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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Zsuzsanna Horváth-Mezőfi
,
Emese Bátor
,
Gergő Szabó
,
Mónika Göb
,
Zoltán Sasvár
,
Lien Le Phuong Nguyen
,
Koppány Majzinger
,
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Anna Visy
,
Géza Hitka
, and
Tamás Zsom

Abstract

Ethylene has key roles in triggering and speeding up ripening processes, which in tomatoes take the form of various qualitative changes. Tomatoes, just like all climacteric fruits, need a continuous ethylene exposure to accelerate ripening. Therefore, it is possible to use ripening regulators preventing ethylene binding. According to some studies, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be used at least as efficiently as tristimulus colorimetry classifying tomatoes based on maturity. Measurements were carried out by treating fresh tomatoes with 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) at six different stages of ripening and studying the changes in chlorophyll content related quality characteristics (e.g. surface colour, chlorophyll fluorescence) during postharvest storage (two-week refrigerated storage at 15 °C followed by a two-week shelf life). According to our results, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity of the treated samples decreased much less than those of untreated ones. Additionally, anti-ripening treatment proved to be more effective on tomatoes at an earlier stage of ripening.

Open access

Abstract

In this work, the simulated adulteration of coconut drink by dilution with water was investigated using laser-light backscattering (LLB) imaging. The laser vision system consisted of six low power laser modules, emitting 1 mm diameter beams at wavelengths of 532, 635, 780, 808, 850 and 1,064 nm. The backscattering images were acquired by a grey scale camera with 12 bit resolution. Eight parameters were extracted to describe the backscattering profile. The methods of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were performed on LLB parameters for classifying and predicting dilution level of adulterated coconut drink samples. Based on the results, LLB signals responded sensitively to adulteration. LDA results showed that adulterated samples were correctly recognized with accuracies between 60 and 100%. PLS models were able to estimate the adulteration level of samples with coefficients of determination of 0.57–0.97 in validation. This result demonstrated the potential of laser-light backscattering imaging as a rapid and non-destructive optical technique for evaluation of coconut drink adulteration.

Open access

Abstract

A novel simple and cost effective HPLC technique was presented for the quantification of selexipag (SLP) in human plasma sample and the technique's applicability to a pharmacokinetic investigation. Chromatographic separation was achieved with C18 (5 µm × 4.6 mm × 150 mm) column, at 30 °C with isocratic elution, mobile phase composed of solution A (acetonitrile), and solution B (0.5% formic acid) (65:35 v/v) at flow rate 1.2 mL min−1. The linearity range is 10–150 ng mL−1. As sample preparation step human plasma was precipitated with acetonitrile and the detection was provided at 300 nm. The retention time is 8.20 ± 0.02 min. LOD is found to be 3.3 ng mL−1 for drug. The method was applied to the analysis of SLP in human plasma with good recovery as 97.83%. Validation of the studied methods was carried out according to EMA guideline. The new method applied on a prototype pharmacokinetic study by administration of 800 μg SLP to a healthy volunteer and parameters like AUC0–24, AUC0–∞, Cmax, tmax, and t1/2 were assessed.

Open access

Abstract

Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizome (AMR) belongs to medicine food homology. Its' clinical application of invigorating the spleen-stomach of AMR was applied to various diseases. In this research, a UPLC-QTOF-MS method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of AMR, simultaneously. A Waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) was used for separation of AMR multi-components. The column was eluted with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-water and 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile. Electron spray ionization with positive-ion mode and external standard method was utilized for quantifying the nine analytes in AMR. Constituents of AMR were scanned by UPLC-QTOF-MS and then identified by mass fragments and chromatographic information compared with the published literature and reference standards. Under positive mode, a total of 61 chemical compositions including 16 terpenoids, 8 polyacetylenes, 6 aromatics, 5 flavonoids, 5 coumarins, 5 organic acids, 4 amino acids, 3 fatty acids, 3 aliphatics, 2 steroids, and 2 alkenes, a nucleoside and an aldehyde were identified. Simultaneously, the contents of three amino acids (L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, and L-tryptophan), three sesquiterpenoids (atractylenolide Ⅲ, atractylenolide Ⅱ, and atractylenolide Ⅰ), a flavonoid (rutin), an organic acid (ferulic acid), and a pentacyclic triterpenoid (oleanolic acid) were determined in seventeen AMR batches. Amino acids and triterpenoid were quantified for the first time in AMR. The UPLC-QTOF-MS method developed in this article was reliable, practical, and useful for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of AMR multi-components.

