive designs and preference for a given product design even lowers price sensitivity. Study 2 has shown that the characteristics of product design determine consumer evaluations.
Authors:A. Lasaosa, J. Micklewright, E. Bardasi and Gy. Nagy
The paper considers two aspects of the targeting of unemployment benefit systems: (a) the probability that benefit is received in the population of those unemployed on standard international criteria of search and availability, and (b) the probability in the population of benefit recipients that search is conducted. The focus is on Hungary but stylised facts for a range of Central European countries and two EU comparators are derived in the first part of the paper. The second part of the paper finds that most of the large decline in coverage of the Hungarian unemployed by insurance benefit (received by only a quarter of the searching stock in 1997) cannot be explained by changes in the composition of unemployment observable in labour force survey data (including unemployment duration). The probability of active search (search other than through a state employment office) is found to be very similar for those receiving insurance and assistance benefit.
An increasing stream of monitoring activities has entered the public sector. In the Netherlands there are hundreds of monitors on a wide range, so it can be stated that monitoring is fashionable in the Netherlands. But monitoring seems to be functional, too. Without monitoring, organisations would not even survive. Research about the use of research information and evaluations makes clear that information is not always used in a direct and transparent way. This statement raises three, interrelated research questions, which we try to answer in our paper: (1) What is the amount and the character of (intragovernmental) monitors in the public sector in the Netherlands? (2) What forms of utilisation can be distilled and how are intragovernmental monitors used in practice? (3) How do these functions of monitors relate to recent insights in the complexity of governmental performance and the role information can play in complex systems? The paper concludes with the observation that the current mode of monitoring is dominated by rationalistic assumptions. Important functions from a complexity perspective, as learning and communicating, seem to be underestimated. Monitoring is fashionable, but it seems to be less functional.
In the past forty years, the study of development has been transformed. At many universities, multidisciplinary centres for the study of development have been established. To be sure, most university postgraduate teaching departments, including economics, remain firmly focused on the single disciplinary approach. Despite this, however, it is now widely acknowledged that the study of “development” demands a multidisciplinary approach. Although many courses in “economic development”, “political development” and “social development” continue to be taught in single discipline departments, an understanding of the multidimensional process of “development” is seen to require an integrated mix of inputs from a wide range of disciplines. This explains in part the logic behind the establishment of centres of “development studies” where teachers, students, and researchers come from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds including some from the hard sciences. Today, most multidisciplinary courses in development studies, most international development organisations, and most donor agencies now include not just a broadly similar set of topics on their agendas, but also use a broadly similar language and broadly similar interpretation of many of the concepts that they use. It is instructive to explore the process by which such a convergence of views evolved.
A rendszerváltás nyomán számos volt szocialista országban lényeges átalakulásnak vagyunk tanúi a foglalkoztatásban. A változások jól illeszkednek a globalizálódó világgazdaság fő áramlataiba. A munka, amely a tervgazdaságok legmerevebb tényezője volt - nem kis részben a külföldi vállalatok térnyerésének köszönhetően - mozgásba jött. A világszerte zajló változások különös erővel érintik a tranzíciós országok munkavállalóit, hiszen ezekben az országokban a munkaviszonyok még a fejlett világban tapasztalhatóaknál is sokkal merevebbek voltak. A korábbi állapot a 90-es évek közepétől Magyarországon is szinte mindenben az ellenkezőjére váltott. Az alapvetően a bizonytalanságra visszavezethető feltételes foglalkoztatás azonban jóval kisebb arányú Magyarországon, mint a nyugodtabb viszonyokkal jellemezhető régi EU-tagországokban. E tanulmányban a szerző magyarázatot keres erre a paradoxonra.
