Authors:Siyuan Chen, Yang Yu, Jianshe Ma, Congcong Wen, Xianqin Wang and Quan Zhou
Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide, a broad-spectrum, high-efficiency, low-residue, and highly toxic insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide, widely used in agriculture. Carbofuran is most harmful to birds, and birds or insects killed by furan poisoning can be killed by secondary poisoning after being foraged by raptors, small mammals, or reptiles. In this paper, an UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of carbofuran and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, in duck liver. Liver tissue was first ground into a homogenate and then passed through ethyl acetate liquid-liquid extraction processing samples. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative analysis, m/z 222.1 → 165.1 for carbofuran, m/z 238.1 → 180.9 for 3-hydroxycarbofuran and m/z 290.2 → 198.2 for an internal standard. The standard curves of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in duck liver were within a range of 2–2000 ng/g, where the linearity was good, the lower limit of quantification was 2 ng/g. The intra-day precision of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran was <14%, and the inter-day precision was <13%, the accuracy range was between 91.8 and 108.9%, the average extraction efficiency was higher than 75.1% with a matrix effect between 93.4 and 107.7%. The developed method was applied to a situation of suspected duck poisoning at a local farm.
Authors:Tarek Elawady, Fawzia Ibrahim, Alaa Khedr and Fathalla Belal
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ezetimibe (EZE), atorvastatin calcium (ATO), and simvastatin (SMV) in combined dosage forms and human plasma. Successful separation of the studied drugs was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min−1. Total run time was 9.3 min and diclofenac sodium was used as internal standard (IS). Positive selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was applied where, the monitored ions were those at m/z values of 392.1, 559.3, 296.0, and 441.4 corresponding to EZE, ATO, IS, and SMV, respectively. The method was fully validated according to the ICH guidelines. The intraday and interday precision showed relative SD values not more than 1.77 and 1.99%; respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.25, 0.25, and 0.75 ng mL−1 while the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 1.25, 0.75, and 2.5 ng mL−1 for EZE, ATO, and SMV, respectively. The developed method was applied on two types of combined tablets concerning drug assay with mean percent recoveries within acceptable range. The method has been extended to the determination of the studied drugs in human plasma where, a solid phase extraction method was optimized for their extraction with percent recovery not less than 97%.
Authors:Zhihan Zheng, Xiaobin Li, Fangfang Gao, Huitao Liu and Yuan Gao
A sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) enrichment model was established for the determination of three chlorophenols (CPs) in cosmetics, namely, bithionol, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The optimum electrophoretic conditions were 20 mM NaH2PO4-80 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 30% (v/v) acetonitrile (pH 2.3). The optimum on-line concentration conditions were as follows: sample matrix, 100 mM NaH2PO4; pressure injection at 20.67 kPa (3 psi) for 25 s. The linear range of bithionol, PCP, and 2,4,6-TCP are 0.20–4.00 μg mL−1, 0.10–2.00 μg mL−1, and 0.05–2.00 μg mL−1 respectively, with correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9972. The limits of detection (LOD) based on three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3) are in the range of 0.0061–0.024 μg mL−1. Recoveries for the three CPs in powder and lotion samples are between 79.7 and 110.2% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.38–5.54% and 92.2–121.3% with RSD of 0.72–6.09%, respectively. The proposed method can provide reference for the determination of trace CPs in different sample matrix.
Authors:Danling Sun, Xitian Peng, Maomin Peng, Xian Zhang, Hong Xia, Zhimin Xu and Xizhou Hu
This study focused on developing an effective and environmentally friendly method to measure ligustrazine in rat serum by using polymer monolith micro-extraction (PMME) technique. A poly (methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) material was used to extract ligustrazine through hydrophobic and ion-exchange interaction. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. After optimization of several PMME conditions, the developed method exhibited excellent extraction performance to the ligustrazine. Good linearity was acquired ranging from 10 to 2,000 ng mL−1, and the limit of detection of the proposed method was 0.14 ng mL−1. The recoveries measured by spiking three different concentrations in rat serum ranged from 82.6 to 95.3%, and excellent precision was found with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.3% for intra-day and 9.7% for inter-day, respectively. At last, the applicability of the method was further confirmed through continuous monitoring of ligustrazine in rat serum after dosing of ligustrazine tablets to rats.
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs) are gaining popularity in Jordan as alternatives to tobacco cigarettes with an estimation of 10% of tobacco smokers switching to ENDs. Since nicotine is toxic and highly addictive substance, it is important to develop and validate an easy and rapid analytical method to accurately measure nicotine level in e-liquids. A simple high performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection (HPLC–PDA) method was developed and validated for rapid determination of the actual nicotine content in 11 of the most popular e-liquids brands available in the Jordanian market and compared to the nicotine levels appeared in the labeled packaging. The new method of analysis showed an excellent linearity with correlation factor equal to 0.9994 with analytical range between 100 and 1,000 µg/mL, and Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) of 32.6 µg/mL and 98.9 µg/mL, respectively. The results showed that the actual measured nicotine concentrations ranged from 0 to 25.81 mg/mL with percent deviation ranged from 63.1% less than to 3.24% more than the labeled concentration on packaging. And more than 10% deviation difference in actual nicotine concentrations versus labeled were found in 9 of the 11 e-liquid products (82%). In conclusion, nicotine labelling among e-liquids products have not accurately reflect the actual content which may have potential negative impact on users.
Authors:Said A. Hassan, Noha Ibrahim, Eman S. Elzanfaly and Ahmed E. El Gendy
Chloroquine phosphate (CQ) the antimalarial drug and suggested to treat the pandemic disease coronavirus (COVID-19) is often adulterated with some of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as paracetamol, aspirin (ASP), or both. The purpose of this study is to detect such counterfeited drugs, using a reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. Analysis was divided into three phases. In the first phase, a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to screen five independent factors, namely, buffer pH, buffer concentration (mM), acetonitrile content (%), flow rate (mL/min) and triethylamine (TEA) content in the buffer preparation (%). The selected dependent variables were (resolution, symmetry of peaks and run time). The objective of the second phase was to optimize the method performance using Box-Behnken design (BBD) and desirability function for multiple response optimization to obtain the best chromatographic performance with the shortest run time. Optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a YMC-pack pro C18 ODS-A column (15 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) at room temperature The optimum mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 5 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer containing 0.5% triethyamine (30:70, v/v) with the pH adjusted to 3.5 using an orthophosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was maintained at 1 mL/min, and the detection was performed with a fluorescence detector fixed at 380 nm (λemission) after excitation at 335 nm (λexcitation). The third phase was method validation according to ICH guidelines, providing to be specific, precise, accurate, and robust. The method is linear over a range of 0.4–8 µg/mL for chloroquine and ASP, while for paracetamol it is linear over 16–48 µg/mL. The developed RP-HPLC method was used for quantitation of the three drugs in chloroquine dosage form samples. The method shows a great tendency in the classification between the genuine chloroquine and the adulterated ones in pharmaceutical preparations and breast milk.
Authors:Yun Sun, Jiajia Liu, Bayertai, Shasha Tang and Xiaoying Zhou
To determine the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with R software hierarchical cluster analysisin Elaeagnus angustifolia L. gathered from different locations in Xinjiang.
A chromatographic column Diamonsil C18 with a size of 4.6 × 250 mm and 5 μm was used with methanol as A and 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as B as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL/min for the gradient elution and the injection volume was 5 μL. HPLC was performed with a detection wavelength of 260 nm and chromatographic column of 35 °C. In addition, R software hierarchical clustering method was used for studying the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid in E. angustifolia L. from 10 areas.
Gallic acid and ellagic acid showed a good linear relationship between 7.375 and 236 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, and between 3.625 and 116 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 respectively. The average recovery values were 103.98 and 101.57%, and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values were 1.92 and 1.47%.
Differences in the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid in E. angustifolia L. leaves from different areas in Xinjiang showed that both were the highest in Kuitun.
