Authors:A. Sykuła-Zając, E. Łodyga-Chruścińska, B. Pałecz, R. E. Dinnebier, U. J. Griesser and V. Niederwanger
An amide-type local anesthetic drug, bupivacaine hydrochloride (BupiHCl), in the form of racemate is listed in the European and American pharmacopoeias and continues to be used in medicine. Thermal and X-ray analysis of commercial BupiHCl monohydrate was performed by differential scanning calorimetry with thermogravimetry, hot stage microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Endothermic dehydration occurs at the temperature range of 73–130 °C for DSC–TG 111 (Setaram) and at 83–150 °C for DSC 404 (Netzsch). Both curves at 2 and 10 °C min−1 clearly reflect phase transformation of anhydrous Form I into II before reaching the melting point. A well-defined exothermic phase transition of BupiHCl was detected at a lower heating rate. Temperature-resolved X-ray diffraction in conjunction with DSC led to determining a similarity between the obtained thermal events. Microscopic investigation also confirmed the above-mentioned transformations.
Authors:B. Pacewska, M. Nowacka, I. Wilińska, W. Kubissa and V. Antonovich
The influence of spent catalyst from catalytic cracking in fluidized bed (FCC) on the hydration of two kinds of calcium aluminate cements (of about 40 and 70% content of alumina) was studied. Cement pastes were prepared with constant ratio of water/binder = 0.5 and with content of 0, 5 and 25% mass of addition as replacement of cement. The samples were stored at room temperature. Thermal analysis (TG, DTG), infrared absorption (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction methods were applied to investigate changes in various periods of hydration (up to 150 days). The compressive strength of cement mortars was also examined. On the basis of presented results it was affirmed that in studied conditions spent FCC catalyst is a reactive addition in calcium aluminate cement (CAC) pastes, which probably can create a new phase type C–A–S–H. It may be an interesting alternative for limitation of the negative phenomenon of conversion of aluminate hydrates, although the degree of the influence of the mineral additive depends on the composition of CAC and of the quantity of the used waste.
Authors:Concepción Foces-Foces, María Victoria Roux, Rafael Notario and Marta Segura
A thermophysical study of the sulfur containing amino acids l-cysteine and l-cystine has been carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Heat capacities of both compounds were measured in the temperature interval from T = 268 K to near their respective melting temperatures. DSC and variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD) gave evidence for a solid–solid phase transition close to the melting point only in the l-cysteine sample. DSC experiments show that this solid–solid transition is not reversible in the temperature interval T = 235–485 K and presents a behavior depending on heating temperature, time, and rate. This behavior is also supported by variable-temperature PXRD. The patterns for the commercial samples, at room temperature, are consistent with those simulated for the orthorhombic and hexagonal polymorphic forms from the single-crystal X-ray analysis.
Authors:Lucjan Chmielarz, Małgorzata Rutkowska, Piotr Kuśtrowski, Marek Drozdek, Zofia Piwowarska, Barbara Dudek, Roman Dziembaj and Marek Michalik
Hydrotalcite-like materials containing apart from magnesium and aluminum also copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron were prepared by a co-precipitation method. Thermal transformations of hydrotalcite-like materials were studied by thermal analysis methods as well as XRD, UV–vis–DRS, and XPS measurements of the samples calcined at various temperatures (600, 700, and 800 °C). Calcined hydrotalcites, especially those containing cobalt and copper, were found to be active and selective catalysts of N2O decomposition. It was shown that an increase in the calcination temperature significantly activated the Co-containing catalysts. Promotion of the samples with potassium resulted in activation of the hydrotalcite-based catalysts.
Authors:Grażyna Janowska, Agnieszka Kucharska-Jastrząbek and Przemysław Rybiński
This article presents the effect of the method of NBR cross linking on the thermal properties, flammability and fire hazard of its nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite (NanoBent or Nanofil), using test results obtained by means of a derivatograph, oxygen index and cone calorimetry. It has been found that the thermal stability and flammability of the nanocomposites investigated depend on both the rubber network structure and the type of montmorillonite. The nanoadditives used reduce the flammability of cross-linked nitrile rubber and considerably limit its fire hazard.
Authors:Erik de Blois, Ho Chan, Kamalika Roy, Eric Krenning and Wouter Breeman
PET with 68Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based 68Ge/68Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity (68Ge vs. 68Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of 68Ge activity is produced by eluting the 68Ge/68Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of 68Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce 68Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste. Most efficient
method to reduce the 68Ge activity is by sorption of TiO2 or Fe2O3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of 68Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe2O3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe2O3 eliminates ≥90% of the 68Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate 68Ge activity sorption on TiO2, Fe2O3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore 68Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. 68Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05–1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite
in the recirculation system, 68Ge activity showed highest sorption.
Authors:Agata Górniak, Alina Wojakowska, Bożena Karolewicz and Janusz Pluta
Enhancement of the dissolution rate of poorly soluble compounds through the formation of drug–drug eutectics was investigated using fenofibrate and acetylsalicylic acid. Solid–liquid equilibria in the system under study were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phase diagram for the whole range of compositions was constructed. In addition, existence of a metastable polymorph of fenofibrate has been confirmed. The investigation has revealed that acetylsalicylic acid and fenofibrate form a simple eutectic mixture containing 0.958 mol fraction of fenofibrate at the eutectic point. Dissolution rate improvement of fenofibrate correlated with the phase diagram. The amount of fenofibrate released from the solid dispersions that contained fenofibrate as the eutectic mixture with acetylsalicylic acid was at least threefold higher compared to untreated fenofibrate.