A cikk az IMF és a Világbank kétévtizedes tevékenységének a magyar gazdaságpolitika alakulására gyakorolt hatását elemzi. Hivatkozási keretét a két nemzetközi pénzügyi intézmény által ellátott négy funkció (elemzés-előrejelzés és gazdaságpolitikai felügyelet, globális szabályozás, hitelnyújtás, technikai segítségnyújtás) és az általuk kiváltott öt azonosított gazdaságpolitikai hatás (gazdaságpolitikai értékelés, gazdaságpolitikai ajánlás, kemény befolyásolás, puha befolyásolás, keresztbefolyásolás) képezi. A szerző megállapítja, hogy a piacgazdaságra történő átmenet időszakában jelentős volt az IMF és a Világbank befolyásoló szerepe, de lényegesen kisebb a sokak által feltételezettnél. Az IMF befolyásoló hatása - a teljesítménykritériumokhoz kapcsolt hitelnyújtási gyakorlat miatt - elsősorban a kemény befolyásolás és az ún. IV. cikkely konzultációk során tett gazdaságpolitikai ajánlásokon keresztül érvényesült.
The author demonstrates that the rules of economic interactions in the global network economy undergo a transformation but its direction does not follow the course of concluding fair, cooperative and consensual agreements or trust-based relationship between the parties as the contractarian or the communitarian advocates of the new economy imagined. He argues that the new rules of economic interactions in the global network economy are neither based on communitarian virtue of trust, nor on the fair contracts between the equal, self-interested and informed parties. The new rules of economic interactions represent some kind of a “private legislation” by the corporations which usually interfere with the interests and general welfare of their clients, customers or consumers.
This paper deals with the new dual university courses in Germany and Italy and with the arguments legitimating their creation: diffused critics of the classical university courses for being too theoretical, and the argument of a broad company need for engineers with practical competence and company experience. Based on empirical research in Germany and Italy, the paper criticises these very popular arguments. It shows that many other (and more important) interests of companies, and also certain university interests including the research funding policies of the European Commission play an important role in the dissemination of these ideas and in the corresponding “innovative reforms” of the university sector. As a conclusion, some more general methodological principles of internationally compared research are illustrated by the findings of the research work done on this matter.
In a former paper (Simonovits, 1999), I have discussed the problems of the new Hungarian pension system verbally. In this paper I will present some new results obtained by others and myself with mathematical models, which are related to the Hungarian pension reform (see e.g. Palacios and Rocha, 1998). (1) How can one model a pension system with the life-cycle theory? (Of course, this is introduction rather than new result.) (2) How is the model of a funded system modified if volatility of yields and operating costs are taken into account? (3) What would the actuarially fair model be in an unfunded pension system with flexible age of retirement, and how much saving (and damage) is to be expected from replacing the indexation of pensions in progress to earnings by the combined indexation? (4) How is the efficiency of the pension system affected if the unfunded system is replaced by a partially or fully funded system?
France outward-processing trade (OPT) with the Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) and Maghreb developed with a high momentum from 1993 to 1997, higher in the former than in the latter area. A crowding out effect of France OPT with Maghreb by France OPT with the CEECs is evident. A substitution relationship between French foreign direct investment (FDI) and OPT is statistically tested, and detrimental to OPT in the case of the CEECs. In Maghreb, French FDI is crowded out by the development of France OPT. The substitution of French FDI to OPT in the CEECs is explained by a number of factors like the abolition of tax privileges for OPT in the EU-CEEC relations, a market-seeking FDI, a non significant impact of labour costs on both FDI and OPT, a determinant role of institutional reforms and lower country-risk in attracting FDI instead of OPT.
Reforms are not created simply by will, they are constrained by path dependency and also by existing economic and political structures. The course of reforms is also dependent on the formulation of reform alternatives and the balance of power among decisive actors. Both the postponement and then the introduction of the pension reform in Hungary can be explained by the economic and political constraints of the reform, by how reform alternatives were formulated, and by the role of the different actors in the reform process. The structure of this paper reflects these considerations. First, I summarize the characteristics of the socialist pension system that partly created path dependency in the process of pension reform. Second, I look at the economics of pension reform, by discussing the economic constraints of the reforms, and presenting the economic aspects of reform arguments and economic policies modifying and changing the pension system. Third, I examine the politics of the pension reform, and describe the political process of bargaining that generated reform outcomes. Finally, I deal with the role of the World Bank that was the most important international actor in the Hungarian pension reform process.