Authors:Xiaoyan Zhang, Jie Liu, Wenbo Sun, Xiangchun Shen, Xiaojian Gong, Cong Wang, Yan Liang and Wei Zhou
Natural hemostatic compounds from Toddalia asiatica (Linn) Lam (T. asiatica) root bark had been investigated by a novel strategy, chemical fingerprint–pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (CF–PK–PD) for the first time in this study. The extract sample of T. asiatica root bark was subdivided into petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (n-B) sample by reagent extraction, EA sample showed significant hemostatic activity using prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) as evaluation indexes from rat plasma of PK experiment in hemorrhagic rat model. CF analysis was adopted to assist us to discover six natural compounds from T. asiatica root bark in actual rat plasma after sample treatment by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization (UPLC-ESI) MS, there were only lomatin and 5-methoxy-8-hydroxy psoralen showing significant hemostatic effect (P < 0.05) mainly through endogenous coagulation pathway and fibrinolytic system. In PK–PD study, six compounds in EA sample exhibited relatively rapid absorption and slow elimination characteristics. The mean Tmax and t1/2β of isopimpinellin and pimpinellin were 1.74 and 0.59 h, 5.31 and 6.89 h in rats. On the basis of Sigmoid–Emax model, PK–PD related curves of FIB in hemorrhagic rat model after treatment of T. asiatica root bark were obtained. Predicted Emax, EC50 and ke0 of FIB under isopimpinellin were 4.87 mg/mL, 1.39 μg/mL and 0.81 1/h; predicted Emax, EC50 and ke0 of FIB under pimpinellin were 4.29 mg/mL, 2.47 μg/mL and 0.77 1/h. In conclusion, hemostatic compounds from T. asiatica root bark had been materialized, there were lomatin, isopimpinellin, pimpinellin and 5-methoxy-8-hydroxy psoralen at least as its main active substances through coagulation pathways and fibrinolytic system. CF–PK–PD method as a promising method was worthy of follow-up opening, application in pharmaceutical research.
Sarecycline is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic for the treatment of acne, which is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicle sebaceous glands. In the study, UPLC-MS/MS was used to establish a rapid and accurate analytical method. The sarecycline was determined with poziotinib as internal standard (IS) in rat plasma. An ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) could performe chromatographic separation with the mobile phase (methanol: water of 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution. The ions of target fragment were m/z 488.19→410.14 for sarecycline and m/z 492.06→354.55 for poziotinib, which could quantify the electrospray ionization of positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The linear calibration curve of the concentration range was 1–1,000 ng/mL for sarecycline with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL. The mean recovery was between 82.46 and 95.85% for sarecycline and poziotinib in rat plasma. RSD for precision of inter-day and intra-day were between 3.24 and 13.36%, and the accuracy ranged from 105.26 to 109.75%. The developed and validated method was perfectly used in the pharmacokinetic study and bioavailability of sarecycline after intravenous and oral administration in rats.
Favipiravir (FVP), a pyrazine analog, has shown antiviral activity against a wide variety of viruses. It is considered to be worth further investigation as a potential candidate drug for COVID-19. It is not officially available in any pharmacopoeia. A rapid, simple, precise, accurate, and isocratic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for routine quality control of favipiravir in pharmaceutical formulations. Separation was carried out by C18 column. The mobile phase was a mixture of 50 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 2.3) and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. The ultraviolet (UV) detection and column temperature were 323 nm, and 30 °C, respectively. The run time was 15 min under these chromatographic conditions. Excellent linear relationship between peak area and favipiravir concentration in the range of 10–100 μg mL−1 has been observed (r2, 0.9999). Developed method has been found to be sensitive (limits of detection and quantification were 1.20 μg mL−1 and 3.60 μg mL−1, respectively), precise (the interday and intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) values for peak area and retention time were less than 0.4 and 0.2%, respectively), accurate (recovery, 99.19–100.17%), specific and robust (% RSD were less than 1.00, for system suitability parameters). Proposed method has been successfully applied for quantification of favipiravir in pharmaceutical formulations.
Authors:Zhenying Mei, Rongfei Zhang, Zhimin Zhao, Guodong Zheng, Xinjun Xu and Depo Yang
Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis, a traditional Chinese herb, has extensive medicinal and edible effects. 3′,4′,5,6,7,8-Hexamethoxyflavone (HM) and 5,6,7,8,4′-pentamethoxyflavone (PM) are main bioactive compounds in Chachiensis, which have been reported to possess various biological properties. In this study, supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) were utilized to prepare HM and PM from Chachiensis. The contents of target compounds were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD), which was validated using the following parameters: linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, stability, precision and accuracy. The SCE conditions were optimized using response surface methodology with central composite design. Obtained optimum conditions were temperature of 37.9 °C, pressure of 26.3 MPa, and modifier volume of 81.0 mL. Under above conditions, the recoveries of target compounds were 92.52 ± 0.83 and 96.36 ± 0.43%, respectively. The most appropriate solvent system for HSCCC was selected as n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:0.8:1:1.2, v/v). The HSCCC fractions were detected by HPLC-DAD, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR and 13C NMR). The results indicated that this method was successfully applied to obtain HM and PM with high purities and high recoveries from Chachiensis.
Authors:Y.T. Kamal, Sayeed Ahmad, Nanjaian Mahadevan, Prawez Alam, Shahana Salam, Yahya I Asiri, Abdullatif Bin Muhsinah and Abdulrhman Alsayari
A new High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Photodiode Array Detector (HPLC–PDA) method has been developed for the chromatographic separation and simultaneous quantitative determination of nine bioactive compounds, i.e. four phenolic (gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and tannic acid), two flavanoids (rutin and quercetin), two anthraquinones (sennoside A and B) and one oxygenated hydrocarbon (vitamin C) in a well-known Unani polyherbal formulation namely Itrifal's. Separation was accomplished on a C18 LiChrospher 100 column (5 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm) with a gradient elution and recorded at 254 nm. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate, economic, and suitable for the quality control of traditional polyherbal Unani formulations containing complex compounds with different structures such as Itrifals.
Authors:Tong Chen, Chunyou Liu, Bin Chen and Yongchun Huang
In this work, Gas chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with solid phase micro-extraction technology was used to analyze the difference of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in rapeseed oil of different grades, and the relationship between changes of VOCs and refining process were also investigated in order to construct a non-linear model, which could realize rapid and accurate discrimination of different grade rapeseed oils. 124 rapeseed oil samples with different grades were collected and analyzed by GC-MS technology and 55 VOCs were identified and selected as variables to characterize the internal quality information of rapeseed oils. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to extract useful features and reduce data dimensionality, and finally a discriminant model was built using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithm. The correct recognition rate of sample set was close to 94.59%. The results showed that the proposed method is promising in discriminating different grades of vegetable oils. Besides, it provides a theoretical basis for studying the relationship between VOCs composition and vegetable oil quality.
Authors:Cuicui Kang, Haijian Ma, Yuan Li, Chizhong Zhang, Yueqin Hong and Minghua Shao
The aim of the experiment is to establish a method for the determination of acrylamide in food by automatic accelerated solvent extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D3-acrylamide was used as isotope internal standard, crushed samples were extracted and purified by automatic accelerated solvent, acrylamide was derivatized into 2,3-dibromopropanamide by potassium bromide and potassium bromate under acidic conditions, and then the derivative was extracted by ethyl acetate and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method had a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 10–2000 ng/mL, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.9997. The detection limit of the method was 3 μg/kg. The quantification limit of the method was 10 μg/kg. The standard addition recovery of acrylamide was between 105 and 120%, and the relative standard deviation of the recovery of acrylamide was less than 3.0%. The experimental result showed that the method was simple, sensitive, efficient and accurate, and could be used for the determination of acrylamide in food.