Open access

Abstract

Coloring agents in foods and drinks have been popular for centuries. This study aims to analyze the presence of ten synthetic colors (namely, (allura red (E129), amaranth (E123), sunset yellow (E110), tetrazine (E102), fast green (E143), ponceau 4R (New Coccine) (E124), erythrosin B (E127), brilliant blue FCF (E133), brilliant black (E151) and carmoisine (E122))) in food and drink samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The present analytical method was carried out using Agilent Poroshell 120 HPH-C18 column, 3 × 100 mm, 2.7 µm, and a mobile phase consisting of 10 mM Na2HPO4, pH 7, mixed with methanol as a time-increment gradient solution until the time was 20 min, then decreased with time until the time was 26 min. The pH was set by orthophosphoric acid at 7 and 5 μL injection volume, 0.50 mL flow rate, and the elution systems were monitored at 428 nm for E102, 518 nm for E124, E110, E129, E122, 530 nm for E151, E127, 622 nm for E143, and E133, respectively. The limit of detection and quantification for all colors ranged from 0.017 to 0.025 and 0.057 and 0.082 mg L−1, respectively. The correlation coefficient values ranged between 0.9991 and 1.0. The selectivity of the assay revealed no interference from other components in the analyzed samples. The percent recovery and precision (intra- and inter-day) of the spiked samples were within the acceptable limits of the ICH guidelines. Five analytical parameters were employed, and the results showed a new, novel, and robust method according to ICH guidelines for analyzing these colors. While most of the investigated food and drinks fell within the accepted range, some fell outside. The current sample preparation and analytical methods are comprehensive and universal for extracting and measuring synthetic colors in various food and drink samples.

Open access

Talajnedvesség-tartalom mérése földradarral (GPR) és mezőgazdasági alkalmazhatóságának lehetőségei

Soil water content measurements with ground penetrating radar (GPR) and its application possibilities in the agriculture

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
András Herceg
and
Csaba Tóth

A talajnedvesség-tartalom variabilitásának mérését jelentősen megnehezíti a talaj heterogenitása és a környezeti változatosság. Jelenleg még nem fejlesztettek ki olyan univerzális módszert, amely a magas vagy alacsony talajnedvesség-zónák szántóföldi léptékű feltérképezésére alkalmas úgy, hogy a talajnak és a talajnedvesség áramlásának teljes zavarásmentességét nagy mélységben is biztosítja.

A talajnedvesség-mérés részben (talajkapcsolt), vagy teljesen roncsolásmentes (levegőkapcsolt) lehetőségét biztosítja a földradar (GPR), amely nagy felbontást és jelentős behatolási mélységet biztosít a közepes léptékű talajnedvesség meghatározáshoz, így hiánypótló technikát jelent a kisléptékű pontszerű és a nagyléptékű távérzékelt mérési technikák közötti metodikai hiány kitöltésére. Emellett jobb időhatékonyággal alkalmazható más roncsolásos és roncsolásmentes eljárásokkal összevetve.