The adsorption and dissociation of the H2 molecule on the PdAg, PdAu, PtAg, and PtAu heteronuclear dimers, both isolated and deposited on carbon, were investigated by means of density functional theory. It was found that the Pd and Pt ends of the isolated dimers adsorb H2 more exoenergetically than the Ag and Au ends. The dimers were also deposited on a carbon support and it turned out that they prefer to adsorb on the support by their Pd and Pt ends rather than by the Ag and Au ends. The adsorption of H2 on the carbon-supported dimers is somewhat less exoenergetic than that on the isolated dimers but, after the dissociation of H2, the binding of the H atoms to the dimers remains stronger in the presence of the support.
The catalytic effect of buffers (phosphate, acetate, borate, carbonate) on the degradation of doripenem in aqueous solutions was studied at 313 K in the pH range 0.82–11.56 (μ = 0.50 mol L−1) by an HPLC-UV method developed for kinetic studies of doripenem. It was observed that general acid–base catalysis occurred in all buffers and so catalytic rate constants were calculated. Specific acid–base catalysis of doripenem involved degradation of protonated molecules and zwitter ions of doripenem catalyzed by hydrogen ions, spontaneous degradation of zwitter ions under the influence of water and degradation of zwitter ions and monoanions catalyzed by hydroxide ions.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator and nerve growth factor found in a class
of enzymes called quinoproteins, was labeled with 99mTc by using stannous fluoride (SnF2) method. Radiolabeling qualification, quality control and characterization of 99mTc-PQQ and its biodistribution studies in mice were performed and discussed. Effects of pH values, temperature, time and reducing
agents concentration on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The quality control procedure of 99mTc-PQQ was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), radio high-performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC) and paper electrophoresis
methods. The average radiolabeling yield was 94 ± 1% under optimum conditions of 0.99 mg of PQQ, 30 μg of SnF2, 0.5 mg of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) and 18.5 MBq of Na99mTcO4 at pH 6 and 25 °C with a response volume of 1 ± 0.1 mL. 99mTc-PQQ was stable and anionic. Lipid–water partition coefficient of 99mTc-PQQ was −1.49 ± 0.16. The pharmacokinetics parameters of 99mTc-PQQ were t1/2α = 18.16 min, t1/2β = 100.45 min, K12 = 0.013 min−1, K21 = 0.017 min−1, Ke = 0.016 min−1, AUC (area under the curve) = 1040.78 ID% g−1 min and CL (plasma clearance) = 0.096 mL min−1. The dual-exponential equation was Y = 10.88e−0.038t + 5.21e−0.0069t. The biodistribution of 99mTc-PQQ was studied in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research 7701 Burhelme Are., Fox Chase, Philadelphia, PA 1911 USA) mice. In
vitro autoradiographic studies clearly showed that the 99mTc-PQQ radioactivity accumulated predominantly in the hippocampus and cortex, which had a high density of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR). The enrichment can be blocked by NMDAR redox modulatory site antagonists-ebselen (EB) and 99mTc-PQQ is therefore a promising candidate for the molecular imaging of NMDAR. To date, however, there have been no studies
Authors:Sergey V. Ushakov, Divya Nag and Alexandra Navrotsky
The severe heating of soil during wildfires and prescribed burns may result in adverse effects on soil fertility due to organic matter loss. No rapid and reliable procedure exists to evaluate soil organic matter (SOM) losses due to heating. Enthalpy of SOM combustion correlates with organic matter content. Quartz is a ubiquitous mineral in soils and has a remarkably constant composition and reversible α–β phase transition at 575 °C. We suggest that SOM content in heated and unheated soils can be compared using the ratio of SOM combustion enthalpy on heating to the β–α quartz transition enthalpy measured on cooling of the same sample. This eliminates the need to dry and weigh the samples, making possible field applications of the proposed method. The feasibility of using the (ΔHcomb SOM)/(ΔHβ–α Qz) ratio was established with experiments on soil samples heated in the laboratory and the method was then used for evaluation of SOM loss on two pile burn sites at UC Berkeley's Blodgett Forest Research Station in Georgetown, California.
Authors:Małgorzata Wiśniewska, Stanisław Chibowski, Teresa Urban and Dariusz Sternik
The influence of solution pH on the structure of polyvinyl alcohol adsorption layer on the alumina surface was investigated. The spectrophotometry, viscosimetry, thermogravimetry, potentiometric titration and microelectrophoresis were applied in experiments. These methods enable determination of the following parameters: adsorbed amount of PVA, stability of suspension without and with polymer, thickness of its adsorption layers, changes in thermal characteristics of Al2O3 surface with the adsorbed polymer, surface charge density and zeta potential of solid particles in the presence and absence of PVA, respectively. All measurements were carried out in the pH range 3–9. The obtained results indicate that pH has a great influence on the conformation of PVA chains adsorbed on the alumina surface. It is due to incomplete hydrolysis of acetate groups of polyvinyl alcohol macromolecules (degree of hydrolysis 97.5%), which dissociate with the increasing pH. Moreover, the polymer adsorption on the alumina surface causes changes in the course of thermogravimetric curves. The effect of weight loss for Al2O3–PVA systems is smaller than that of Al2O3 without polymer. It is due to elimination of water molecules from the solid surface by adsorbed polymer.
Authors:Lech Nowicki, Anna Antecka, Tomasz Bedyk, Paweł Stolarek and Stanisław Ledakowicz
Gasification of char derived from sewage sludge was studied under different oxidizing atmospheres containing CO2, O2 or H2O. The gasification tests were carried out in thermobalance at different temperatures and oxidizing reagent concentrations. The most efficient were the gaseous mixtures containing oxygen. The reaction took place at temperature 400–500 °C, whilst in the case of CO2 and steam much higher temperatures (700–900 °C) were necessary to complete the conversion. Two rate models for gas–solid reaction were applied to describe the effect of char conversion on reaction rate. The shrinking core model for reaction-controlled regime was found to be the best for predicting the rate of char gasification in CO2 and O2 atmosphere. The experimental data for steam gasification of the char were fitted best by the first-order kinetics. The kinetic parameters estimated from the experimental data are in accordance with the literature for lignocellulosic char gasification and are the first published for sewage sludge char gasification.