Authors:Stefano Dugheri, Giorgio Marrubini, Nicola Mucci, Giovanni Cappelli, Alessandro Bonari, Ilenia Pompilio, Lucia Trevisani and Giulio Arcangeli
Sample pretreatment is one of the most crucial and error-prone steps of an analytical procedure; it consents to improve selectivity and sensitivity by sample clean-up and pre-concentration. Nowadays, the arousing interest in greener and sustainable analytical chemistry has increased the development of microextraction techniques as alternative sample preparation procedures. In this review, we aimed to show two different categorizations of the most used micro-solid-phase extraction (μSPE) techniques. In essence, the first one concerns the solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent selection and structure: normal-phase, reversed-phase, ion-exchange, mixed-mode, molecular imprinted polymer, and special techniques (e.g., doped cartridges for specific analytes). The second is a grouping of the commercially available μSPE products in categories and sub-categories. We present every device and technology into the classifications paying attention to their historical development and the actual state of the art. So, this study aims to provide the state-of-the-art of μSPE techniques, highlighting their advantages, disadvantages, and possible future developments in sample pretreatment.
Authors:Hebatallah M. Essam, Martin N. Saad, Eman S. Elzanfaly and Sawsan M. Amer
A sensitive RP-HPLC method is presented for the simultaneous quantification of Fluorometholone (FLM) and Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (THZ). The method has the advantages of being rapid, accurate, reproducible, ecologically acceptable and sensitive. The separation utilized C8 Xbridge® column and mobile phase mixture of Acetonitrile/phosphate buffer pH 3 ± 0.1 (70:30, v/v) with UV detection at 230 nm. Stepwise optimization and factors affecting separation are properly discussed. Different factors were optimized such as stationary phase, selection of organic solvent and its content, buffer pH and concentration, flow rate, elution type and detection wavelength. The studied drugs were efficiently separated in 3.4 min with high resolution. Also, two univariate spectrophotometric methods have been optimized for the quantification of the studied drugs. Method 1: dual wavelength for THZ and iso-absorptive point for FLM, Method 2: ratio difference (RD) for THZ and first derivative FLM utilizing methanol as a solvent. These methods are accurate, precise with minimal data manipulation. Greenness of the methods was estimated using eco-scale tool where the presented methods were found to be excellent green with eco-score of 83 for HPLC and 80 for spectrophotometry. The methods are validated in conformance with ICH guidelines, with acceptable accuracy, precision, and selectivity. The suggested methods can be employed for the economic analysis of THZ and FLM in their pure form and binary ophthalmic formulation, that can be employed by quality control laboratories.
Authors:Iskra Boneva, Spaska Yaneva and Dancho Danalev
A method for simultaneous determination of trace of four organophosphorus pesticides residues in animal liver samples has been developed and validated. This method is based on the preliminary sample preparation using extraction of target compound with a mixture of toluene-cyclohexane by means of up-to-date accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile and hexane, additional clean up step using QuEChERS method. Further the obtained analytes are determined by gas chromatography with ion-trap detector. The validation of the method is performed in accordance with the recommendations in Document SANTE/11945/2015 and it meets the acceptability criteria for precision, mean recovery and limits of quantification. The samples were investigated by analysing blank liver samples and samples spiked with the target analytes chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion and pirimiphos-methyl at levels of 25, 50, and 75 ng/g and with diazinon at levels of 15, 30, and 45 ng/g. The recovery for all compounds were in the range from 73 to 104% which perfectly fit with requirements of documents and European legislations. The repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility also reveal acceptable in documents coefficient of variation and uncertainty less than 20 and 18%, respectively. The limits of quantification were less than 3 ng/g for all compounds and allowed determination of residues below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set in Regulation (EC) Nº 396/2005.
Authors:Kisantini Murugesu, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Amirin Sadikun, Kooi-Yeong Khaw and Vikneswaran Murugaiyah
A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed by exploiting the benefits of phenyl-hexyl column for the simultaneous determination of mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids in Gynura procumbens plant samples. An optimal chromatographic separation was achieved by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.25% acetic acid in water (12.5:78.5, v/v) and detection at 330 nm. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for the six caffeoylquinic acid standards were in the range of 0.078–0.653 and 0.259–1.795 μg/mL, respectively. The accuracies of the developed method were in the range of 96.84–103.08%, while the corresponding precisions were between 0 and 2.94% for both within-day and between-day analyses, indicating that the method is repeatable and reliable. The mean recoveries were between 87.08 and 117.83%. The method was successfully applied for quantification of caffeoylquinic acids in G. procumbens plant samples. This is the first study on di-caffeoylquinic acids quantification in G. procumbens. Leaves samples contained higher amount of the caffeoylquinic acids compared to stem samples. Of the compounds, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid was found to be the major compound in almost all G. procumbens samples. The method has advantages such as sensitive ultraviolet (UV) detection, short run time with simple isocratic elution system compared to other methods which involved the use of costly instruments, laborious procedures with long run time and complex gradient system. This method can be further extended for routine quality control and analysis of plants or herbal products containing the caffeoylquinic acids.
Authors:Muhammad Hanif, Shahid Shah, Nasir Rasool, Ghulam Abbas, Malik Saadullah, Sajid Mehmood Khan, Muhammad Masood Ahmed, Nazar Abbas, Mehran Ashfaq and Omeira Iqbal
The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the combined estimation of sodium alginate and pectin in raft forming pharmaceuticals on C18 column ZORBAX ODS (1.5 cm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with UV detection at 378 nm. The assay condition comprised of phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and methanol 60:40% v/v at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/min. The separation of sodium alginate and pectin with good resolution and a retention time less than 8 min was attained. The method was linear over a range of 200–800 μg/mL of sodium alginate and pectin. The regression values obtained from linearity curve of sodium alginate and pectin were 0.9993 and 0.9991, respectively. The retention time of sodium alginate and pectin was 3.931 and 7.470 min, respectively. The percent recovery of sodium alginate and pectin ranged from 94.2–98.5% and 92.1–98.4% respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of sodium alginate were found to be 2.443 and 3.129 μg/mL and the LOD and LOQ of pectin were 3.126 and 3.785 μg/mL, respectively. The resolution of sodium alginate and pectin was found in the range of 1.03–1.89 and 1.10–1.91, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to analyze the concentrations of sodium alginate and pectin in raft forming drug delivery systems.
Authors:Cairong Luo, Jie Liu, Yan Liang, Xiangchun Shen, Xiaoyan Zhang and Wei Zhou
Toddalia asiatica (Linn) Lam (T. asiatica) as a traditional Miao medicine was investigated to find rational alternative medicinal parts for T. asiatica root bark and its antitumor chemical constituents by quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and multivariate statistical analysis. A bivariate correlation analysis method based on microscopic characteristics and content of chemical constituents was established for the first time, there were some regular discoveries between powder microscopic characteristics and common chromatographic peaks of T. asiatica through quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, cork cells, calcium oxalate square crystal, brown clump, starch granule and phloem fiber, as powder microscopic characteristics may be placed where the main chemical constitutes were enriched. Scores plot of principal component analysis (PCA) and dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) showed that 18 T. asiatica samples were distinguished correctly, clustered clearly into two main groups as follows: S01∼S03 (root bark) and S07∼S09 (stem bark) in cluster 1, S04∼S06 and S10∼S18 in cluster 2. Nineteen common peaks were obtained in HPLC fingerprint of T. asiatica, loadings plot of PCA indicated seven compounds played important roles in different part of samples (P10 > P08 > P07 > P14 > P16 > P17 > P19), peaks 04, 06, 07, 08, 10 were identified as hesperidin, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, toddalolactone, isopimpinlline and pimpinellin. MTT assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of different medicinal parts of T. asiatica on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, all parts of T. asiatica had different inhibitory effects on MCF-7 cell lines, root and stem barks of T. asiatica showed the best inhibitory activity. The relationship between chemical constituents and the inhibitions on MCF-7 cell had been established, significant antitumor constituents of T. asiatica were identified by correlation analysis, the order of the antitumor effect of the main compounds was P07 (toddalolactone) > P16 > P06 (4-methoxycinnamic acid), P11 > P18 > P10 (pimpinellin) > P08 (isopimpinellin) > P01 > P19 > P14 > P04 (hesperidin) > P17, which were antitumor chemical constituents of T. asiatica root bark. T. asiatica stem bark was the most rational alternative medicinal part for T. asiatica root bark.