A talajradart sikeresen alkalmazták a talajnedvesség-meghatározásra, de hidrológiai vizsgálatokban történő alkalmazásának nagy potenciálja ellenére nem minden körülmény között működik optimálisan. Felhasználhatósága többnyire olyan területekre korlátozódik, ahol viszonylag alacsony az elektromos vezetőképesség (az elektromágneses hullám gyenge csillapodására való tekintettel). Ezen túlmenően egyes talajradar módszerek működésének alapfeltétele a jól azonosítható és folyamatos jelvisszaverődés, továbbá a dielektromos állandó tekintetében a földradar-rendszerek térben folyamatos felszín alatti kontrasztot igényelnek.

A talajnedvesség és annak áramlása kulcsparaméter a mezőgazdaság különböző területein. A talajnedvesség (és a talajvíz) látja el a növényeket, ami elengedhetetlen feltétele a növények fejlődésének. Ennélfogva a talaj nedvességtartalmának, eloszlásának, áramlásának, valamint a beszivárgás sajátosságainak alapos és lokális ismerete az öntözés hatékony megvalósításának alapköve, különösen a félszáraz és száraz éghajlatú területeken.

A talajradar mérési alapjaival, valamint hasznosítási lehetőségeivel összefüggésben az elsősorban nemzetközi szakirodalmat összegezve megállapítható, hogy a GPR előnyös mérőeszköz lehet, amely segíthet a talaj nedvességeloszlásának feltérképezésében, tekintettel a beszivárgásra, a párolgás és a növényi vízfelvétel okozta vízveszteségre is. Következésképpen mezőgazdasági felhasználhatósága lehetséges.

A talajradar hasznos része lehet a „Smart farming”-nak (intelligens gazdálkodás), segítséget nyújthat a talajban elhelyezett talajnedvesség-mérő szenzorok kijelölésében. Különösen, ha a közelmúltban megjelent új, szimultán többeltolásos és többcsatornás (SiMoc) GPR rendszerre asszociálunk, amely gyors talajprofil-feltérképezést tesz lehetővé a hét vevőegységével, de a hagyományos egycsatornás GPR sebességével.

Ha a teljes roncsolásmentesség a cél, úgy a drónra szerelt levegőkapcsolt GPR-ek nyújthatnak lehetőséget. Megjegyzendő azonban, hogy a talaj-levegő határfelületen jelentkező szignifikáns jelcsillapodás (hullámszóródás) következtében a feltárási mélység jelentősen csökken.

A földradar végső soron mérési alapul szolgálhat a hatékony (precíziós) öntözési gazdálkodás kialakításához, és a megfelelő vízfelhasználási hatékonyságot biztosítva járulhat hozzá a precíziós mezőgazdasági programok megvalósításához.

Open access

Abstract

In order to improve the thermal performance of heat exchangers and air collectors, we insert various forms of artificial roughness, known as ribs, into the useful duct. These ribs promote the creation of turbulent flows and enhance heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

However, the introduction of these ribs leads to an increase in pressure drop, requiring higher mechanical power to pump the heat transfer fluid. This experimental study focuses on estimating, using empirical approaches, the pressure losses induced by rectangular ribs with an inclined top. The ribs are made from 0.4 mm galvanized sheet steel.

An experimental set-up was designed to measure the head losses generated by the ribs, from the point of entry to the point of exit from the useful duct. Using the dimensional analysis method, correlations were established to evaluate head losses as a function of flow regime and rib geometry and configuration (including different geometries for rib arrangement over the configuration area).

Open access
Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Fan Chen
,
Ziyue Wang
,
Xiaoyun Xia
,
Wanhang Wang
,
Yizhe Ma
,
Xiuwei Shen
,
Xuzhao Zhou
, and
Congcong Wen

