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This paper describes a rapid method to simultaneously determine acetochlor, fluorochloridone and pendimethalin present in a herbicide emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Selected ion monitoring mode was performed to increase the sensitivity, with dibutyl phthalate as an internal standard. The method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, and stability. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a TG-5 MS column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm) with helium as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Calibration curves were linear over 2.0–20.0 μg/mL for each analyte, and the limit of quantification was below 20 ng/mL. Good performance in terms of recovery ranging from 94.5% to 102.5% at 3 concentration levels proved excellent accuracy. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations for 6 replicate measurements were always less than 5%. The developed method is simple and efficient for the routine determination of the ternary mixtures in a compound herbicide EC formulation product.

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Development of an UPLC–MS/MS assay to determine psoralidin in rat plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic study after intragastric administration
Authors: Feng Feng, Xiunan Jiang, Jieying Qiu, Hongyu Wu, Xiaojun Cai and Zheng Xiang

Psoralidin has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-depressant, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aims at developing a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method to determine psoralidin in rat plasma and studying the pharmacokinetic characteristic of psoralidin after intragastric administration of 20 and 40 mg/kg. Alpinetin was used as an internal standard (IS), and the plasma samples were precipitated with acetonitrile. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.2–250 ng/mL (R 2 = 0.993). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.0. Half-life (t 1/2) was 7.2 ± 0.97 h and 7.1 ± 0.27 h for different dosages, respectively. T max was 4.2 ± 1.1 h and 4.0 ± 1.1 h for different dosages, respectively. Apparent volume of distribution (V d) for different dosages was 630.1 ± 168.8 and 600.1 ± 138.8 L/kg, respectively. Clearance (CL) was 105.6 ± 29.2 and 100.6 ± 22.2 L/h/kg for different dosages, indicating that psoralidin was mainly distributed in rat tissues. The pharmacokinetic study provided important information for further clinical application in the treatment of cancer and osteoporosis.

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A sensitive, inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet detection (HPLC–UV) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous monitoring of pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate (PSS) and domperidone maleate (DM) in rabbit plasma on a C18 column with UV detection at 285 nm. Box–Behnken design was used with 3 independent variables, namely, flow rate (X 1), mobile phase composition (X 2), and phosphate buffer pH (X 3), which were used to design mathematical models. Response surface design was applied to optimize the dependent variables, i.e., retention time (Y 1 and Y 2) and percentage recoveries (Y 3 and Y 4) of PSS and DM. The method was sensitive and reproducible over 1.562 to 25 μg/mL. The effect of the quadratic outcome of flow rate, mobile phase composition, and buffer pH on retention time (p ˂ 0.001) and percentage recoveries of PSS and DM (p = 0.0016) were significant. The regression values obtained from analytical curve of PSS and DM were 0.999 and 0.9994, respectively. The percentage recoveries of PSS and DM were ranged from 94.5 to 100.41% and 94.77 to 100.31%, respectively. The developed method was applied for studying the pharmacokinetics of PSS and DM. The C max of test and reference formulations were 48.06 ± 0.347 μg/mL and 46.31 ± 0.398 μg/mL for PSS, and 15.11 ± 1.608 μg/mL and 12.06 ± 1.234 μg/mL for DM, respectively.

Open access
Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals by matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with gas chromatography
Authors: Yun-feng Liu, Jia-ling Zhang, Xue-fei Nie, Ping Zhang, Xiao-qing Yan and Ke-feng Fu

A convenient method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Matrix solid-phase dispersion had been optimized as the sample pretreatment technology, using Florisil as a dispersant, anhydrous sodium sulfate as a dehydrant, formic acid as an additive, and n-hexane and ethyl acetate as eluents successively, and followed by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection on a TR-5 capillary column. Experimental results showed that 11 preservatives were baseline separated within 22 min. Good linearities were observed in the concentration range of 0.53–250 μg/mL for all analytes, and there were also minor differences. All correlation coefficients (r) were more than 0.995. The average recoveries at 3 levels of spiked samples ranged from 80% to 124% with 0.9–12% intra-day RSD and 1.8–12% inter-day RSD. The limits of detection were less than 0.18 μg/mL for all analytes. Besides, there was no obvious matrix effect on the analytes. The conclusion was that the developed method was simple, cheap, accurate, precise, and environment-friendly, in addition to existing little matrix effects. It could be recommended to determine 11 preservatives individually or in any their combinations to not only in liquid and gel cosmetics but also in liquid medicine and ointment.

