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This article evaluates the known rare earth elements (REE), Ti and Li occurrences and exploration potential in Finland, based on existing data combined with new geochemistry and mineralogy, heavy mineral studies, geophysical measurements, geologic mapping and recent drilling of new targets.

The potential rock types for REE include carbonatite (Sokli, Korsnäs), alkaline rocks (Otanmäki, Lamujärvi, and Iivaara), rapakivi granite and pegmatite (Kovela), and kaolin-bearing weathering crusts in eastern and northern Finland. The highest REE concentrations occur in late magmatic carbonatite veins in the fenite area of the Sokli carbonatite complex. Detailed mineralogical investigations have revealed three distinct types of REE mineralization as phosphates, carbonates and silicates in the studied areas. Mineralogical and mineral chemical evidence demonstrates that hydrothermal processes are responsible for the REE mineralization in the studied rocks and confirms that such processes are predominant in the formation of REE minerals in carbonatite, calc-silicate rocks and albitite. Titanium occurs as ilmenite in hard rock deposits in Paleoproterozoic subalkaline mafic intrusions. The Otanmäki ilmenite was mined together with vanadium-rich magnetite from 1953 to 1985 from a small gabbro—anorthosite complex, which still contains potential for Ti resources. Other major ilmenite deposits are within the Koivusaarenneva ilmenite gabbro intrusion and Kauhajärvi apatite—ilmenite—magnetite gabbro complex. Possible Ti resources are included in Ti-magnetite gabbro of the large layered mafic intrusions in northern Finland, such as at the former Mustavaara vanadium mine. For several years, Rare Element (RE)-pegmatite of the Kaustinen and Somero—Tammela areas has been the objective of Li exploration by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). At Kaustinen, Li-pegmatite occurs as subparallel dyke swarms in an area of 500 km2 within Paleoproterozoic mica schists and metavolcanic rocks. Li pegmatite contains more than 10% spodumene as megacrysts (1–10 cm), albite, quartz, K-feldspar, muscovite and accessory minerals such as columbite-group minerals, apatite, tourmaline, beryl, Fe-oxide minerals and garnet. The Kaustinen spodumene pegmatite and Somero—Tammela petalite—spodumene pegmatite contain potential Li resources for the battery industry in EU countries.

Open access

Magma/wet sediment interaction (e.g. autobrecciation, magma-sediment mingling, hyaloclastite and peperite-forming, etc.) is a common phenomenon, where hot magma intrudes into unconsolidated or poorly consolidated water saturated sediment. In the Eastern Borsod Basin (NE-Hungary) relatively small (2–30 m) subvolcanic bodies, sills and dykes with contact lithofacies zones were found generated by mechanical stress and quenching of the magma, and interacting with unconsolidated wet andesitic lapilli-tuff and tuff-breccia. Close to the contact between sediment and intrusions, thermal and mechanical effects may occur in the host sediment. Hydrothermal alteration and stratification of the host sediment were developed only locally along the contact zone, probably due to the paleo-hydrogeologic and paleo-rheological inhomogeneities of the lapilli-tuff–tuff-breccia deposits. Processes of magma/wet sediment interaction may be difficult to recognize because of limited exposure and/or certain similarities of the brecciated intrusions to the characteristics of the host sediment; hence detailed field work (geologic mapping or profiling) was required to demonstrate the subvolcanic origin of the brecciated andesite bodies.

Open access

Human presence leaves an imprint not only on its environment but also on the soil cover. Soils are capable of preserving the signs of all the natural and human-induced activities that ever affected them. Via the identification and understanding of these signs it is possible to reconstruct ancient environments and obtain an insight into the lives of ancient societies. This has been successfully proven in numerous studies in Hungary (e.g. BARCZI et al., 2009; KRAUSZ, 2014; PETŐ, et al. 2015). This paper aims at furthering the understanding and reconstruction of the history of the Százhalombatta-Földvár tell site by analysing soil science data. Tell sites are very complex, so parallel to traditional archaeological investigation, a range of natural sciences (e.g. plant, animal and geological sciences) are involved in their analysis. In this study, soil science techniques, namely soil analysis and thin-section soil micromorphological analysis were employed to gain an insight into the past 4 000 years of the settlement’s history. The intensity and the variability of human activities are also investigated. The results revealed very intensive human influence and significant environmental changes in Százhalombatta-Földvár, demonstrating the importance of the area.