Authors:D. Sternik, M. Majdan, A. Deryło-Marczewska, G. Żukociński, A. Gładysz-Płaska, V. M. Gun'ko and S. V. Mikhalovsky
Influence of physically adsorbed basic red 1 (BR1) dye on the physicochemical properties of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and clay (bentonite) was compared using adsorption, FTIR, and TG/DTA methods. A larger adsorption of the dye was observed for bentonite (0.143 mmol/g) than for clinoptilolite (0.0614 mmol/g) per gram of an adsorbent. However, the adsorption values are the same per surface unit (1.8 μmol/m2). The result (per gram) is due to location of dye molecules in interlayer and interparticle space of bentonite with much larger specific surface area than that of clinoptilolite. The dye adsorption leads to a decrease in the specific surface area and the pore volume of both minerals. The adsorption changes also a character of active sites and thermal stability. A TG study shows that the dye adsorption on bentonite changes adsorbed water amounts, weight loss, and decomposition temperature. In the case of zeolite, the dye adsorption insignificantly influences the thermal stability. The dehydration energy distributions calculated from the Q-TG and Q-DTG data demonstrate a complex mechanism of water thermodesorption and the influence of adsorbed dye on this process.
Chiral Ni(II) complexes are used for the preparation of carbon-11 or fluorine-18 enantiomerically pure α-amino acids for positron
emission tomography (PET). They enable the selective monoalkylation of a glycine synthon with high stereoselectivity and the
preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids with quarternary α-carbon. Molecular modelling of non-, mono- and di-substituted
complexes using quantum theory of atoms-in-molecule (QTAIM) topological analysis of electron density allowed us to formulate
a new theory explaining the reasons for highly selective monomethylation of the complexes. In the non-substituted complex
(GK), the α-carbon atom exhibits a higher atomic volume and a more positive charge in comparison with mono- and di-substituted
complexes. This unusual behaviour is accompanied by increasing the bond critical point (BCP) ellipticity of the iminic bond
in GK explained by the higher mechanical strain. Both phenomena indicate the increased reactivity and probably originate in
more compact core of GK where shorter distances in the internal coordination sphere result in the higher strain of its bonds.
Authors:D. Wyrzykowski, E. Hebanowska, G. Nowak-Wiczk, M. Makowski and L. Chmurzyński
Thermal decomposition of citric acid, trans- and cis-aconitic acid has been studied using the TG-MS, TG-FTIR and DSC techniques. The measurements were carried out in an argon atmosphere over a temperature range of 293–673 K. The influence of the acid structures and configurational geometry on stability of the transition products and pathways of thermal transformations of the studied compounds studied is discussed.
In this work we present data on transuranium nuclides 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm and 244Cm in effluents discharged to air (activity concentrations and annually discharged activities of individual radionuclides)
from 7 stacks in 2004–2009. In the effluents discharged to air from one stack low activities of transuranium nuclides were
observed throughout the studied period. Transuranium nuclides had been discharged to air from this stack also in previous
years since 1996 when defect in the cladding of a fuel element and consequent contamination of the primary circuit occurred.
In the effluents discharged to air from another stack transuranium nuclides were observed only in some monitoring periods
of studied years. We could not prove the presence of transuranium nuclides in the effluents of the other stacks up to 2006.
The transuranium nuclides in discharged effluents were registered in the second half-year of 2006. In 2007–2008 especially
low activities of 241Am were found in these effluents.
A method for the determination of uranium and 210Po in high salinity water samples has been elaborated. Both radionuclides are preconcentrated from 0.5 dm3 saline media by co-precipitation with hydrated manganese dioxide, followed by dissolution of the precipitate in 200 mL of
1 M HCl. Uranium isotopes 235U and 238U can be directly determined by ICP MS method with a detection limit of 0.01 ppb for 238U. Prior to a selective determination of 210Po, the majority of other naturally occurring α-emitting radionuclides (uranium, thorium and protactinium) can be stripped
from this solution by their extraction with a 50% solution of HDEHP in toluene. Finally, 210Po is simply separated by direct transfer to an extractive scintillator containing 5% of trioctylphosphine oxide in Ultima
Gold F cocktail and determined by an α/β separation liquid scintillation technique with detection limit below 0.1 mBq/dm3.
Authors:Zofia Drzazga, Katarzyna Michalik, Tomasz Halat, Anna Michnik and Henryk Trzeciak
Differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) and UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy were used to obtain the characteristics of
blood serum from newborn rat’ after maternal treatment with cyclophosphamide in comparison with control. The obtained DSC
curves reveal a complex endothermic peak due to the unfolding process of various serum proteins. Thermal profiles and absorption
spectra of blood serum are sensitive to the age of newborns as well as to effect of maternal administration of cyclophosphamide.
The most significant disturbances in serum proteome were observed for 14-day old newborns. The thermodynamic parameters: enthalpy
change (∆H), the normalized first moment (M1) of the thermal transition with respect to the temperature axis and the ratio of Cpex at 70 and 60 °C describing denaturation contributions of globulin forms in respect to unliganded albumin with haptoglobin
was estimated. Moreover, the second derivative spectroscopy in the UV region was used to resolve the complex protein spectrum.
The differences in blood serum detected by DSC and UV–VIS confirm a potential usefulness of these methods for diagnostic and
monitoring changes with age as well as the pathological state of blood serum.