Authors:Willem Trommel, Taco Brandsen, Mirjan van Heffen-Oude Vrielink and Maaike Moulijn
The paper examines four different cases in which performance measurement has been applied within a process of policy reform. The cases will demonstrate that a large variety of mechanisms may underlie the use of performance measurement instruments, ranging from institutional imitation to political pressures. They show that it is insufficient to study performance measurement problems merely from the classical principal-agent perspective, simply because governance systems frequently lack an institutionalised principal-agent relationship. One must travel down new avenues of research to understand this phenomenon more fully, a journey for which this paper provides some preliminary directions.
This paper develops two stylised models of the transition economy that challenge, to some extent, the conventional approach to policy reforms. In the first model, the absence of market-oriented institutions is responsible for the occurrence of a non-cooperative equilibrium, where the amount of public services provided by the state is too low, which, in turn, adversely affects the global performance of the economy. In the second model, a benevolent government will choose a taxation level that pushes too many firms out of the market; hence global supply falls below its optimal level. In both models, disruptions specific to transitional systems lead to abnormal responses to standard fiscal policy.
The main tenet of the paper concentrates on the value reductionism promoted by the narrow-minded economic extremism flourishing in education. For economic extremism, the enjoyment of pupils and students - as allegedly the chief consumer value in education - stands for a large set of other values, which are necessary for the would be adults as successful labour force, and healthy and socialised people. However, pupils and students cannot be regarded as only consumers at the schools, colleges and universities. At the end of the presentation, the author gives a list of values and their short definitions so as to encourage a mode of teaching which is really beneficial - although not always so easy and enjoyable - for pupils and students.
With the determination of principal parameters of producing and pollution abatement technologies, this paper quantifies abatement and external costs at the social optimum and analyses the dynamic relationship between technological development and the above-mentioned costs. With the partial analysis of parameters, the paper presents the impacts on the level of pollution and external costs of extensive and intensive environmental protection, market demand change and product fees, and not environmental-protection-oriented technological development. Parametrical cost calculation makes the drawing up of two useful rules of thumb possible in connection with the rate of government interventions. Also, the paradox of technological development aiming at intensive environmental protection will become apparent.
The article reports results from a four-wave international longitudinal study “Paths of a Generation”representative of young adults in Estonia and Latvia. We looked especially at individual and structural factors predicting success and failure in these transitional societies taken together. We conceptualised success and failure as success group (or status group) membership. By doing so we attempted to capture different channels of “winning”(e.g., entrepreneurial activity or taking managerial positions) and “losing”(e.g., unemployment or employment in the primary sector of economy). The new social stratification structure in those societies is in the stage of formation. On the one hand, it is still influenced by the communist legacy; on the other hand, hierarchies typical for Western market economies are taking shape. Male gender, longer education career and belonging to the titular nation are among major predictors of success. Success group membership, especially being an entrepreneur, is also predicted by high self-evaluation and ambitions recorded as the respondents were 17 years old, as well as by early economic activity. The “losers”among young adults are generally less educated; they tend to have more children, live in smaller settlements and belong to the non-titular nation. Failure is predicted mainly by objective personal characteristics and not by subjective self-evaluation or life plans.
[Preface to the special issue of Society and Economy bringing 13 articles which were presented at the VIIIth International Research Symposium on Public Management held between 31 March and 2 April 2004 at the Budapest University of Economic Sciences and Public Administration.]
The study aims to discuss three topics briefly. First the individual moments of the law-making process are described by discussing the problems of law-substituting decrees, then the role of the Curia (The Supreme Court of Justice) in codification will be dealt with, and finally, the increasing role of codification in building the bourgeois state will be treated.