Abstract

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of monocrotaline and usaramine in rat plasma, to study the plasma drug concentration and pharmacokinetics, and to calculate the absolute bioavailability. The plasma was treated with acetonitrile and methanol (9:1, v/v) protein precipitation method. The chromatographic column was UPLC HSS T3 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm), the mobile phase was methanol-water (containing 0.1% formic acid with 10 mM ammonium acetate in water), and the elution time was 4 min at a flow rate of 0.4 mL min−1. Electrospray ionization (ESI) positive ion mode was used for detection and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative analysis. Monocrotaline and usaramine were administered sublingual intravenously (iv) 1 mg kg−1 and orally (po) 5 mg kg−1, respectively, with 6 rats in each group, for a total of 24 rats. Then the pharmacokinetic differences in rats were evaluated. For the UPLC-MS/MS method, the calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 2–2,000 ng mL−1, where r was greater than 0.99. The precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability results were all consistent with the requirements of biological sample detection methods. to provide scientific experimental basis for the basic research The bioavailability of monocrotaline and usaramine in rat plasma was calculated, which was 43.5 and 19.5%, respectively.

Open access

Abstract

Silica, as a stationary phase, has low separation efficiency accompanied by overlapping, broadened, and tailed peaks, so it needs to be modified to improve its efficiency. This study aims to develop a silica-based stationary phase modified by tetraethylene glycol (TEG) to separate phenolic compounds. Silica was modified by a chemical bond between silanol groups on the silica surface and TEG through a 3-glycidyloxypropylmethoxysilane reaction. The modified silica was packed into a capillary column and used to separate simple phenolic compounds consisting of phenol, pyrocatechol, and pyrogallol. A sample of 0.2 µL was injected into the capillary liquid chromatography and the mobile phase employed was acetonitrile 98% with a flow rate of 3 μL min−1. Elution was also done isocratically in this process and detection was carried out at a wavelength of 254 nm. The mixture of simple phenolic compounds was successfully separated in less than 7 min. The asymmetry factor and resolution were 1.43–2.12 and 1.72–5.43 respectively. The number of the theoretical plates ranged from 213 to 7,857. Columns containing Si-TEG stationary phase also separate phenolic compounds, which consist of gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A sample of 0.2 µL was injected into the capillary liquid chromatography and successfully separated the mixture in less than 12 min. The samples were eluted isocratically using a mixture of methanol and 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5 (8:92) with a flow rate of 3 μL min−1. The phenolic acids compounds were detected at a wavelength of 280 nm. The chromatogram showed four separate peaks. The asymmetry factor and resolution were 1.53–1.63 and 1.14–1.74, respectively, but the number of the theoretical plates was low, ranging from 190 to 796.

Open access

Abstract

Pinus merkusii Jungh & De Vries. has become increasingly gathered more attention from researchers because the plant has a range of folk medicinal uses. Heartwood plant is the major source of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) and abietic acid (AA), which possesses several medicinal properties, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, antiobesity and anti-inflammatory. The research proposed herein a low-cost, fast, specific, uncomplicated, sensitive, precise reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). This method was conducted and validated for evaluating an amount of DHAA and AA in ethanol extract and oral spray containing P. merkusii heartwood extract. Additionally, stability and antimicrobial activities against clinically isolated Streptococcus mutans of the oral spray were determined. The separation was achieved on Pursuit 200Å PFP column, 150 × 4.6 mm, particles of 3 µm with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. Methanol and water (70:30 v/v) were used as eluent with an isocratic mode and sample analysis volume was set at 10 µL, at a detection wavelength of 210 and 245 nm. The developed HPLC method for analysis of DHAA and AA showed good linearity with correlation coefficients equal to 1. Moreover, other validation parameters, comprised of accuracy, precision, specificity and detection and quantitation limits of this method displayed excellent reliability, validity and sensitivity. This method could be an interesting alternative for quantitative measurement of P. merkusii heartwood extract, oral spray formulation and other P. merkusii heartwood extract preparations. The result from antibacterial tests suggested that the oral spray containing P. merkusii heartwood extract is able to inhibit the oral pathogens causing dental caries. The oral spray decreased S. mutans population size by about 0.5–2 Log CFU mL−1 at 1–4 h and complete elimination of all bacteria strains within 24 h. This study provides validity for using P. merkusii heartwood extract as an alternative for preventing and treating oral infectious diseases.

Open access