In this article we rely on the concept of “international new ventures” (INV), and concentrate on the analysis of two research propositions in the case of selected Hungarian INVs, based on company interviews in two selected industries, biotechnology and information technology. First, we analyse the criteria of the selection of foreign markets in the internationalisation of these firms and second, the role of networks in the internationalisation process of selected Hungarian INVs. Our results highlight the typical internationalisation pattern of targeting the largest developed foreign markets globally. In terms of the role of networks in internationalisation, we found evidence of the decisive role of networks in all cases examined. The personal network of the founder(s) was emphasised, especially in winning early clients. The scalability of the personal network-based business model was, however, questioned. The management implications of our findings suggest Hungarian INVs need to intensify their involvement in international communities supporting the growth of such companies. Areas for potential future research include comparing our findings with empirical results from other countries in Central-Eastern Europe.
The study focuses on the analysis of a short term retail event. Its success is similar to Black Friday, but differs in underlying consumer motivations. Using a mixed methodology, phenomenological interviews provided in-depth understanding of the participants’ lived experiences followed by an online survey with a sample size of 761 respondents. Exploratory factor analyses has been used to differentiate three distinctive groups with hierarchical cluster analysis. By adopting the ANOVA method, clusters and hypothesis were further analysed. This study is the first to employ quantitative study for a shopper taxonomy of such an event. Our results contribute valuable insights into retail shopping orientation and shopper taxonomic scheme literatures. The finding that a short term retail event’s shoppers form distinct groups of consumers indicates a new way of customers embracing retail events. Our research has identified three distinct shopper clusters based on the different weight of task and social orientations: Loyalists, Enthusiasts, Newbies. Each group applies different strategies to satisfy personal goals. The present shopper taxonomy offers new strategic ways to increase retail performance by targeting the most valuable customers.
The incentive problem is a vital issue in all transition economies and China is not an exception. This paper summarises how China partially solved this problem at early stages of post-Mao reforms and why the Chinese solution is only transitory, which explains severe problems that China is facing now. The paper also discusses the incentive mechanisms in the judicial system and the effect of the soft budget constraint (SBC) syndrome on incentives, including the relationship between institutions and innovation.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a risk management technique which is, due to the consequences of multicollinearity, particularly suitable to describe the yield curve. Its final results in this segment are presented through three main factors: shift, slope and curvature. They express predictive trajectories and explain over 95% of variability under normal market conditions. The main goal of this paper is to assess whether the established behavioural patterns are observable in the presence of negative interest rates. The EU bond market was used as an empirical basis with respect to the reactions of the European Central Bank and the establishment of negative reference interest rates in the assessed period. The algebraic properties of the principal components in the presence of negative interest rates correspond to the determined directions of movement, except that the slope and curvature have different signs given their diametrically opposite trends. The percentage of variability explained with the help of PCA is lower compared to the normal market conditions and if an equivalent level of approximation is required, it is necessary to include a fourth factor in PCA. This factor is, due to its properties, aptly named oscillatority. An implicit conclusion of our research is that the duration in the conditions of negative interest rates has less useful power in managing the interest rate risk of individual instruments.
This case study of the medical technology sector in Czechia places a major focus on the position of Czech firms, particularly SMEs, in global production networks and their internationalization. The medical technology (MedTech) industry is on the rise in Czechia, although in relative terms it is part of a relatively less important category. Three types of MedTech firms have been identified in Czechia: branches of TNCs, mostly domestically-owned innovative SMEs, and local SMEs focusing on low-value production. Despite there being several innovative and successful firms, production is dominated by low-value disposables and medical and surgical products. Apart from exports, other forms of internationalization are rare and occur mostly among a number of innovative firms. With a few exceptions, production facilities are established in neighboring post-communist countries. The low levels of internationalization are mostly related to the nature of local SMEs as well as the limited ambitions of local firms. With more sophisticated products Czech SMEs could focus more on Eastern European countries outside the EU, where Czechia has historical economic ties and the regulatory requirements are likely to be less strict. An industry move towards connected health solutions is also an opportunity for start-ups focusing on health applications.
There is a growing debate in the literature about International New Ventures (INV). Survival of INVs – along with their growth and financial performance – seems to be an interesting phenomenon, but it has only been tackled in a small sample of studies. This study examines Hungarian INVs and some of their key characteristics in the years 2009–2014. The Hungarian Corporate Tax Database was used to analyse the entire population of Hungarian companies during that period. The database consists of 385,723 companies in 2009 and 422,500 companies in 2014, and comprises the whole Hungarian private sector. Of these companies, 6,547 can be identified as INVs in the period under analysis. In this paper, the survival, growth, and business performance characteristics of Hungarian INVs are examined. Hungarian INVs recorded an exceptionally high survival rate; after five business years, 70% of the INVs remained in business, but nearly half of them withdrew to the home market, which means that only 35% of the Hungarian INVs became Sustainable International New Ventures (SINVs). Hungarian SINVs employed on average about 25 employees, registered extremely high (around 75%) export intensity, had steadily growing earnings and equity (43.6% and 56.3% mean CAGR), showed a stable return on equity of about 10% after their first year in existence, and created added value of approximately 37,000 EUR per employee.
Unconditional basic income (UBI) is the income allotted to all members of society individually, without the need to work. The right to this income and its level are unconditional and independent of the size and structure of households. In addition, the unconditional income is paid regardless of the income of citizens from other sources. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical and an empirical analysis of the UBI, with particular emphasis on the genesis and the effects of introducing this mechanism. The research was based on the analysis of economics literature and empirical results. In the empirical part, the effects of the UBI pilot program implemented in various high and low economically developed countries have been taken into account. In particular, the effects of the Family 500+ program introduced in Poland have been presented, which is widely identified with the UBI program.
Our aim is to explain why the post-communist countries were inclined to implement proportional income taxation schemes, given the broad variety of personal tax regimes and rates applied in the rest of the world. To resolve this problem a new type of social welfare function, allowing for variable (including negative) marginal utility of income, is introduced. This new approach improves our ability to comprehend the communist and post-communist social policy attitudes from a comparative standpoint. To verify our assertions, a probit regression model is applied. The empirical investigation is based on panel data including 42 countries from Europe and Central Asia for the period of 2000–2015. The primary inference is that the decisions to implement flat tax can be explained by the law of diminishing marginal utility of income and some additional policy-related factors. As it concerns the future, a successful catching-up strategy by the post-communist countries creates conditions for gradual abandonment of the flat tax practices.