In this study a macroeconomic framework is developed and applied ascertaining the influence of domestic disequilibria and external shocks on inflation dynamics in Uzbekistan. Using quarterly data for the period 1994:Q1 to 2000:Q3, several long-run relationships are estimated for goods, money, and foreign exchange markets of Uzbekistan, which are characterised by multiple exchange rates, import restrictions, and other domestic administrative controls. The empirical estimates, which use error-correction mechanisms for different markets, show that domestic monetary and output developments, and changes in the official exchange rate vis-à-vis the parallel market rate have had a significant influence on the short-run behaviour of the foreign exchange market in Uzbekistan. Furthermore, disequilibria in the product and money markets are the major forces driving short-run inflation dynamics. It should be noted that the study has been constrained by both the quantity and the quality of quarterly data available on the Uzbek economy.
The Russian Federation is in the process of making major structural changes to its railway and electricity sectors. Both sectors will be at least partly vertically disintegrated, with the aim of creating competition in the “upstream” sector while maintaining state ownership and control of the monopoly “grid”. This paper examines the details of reform and restructuring in the context of the international experience with reform and restructuring in these two sectors, and considers the role of the Ministry for Antimonopoly Policy in reform, both in the past as an “advocate for competition” within the government, and in the future as the guarantor of non-discriminatory access to the grids by non-integrated upstream producers.
Among European Union policies, regional policy has always been considered a key domain due to its considerable role in negotiation of interests between mem-ber countries and distribution of European Union funds. Its significance, however, is expected to increase further as soon as countries of the Central Eastern Euro-pean region join the European Union and start lobbying for the concentration of European Union resources in the area. The new member states of the EU will stand on the periphery – not only in the geographical sense, but also regarding their level of economic development.
The article is based on Aaron Wildavsky's famous model of culture to interpret responsibility. In this model (1) fatalism leads to universal irresponsibility; (2) an individualistic culture values personal responsibility; (3) hierarchical cultures produce hierarchical responsibility; and (4) egalitarian culture generates collective responsibility. The author argues that the only acceptable form of responsibility is the personal one. A higher autonomy of public servants implies a greater degree of accountability and also responsibility. This new type of personal responsibility does not separate public servants into two categories: politicians with responsibility and bureaucrats without it. Personal responsibility presupposes persons who are able to make decisions and can find the balance between their self-interest and a public interest.
Presenting the critical theory model of societal development and identifying societal steering media as an important element in it, the paper analyses the forces at play in the reform of the wider public sector, in an economic, political and ideological context, and details the key features of the New Zealand compulsory educational system, including the introduction and application of managerial values and rationality. Concluding the article focuses on the possible range of responses of key actors in the educational process to change.
The research focuses on the application of the Internet in three major areas: sales, purchasing and advertising, which, from a marketing point of view, are the most relevant activities in a company. It is argued that by the end of the 1990s in Hungary Internet-related business activities had become new and increasingly important areas of competition - and this observation holds even though the penetration of the Internet amongst the Hungarian population remains low, so that consumer fears are major obstacles to the more widespread use of this type of media. In this research, the “supply side” of business activities is investigated - that is, companies. In this article (which relies on a large-scale representative national survey carried out in 2000), there will first of all be provided an overview of the intensity of Internet usage among Hungarian companies in relation to marketing activity. Second, based on cutting-edge international literature, the possible factors in the model which determine Internet usage in companies' purchasing, sales and advertising activities will be outlined. Finally, there is an empirical testing of the given model on a representative sample of Hungarian companies.
Agriculture and the rural sector as a whole are one of the components of the Russian economy which lag behind in overall reforms. However, in recent years a lot of changes have occurred, and for the most part, these have been in the right direction. This article, based on a broader World Bank study on the Russian agricultural sector discusses the current status of reforming agriculture at the federal, regional, and farm levels.