Authors:Ramia Z. Al Bakain, Yahya S. Al-Degs, James V. Cizdziel and Mahmoud A. Elsohly
In this research, cannabis varieties represent 23 USA States were assayed by GC-FID to generate their complex chemical profiles informative for plants clustering. Results showed that 45 cannabinoids and terpenoids were quantified in all plant samples, where 8 cannabinoids and 18 terpenoids were identified. Among organics, Δ9-THC, CBN (cannabinoids) and Fenchol (terpenoid) not only showed the highest levels overall contents, but also were the most important compounds for cannabis clustering. Among States, Washington, Oregon, California and Hawaii have the highest cannabis content. GC-FID data were subjected to PCA and HCA to find (1) the variations among cannabis chemical profiles as a result of growing environment, (2) to reveal the compounds that were responsible for grouping cultivars between clusters and (3) finally, to facilitate the future profile prediction and States clustering of unknown cannabis based on the chemical profile. The 23 cannabis USA States were grouped into three clusters based on only Δ9-THC, CBN, C1 and Fenchol content. Cannabis classification based on GC-profile will meet the practical needs of cannabis applications in clinical research, industrial production, patients' self-production, and contribute to the standardization of commercially-available cannabis cultivars in USA.
Authors:Ramia Z. Al Bakain, Yahya S. Al-Degs, James V. Cizdziel and Mahmoud A. Elsohly
Fifty four domestically produced cannabis samples obtained from different USA states were quantitatively assayed by GC–FID to detect 22 active components: 15 terpenoids and 7 cannabinoids. The profiles of the selected compounds were used as inputs for samples grouping to their geographical origins and for building a geographical prediction model using Linear Discriminant Analysis. The proposed sample extraction and chromatographic separation was satisfactory to select 22 active ingredients with a wide analytical range between 5.0 and 1,000 µg/mL. Analysis of GC-profiles by Principle Component Analysis retained three significant variables for grouping job (Δ9-THC, CBN, and CBC) and the modest discrimination of samples based on their geographical origin was reported. PCA was able to separate many samples of Oregon and Vermont while a mixed classification was observed for the rest of samples. By using LDA as a supervised classification method, excellent separation of cannabis samples was attained leading to a classification of new samples not being included in the model. Using two principal components and LDA with GC–FID profiles correctly predict the geographical of 100% Washington cannabis, 86% of both Oregon and Vermont samples, and finally, 71% of Ohio samples.
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) powder is in use for over 50 years for the treatment of hyperkalemia. SPS powder is official in United States Pharmacopoeia, British Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia. However, till date, no study has been published on the assessment of organic impurities for this drug. The organic impurities in bulk drug and finished product are associated with their safety, efficacy and stability. A simple, rapid, specific, precise and an accurate HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of toxic organic impurities like styrene, naphthalene, divinyl benzene (DVB) and ethylvinyl benzene (EVB) from SPS bulk drug and finished product. The developed method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), solution stability, ruggedness and robustness. The influence of acid, alkali, oxidative stress, photolytic stress, thermal stress and humidity stress conditions on SPS bulk powder and finished product has been studied and reported. The proposed method can be successfully employed for the impurity testing of commercial batches of the bulk drug and finished products of both sodium salt and calcium salt of polystyrene sulfonate.
Authors:Gellért Balázs Karvaly, Kornélia Tekes, Zoltán Szimrók, József FŰrÉsz, Kamil KuČa and Huba Kalász
Mono- and bis-pyridinium quaternary aldoximes (K-oximes) have long been employed as cholinesterase reactivator components of antidotes against lethal cholinesterase-inhibiting organophosphorous chemicals. Their positive charge poses difficulties in their chromatographic analysis, resulting in the publication of different approaches for each K-oxime. A multiplexed method is presented for the rapid quantitation of 10 K-oximes in blood with its utility demonstrated in vivo. Liquid chromatography with absorbance detection was employed. Reversed-phase separation was achieved on a highly nonpolar stationary phase. Method validation was based on the respective guideline of the European Medicines Agency. Times to peak concentrations and 120-min areas under the time–concentration curves were determined in rats following intraperitoneal administration. Adequate retention and separation of K-oximes with acceptable peak shapes in short isocratic runs was achieved by adjusting ionic strength, organic content and the concentration of the ion-pairing agent of the mobile phase. Chromatographic properties were governed by optimizing the concentration of dissolved ions. Accurate adjustment of the organic content was indispensable for avoiding peak drifting and splitting. Dose-adjusted exposure to K-347 and K-868 was exceptionally low, while exposure to K-48 was the highest. The method is suitable for screening systemic exposure to various K-oximes and can be extended.
Authors:Elise Ivarsen, Christoffer P. Andersen, Sabine M. Jensen, Carsten T. Pedersen and Anders K. Svaneborg
This study presents the optimization and validation of methods for the analysis of retinol, thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, zinc, and iron in fortified kernels (coated and extruded) and in fortified rice. The analyses were performed by HPLC-UV/FLD/MS and ICP-OES. The optimized methods showed good resolution of the analyte peaks, excellent recovery (87–108%), reproducibility with relative standard deviation (SD) of analyte content between 1.8 and 11% and high correlation coefficient of the calibration curves (R2 > 0.997). Limit of detection was from 2.8 E-4 mg/kg for pyridoxine to 1.26 mg/kg for zinc and limit of quantification was from 9.2 E-4 mg/kg for pyridoxine to 4.21 mg/kg for zinc. Thereby the optimized methods demonstrated reliability and sensitivity in the detection and quantification of these micronutrients and that they are suitable for routine analysis of fortified kernels (coated and extruded) and fortified rice.
Authors:Fatema Moni, Suriya Sharmin, Satyajit Roy Rony, Farhana Afroz, Shammi Akhter and Md. Hossain Sohrab
This study describes the development and validation of a simple, specific, accurate, and precise method for quantitative determination of Esomeprazole in human serum using Pantoprazole as internal standard (IS). After the addition of internal standard, Esomeprazole from serum samples was extracted simply by protein precipitation method followed by centrifugation and the supernatants were directly injected into the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatographic separation of the compounds was obtained on Hitachi Lachrom C8 column (5 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of 5 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 7.4 and acetonitrile in a ratio of 70:30 with UV detection at 302 nm with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The method was sensitive and specific, and validated over a concentration range of 0.06–6.0 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 µg/mL and 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. The precision and accuracy expressed as relative standard deviation were less than 15%. The average recovery of Esomeprazole from serum was 97.08%.
Authors:Genquan Yan, Lu Yu, Xu Chen, Triet Tran, Lam Nguyen, Zhijun Wang and Ling Wang
A rapid and sensitive High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for determining apremilast in beagle dog plasma and urine samples was developed and validated using clopidogrel as the internal standard (IS). Apremilast was extracted from the plasma and urine samples by liquid–liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed using a C8 column with gradient elution and a mobile phase containing methanol and 0.1% formic acid. Quantification was achieved in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with a transition of m/z 461.3→178.2 for apremilast and m/z 322.2→184.1 for clopidogrel (IS). This method was validated regarding its specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for this method was 5 ng/mL, and the calibration curve was linear over 5–1,000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-run coefficients of variance (CV) of aprelimast in plasma samples were less than 12.92% and 10.64%, respectively, while in urine samples, the CV were less than 11.84% and 10.20%, respectively. The samples were stable under the tested conditions. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs following oral administration of 10 mg of apremilast.