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Pharmacokinetics of ligustroflavone in rats and tissue distribution in mice by UPLC–MS/MS
Authors: Quan Zhou, Zhiguang Zhang, Peiwu Geng, Bingge Huang, Xianqin Wang and Xiaomin Yu

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of ligustroflavone, which was then applied in pharmacokinetics study in rat and tissue distribution in mouse. Twelve male Sprague Dawley rats were used for pharmacokinetics after intravenous (2 or 8 mg/kg) administration of ligustroflavone, six rats for each dose. Twenty-five mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (5 mice for each group, 1 group for each time point) and received 16 mg/kg ligustroflavone via intraperitoneal administration. The linear range of the calibration curve was over 2–2000 ng/mL for ligustroflavone in rat plasma and mouse tissues. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed in % RSD were less than 14%, and the accuracy was between 88.5% and 108.4%.

The tissue distribution results indicated that ligustroflavone diffuses rapidly and widely into major organs. The level of ligustroflavone was highest in the mouse liver, followed by the kidney, spleen, and lung. The overwhelming accumulation in the liver indicated that the liver was responsible for the extensive metabolism.

Open access
Validated capillary zone electrophoretic method for simultaneous analysis of benazepril in combination with amlodipine besylate and hydrochlorothiazide
Authors: Hytham M. Ahmed, Tarek S. Belal, Rasha A. Shaalan, Fawzy A. El Yazbi and Sohila M. Elonsy

In this work, a novel, simple, and quick capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was proposed for simultaneous analysis of benazepril (BEN) with other co-administrated antihypertensive drugs, amlodipine besylate (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), using a diode array detector (DAD). A fused silica capillary (78.5 cm total length, 70 cm effective length, and 75 μm id) was used in separation using a 40 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.5 as a running background electrolyte (BGE) under a positive potential of 30 KV, at a stable temperature of 25 °C for capillary during separation. Hydrodynamic injections were performed for 12 s at 50 mbar, and detection was performed at 210 nm for AML and BEN, at 225 nm for HCT, and at 232 nm for xipamide (XIP) added as an internal standard (IS). Separation of the three analyzed drugs and the IS was performed in less than 8 min. Migration times were 4.06, 5.23, 6.69, and 7.3 min for AML, HCT, BEN, and XIP, respectively. The findings proved that the proposed method was linear in the range of 10–80 μg/mL for all drugs with correlation coefficients >0.9994. The limit of detection (LOD) values of AML, HCT, and BEN were 1.004, 1.224, and 0.896 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 3.124, 3.727, and 2.749 μg/mL for the cited drugs, respectively. Peak identity and purity were confirmed by DAD. The developed CZE method was applied for the analysis of the three antihypertensive drugs successfully in their combined pharmaceutical tablets, and it can be used for the quality control of single-pill combination (SPC) samples of these drugs in short time.