Authors:E. Radomińska, T. Znamierowska and W. Szuszkiewicz
The system Rb3PO4–Ba3(PO4)2 was investigated by thermoanalytical methods, X-ray powder diffraction, ICP, and FT-IR. On the basis of the obtained results its phase diagram was proposed. For this system with one intermediate compound, BaRbPO4, we found that this compound melts congruently at 1700 °C, exhibits a polymorphic transition at 1195 °C and is high-temperature unstable. Also, the intermediate compound was subject to gradual decomposes to Ba3(PO4)2 (the solid phase) and vaporization (with conversion of phosphorus and rubidium oxides into vapor phase). We also found that Rb3PO4 melts congruently at 1450 °C and shows a polymorphic transition at 1040 °C. Regarding Ba3(PO4)2, we have confirmed that it melts congruently at 1605 °C and exhibits a polymorphic transition at 1360 °C.
The neutron temperature is a characteristic parameter in irradiation channels of reactor. For nuclides which have resonances
in the thermal neutron energy range, their Westcott g-factors are different from unity. The values of g-factors and cross-sections
of (n, γ) reaction of these nuclides are temperature dependence. The standard energy for tabulation of thermal neutron cross-section
(σ0) is that of room temperature (293.59 K or 20.43 °C), corresponding to a neutron energy 0.0253 eV or to a neutron velocity
of 2200 m/s. However, in the irradiation channels of reactor, the temperature is not exact at 20.43 °C. Thus, the temperature
at the irradiation position must be known to convert σ0 to σ(T). A method for determination of the neutron temperature in irradiation channels of Dalat reactor is presented by fitting
the thermal neutron spectrum obtained from the calculation using MCNP code.
Authors:Zofia Rzączyńska, Anna Danczowska-Burdon and Justyna Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk
Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, known as isocinchomeric acid is one of six isomers containing two carboxylic groups. Light
lanthanide (III) complexes with pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid with general formula Ln2L3·nH2O, where n = 8, 9, were obtained. Their thermal and spectroscopic properties were studied. Sodium salt was obtained as Na2L·H2O. Hydrated complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III) are stable to 313–333 K, whereas
Na2L·H2O is stable to about 333 K. Dehydration process for all compounds runs in one stage, next they decompose into appropriate
lanthanide oxalates, oxocarbonates carbonates and finally to metal oxides. Bands of νCOOH vibrations at 1736 and 1728 cm−1 disappear on complex spectra and νas and νs of COO− groups appear thus indicating that complexation process took place.
Authors:Z. Rzączyńska, A. Kula, J. Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk and A. Szybiak
The complexes of rare earth elements with 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid of the formula: Ln2(C12H6O4)3·nH2O, where Ln = La(III)-Lu(III) and Y(III); n = 3 for La(III), Ce(III); n = 6 for Pr(III)-Yb(III) and Y(III) and n = 5 for Lu(III) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA and TG-FTIR) and X-ray analysis. They are sparingly soluble in water and stable at room temperature. During heating in air atmosphere, they lose all water molecules in several steps, generally in two or three steps, except for the La(III) and Ce(III) complexes which lose all water molecules in one step. The anhydrous compounds are stable up to about 773 K and then decompose to corresponding oxides. The thermal decomposition is connected with the release of water molecules (443 K), carbon dioxide (713 K) and hydrocarbons.
Authors:A. Biedunkiewicz, U. Gabriel, P. Figiel and D. Grzesiak
The analysis of purification and carbonization process in argon with use of nc-TiCx/C powder, obtained by sol–gel method, is presented. TG-DSC measurements were carried out under non-isothermal and isothermal
conditions. The samples were heated up in series to 1473, 1573, 1673, and 1773 K. For this series description of process kinetics
is presented. Four stages of the process have been distinguished. Kinetics was described using Coats-Redfern equation. The
kinetic parameters were determined for particular stages. Using obtained kinetic data, the analysis of the process was performed.
The α(T) and r(α,T) dependencies on heating rate and temperature were investigated. In order to obtain high carbonization degree and carbide
particles of small size, an appropriate temperature and time of process duration have to be determined. Appropriate carbonization
and particles size were obtained for series heated up to 1570 K. It has been demonstrated that the oxygen, present at trace
level in argon, can react with components of the system in certain range of temperature, influencing the quality of obtained
product. The particles have been depicted by TEM method, whereas characterization of structure and particles size was performed
by XRD method. MS method was used to determine evolved gaseous products.
Authors:Bert Wolterbeek, Susana Sarmento and Tona Verburg
The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled
biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today’s availability of solar-powered
small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchange materials is regarded as adequate or an even better alternative for biomonitor
transplant materials used in small-scaled set-ups, but biomonitors remain valuable in larger-scaled set-ups and in unforeseen
releases and accidental situations. In the latter case, in-situ biomonitoring is seen as the only option for a retrospective
study: biomoniors are there before one even knows that they are needed. For biomonitoring, nuclear analytical techniques are
discussed as key techniques, especially because of the necessary multi-element assessments in both source recognition and
single-element interpretation. To live up to the demands in an epidemiological context, larger-scaled in-situ biomonitoring
asks for large numbers of samples, and consequently, for large total sample masses, this all to ensure representation of both
local situations and survey area characteristics. Possibly, this point should direct studies into new “easy-to-sample” biomonitor
organisms, of which high masses and numbers may be obtained in field work, rather than continue with biomonitors such as lichens.
This also means that both sample handling and processing are of key importance in these studies. To avoid problems in comparability
of analytical general procedures in milling, homogenization and digestion of samples of large masses, the paper proposes to
involve only few but high-quality laboratories in the total element assessment routines. In this respect, facilities that
can handle large sample masses in the assessment of element concentrations are to be preferred. This all highlights the involvement
of large-sample-volume nuclear facilities, which, however, should be upgraded and automated in their operation to ensure the
necessary sample throughput in larger-scaled biomonitoring.