Authors:Meifei Lu, Xiaojie Lu, Zheng Yu and Congcong Wen
Calycanthine is an important class of alkaloids extracted and isolated from the roots, leaves, flowers and fruits of Chimonanthus praecox. In this work, the UPLC-MS/MS method was used for determination of calycanthine in rat plasma, and the pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated. Midazolam was used as an internal standard (IS), and methanol precipitation method was used to pretreatment the rat plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column with the mobile phase of methanol- 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied for quantitative analysis, m/z 347.3 → 246.7 and 326.2 → 291.4 for calycanthine and IS, respectively. The results indicated that within the range of 1–200 ng/mL, linearity of calycanthine in rat plasma was good (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL. Accuracy range was between 90.6 and 109.4%, precision (RSD) of calycanthine was less than 14%. The matrix effect was between 97.9% and 105.4%, the recovery was better than 85.6%. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of calycanthine in rats after oral and intravenous administration. The absolute bioavailability of the calycanthine was 37.5% in rats.
Authors:Jinzhao Yang, Huamin Liu, Yuan Cai, Yazhen Wu, Xiaoxin Xu, Xianqin Wang and Chongliang Lin
Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka group and control group (n = 6). The rats in Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka group were given Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka juices (1 mL/100 g) by oral administration each day, continued for 14 days; the rats in control group were given Stroke-physiological saline solution (1 mL/100 g) by oral administration each day, continued for 14 days. The rats of these two groups were given a single oral administration of erlotinib (20 mg/kg) on the 15th day. After blood sampling at different time points and processing, the concentrations of erlotinib in rat plasma were determined by the established ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with erlotinib-d6 as an internal standard (IS). The initial mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes were utilized to conduct quantitative analysis. The sensitive, rapid and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to analyse the effect of Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka on pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in rat plasma. There were no significant differences in AUC(0−t), t1/2, Tmax, CL, Cmax between the two groups (P > 0.05). While MRT(0−t) was decreased (P < 0.05) in Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka group, compared to the control group. It showed that Citrus suavissima Hort. ex Tanaka could not affect the metabolism of erlotinib.
Authors:Sue Chen, Qi An, Hong Sun and Mengqian Mao
A simple, inexpensive and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three pesticide residues (carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, and imidacloprid) in fruit and vegetable samples using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based on a combined pretreatment of ultrasound-assisted deep eutectic solvent extraction (UA-DES-E) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). In this study, various types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were synthesized and the extraction efficiency was compared as extraction solvents. Results showed that glycerol-proline = 9:4 (GP-5) obtained the highest extraction efficiency among different types of DESs. Experiment conditions, including DES volume, extraction time and pH, were systematically optimized using single-factor experiment. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were in the ranges of 0.05–0.2 μg·mL−1 and 0.1–0.5 μg·mL−1, respectively. The relative recoveries of the three pesticides in the fruit and vegetable samples ranged from 85.7 to 113.0% at two spiked levels. Meanwhile, the method achieved excellent linearity with determination coefficients (r) greater than 0.999. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of the pesticides in real fruit and vegetable samples (apple, tomato, and grape).
A simple, accurate and sensitive method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector was established to identify Xinfeng capsules and systematically evaluated its quality, based on chromatographic fingerprint integrated with the similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS). In this study, 18 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities among different batches (S1–S10) of Xinfeng capsules samples, which were manufactured in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine with a three-year span. Compared to control fingerprint, the similarities values for 10 batches of samples were more than 0.90. Moreover, by analyzing the reference of astragalus, the chromatogram of astragalus was developed, and 10 common peaks of astragalus were identified. More importantly, simultaneous quantification of three markers in Xinfeng capsule, including Calycosin-7-glucoside, calycosin and Formononetinaldehyde was performed, the three constituents showed good regression (R > 0.999) within linear ranges, and their recoveries were within the range of 97.6–101.5%. The validation results showed that the developed method was specific, accurate, precise and robust. This study demonstrated that the developed method offers an efficient, reliable and practical approach for systematic quality evaluation of Xinfeng capsule.
Authors:Xiaobin Li, Fangfang Gao, Huitao Liu and Yuan Gao
A simple capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of hexachlorophene (HCP) in cosmetics. Separation conditions were obtained in 20 mM Na2B4O7, 10% MeOH (pH 9.20), with 25 kV applied voltage and UV detection at 208 nm. Under the selected conditions, electrophoretic analysis was completed in about 4 min, with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 µg·mL−1 for HCP. The method was successfully applied to determine HCP in three kinds of cosmetics with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 0.52–3.02% and recoveries from 90.0 to 96.4% for the spiked samples. The results indicated that the proposed method was reliable. Comparative experiments were also carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method described in National Standards of People's Republic of China. The validation results of the two methods are comparable, but the proposed CE method is simple, rapid, which makes separation and analyte quantification in shorter time with much less reagent consumption.
Authors:Ivan Givechev, Dimitar Tanev and Dancho Danalev
The major processes for introducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food are smoking and grilling of different products. But in addition, PAHs can permeate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity and ability to be accumulated in specific tissue, through contaminated animal feed. Further, when some parts of these animals are marketed as food, the accumulated PAHs can go to the human organism. Some of them are classified as highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic for animal and human organisms so they are under consideration of International and European legislation. This work reports development and validation of simple and fast GC/MS method for 16 PAHs determination. Comparison of two methods for sample preparation in pork meat matrix standard extraction/saponification procedure and modified QuEChERS method is also done. In addition, this paper report the calibration step of instrument and a recovery study for 16 PAHs in model pork meat, using modified QuEChERS procedure for sample pretreatment. The calibration step with accessible and suitable for use in real laboratory conditions internal standard (chrysene D12) is done in the range 10–100 ppb using toluene as solvent. The obtained results show very good linearity (R2 = 0.99 to 1.00). For the recovery study six model samples were spiked with 16 PAHs and they all are subjected to QuEChERS procedure. The recovery is calculated and the obtained data (71–120%) is in a good correlation with requirements of international legislation. Finally, LOD values for all 16 investigated compounds of modified GC/MS method and for the instrument were determined.
Authors:Magda M. Ayad, Mervat M. Hosny, Adel Ehab Ibrahim, Omar M. El-Abassy and Fathalla F. Belal
In the last few years, the use of surfactants as mobile phase additives in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) has been steadily developing and improving. Surfactants modify the polarity of the stationary phase which in turn decreases the amount of organic solvent required for elution of the analytes rendering the methodologies linked to them greener and more eco-friendly. Brij-35 is a fatty alcohol ethoxylates non ionic surfactant, which is less widely used as mobile phase additive. Brij-35 can decrease stationary phase polarity while remaining neutral. In this research, Brij-35 was studied in the separation and determination of marketed antihypertensive combination therapy composed of triamterene (TRM) and xipamide (XIP). TRM and XIP are diuretics used for treatment of essential hypertension and associated edema conditions. Chromatographic separation was achieved on RP-C18 column (Kinetix®, 5 µm, 15 cm × 4.6 mm) at flow rate 1 mL min−1 and UV-detection at 254 nm. Isocratic elution was performed using mobile phase composed of 0.1 M Brij-35: methanol (MeOH) (60:40, v/v). The analytes were well separated and quantified within linearity ranges of 5–50 µg mL−1 for both drugs in short retention time (2.6 and 5.3 min. for TRM and XIP, respectively). Since claiming greenness is not enough, Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI) was used to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the previously reported methods. GAPI is a new metric for evaluation of the ecological impact of analytical procedures. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and applied successfully for simultaneous determination of the drugs in their co-formulated tablets.
