A simple, specific, and quantitative high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of lupeol in 2 marketed formulations, namely, Manasamitra vatakam and Amree plus capsule. Chromatographic development was performed by using a pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum-backed plate, and the development was carried out using toluene-ethyl acetate (9.48:0.52, V/V) as the optimized mobile phase. The developed TLC plates were derivatized by using anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent. The detection of lupeol was carried out at 600 nm. Box-Behnken design was applied for optimization of the chromatographic conditions, and combinations of factors, such as mobile phase composition (volume of ethyl acetate) (A), chamber saturation time (B), and migration distance (C) likely to affect RF were identified from preliminary trials and further optimized using a response surface design. Among 3 factors, the significant factor found was the volume of ethyl acetate that resulted in higher change in the RF value and can be considered as a critical method parameter. Full factorial design was applied for optimization of extraction efficiency. The factors selected for the optimization process were volume of methanol (A) and duration of extraction (B) with percentage yield of extract as response. The linear ranges were found to be 500–3000 ng per band. The accuracy and precision measured were less than 2% relative standard deviation for lupeol. The sensitivity of the method in terms of the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was measured. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust, and specific and can be applicable for the determination of lupeol in the quality-control testing of extract and polyherbal formulations.
A simple, sensitive, specific, rapid, and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of quercetin (QCT) and resveratrol (RSV). Chromatographic separation was performed over pre-coated TLC plates (60 F254, 20 × 10 cm, 250 µm thickness, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) through a linear ascending technique. Among the different combinations of the mobile phases used, the best separation was achieved in the toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (6:2.5:1.5, V/V) mixture. Detection and quantification were achieved at 286 nm through the spectrodensitometric analysis. Analytical performance of the proposed HPTLC method was validated according to the International Conference for Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, detection, and quantitation limits, robustness, and specificity. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 50–2500 ng per spot for both QCT and RSV, with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.998 and 0.997 for the QCT and RSV, respectively. The detection limits were 122.33 and 370.7 for QCT and RSV, respectively, and the quantitation limits were 27.35 and 82.93 for QCT and RSV, respectively. Additionally, forced degradation studies of QCT and RSV were established. The validated HPTLC method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of QCT and RSV in the nanoformulation.
Oxytropis falcata Bunge, known as the “king of herbs” in Tibetan medicine, is used for treatment of hyperpyrexia, pain, wounds, inflammation, and anthrax. However, it is difficult to efficiently isolate compounds with high purity from O. falcata because of the complexity of traditional Tibetan medicines. In this study, the 80% ethanol elution fraction from extract by AB-8 macroporous resin column chromatography was demonstrated to have anticancer activity on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. Then, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was successfully established for separation of compounds by using hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (10:4:10:10, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. Five flavonoids (7-hydroxyflavonone , 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy flavonol , 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone , 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone , and 2′,4′-dihydroxydihydrochalcone ) were obtained in one-step separation with purities of 97.7%, 98.1%, 98.3%, 99.0%, and 98.3%, respectively. Finally, anticancer activities against the growth of SMMC-7721 cells of 5 flavonoids were confirmed. The IC50 values of the separated compounds were 213.45 μg/mL, 197.74 μg/mL, 375.16 μg/mL, 17.44 μg/mL, and 136.83 μg/mL in 24 h, respectively. The present study provided a basis for further development and utilization of this medicinal herb as a source of a new potential anticancer agent.
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPLTC)–densitometry methods are described for the analysis of the anti(retro)virals dolutegravir (D), lamivudine (L), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in a pharmaceutical tablet product. To the best of our knowledge, no previous quantitative planar chromatography method has been reported in the literature for this combination formulation. The method for L was transferred from a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening method published in the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) Minilab Manual designed for identification of counterfeit and substandard drug products using a model process published earlier. D and TDF are not included in the list of drugs for which TLC screening methods are published for the Minilab, but HPTLC–densitometry procedures were developed for them using the transfer process guidelines. L was analyzed simultaneously with TDF on Merck Premium Purity silica gel 60 F plates using the mobile phase ethyl acetate–methanol–acetone–concentrated ammonium hydroxide (30:7:3:1) and densitometric scanning at 254 nm. D was analyzed on a second plate by scanning at 366 nm after chromatography with the chloroform–methanol–formic acid (32:8:2) mobile phase. Data for all three drugs are shown to meet the requirements of the model transfer process for calibration curve r values, assay of tablets relative to their label values, peak purity/peak identity tests, and validation by standard addition analysis of samples spiked at 50%, 100%, and 150% of the label value of active ingredients. A TLC screening method for TDF in the combination product was developed and published online with open access.