The article deals with both the general economic impact of large sporting events and the likely economic impact of having the Olympics held in Budapest. The author describes the general economic theory of economic impact and the spending patterns at major sporting events. He finds that a considerable part of the money spent in a community at the time of such an event cannot be viewed as “new money”that will stimulate the local economy. A large economic impact of such an event requires that it be long in duration, attract large crowds and big spenders, and be family-oriented. The paper notes that in many cases physical facilities, and even transportation networks, that are constructed for major sporting events prove ill-designed to support economics development in the longer run. The author concludes that in considering holding a major sporting event Budapest has serious resource constraints and faces risks of increases in pollution and congestion. Further, since it has a rapidly growing diversified economy, holding the Olympics in Budapest is unlikely to be the best long run strategy to attract money into the city and its region.
The present article drafts the changes that have taken place in German labour-force structure and labour market in the recent decades. Notwithstanding former trends, the number of university graduates started to decrease in the last five years. As reasons for this the author marks three main factors: demographic trends, decreasing interest in university carriers and the growing ratio of drop-outs. Considering vocational groups, he points out that indirect services and manufacturing cum maintenance services are on the rise, while regarding qualification groups he puts emphasis on the spreading of dual vocational education. In connection with this, the concept of “high-quality well-educated intellectuals” is revised, broadening the category to include also higher educational forms else than university and college education. The article also includes a comparison with an earlier prediction, concluding that automation had greater effects on the structure of labour than formerly expected.
The author discusses globalisation form multiple perspectives. He emphasises that globalisation certainly reduces poverty in absolute sense while increases poverty in a relative sense. There are important risks inherent in the process of globalisation, which include hyper-competition, treat to the social rights of citizens, and rendering a lot of people economically irrelevant. To cure the deficiencies of globalisation Professor Zamagni favours cosmopolitical democracy and transnationalcivil society, which might be able to safeguard cultural diversity, social justice and peace.
Globalisation is a fundamental and much discussed phenomenon of our days' economic development. This paper discusses its consequences in manufacturing, using the example of the Hungarian economy, where multinationals and other foreign companies play a key role. First the general nature of globalisation and its effects in Hungary are discussed. Then data from two international surveys are used to characterise manufacturing practice, comparing three groups of companies: multinationals, other foreign-owned and local companies. The consequences illustrate the important role of multinationals in bringing new technologies and managerial techniques to the country, giving an example for beneficial effects of globalisation.
The author presents a view in which the concept of “nationhood” and its relevance to management play a central role. In the contemporary world two polarised views emerge from this context, namely nationalism and globalism. The nationalist view seeks to emphasise one nation above others and often demands unrealistic changes. The globalist view oversimplifies the situation, often ignoring the realities and validity of nationhood thus adding weight to the nationalist argument and devaluing the value of nations. The author believes that the application of a spiritual understanding of nations has the potential to enable us to find the appropriate middle ground between nationalism and globalisation. This will release us to lead our societies into a balanced and just future together.
In accordance with the traditional approach to strategy implementation strategies are implemented through business plans that are elaborated on yearly basis. The turbulent changes characteristic to the operational environment of the organisations during the last decade prompted the need for a different approach. Accordingly, the project-oriented approach to the organisational strategy and the strategy-oriented approach to the projects have evolved. These revealed that the long-term success of the organisations depends on successful projects. Central to this paper is to highlight the fundamental role of the organisations as project clients in this respect. According to the findings of an interview-based research the author points out their tasks that are of vital importance in order to achieve project success.