A simple HPLC technique has been utilized for rapid and sensitive quantitative analysis of two mixtures of drugs that are used during pregnancy and lactation. Drugs of the first mixture are used to manage gastrointestinal tract illness that are common during early stages of pregnancy, while pharmaceutical agents of the second mixture are administered over the counter as galactagogues or to overcome postpartum depression. Mixture I includes famotidine (FMT), ranitidine (RNT), nizatidine (NZT), and pantoprazole (PNT), which were separated on a C18 column using a mobile phase composed of methanol: 0.02 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (60:40, v/v) of pH 6.9, adopting UV detection at 240 nm at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Mixture II on the other hand, consists of domperidone (DOM), metoclopramide (MET), and sulpiride (SUL). These drugs were eluted using the same column and flow rate as those in mixture I, using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.075 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (30:70, v/v) of pH 6 adopting a detection wavelength 270 nm. Two optimization protocols were utilized to optimize the chromatographic separation conditions, namely one factor at a time (OFAT) and design of experiments (DOE) where face centered cube response surface experimental design was chosen for this investigation. Comparison of the results obtained from both protocols reveals the accordance between them.
Full validation procedure under guidance of United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) was applied to the proposed methods which enabled their application to separate the drugs of both mixtures in spiked rat whole blood samples and in vivo analysis of rat heart blood.
Palmatine is a compound with good water solubility extracted from Coptis chinensis, Fibraurea recisa Pierre, Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis. Palmatine has good antibacterial activity and mainly used for the treatment of bacterial dysentery, gynecological inflammation, surgical infection, and conjunctivitis. It has anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, and cognitive-enhancing activities. In this study, we used UPLC-MS/MS to determinate palmatine in rat plasma, and investigated its pharmacokinetics. Coptisine was utilized as an internal standard (IS), and acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC BEH C18 column using mobile phase of acetonitrile- 0.1% formic acid with gradient elution. Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied. The results indicated that within the range of 1–500 ng/mL, linearity of palmatine in rat plasma was acceptable (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precision RSD of palmatine in rat plasma were less than 14%. Accuracy range was between 93.7 and 107.1%, and matrix effect was between 101.6 and 109.4%. The method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of palmatine in rats after oral and intravenous administration. The absolute bioavailability of the palmatine was 15.5% in rats.
Vicia faba, also known as “bakla” in Turkey, is a species of Fabaceae family that is widely grown in Africa and Asia. It is rich in levodopa, a medicinal substance used to treat Parkinson's disease. Levodopa produced by chemical synthesis is expensive and causes various side effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use natural levodopa sources to prevent possible side effects. A Central Composite Design technique has been used in this study to optimize levodopa extraction from Vicia faba. First, a single factor analysis examined 3 variables such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and concentration of acetic acid. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of variables chosen on levodopa's extraction performance. By using variance and regression analyses, a second-order regression equation was determined as a predicted model. The value of R2 is 0.9882, which shows that the equation fits well. The best conditions are as follows: a temperature of 59.85 °C, an extraction time of 18.74 min, and an acetic acid content of 0.28%. Under optimum conditions, the maximum levodopa yield calculated from the predicted module was 4.53%. Extraction efficiency was determined as 4.54% experimentally under optimum conditions. A good relationship has been found between the experimental result and the predicted value.
Authors:Binbin Chen, Haiyan Lyu, Xiangzhen Xu and Chen Wang
Cortisol and cortisone are 2 important glucocorticoids produced in the human hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis that respond to stress. An analytical method to determinate cortisol and cortisone in serum and saliva using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry following a supported liquid extraction (SLE) was developed. Serum and saliva samples of 0.2 mL were extracted by SLE three times using 0.4 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether each time. The chromatographic separation was obtained on an Agilent Poroshell column using a 0.01% formic acid buffer and acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) as the solvent with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Optimized quantitative mass transitions for cortisol, cortisone, and cortisone d-4 were 363.2/121.0 (m/z), 361.2/163.1 (m/z), and 367.1/270.7 (m/z), respectively. The method validation was achieved according to regulatory guidance. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in serum were 2 ng/mL for cortisol and 1 ng/mL for cortisone, and the LLOQ in saliva were 0.1 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.2 ng/mL for cortisone. The developed method showed convenient and efficient extraction, a lower LLOQ, and a short running time. Modest correlations between serum and saliva cortisol and cortisone concentrations were found. The method was successfully applied in assessing the HPA condition of patients with depressive disorders.
Authors:Jovana Tomić, Branka Ivković, Slavica Oljačić, Katarina Nikolić, Nevena Maljurić, Ana Protić and Danica Agbaba
The aim of this study was to develop a novel reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for efficient separation of ivabradine and its 11 impurities. Similar polarity of impurities in the sample mixture made method optimization challenging and accomplishable only when different chemometric tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA), Box–Behnken design (BBD), and desirability function as a multicriteria approach, were employed. The presence of 3 positional isomers (impurities III, V, and VI), keto–enol tautomerism of impurity VII, and diastereoisomers of impurity X made separation of this complex mixture even more challenging. Chromatographic retention parameters obtained with the mobile phase consisting of 30 mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) on four different RP-HPLC columns at varying pH values (3.0, 4.0, and 5.0) were subjected to the PCA analysis to select the column with the most appropriate selectivity. Then the column temperature, pH of the aqueous component of mobile phase, phosphate buffer molarity and the organic solvent content in the mobile phase were estimated employing BBD. Valid and reliable mathematical models towards resolution of twelve critical peak pairs were obtained. After determination of the desirability making criteria for all responses, desirability functions were established and used in optimization. The proposed optimal chromatographic conditions included the Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 chromatographic column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm), the column temperature of 34 °C, the mobile phase flow rate of 1.6 mL min−1 and the UV detection at 220 nm. The mobile phase consisted of the 28 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 and acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). Separation of one pair of positional isomers was not achieved, so methanol was added to the organic part of mobile phase in small increments with the optimal ratio of methanol to acetonitrile 59:41, v/v. The overall organic component of the mobile phase also increased to 18%, accelerating the chromatographic analysis.
We developed and validated an assay for determination of glyphosate (GLYP) and glufosinate (GLUF) in human serum. Serum samples were extracted by using a MonoSpin® TiO column and analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). MonoSpin® TiO tends to specifically bind to phosphate groups. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 1–250 μg/mL. The recoveries for the 2 compounds were 1.6%–2.3%. The intra- and inter-day variations were <15%. Precision and accuracy were 5.6%–12.7% and 97.0%–103.9%, respectively. The validated method was applied to quantify the GLYP and GLUF content in the serum of GLYP and GLUF-poisoned patients. In conclusion, the method was successfully applied for accurate determination of GLYP and GLUF in serum obtained from patients with GLYP and GLUF poisoning.
Authors:Lenche Velkoska-Markovska, Mirjana S. Jankulovska, Biljana Petanovska-Ilievska and Kristijan Hristovski
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. It contains many bioactive compounds, including chlorogenic acid which possesses various biological properties. In this study, in order to determine concentration of chlorogenic acid in green coffee, a reverse-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. Successful separation was achieved on a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (50 mm × 3 mm; 2.7 μm) column using acetonitrile–water with 1% phosphoric acid (10:90, v/v) as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and with UV detection at 325 nm. The identification was made with comparison of the retention time of pure analytical standard with the retention time of chlorogenic acid in the analyzed samples. The developed method was validated using the following parameters: linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, and accuracy. Excellent linearity over the range 12.33–143.50 μg/mL was achieved with R2 values greater than 0.99. The intra-day precision was validated with the %RSD values, which confirmed that the method for determination of chlorogenic acid was repeatable. The mean recovery rate of the method ranged between 97.87% and 106.67% with %RSD values lower than 1%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values under the used chromatographic conditions were 0.29 and 0.96 pg, respectively. This method was successfully employed for quantitative determination of chlorogenic acid in green coffee samples.