This paper presents the results of testing the flammability and fire hazard of butadiene (BR), butadiene-acrylonitrile (NBR) and butadiene- styrene (SBR) rubbers with the use of oxygen index test, ignition temperature measurement, cone calorimetry and inverse liquid chromatography. Toxicometric indices, RTFH CO/CO2, WLC50SM and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been determined. The results obtained have been interpreted from the point of view of the chemical constitution of the polymers tested.
Authors:Przemysław Rybiński, Grażyna Janowska and Ludomir Ślusarski
The article presents the results of testing thermal properties and combustibility of butadieneacrylonitrile
rubber with 18% contents of bounded acrylonitrile, NBR 18. Two types of silica, Zeosil 175C and Ultrasil VN-3, with different
specific surfaces were used as filler.
Zeosil 175C and Ultrasil VN-3 were modified via cryogenic dezaggregation method. The activity of
unmodified and cryogenic modified silica toward butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber were investigated.
The sulphur and peroxide vulcanizates contained 20, 30, 40, and 50 phr. of the filler were studied.
The article discusses also the test results of thermal stability and flammability of NBR 18 containing
silica prepared "in situ" from alkoxysilane precursor.
The test results were obtained with the use of derivatograph, measurements of flammability by the
method of oxygen index, and in air.
The effect of the silica modification on the SEM and AFM was also examined.
The method of cryogenic modification enables to achieve increase of mineral fillers activity towards
elastomer and reduction in the flammability of NBR 18 vulcanizates.
It has been found that the modification of the vulcanizates of NBR 18 with tetraethoxysilane that
makes it possible to form silica "in situ" reduces the flammability of cross-linked rubbers.
Thermoanalytical investigations TGA/DTG/DSC of polyamide–imide enamel after thermal ageing have been presented. The lifetimes
at 260, 270, 280, 290, 300 °C were determined. The thermograms of the enamels after attaining of their lifetimes much depend
on the ageing temperature. The temperatures of 5% loss of mass that much increase after thermal ageing appear the most sensitive
indicator of ageing rate. The residue of mass at 800 °C increases after ageing, even to 27%, due to diffusion of copper ions
from the conductor into enamel during annealing. The copper contents in aged coatings could be also an indicator of ageing
Authors:Wiesława Ferenc, Beata Cristóvão and Jan Sarzyński
5-Chloro-2-nitrobenzoates of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) having formulae Co(C7H3O4NCl)2·3H2O, Ni(C7H3O4NCl)2·3H2O and Cu(C7H3O4NCl)2·2H2O, were obtained as polycrystalline compounds. From the IR spectra analysis of complexes, sodium salt and according to the
spectroscopic criteria the carboxylate ions seem bidentate groups. The complexes of Co(II) and Cu(II) lose the water of crystallization
in one step at 363–523 K. The Ni(II) complex loses it in two stages in the ranges of 323–378 and 378–523 K, respectively.
The compounds follow the Curie–Weiss law. The magnetic moment values experimentally determined change from 4.53 to 4.55 μB for Co(II) complex, from 2.34 to 2.97 μB for Ni(II) 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate and from 1.80 to 1.90 μB for Cu(II) complex.
Authors:A. Derylo-Marczewska, M. Blachnio, A. Marczewski, A. Swiatkowski and B. Tarasiuk
The adsorption of MCPA and 2,4-D on the activated carbon Filtrasorb 300 was studied. The adsorption isotherms of herbicides
from aqueous solutions were measured over a wide range of solute concentrations and at different temperatures. The experimental
equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir–Freundlich isotherm taking into account the energetic heterogeneity of adsorption
system. The effect of temperature and herbicide properties on its uptake was discussed. The thermal analysis was applied in
order to find the differences in herbicide interactions with carbon surface. The kinetic dependences were measured and the
relations between solute properties and adsorption rate were discussed.
The balance is the oldest real measuring instrument. It is still a widely used instrument in science, industry, commerce and
in the household. It has found significance as a symbol in religion, justice, commerce and as an esoteric object. As a balance
is always an interesting object it is exhibited in many museums and there exist a lot specialised scales-and-weight museums.
We attempt to give a survey of these.
A modified method has been developed for the α determination in the 1/E1+α epithermal neutron spectrum of reactor. It is based on the Cd-covered and without Cd-covered irradiations of two monitors.
This method was applied to determine the α value in the channels of Dalat reactor and the results were compared with those
obtained by the other methods. It appeared that the results of the modified method were in quite good agreement with those
of other methods. It also showed that the modified method was simple in practical uses and a good application in the experiment
of α determination in the reactor irradiation channels.
Authors:Masayoshi Yamamoto, Junpei Tomita, Aya Sakaguchi, Yoshihito Ohtsuka, Masaharu Hoshi and Kazbek Apsalikov
Radiochemical results of U isotopes (234U, 235U and 238U) and their activity ratios are reported for well waters as local sources of drinking waters collected from the ten settlements
around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan. The results show that 238U varies widely from 3.6 to 356 mBq/L (0.3–28.7 μg/L), with a factor of about 100. The 238U concentrations in some water samples from Dolon, Tailan, Sarzhal and Karaul settlements are comparable to or higher than
the World Health Organization’s restrictive proposed guideline of 15 μg (U)/L. The 234U/238U activity ratios in the measured water samples are higher than 1, and vary between 1.1 and 7.9, being mostly from 1.5 to
3. The measured 235U/238U activity ratios are around 0.046, indicating that U in these well waters is of natural origin. It is probable that the elevated
concentration of 238U found in some settlements around the SNTS is not due to the close-in fallout from nuclear explosions at the SNTS, but rather
to the intensive weathering of rocks including U there. The calculated effective doses to adults resulting from consumption
of the investigated waters are in the range 1.0–18.7 μSv/y. Those doses are lower than WHO and IAEA reference value (100 μSv/y)
for drinking water.
