Authors:Li Fang, Fengmei Qiu, Xinwei Yu, Jianbo Yan and Yanhua Zhu
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are widely used to control rodents. A method based on online turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) combined with LC-MS/MS has been established for rapid quantitative determination of eight ARs in human blood and urine. This method, which does not require time-consuming pre-processing steps, renders it especially suited for use in emergency poisoning cases. Sample preparation, including extraction, centrifugation, and filtration, was followed by online clean-up using TFC. The total run-time was within 13.5 min, including online purification, chromatographic separation, and re-equilibration of the TFC system. The parameters for sample extraction, purification, separation, and detection in this study were optimized separately. The linear regression coefficients of matrix-matched calibration standard curves established for quantification were greater than 0.9976. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method were found to be 0.3–3.0 ng/mL in human blood and 0.06–0.6 ng/mL in urine. The recoveries of spiked target compounds at different concentrations in human blood and urine were 91.8–111.9% and 86.9–105.3%, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision values were both less than 12.5%, and the matrix effects of human blood and urine samples for ARs were 75.3–108.6% and 102.7–130.0%, respectively. This method had successfully applied to the emergency detection of ARs in biological samples of poisoned patients.
Authors:H. Belmir, A. Abourriche, A. Bennamara, T. Saffaj and Bouchaib Ihssane
This study describes the development of a method allowing the simultaneous separation and quantification of five statins by High performance liquid chromatography/Diode Array Detector (HPLC/DAD). Optimization was accomplished using chemometric tools such as the Design Space (DS) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Central Composite Design (CCD) and DS were applied for the optimization of the chromatographic procedure as well as the robustness of the chromatographic method by taking the ratio of the percentage of acetonitrile (%ACN) Buffer solution, the pH and the mobile phase flow rate as critical parameters. Satisfactory results were obtained after the optimization phase with a percentage of mobile phase equal to 46.19%, a pH of 4.16 and the flow rate is 1.4 mL min−1 by setting the resolution limits above 6, and the target retention time of 20 min. Using the DS and CCD approach, we have developed a robust and reliable procedure for the simultaneous and accurate separation and quantification of the five statins.
Authors:Ahmed K. Kammoun, Zuhier Ahmed Awan, Tarek Elawady, Alaa Khedr and Mohamed I. El-Awady
Although glimepiride (GLM) is the first-line treatment of Type II diabetes, low extraction recovery is still a significant limitation in previous plasma analysis methods. An optimized solid-phase extraction method of GLM in human plasma with excellent extraction recovery, 100 ± 0.06%, was achieved using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and Gliclazide (GLZ) as an internal standard. GLM was extracted from 100 µL plasma sample using Sep-Pak® vac 1cc (100 mg) C18 column and methylene chloride: methanol (2: 1, v/v) as eluant. Both GLM and GLZ were monitored by a triple quad mass spectrometer applying positive multiple reaction monitoring mode (+MRM). The protonated precursor ions and product ions of GLM and GLZ were m/z 491(352), and m/z 324 (127), respectively. The detection and measurement of low levels of GLM in human plasma reached to picogram range (limit of detection (LOD) = 60 pg/mL, limit of quantification (LOQ) = 200 pg/mL). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery, accuracy, and precision. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of GLM following oral administration of 1 mg GLM tablets to 12 healthy volunteers.
Authors:Katalin Badak-Kerti, Viktória Zsom-Muha, Tamás Zsom, Dávid Nagy and József Felföldi
In the experiments, the sound generated during the breaking of chocolate samples was examined. The fracture was performed by a precision penetrometer, the breaking sound was recorded. Texture index (TI) was calculated from the resulting signal. First the change of the resulting TI was monitored as a function of the samples' temperature. The sample groups of the same dark chocolate with different temperatures were completely separated from each other with statistical tool (LDA, linear discriminant analyses), but no trend was found to describe the change. Secondly, based on the TI, we could identify and classify the chocolate samples in the appropriate groups (based on cocoa content from 40 to 85%). According to linear discriminant analyses chocolates with different cocoa content were completely separated and showed a certain pattern. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the cocoa content of chocolate can be determined on the basis of TI obtained by acoustic method.
Authors:P. Bodor, E. Somogyi, L. Baranyai, J. Lázár and B. Bálo
Grapevine berry shape has important marketing value in the table grape commerce, hence variability evaluation of this characteristic is highly important. In this study berry shape of 5 table grape genotypes: “Fanny”, “Lidi”, “Hamburgi muskotály”, “Moldova”, and “Orsi” were compared. To evaluate the shape variability graphic reconstruction and elliptic Fourier analysis have been carried out. Shape outlines have been investigated and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been performed with the SHAPE software package. PCA of the contours showed that 6 out of the 77 principal components were effective to describe shape attributes. The first 6 PCs explained 94.51% of the total variance. PC1 associated with the width and length of the berry. PC2 related to the shape of the top and bottom of the berries, while PC3 linked to the ratio of the top and the bottom width. ANOVA of the principal component scores revealed significant difference among the genotypes. Results suggest that morphology of the berry is a variable not only among but within the accessions. Our findings confirmed that elliptic Fourier descriptors (EFDs) would be a powerful tool for quantifying grapevine berry morphological diversity.