Authors:Hong Kyeong Jung, Miri Mun, Ashraf Ali and Won Jo Cheong
The advent of disposable micro-columns will be a hope of workers of chromatography-related laboratories. A very critical and important requirement is the formation of affordable inlet frits. Welding a metal screen to a column inlet is not recommended because of the risk of damage to stationary phase. In this study, the Tollens probe (silver mirror reaction) was adopted to make affordable frits. Silver is reduced on the particle surface and in an empty space among the particles, forming a solid silver network structure at the column inlet area by injecting the reaction solution into the packed column at a depth of one third (10 cm) of the packed bed (0.5 mm × 300 mm). The silver cement structure was successfully formed, and the silver cement frit endured mobile phase flow well when C18 modified ground silica monolith particles were used to make the packed bed. The formation of the silver cement frit was not successful when the stationary phase based on conventional spherical silica particles was used. Negligible reduction of chromatographic performance by the silver cemented frit was observed. This study serves as the first step toward realization of disposable micro-columns.
Authors:H. Kim, Y. Kim, S. Park, J. Lee and J. Choi
This study aimed to develop a chromatographic method to quantitatively determine phenol in fish tissues. This method involves solvent extraction of acidified samples, followed by derivatization to phenyl acetate and analysis with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Phenol in a representative tissue sample (belly, gill, or renal tubules), which was homogenized with 2 N sulfuric acid, was extracted with ethyl acetate and derivatized to phenyl acetate using acetic anhydride and K2CO3 in water. An n-butyl acetate extract was injected into the GC–MS. The linearity (r2) of the calibration curve was greater than 0.996. The analytical repeatability, which is expressed as the relative standard deviation, was less than 6.14%, and the recovery was greater than 96.3%. The method detection limit and the limit of quantitation were 8.0 μg/kg and 26 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed method is also applicable to the analysis of other biological tissues for phenol and its analogs, such as pentachlorophenol.
Authors:Xi Bao, Bingge Huang, Yiting Mao, Zhiguang Zhang, Yunfang Zhou, Congcong Wen and Quan Zhou
Byakangelicol is one of coumarins from Baizhi and has been shown to inhibit the release of PGE2 from human lung epithelial A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and full validated for the quantification of byakangelicol in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetics of byakangelicol after both intravenous (5 mg/kg) and oral (15 mg/kg) administrations were studied. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultra-performance liquid chromatography ethylene bridged hybrid (UPLC BEH) C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min; fargesin was used as the internal standard (IS). The following quantitative analysis of byakangelicol was utilized in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The samples were extracted from rat plasma via protein precipitation using acetonitrile. In the concentration range of 1–2000 ng/mL, the method correlated linearity (r > 0.995) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL. Intra-day precision was less than 11%, and inter-day precision was less than 12%. The accuracy was between 92.0% and 108.7%, the recovery was better than 89.6%, and the matrix effect was between 85.9% and 98.6%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of byakangelicol after intravenous and oral administration, and the absolute bioavailability was 3.6%.
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established to determine the hapepunine in mouse blood, and the pharmacokinetics of hapepunine after intravenous (1.0 mg/kg) and intragastric (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) administrations was studied. Delavinone was used as an internal standard. The UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) C18 column was used for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid with a gradient elution flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative analysis of hapepunine in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive interface. Proteins from mouse blood were removed by acetonitrile precipitation. The verification method was established in accordance with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioanalytical method validation guidelines. In the concentration range of 1–1000 ng/mL, the hapepunine in the mouse blood was linear (r2 > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL. In the mouse blood, the intra-day precision coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 12%, the inter-day precision CV was less than 14%. The accuracy ranged from 91.7% to 109.3%. The average recovery was higher than 76.7%, and the matrix effect was between 86.0% and 106.4%. The UPLC–MS/MS method was sensitive, rapid, and selective and was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of hapepunine in mice. The absolute bioavailability of hapepunine was 22.0%.
Authors:Yanqin Zhu, Ping Du, Shaojun Huang, Qinhong Yin and Yaling Yang
A fingerprint analysis method was established for the quality control of Moringa seed shells by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC–DAD). The HPLC–DAD separation was performed on a Thermo Hypersil Gold C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column by gradient elution with acetonitrile–water as mobile phase. The fingerprint of Moringa seed shells was established with good precision, reproducibility, and stability obtaining within 60 min, and 13 common peaks in the fingerprint were designed. Similarity analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were carried out to analyze the obtained fingerprints. The similarity among 11 batches of samples in addition to No. 5 and 6 was no less than 0.92. Eleven samples could be classified into 2 clusters. The HPLC fingerprint technology and application of chemical pattern recognition can provide a more comprehensive reference for the quality control of medicinal plants.
Authors:Mahmoud M. Sebaiy, Sobhy M. El-Adl, Mohamed M. Baraka and Amira A. Hassan
An isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for rapid and simultaneous separation and estimation of 3 antidiabetic drugs, namely, metformin, pioglitazone, and glimepiride, in human plasma within 3 min. Separation was carried out on a MAGELLEN 5U C18 (5 μm, 150 mm × 4.60 mm) using a mobile phase of MeOH–0.025 M KH2PO4 adjusted to pH 3.20 using ortho-phosphoric acid (85:15, v/v) at ambient temperature. The flow rate was 1 mL/min, and the maximum absorption was measured at 235 nm. The retention time of metformin, pioglitazone, and glimepiride was noted to be 1.24, 2.32, and 2.77 min, respectively, indicating a very short analysis time compared to that of other reported methods. Also, limits of detection were reported to be 0.05, 0.26, and 0.10 μg/mL for metformin, pioglitazone, and glimepiride, respectively, showing a high degree of method sensitivity. The method was then validated according to the FDA guidelines for the determination of the three drugs clinically in human plasma, in particular, regarding pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence simulation studies.
Authors:Stefano Dugheri, Nicola Mucci, Alessandro Bonari, Giorgio Marrubini, Giovanni Cappelli, Daniela Ubiali, Marcello Campagna, Manfredi Montalti and Giulio Arcangeli
In the last decade, the development and adoption of greener and sustainable microextraction techniques have been proved to be an effective alternative to classical sample preparation procedures. In this review, 10 commercially available solid-phase microextraction systems are presented, with special attention to the appraisal of their analytical, bioanalytical, and environmental engineering. This review provides an overview of the challenges and achievements in the application of fully automated miniaturized sample preparation methods in analytical laboratories. Both theoretical and practical aspects of these environment-friendly preparation approaches are discussed. The application of chemometrics in method development is also discussed. We are convinced that green analytical chemistry will be really useful in the years ahead. The application of cheap, fast, automated, “clever”, and environmentally safe procedures to environmental, clinical, and food analysis will improve significantly the quality of the analytical data.
Authors:Abdul Shakoor, Mahmood Ahmed, Rabia Ikram, Sajad Hussain, Arifa Tahir, Badrul Mohamed Jan and Ahmad Adnan
The present work aimed to develop and validate a simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate, and precise method for simultaneous determination of metformin hydrochloride and vildagliptin in tablet and biological samples. Isocratic elution of both the analytes was performed at 35 °C by injecting 20 μL into Thermo Hypersil ODS C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm× 250 mm), while the flow rate was set to 0.8 mL/min. The mobile phase comprised of methanol, acetonitrile, and phosphate buffer (5:30:65, v/v, pH 3.5), and wavelength was selected at 212 nm. The overall run time per sample was 7.0 min with a retention time of 3.36 and 5.41 min for metformin hydrochloride and vildagliptin, respectively. The calibration curve was linear from 10–140 μg/mL for metformin and 1–14 μg/mL for vildagliptin with a coefficient of determination (R2) ≤ 0.9919, while repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviation) were lower than 1.13 and 0.97%, respectively. Force degradation studies indicated a complete separation of the analytes in the presence of their degradation products providing a high degree of method specificity. The proposed reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was demonstrated to be simple and rapid for the determination of metformin hydrochloride and vildagliptin in commercially available tablet and biological samples providing recoveries ranged between 100.13–100.29%.