A cikk témája a pedagóguskutatás egy kevéssé feltárt részterülete, a pedagógusok gondolkodásának kutatása, különös tekintettel a szakképzésben dolgozókéra. Korábbi kutatásom, akognitívpedagógia elmélete alapján öt pedagóguscsoportnak, 666 pedagógusnak a gyermekek kognitív fejlődéséről való gondolkodását hasonlította össze. A vizsgálat során több szempontból markánsan elkülönült a szakképzésben dolgozó 102 pedagógus. A csoport jellemzőit akkor nem állt módomban önállóan feldolgozni, a felmerült kérdések azonban tovább foglalkoztattak: Milyen helyet foglal el a kognitív fejlesztés epedagógusok eszköz- és célrendszerében? Hogyan gondolkodnak tanítványaik tudásának változásáról, a fejlődésüket befolyásoló tényezőkről? Mit tartanak fontosnak az oktató-nevelő munkában? Cikkemben először felvázolom a pedagógusok gondolkodásának kutatásával kapcsolatos főbbtendenciákat, majd a vizsgálat fogalmi kereteit. Az eredmények bemutatása során kiemelem a szakképzésben dolgozó tanárok gondolkodásának főbb jellemzőit, azokat a területeket, ahol gondolkodásuk jelentősen eltér más pedagóguscsoportokétól. Végül a vizsgálat tanulságait, s a felmerült kérdéseket foglalom össze.
The anticipated transformation of public utility sector at local level consists of the following main steps. Firstly, after the devolution, commercialisation takes place and the sector becomes independent of municipalities. Then, cost recovery begins to operate through tariffs instead of former budgetary transfers and simple cross-subsidies. Parallel to this, service regulations and quality standards are legislated. This is followed by the establishment of semi-autonomous regulatory agencies in the emerging market environment. However, in reality the development process is not so linear. Transition countries have to face not only the traditional failures of government functions. As competition is underdeveloped, market conditions should be established together with correction of market failures and design of new-born public regulatory functions, absolutely at the same time. In this situation market and government failures are mixed. These cumulative transformation failures might be avoided only with effective national and local policies.
Business activities considerably affect the fate and survival of natural ecosystems as well as the life conditions of present and future generations. In the light of Hans Jonas' theory of responsibility we can state that business has a one-way, non-reciprocal duty caring for the beings affected by its functioning. To become a fully ethical enterprise, business is to be carried out in sustainable, pro-social and future enhancing ways. Doing ethical business is not a luxury of advanced societies. It is a requirement for modern business to survive in a world of large-scale ecological disruption and social disintegration.
This paper presents quantitative estimates of the trade and welfare effects of the entry of Greece into the EU and presents a tool for assessing the impact of the Central and Eastern European Countries' accession to the EU. Both the static and the dynamic effects of the entry of Greece into the EU are examined. When looking at the static effects, it is shown that there was a “net”trade creation of about USD 1.6 billion, which accounted for approximately 4.4% of the GDP of the year before accession. It has also been found that 86% of the total trade creation was internal trade, while 84% of the entire trade diversion was external trade diversion, these being results that accord with the theory of the customs union. When we make an assessment of the dynamic effects, we can see that Greece's EU entry had mixed reactions in different sectors: for about two-thirds of the examined sectors we find that Greece's integration into the EU was desirable - in general, however, the integration indices found are close to being the same, thereby showing that the dynamic effects of the country's EU entry have been minimal.
Future vision was a favourite genre in the last third of the 20th century. Ideas were prepared and analyses carried out for different future scenarios, a part of which formulated expectations of or rather looser or stricter requirements for vocational training, depending on different conditions. In the present study first we try to show the universally effective development tendencies that have already took form in the world, and then analyse the opportunities of the Hungarian transformation of education.
A menedzsment tudományok kutatói egyetértenek abban, hogy a tudás megosztása a szervezeti tanulás alkotóeleme, illetve a tanuló szervezet egyik lényegi jellemzője. A tanulmányban a tudásmegosztás jelenségét önérdekkövető egyének cselekvéseként konceptualizáljuk, s abból indulunk ki, hogy ezeket a cselekvéseket - mint bármely más cselekvéseket a gazdasági rendszerelméletben - különféle koordináló intézmények szabályozzák. Amellett érvelünk, hogy a tudásmegosztás folyamata hatékonyabban megy végbe akkor, ha a tudásmegosztás szereplőinek cselekvését a reciprocitás normája szabályozza. Ezzel szemben, hatékonysági veszteségek mutatkoznak azokban az esetekben, amikor a tudás megosztását bürokratikus módon szabályozzák, illetve akkor, amikor a szereplők magatartását a tudásmegosztás folyamatában a piaci elvek és normák vezérlik.