In this study, a precise, rapid, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC–MS/MS) method for the quantitation of O-demethyl nuciferine in mouse blood was developed, and pharmacokinetics of O-demethyl nuciferine was studied for the first time after sublingual injection and gavage. The study was performed with an UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (UPLC BEH) (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column at 30 °C, using diazepam as the internal standard (IS). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile–10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid), with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min for 4 min run time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes of m/z 282.1→219.0 for O-demethyl nuciferine and m/z 296.2→265.1 for IS were utilized to conduct quantitative analysis. Protein in mouse blood was directly precipitated with acetonitrile for sample preparation. The linear range was 1–500 ng/mL with r > 0.995, and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision of O-demethyl nuciferine in mouse blood were RSD < 14% and RSD < 15%, respectively.r The accuracy ranged from 89.0% to 110.7%, with a recovery higher than 88.9%, while the matrix effect was between 103.1% and 108.7%. We further applied this UPLC–MS/MS method to the pharmacokinetic study on O-demethyl nuciferine after sublingual injection and gavage and determined the bioavailability to be 6.4%.
The composition and concentration of natural products largely depend on a plant part, development stage, cultivar, and growing conditions. This study evaluated the influence of cultivars and production systems on the composition of natural products (benzoxazinoids) in wheat aerial parts. The determination of benzoxazinoids was performed by combining pressurized liquid extraction, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. Six benzoxazinoids were identified and quantitated in wheat varieties. Significant differences were observed among the examined varieties. The average concentrations of total researched compounds were definitely higher in the organically produced spring wheat cultivars than in the winter ones. The content of these compounds in the same varieties grown under organic and conventional systems showed their higher content under the organic one. The main benzoxazinoids detected in wheat varieties were 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside (DIMBOA-Glc) and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA). The richest sources of benzoxazinoids were Brawura, Łagwa, and Kandela (52.46, 34.67, and 30.14 μg/g dry weight [DW], respectively).
RKI-1447 is an effective ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibitor, having anti-invasion and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) to detect RKI-1447 in rat plasma and investigated its pharmacokinetics in rats. Diazepam was utilized as an internal standard, and an acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient acetonitrile–water mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid). Flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Electrospray ionization (ESI)–tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied: m/z 327.1 → 204.0 and 285.1 → 193.3 for RKI-1447 and internal standard, respectively. The results indicated that within the range of 10–2000 ng/mL, the linearity of RKI-1447 in rat plasma was acceptable (r > 0.995), and the lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 ng/mL. Intra-day precision RSD of RKI-1447 in rat plasma was lower than 8%, and inter-day precision RSD was lower than 11%. Accuracy range was between 91.6% and 107.1%, and the matrix effect was between 85.1% and 87.0%. The analysis method was sensitive and fast with suitable selectivity, and was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of RKI-1447 in rats. The bioavailability of the RKI-1447 was 7.3%.
Irinotecan (IRT) is an antineoplastic agent widely used in the treatment of various cancers primarily in colorectal cancer. A new, simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with fluorescence detector was developed and validated to quantify IRT and its active metabolite SN38 in the plasma of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient mice (NOD/SCID) mice bearing colon tumor. The plasma samples were extracted by precipitation method using acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid. The chromatographic separation was achieved using mobile phase consisted of water and acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) pH 3 at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in C18 column (internal diameter, 250 × 4.6 mm; pore size, 5 μm). The method was validated according to the bioanalytical guidelines defined by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicine Agency (EMA). A regression (R
) value of 0.999 and 0.997 for IRT and SN38 suggested the good linearity in the range of 0.1–10 μg/mL and 5–500 ng/mL, respectively. The calculated lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) for IRT were 0.1 and 0.065 μg/mL, respectively. However, for SN38, LLOQ and LOD were 5 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day variations (coefficient of variance; % CV) observed during the validation were found to be within the set limit of 15%. Both accuracy and percentage recovery analyzed and calculated from the quality control samples were in the between the defined range of 85–115%. Plasma samples were found to be stable when stored at room temperature for 2 h, after 2 freeze–thaw cycles and at −80 °C for 2 months. The developed method was successfully applied to study the plasma elimination profile of IRT in NOD/SCID mice with tumor. The results from plasma concentration time profile and pharmacokinetic parameter analyzed suggested the rapid elimination of IRT and SN38 from the plasma of NOD/SCID mice.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a widely used technique for the simultaneous detection and quantification of different drugs. The purpose of the current study was to develop a simple and cost-effective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of tizanidine (TZN) HCl and meloxicam (MLX) in rabbit's plasma. Assay of TZN and MLX was performed after extraction of drug from plasma by liquid–liquid extraction technique using methanol and diethyl ether as protein precipitants. Isocratic elution was performed in a Kromasil® C18 column (dimension, 250 × 4.60 mm; particle size, 5 μm) with mobile phase consisting of methanol–water (8:2). Orthophosphoric acid was used to adjust the pH of the mobile phase 3.0, and detection was done at 228 nm. Flow rate was 0.8 mL/min with ambient temperature and average operating pressure of 1400 psig. Retention time of TZN was 2.612 min and that of MLX was 6.960 min with a resolution of 3.18. Both drugs showed satisfactory linearity in the range of 10 to 50 ng/mL with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9989 and 0.9972 for TZN and MLX, respectively. The developed method was validated successfully for linearity, system suitability, intra-day and inter-day accuracy, and precision, robustness, and specificity following International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Conclusively, a precise, stable, reproducible, economical, and suitable method for estimation of pharmacokinetic evaluation was developed and validated.