Authors:Leonel Vinicius Constantino, Douglas Mariani Zeffa, Alessandra Koltun, Mariana Ragassi Urbano, Alisson Wilson Santos Sanzovo and Suzana Lucy Nixdorf
An optimal condition for extraction of soluble sugars from green coffee using water and a validated chromatographic method for its separation and quantification were proposed in this research. An orbital incubator shaker (OIS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were the 2 techniques used to extract soluble sugars. In such experiments, the variables: sample amount (300, 400, and 500 mg), time (30, 60, and 90 min), and temperature (30, 45, and 60 °C) were tested. The separation of sugars was performed in a chromatographic system (high-performance liquid chromatography refractive index detector [HPLC-RID]), which presented the selectivity for the analytes, a limit of detection of 0.020 g/L, a limit of quantification of 0.0625 g/L, and recovery rates greater than 95%. The repeatability and inter-day precision had low dispersion, RSD < 2.0% and < 3.0%, respectively. Sucrose content ranged from 0.65 to 2.39 g/L using an OIS and from 1.19 to 2.72 g/L by MAE, while glucose and fructose concentration varied from 0.08 to 0.12 g/L using both methods. The OIS technique is preferably indicated for extraction of soluble sugars at the following conditions: 500 mg of grounded green coffee, 90 min, and 60 °C. The proposed method for soluble sugar extraction and quantification may be applied in research laboratories and food industries since it is a low-cost and environment-friendly technique.
Authors:Mohammad Al Bratty, Neelaveni Thangavel, Ramalingam Peraman, Vinod Kumar, Padmanabha Reddy, Krishna Veni Nagappan and Hassan Al Hazmi
A reversed-phased high-performance liquid chromatography–diode-array detection (HPLC–DAD) method has been developed for investigating the stress-dependent degradation of pantoprazole (PTZ) by a photolytic and oxidative mechanism. The developed method separated PTZ from its degradation products on a C18 column with a mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (60:40, v/v; pH 3.0) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The linear regression coefficient of 0.9995 was obtained for a concentration range from 5 to 25 μg/mL. The % relative standard deviation for repeatability and intermediate precision were below 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively, while the sensitivity of the method was demonstrated by a limit of detection value of 0.25 μg/mL. The stress sample analyses for PTZ results revealed the formation of a total of 18 degradation products, and out of them, 9 degradation products were common for both photolytic and oxidative degradations. Further, the oxidation by azobisisobutyronitrile produced the highest number of degradation products (11 impurities), 3 of which are more hydrophobic than PTZ. In photolytic degradation, 8 and 7 degradation products were observed with UV radiation and sunlight exposure, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation of pantoprazole sodium injection formulation was carried out under the same stress conditions, and it revealed the formation of 3 common impurities under both stress conditions, but other impurities were not detected in the formulations. Finally, 3 common impurities formed in formulations of PTZ injections, viz., sulfone, N-oxide, and N-oxide sulfone impurities, were identified by spike analyses.
Authors:S.-Y. Shao, Y. Ting, J. Wang, J. Sun and X.-F. Guo
Phyllostachys edulis (PES), the most important bamboo species in China, is widely distributed in East Asia. Flavonoids, which are important bioactive natural compounds, often have similar structures, making their structural elucidation difficult. The aim of this study was to represent valuable, reliable mass spectral data for the identification of flavonoids in plant leaves. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was established for characterization and identification of the major flavonoids in PES leaf extract. A total of 13 flavonoids were simultaneously characterized, and their proposed characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways were investigated. Thirteen compounds were separated on an Agilent Zorbax RRHD SB-C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm). On the basis of comparing with the 4 reference standards and the literature data, the other 9 flavonoids were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Eight compounds (compounds 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12) were found in PES leaves for the first time. An efficient UPLC–QTOF-MS/MS method was successfully applied for the structural identification of flavonoids in PES leaves. These results have practical applications for the rapid identification and structural characterization of these compounds in crude bioactive extracts or mixtures.
Authors:Haichao Zhan, Zhen Wei, Ke Ren, Shuhua Tong, Xianqin Wang and Qing Wu
Isocorynoxeine is one of the main alkaloids in Chinese medicinal herbs, and has pharmacological activities such as antihypertensive, sedative, anticonvulsant, and neuronal protection. It is an effective component of Uncaria for the treatment of hypertension. In this study, we used a fast and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) to detect isocorynoxeine in rat plasma and investigated its pharmacokinetics in rats. Six rats were given isocorynoxeine (15 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Blood (100 μL) was withdrawn from the caudal vein at 5 and 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h after administration. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid with gradient elution. Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied. Intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, %RSD) of isocorynoxeine in rat plasma were lower than 12%. The method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of isocorynoxeine in rats after intraperitoneal administration. The t1/2 of isocorynoxeine is 4.9 ± 2.1 h, which indicates quick elimination.
Authors:Zdravka Zaharieva, Dimitar Tanev and Dancho Danalev
The authorities have identified an emerging trend where over-the-counter products, represented as dietary supplements, contain hidden active ingredients that could be harmful. Consumers may unknowingly take products laced with varying quantities of approved prescription drug ingredients, controlled substances, and untested and unstudied pharmaceutically active ingredients. Hidden ingredients are increasingly becoming a problem in products promoted for sexual enhancement, weight loss, or bodybuilding. The tests have revealed the presence of some undesired substances like sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and their analogues in tainted sexual enhancement products. The content of these substances is usually around the daily curative dose. A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneously determination of sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, dapoxetine, yohimbine, and sibutramine was developed and validated. InfinityLab Poroshell 120 EC-C18 (150 '4.6 mm '4 μm particles) was used, as well as a diode-array detector (DAD) at 230 nm, and a gradient flow with 0.030 М ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile. The method is linear in the following range: 2.5–37.5 μg/mL for yohimbine, 2.06–30.9 μg/mL for vardenafil, 2.0–30.0 μg/mL for sildenafil, 3.1–46.5 μg/mL for tadalafil, 1.98–29.7 μg/mL for dapoxetine, and 2.2–66.0 μg/mL for sibutramine. The linearity coefficient is R2 = 1 for all substances. Model matrices were spiked, and the analytical recoveries for all substances are in the range 97.5%–99.5%. The method exhibited an upper hand compared with previously reported methods in terms of speed and simplicity. Additionally, the mobile phase (also used as extracting, column washing, and diluting solvent) was composed of only buffer and acetonitrile, which rendered the method much cheaper than others.
Authors:Jianbo Li, Zheng Yu, Cheng Han, Zhening Wang, Yujie Hu, Congcong Wen and Chongliang Lin
In this study, we used UPLC–MS/MS to determine diosmetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside in rat plasma and investigated its pharmacokinetics in rats. Six rats were given diosmetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside (5 mg/kg) by intravenous (i.v.) administration. The blood (150 μL) was withdrawn from the caudal vein after administration. Diazepam was used as an internal standard (IS), and a one-step acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid with gradient elution. Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied, 463.1 → 301.0 for diosmetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside, m/z 285.1 → 193.0 for diazepam (IS). Intra-day and inter-day precision of diosmetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside in rat plasma were less than 14%. The method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of diosmetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside in rats after intravenous administration. The t1/2 of diosmetin-7-o-β-d-glucoside is 1.4 ± 0.4 h, which indicates the quick elimination.
Authors:A. Petruczynik, K. Wróblewski and M. Waksmundzka-Hajnos
In reversed-phase liquid chromatography, in case of the absence of additives, cationic basic compounds give rise to asymmetrical and broad peaks as a result of interactions of analyte cations with residual free silanols on silica-based stationary phases. Ionic liquids, added to the mobile phase, have been suggested as alternatives to amines to block the activity of free silanols. The different parameters affecting the retention behavior, symmetry of peak, system efficiency, and separation selectivity of selected psychotropic drugs, especially the effect of concentration of ionic liquid, kind and concentration of organic modifiers of mobile phases, and kind of stationary phases were investigated. The most selective and efficient systems are used for separations of psychotropic drug standards' mixture and for determination of selected psychotropic drugs in human serum.