The chiral vanadyl salen complex was immobilized into mesoporous silica by a covalent grafting method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane
as a reactive surface modifier. The formation and integrity of the complex have been confirmed by FT-IR, UV–vis and BET measurements
and the complex was tested in the asymmetric oxidation of sulfide to sulfoxide using H2O2 as oxidant. The immobilized complex showed better catalytic activity than the neat complex, while the neat complex has deactivated
in the reaction. The combination of the heterogenized catalyst, H2O2 and CH2Cl2 as solvent offers a selective catalytic system for oxidation of sulfide to sulfoxide with a low but significant enantioselectivity
in the range of 8–10% ee. In addition, the heterogenized catalyst could be easily separated from the products and reused.
Authors:M. Mallah, M. Ghannadi Maragheh, A. Badiei and R. Habibzadeh Sbo
In the present work, results of γ-irradiation on normal and functionalized SBA-15 by aurintricarboxylic acid have been reported.
Characterization of normal and functionalized SBA-15 particles before and after γ-irradiation was carried out using Fourier-transform
infrared technique. Aurintricarboxylic acid ligand connected to SBA-15 was also analyzed using UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The
modified sorbent was then used as a new sorbent for separation of trace amounts of praseodymium and lutetium ions from nuclear
waste waters in batch techniques. Based on the results of distribution coefficients determination, and investigation of sorption
process in various conditions, the parameters were optimized for separation lanthanides. It can be concluded that the functionalized
SBA-15 is a promising sorbent for praseodymium and lutetium cations.
To utilize visible light more efficiently in photocatalytic reactions, Bi2O3/CaO photocatalysts were prepared by a mechanical mixing method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectroscopy.
UV–vis spectroscopy results showed that the photocatalysts have a wide absorption band in the range of visible light. The
photocatalytic activities of obtained Bi2O3, CaO, and Bi2O3/CaO samples were evaluated by methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Bi2O3/CaO sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.
Authors:Jan-Willem Housmans, Gerrit Peters and Han Meijer
The influence of the co-monomer content and processing conditions on the crystallization kinetics of propylene/ethylene (P/E)
random copolymers is studied using DSC and rheometry. The presence of ethylene lowers the melting and crystallization temperature
compared to pure polypropylene, and the quiescent crystallization rate,
increases at equal nominal undercooling, because both the crystal growth rate, G, and number of nuclei, N, increases. The effect of flow on the kinetics of crystallization decreases with the ethylene content. Still, different regimes
of flow-induced crystallization are observed, but their size and the position of the transitions between them depend on the
ethylene content, and can be expressed in terms of the level of molecular orientation, molecular stretch, and crystallization
capacity of the system.
Authors:Juan Vega, Denka Hristova and Gerrit Peters
We investigated the effect of flow in combination with molecular architecture on crystallization for linear and branched polypropylenes
by means of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy. Compared to the linear polymer, the branched one exhibits much slower relaxation
after deformation, causing higher levels of molecular orientation and molecular stretch for the same flow conditions. Different
regimes of flow-induced crystallization are observed as a function of an increased level of molecular orientation and stretch.
These regime changes cause the structure development in the material to vary from 3-dimensional spherulitical growth to nearly
1-dimensional fiber-like growth. Intermediate behavior is observed when the flow is strong (for the linear polymer) or weak
enough (for the branched polymer), or in time when the effect of flow is exhausting. It is important to note that dynamical
mechanical measurements can be used to probe different aspects of the (flow induced) crystallization process, such as a relative
level of crystallinity and timescales of the evolution, but do not give absolute values. A correlation is found with the level
of crystallinity obtained from real-time WAXS measurements and the kinetics of linear viscoelastic properties, but this correlation
is not unique and depends on the pre-shear conditions applied.
Authors:R. Forstner, G. Peters, C. Rendina, J. Housmans and H. Meijer
A novel dilatometer has been used to measure the evolution of specific volume at different cooling rates and at elevated pressures
under quiescent conditions and under shear for a series of commercial iPP homopolymers and polypropylene–ethylene random copolymers.
Significant influences of cooling rates, pressures, and shear flow on the transition temperature Ttr related to molecular weight and polydispersity and of course the temperature at which shearing was applied could be found
for the iPP homopolymers. In the copolymers, the composition defined by the ethylene content determined the position of the
transition temperature Ttr.
Authors:Orsolya Jójárt-Laczkovich and Piroska Szabó-Révész
Amorphization is nowadays a method that is frequently applied in the pharmaceutical industry. The primary aim of this study
is to achieve the amorphization of clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with various
solvents and to choose the most suitable one. A secondary aim was to determine the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of this API and to classify it as a good or poor glass former. To investigate the amorphous form, differential scanning
calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR analysis were applied. The melting point (Tm) was 177.4 °C (450.6 K), and Tg was determined to be 88.9 °C (362.1 K). The quotient Tg/Tm was 0.80, and this API was therefore classified as a good glass former.
Authors:M. Rasul Jan, Farah Jabeen, Jasmin Shah and Fazal Mabood
An environment friendly method, thermal catalytic pyrolysis of used isobutyl isoprene rubber was investigated. In this method,
the used inner butyl tube rubbers were catalytically pyrolyzed into valuable hydrocarbons and carbon black. In this method,
the tube rubber was pyrolyzed both thermally (with out catalyst) and catalytically in a batch reactor under atmospheric pressure.
The effect of temperature, the amount of catalyst, and the reaction time on the yields of the pyrolyzed products were investigated.