Open access

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has affirmed the use of letrozole (LTZ) combined with palbociclib (PLB) to treat breast malignant tumor growth in postmenopausal women. A straightforward and extremely sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with photodiode array detection (RP-HPLC–PDA) was created and validated for the simultaneous determination of LTZ and PLB in rat plasma. The parameters used to give the best separation were a C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) as the stationary phase with an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol–30 mM ammonium acetate at a ratio of 60:40 (v/v), pH = 5.5, a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and detection wavelengths of 240 and 220 nm for LTZ and PLB, respectively. The developed method was assessed by the FDA rules over a range of 10–600 ng/mL for LTZ and PLB. The mean of %recovery of LTZ and PLB extracted from rat plasma by acetonitrile-based deproteinization was 91.06 ± 2.73 and 90.30 ± 1.95%, respectively, and the limits of detection were 5 ng/mL for LTZ and 7 ng/mL for PLB in rat plasma. The mean values of T max and C max were 6 ± 0.00 h and 266.96 ± 21.23 ng/mL for LTZ and 4 ± 0.00 h and 508.75 ± 61.56 ng/mL for PBL, respectively, after intraperitoneal administration of both drugs to rats. The developed HPLC–PDA method was demonstrated to be robust and was effectively applied to study the pharmacokinetics of LTZ and PLB in rat plasma.

Open access
Pharmacokinetics of ebeiedinone in mouse blood by UPLC–MS/MS
Authors: Yongxi Jin, Yuyan Chen, Jiawen Liu, Xi Bao, Yinghao Zhi, Congcong Wen and Wenzong Zhu

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established to determine ebeiedinone in mouse blood, and the pharmacokinetics of ebeiedinone after intravenous (0.5 mg/kg) and oral (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) administration was studied. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, 1 group was for intravenous administration (0.5 mg/kg), and other 3 groups were for oral administration (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg), with 6 rats in each group. Yubeinine was used as an internal standard. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantitatively analyzed ebeiedinone m/z 414.4 → 91.1 and the internal standard m/z 430.4 → 412.3 in the electrospray ionization (ESI) positive interface. In the concentration range of 1–2000 ng/mL, the ebeiedinone in the mouse blood was linear (r 2 > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL. In the mouse blood, the intra-day precision coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 15%, and the inter-day precision CV was less than 15%. The accuracy ranged from 85.4% to 114.6%, and the average recovery was higher than 61.3%. The matrix effect was between 87.0% and 106.5%. These data met the pharmacokinetic study requirements of ebeiedinone. The UPLC–MS/MS method was sensitive, rapid, and selective and was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of ebeiedinone in mice. The absolute bioavailability of ebeiedinone was 30.6%.

Open access
An HPLC–PDA method for determination of alectinib concentrations in the plasma of an adolescent
Authors: Samiuela Lee, Christa E. Nath, Ben W. R. Balzer, Craig R. Lewis, Toby N. Trahair, Antoinette C. Anazodo and Peter J. Shaw

Alectinib is a central nervous system-active small molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of patients with ALK positive tumors, including advanced non-small cell lung cancers and lymphomas. A simple, isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array detection (HPLC–PDA) assay for measurement of alectinib in human plasma is described. Alectinib is extracted from the plasma matrix by addition of methanol, followed by centrifugation and acidification with 0.1% formic acid. It elutes with a run time of 4.6 min using a 250 mm × 4.6 mm RP-C18 column with 0.1% aqueous formic acid and methanol (35:65, v/v) and a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was at 339 nm. Linear calibration plots were achieved in the range of 0.1–20 μg/mL for alectinib (r 2 = 0.9996). With limits of detection and quantification of 0.05 and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively, and excellent precision (%CV < 10%), accuracy (bias < ±12%), and recovery (>97%) within the 1–20 μg/mL concentration range, this assay was suitable for measuring pre-dose alectinib concentrations in an adolescent receiving 600-mg doses twice daily.

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Summary

Schizonepeta annua (Pall.) Schischk. is an endemic annual plant from the Lamiaceae family and it has been employed to cure tracheitis in traditional herbal medicine. Its essential oil exhibited a strong antimicrobial and antioxidative effect. Next, high-performance thin-layer chromatography-bioautography was applied for investigation of the bioactive compounds of S. annua, and gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to perform subsequent targeted identification of compounds. Three active components were characterized, and two of them were tentatively identified as thymol and carvacrol. S. annua has the potential to be a good alternative for synthetic disinfectants and antioxidants.

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