Authors:Csaba Hetyei, Ildikó Molnár and Ferenc Szlivka
The engineering application's design process starts with a concept, based on our theoretical knowledge and continues with a numerical simulation. In our paper, we review the finite volume method (FVM) which is used generally for heat and fluid dynamic simulations.
We compare three different computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (based in the fine volume method) for validating a NACA airfoil, which can be used for example in the aerospace industry for an airplane's wing profile, and it can be used for example in the renewable industry for a wind turbine's blade or a water turbine's impeller profile. At the end of this paper, the result of our simulations will be compared with a validation case and the difference between the CFD software and the measured data will be presented.
Authors:Péter Korzenszky, Gábor Géczi and Timea Kaszab
This research aims to determine whether the treatment of food products in a microwave electromagnetic field is advantageous or disadvantageous compared to conventional technologies. In household practice, microwave energy transfer is used mostly for heating. One of the most important tangible benefits of microwave heat treatment is that it causes less damage to the nutritional value of the product due to its speed.
Despite the fact that microwave technology was introduced more than 70 years ago, it is still not clear whether its application results in equivalent products in terms of quality and food safety.
This study demonstrates how heat-treated wines with microwave energy transmission and with convective heating in a thermostatic water bath are affected. In the white, rose and red wine samples pasteurized at a temperature of 74 ± 0.5 °C, significant differences between the two heating methods regarding colour characteristics could be indicated.
Authors:Mahmood Al Ramahi, Sándor Beszédes and Gábor Keszthelyi-Szabó
Industrial wastewater is a growing environmental challenge due to its high concentrations of organics and its limited biological degradability. Up to date, however, no published work discussed industrial wastewater characterization, which is the focus of this study. Moreover, the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release was investigated in this work. Wastewater samples were collected from different industrial sites and characterized in order to determine their initial properties. It was summarized that the salinity of wastewater estimated by EC was relatively low, and its pH values were in the acceptable range. On the other hand, however, high values of sodium absorption ratio (SAR) were obtained in all samples post to hydrothermal treatment. Nonetheless, our results revealed higher SCOD release post to hydrothermal treatment suggesting better efficiency of COD removal obtained by this treatment technique.
Authors:Zoltán Magyar, Antal Véha and Balázs P. Szabó
In milling industry, the object of milling is to separate endosperm and bran parts of wheat, and to recover flour. The most important and the highest energy requirement operation is grinding. The quantity and quality of flour depends on: the variety of wheat that will be milled, the type of grinding equipment and the condition used before the grinding. During our experiments two different grain structured varieties of wheat were milled in laboratory conditions with disk, stone grinder and roller miller in air-dry, and conditioned states. The performance of the equipment and the particle size distribution (PSD) of the produced grist were measured, then the energy requirements of the grinders were calculated. In the milling experiments the ash contents of the different particle sized fractions were compared to map particular properties of wheat cultivars.
Authors:Tamás Zsom, Petra Polgári, Lien Phuong Le Nguyen, Géza Hitka and Viktória Zsom-Muha
Broccoli's high perishability and its sensitivity to negative quality changes (i.e., mass loss, ethylene induced degreening, abscission of leaves, and florets) generates quality problems during postharvest. Freshly harvested samples were stored at 5 and 21 °C after separately treated for 24 h with 625 ppb 1-methyl-cyclopropene (1-MCP), 24 h with 2 ppm ethylene and 1-MCP followed by ethylene. Quality maintenance effectivity of 1-MCP was investigated during cold and room storage by non-destructive optical methods (chlorophyll fluorescence and DA-index®) and by the evaluation of the visual physiological symptoms. The highly positive effects of 1-MCP treatment combined with cold storage were obviously proven on quality maintenance providing better retention of initial quality related to the initial mature green stage as chlorophyll content related DA-index®; Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and Fm/F0 chlorophyll fluorescence values. From the practical point of view, the rapid, and easy-to-use Sintéleia FRM01-F Vis/NIR DA-meter® could be applied relatively easy for the quality measurement of broccoli. The reproducibility of quality determination could be increased by the enhanced number of measuring points or using computer aided imaging methods (i.e., chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, machine vision system) providing global and more reliable information about quality changes.