Char yield decreased with increase of pyrolysis temperature while total gas and liquid yields increased. The liquid fraction
was obtained with boiling point up to 478 K. At optimum conditions, the liquid product was collected and analyzed for different
fuel properties. Typical analysis of the used isobutyl isoprene rubber oil for both the cases of parent and refluxed oil has
been performed. Phenols and carbonyls were quantitatively determined by spectrophotometric methods using folin-denis and phenyl
hydrazine reagents, respectively. The distillation data showed that ~100% of oil has boiling point <473 K which is the boiling
point for 80% of distilled product in commercial kerosene. Its specific gravity, viscosity, freezing point, Cetane number,
and diesel index were also within the limits of kerosene.
Isothermal titration calorimetry has been used to determine the stoichiometry, formation constants and thermodynamic parameters
(ΔGo, ΔH, ΔS) for the formation of the citrate complexes with the Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions. The measurements were run in Cacodylate, Pipes and Mes buffer solutions with a pH of 6, at 298.15 K. A constant ionic
strength of 100 mM was maintained with NaClO4. The influence of a metal ion on its interaction energy with the citrate ions and the stability of the resulting complexes
have been discussed.
Authors:Craig Aalseth, Erica Andreotti, Dirk Arnold, Joan-Albert Cabeza, Detlev Degering, Andrea Giuliani, Raquel de Orduña, Rodolfo Gurriaran, Mikael Hult, Martin Keillor, Matthias Laubenstein, Gilbert le Petit, Romul Margineanu, Murray Matthews, Harry Miley, Iolanda Osvath, Monica Pellicciari, Wolfango Plastino, Hardy Simgen, Marc Weber and Robert Werzi
Aerosol samples collected on filter media were analyzed using HPGe detectors employing varying background-reduction techniques
in order to experimentally evaluate the opportunity to apply ultra-low background measurement methods to samples collected,
for instance, by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty International Monitoring System (IMS). In this way, realistic estimates
of the impact of low-background methodology on the sensitivity obtained in systems such as the IMS were assessed. The current
detectability requirement of stations in the IMS is 30 μBq/m3 of air for 140Ba, which would imply ~106 fissions per daily sample. Importantly, this is for a fresh aerosol filter. One week of decay reduces the intrinsic background
from radon daughters in the sample allowing much higher sensitivity measurement of relevant isotopes, including 131I. An experiment was conducted in which decayed filter samples were measured at a variety of underground locations using Ultra-Low
Background (ULB) gamma spectroscopy technology. The impacts of the decay and ULB are discussed.
We present an improved methodology for a thermal transient method enabling simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity
and specific heat of nanoscale structures with one-dimensional heat flow. The temporal response of a sample to finite duration
heat pulse inputs for both short (1 ns) and long (5 μs) pulses is analyzed and exploited to deduce the thermal properties.
Excellent agreement has been obtained between the recovered physical parameters and computational simulations through choosing
an optimized pulse width.
Authors:L. Machado, A. Marins, E. Muri, A. Biondo, J. Matos and I. Mazali
Reactions in aqueous-alcoholic solution between diphenyl-4-amine barium sulphonate (Ba-DAS—anionic surfactant) and the hydrated
sulphates of Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions and their use to ovtain iron oxides are described here. The formation of Fe(II) complexes
was reached by using an excess of Ba-DAS, in absence of light under inert atmosphere. The complexes achieved Fe2[(C12H10NO3S)4]·9H2O and Fe3[(C12H10NO3S)6]·12H2O were characterized by TG/DTG and IR, UV-VIS and 57Fe-Mössbauer analyses.
Authors:V. Korolev, O. Antonova, N. Smirnova and A. Kustov
The heats of solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide have been measured in mixtures of formamide (FA) with methanol (MeOH)
and ethylene glycol (EG) at 313.15 K by calorimetric method. The standard enthalpies of solution in binary mixtures have been
extrapolated to infinite dilution by Redlich–Rosenfeld–Meyer type equation using the literary data at 298.15 K and the present
paper data at 313.15 K. The Debye–Hückel limiting law slope AH required for calculation of the ∆solH0 value has been obtained with application the new additive scheme of determination of the physic-chemical characteristics
of binaries. The scheme is tested on the example of Bu4NBr solutions in FA–MeOH mixture at 298.15 K. Its application yields the ∆solH0 value very closed on the ones determined with the real (non-additive) characteristics of binaries. The standard enthalpies
of solution extrapolated by Redlich–Rosenfeld–Meyer type equation are in a good agreement with the ones computed in terms
of the Debye–Hückel theory in the second approximation. The heat capacities characteristics of Bu4NBr have been calculated in H2O–FA, MeOH–FA and EG–FA mixtures using the literary and present data. The sequence of solvents H2O > FA > EG > MeOH located on their ability to solvophobic solvation found by us earlier for enthalpic characteristics is
confirmed by the ∆Cp0 values. The comparison of thermochemical characteristics of Bu4NBr solutions in aqueous and non-aqueous mixtures containing FA has been carried out. The own structure of water remains in
the region of small additions of formamide to co-solvents. It considerably differs the H2O–FA mixture from the investigated non-aqueous systems.
Authors:R. Fujiyoshi, Y. Satake, T. Sato, T. Sumiyoshi, J. Dietz and R. Zimmermann
Environmental radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra) were determined in soils under semi-arid stands, a transition area from thorn to deciduous forest in El Angolo, and heath
stands in the Alto Mayo in Northern Peru in order to elucidate their activity level in soil, and to trace underground environment
in remote areas of little anthropogenic intervention. Anthropogenic 137Cs was only found in the uppermost portion of the soils in small amount, whereas the 210Pb activity was exceptionally high at the soil surfaces in a tropical stand of Alto Mayo. The results suggest a fallout nuclide,
210Pb, having been transported from local source(s) not to be specified yet.