A tudásmenedzsment eloretörése, népszeruvé válása lehetové teszi, hogy újszeru megközelítésben tárgyaljuk aszervezeti élet számos kérdését, problémakörét. A tudásmenedzsment szemléletmódja a szervezetek muködése szempontjából kritikus tényezonek tartja a tudást, felismerveannak meghatározó szerepét a szervezeti értékteremtésben. A tudást egyre többen a gazdaság egyik fo mozgatórugójának, a fejlett piacgazdaságokban a piaci versenyelony megszerzéséhez és fenntartásához nélkülözhetetlen tényezoként egyre fontosabbnak tekintik. Eredményes menedzselését - amelyben az információtechnológiai eszközöknek kulcsszerepük van - a jövo évezred vállalatában elengedhetetlen feladatnak tartják. Ennek szellemében a tanulmány áttekinti a tudás szervezeti szerepével kapcsolatos legfontosabb problémákat és mindazokat a technológiai kérdéseket, amelyek ennek az új, innovatív megközelítésmódnak a megértéséhez és elsajátításához szükségesek.
Recent enthusiasms have emphasised particularly ideas of “learning organisations”, calling attention both to the ways organisations learn and to the possibilities for improving organisational intelligence through increasing the rate and precision of learning. These enthusiasms have often encouraged the too easy assumption that learning processes necessarily lead to organisational improvement. The usefulness of learning as an instrument of organisational intelligence has to be demonstrated, not assumed. Adaptive processes such as learning are not guaranteed to reach or sustain a global maximum on an outcome surface. In order for proposals for “learning organisations” to be more than vague wishes for improvement, learning must be defined in terms of some specific process and the conditions under which that process does or does not lead to improvement must be established. This essay is built around six simple propositions, a kind of catechism for consideration of learning as an instrument of intelligence.
With individual countries and the world as a whole facing threats of all kind and the persistent poverty of groups, all countries are faced with the ongoing questions and challenges of how to maximise the potential of all their citizens to avoid potential unrest. This research, then, addresses several questions related to this topic. (1) Who are individuals who are different? (2) How does the underutilisation of human potential occur? (3) How does the underutilisation of human potential lead to societal and individual nonmonetary costs? (4) What can and should be done to better utilise the potential of all individuals? It is not enough for countries to assess the costs associated with the underutilisation of the potential of individuals who are different, for this research suggests that individuals who are different have been underutilised at all levels. At the beginning of the 21st century, countries will find it necessary to develop strategies to address the societal and individual costs associated with the underutilisation of individuals who are different while simultaneously increasing their utilisation.
The innovative and growth potential of new start-ups is often questioned on the basis that many new entrants only find themselves in the private sector due to loss of jobs in the shrinking public sector. The paper explores one plausible route to this kind of self-employment. Using labour force survey data for 1992-1999 it examines the potential role of family businesses in helping the self-employment entry of individuals who would otherwise have difficulty in finding a job. Results suggest that hiring strategies are influenced by a tendency to undervalue leisure and by the reliability of labour supplied by family members.
This paper provides an analysis of the economic benefits, costs and risks that a fast unilateral euroisation would have for the Central and Eastern European EU accession countries. In doing so, a comprehensive and broad overview of the euroisation debate is presented. The overall conclusion from the analysis is that, at this stage, the economics of a rapid unilateral euroisation are highly ambiguous and probably even harmful for the accession countries. However, there are good reasons to believe that the cost-benefit balance of full monetary integration will turn positive for some accession countries within a few years if sound macroeconomic policies are retained, the Maastricht criteria are fulfilled and structural reforms are carried on further to underpin the sustainability of convergence.