A new detector for 222Rn measurements in gases is described. It is based on the low temperature collection of radon on a stainless steel plate and
subsequent counting of emitted alpha-particles using an ion-implanted silicon detector. A very low background of 25 counts/day
for the 222Rn energy window was achieved. High detection efficiency of 32% (2π geometry) and the large 65 liter volume of the detector
allow radon measurements at the level of 12 mBq/m3 with 30% accuracy (relative error). Behavior of the alpha-emitting radon daughters born on the cooled stainless steel plate,
218Po and 214Po, was also analyzed.
Authors:M. Rossbach, M. Blaauw, M. Bacchi and Xilei Lin
New software was developed to assist users of the k0-approach in NAA to harmonize their results. The k0-IAEA software uses the holistic approach developed at the Delft Interfaculty Reactor Institute and incorporates the latest
k0 data catalogue together with additional information on coincidence and sum peaks, which together are used in the joint evaluation
of samples. Multiple irradiations as well as multiple measurements of samples are treated simultaneously. Flux parameter determination
as well as efficiency calibrations of detectors are accommodated using a single-measurement approach as developed at the Interfaculty
Reactor Institute, Delft. The standard Windows software will stimulate the application of the k0 approach through the free distribution and updates of the program.
The CITATION code based on neutron diffusion theory is used for flux calculation inside voluminous sample in prompt gamma
activation analysis with an isotopic neutron source (241Am-Be). The code used the specific parameters related to energy spectrum source, irradiation system materials (shielding,
reflector, etc.), geometry and elemental composition of the sample. The flux distribution (thermal and fast) was calculated
on three-dimensional geometry for the system: source, air, and polyethylene and water cylindrical sample of 125 liters. The
thermal flux was calculated in series of points inside the sample, and agreed with the results obtained by measurements with
good statistical uncertainty. The maximum thermal flux was measured at distance of 4.1 cm and calculated at 4.3 cm by the
CITATION code. Beyond a depth of 7.2 cm, the ratio of thermal flux to fast flux increases up to twice and allows us the optimization
of the detection system in the scope of in-situ PGNAA.
In activation analysis, recoil causes both contamination from and loss to the packing material. In isotope production, recoil
may be used to obtain carrier-free radionuclides. Both phenomena depend on irradiation geometry and recoil range. Their formulation
and that of experimental range determinations is addressed for common irradiation practice.
Radioanalysis, more particularly the use of radiotracers, enables measurement of coefficients of mass- and self-diffusion
by simple benchtop experiments. They are related to environmental inquiries and materials science mainly Current procedures
are surveyed here.
In order to correct for neutron self-shielding in large-sample prompt gamma NAA, a method has been developed to determine
the macroscopic scattering and absorption cross sections, i.e., Σa and Σs, using four Cu flux monitors placed around the sample. With Monte Carlo computations, the neutron densities throughout the
sample and the resulting and the corresponding self-shielding factor as calculated from the Σa and Σs as obtained through the Cu monitors were compared to the true values. The derived Σa and Σs were found to be sufficiently accurate as long as Σt = Σa + Σs was less than 0.6 cm−1 and Σs/Σt was greater than 0.1.
A Monte Carlo study was carried out to determine the influence of the effective scattering mass (Me) of the atoms on the neutron density profile inside and outside the sample illuminated by a thermal neutron beam as in large-sample
prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (LS-PGNAA). From theory it is known that the spatial neutron density distribution
(n(r)) inside a large sample is not the same for atoms with the same macroscopic scattering and absorption cross-section (Σs and Σa) but different Me, due to anisotropic scattering at low Me. The probability of neutron absorption in the sample was found to be the same for materials with equal Σs and Σa but different Me, even though the neutron density distribution in the sample was found to change slightly. In view of typical sample, collimator
and detector dimensions, it is concluded that Me does not need to be taken into account in a correction method for neutron self-shielding in LS-PGNAA.
Authors:M. Blaauw, I. Degenaar, C. Yonezawa, H. Matsue and J. de Goeij
A method is proposed for the implementation of large-sample prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (LS-PGNAA). The method
was tested with four different sample materials at the thermal PGNAA facility at JAERI, Japan. The macroscopic scattering
cross section (Σs) and absorption cross section (Σa) of the samples were determined by monitoring the neutron flux in four positions just outside the sample container. With
the Σs and Σa determined, the spatial neutron density distribution [n(r)] inside the sample material was derived. Taking n(r) and the gamma-ray self-absorption into account simultaneously, the effective geometric gamma-ray detection efficiency for
large samples as a function of gamma-ray energy was calculated. Taking silicon as test element, the concentrations found agreed
to within 7% with the known concentrations in the four sample materials examined, both when using relative standardization
and with absolute standardization.
Recent remarkable progress in understanding and engineering enzymes and whole cells as highly selective and environment-friendly catalysts enabling novel routes for the production of pharmaceuticals, fine and platform chemicals, and biofuels has spurred the quest for fast biocatalyst screening and development of efficient processes with long-term biocatalyst use. Besides this, current efforts towards more sustainable production systems and bio-based products have triggered an intense research on chemo-enzymatic cascades and establishment of continuous end-to-end processing. Microreaction technology, which has in the last two decades changed the paradigm in the laboratory and production scale organic synthesis, is recently gaining attention also in the field of applied biocatalysis. Based on the trends highlighted within this article, microfluidic systems linked with appropriate monitoring and feedback control can greatly contribute to successful implementation of biocatalysis in industrial production. Microflow-based droplets facilitate ultrahigh-throughput biocatalyst engineering, screening at various operational conditions, and very fast collection of data on reaction kinetics using minute amounts of time and reagents. Harnessing the benefits of microflow devices results in faster and cheaper selection of substrate(s) and media, and development of suitable immobilization methods for continuous biocatalyst use. Furthermore, the use of highly efficient reactor designs integrated with downstream processing enabling also faster and more reliable scale-up can bridge the gap between the academic research and industrial use of biocatalysts.