Restricted access
Central European Geology
Authors:
Arnold Gucsik
,
Tasuku Okumura
,
Hirotsugu Nishido
,
Ildikó Gyollai
,
Kiyotaka Ninagawa
,
Natalie Deseta
, and
Péter Rózsa

Quartz grains from the Ries impact structure containing shock-induced microstructures were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy in cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL), secondary electron (SEM-SE) and back-scattered electron (SEM-BSE) modes as well as Mott–Seitz analysis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mechanism by which CL detects Planar Deformation Features (PDFs) in quartz, which is one of the most important indicators of shock metamorphism in rock-forming minerals. PDFs are micron-scale features not easily identified using optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The CL spectrum of PDFs in quartz that has suffered relatively high shock pressure shows no or a relatively weak emission band at around 385 nm, whereas an emission band with a maximum near 650 nm is observed independent of shock pressure. Thus, the ~385 nm intensity in shocked quartz demonstrates a tendency to decrease with increasing shock metamorphic stage, whereas the 650 nm band remains fairly constant. The result indicates that the emission band at 385 nm is related to the deformed structure of quartz as PDFs.

Open access

Parameters governing the retention and movement of water and chemicals in soils are notorious for the difficulties and high labor costs involved in measuring them. Often, there is a need to resort to estimating these parameters from other, more readily available data, using pedotransfer relationships.

This work is a mini-review that focuses on trends in pedotransfer development across the World, and considers trends regarding data that are in demand, data we have, and methods to build pedotransfer relationships. Recent hot topics are addressed, including estimating the spatial variability of water contents and soil hydraulic properties, which is needed in sensitivity analysis, evaluation of the model performance, multimodel simulations, data assimilation from soil sensor networks and upscaling using Monte Carlo simulations. Ensembles of pedotransfer functions and temporal stability derived from “big data” as a source of soil parameter variability are also described.

Estimating parameter correlation is advocated as the pathway to the improvement of synthetic datasets. Upscaling of pedotransfer relationships is demonstrated for saturated hydraulic conductivity. Pedotransfer at coarse scales requires a different type of input variables as compared with fine scales. Accuracy, reliability, and utility have to be estimated independently. Persistent knowledge gaps in pedotransfer development are outlined, which are related to regional soil degradation, seasonal changes in pedotransfer inputs and outputs, spatial correlations in soil hydraulic properties, and overland flow parameter estimation.

Pedotransfer research is an integral part of addressing grand challenges of the twenty-first century, including carbon stock assessments and forecasts, climate change and related hydrological weather extreme event predictions, and deciphering and managing ecosystem services.

Overall, pedotransfer functions currently serve as an essential instrument in the science-based toolbox for diagnostics, monitoring, predictions, and management of the changing Earth and soil as a life-supporting Earth system.

Restricted access
Restricted access

One of the most important ores for REE mineralization are iron oxide–apatite (IOA) deposits. The Posht-e-Badam Block (PBB) is a part of the Central Iranian geostructural zone which is the host of most important Fe deposits of Iran. Exploration studies of the IOA deposits within the PBB (e.g. Esphordi, Gazestan, Zarigan, Lak-e-Siah, Sechahoun, Chahgaz, Mishdovan, Cheshmeh Firouzi and Shekarab) demonstrate that these deposits contain high contents of REE. Concentrations of ΣREE in the most important IOA deposits of the PBB include the following: the Esphordi deposit varies between 1.2 and 1.88%, the Gazestan deposit between 0.17 and 1.57%, the Zarigan deposit between 0.5 and 1.2% and the Lak-e-Siah deposit varies between 0.45 and 1.36%. Concentrations of ΣREE within the apatite crystals present within the IOA ores in the Esphordi, Lak-e-Siah and Homeijan deposits have ranges between 1.9–2.54%, 1.9–2.16% and of 2.55%, respectively. These elements are mainly concentrated in apatite crystals, but other minerals such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, urtite, alanite, thorite, parisite–synchysite and britholite have been recognized as hosts of REEs, as small inclusions within the apatite crystals, and in subsequent carbonate, hematite–carbonate and quartz veins and veinlets. Given the extent of this block and the presence of several IOA deposits within this block, and also the high grades of REEs within these deposits, one can reasonably state that it is obvious that there are significant resources of REEs in this part of Iran.

Open access
Central European Geology
Authors:
Ádám Bede
,
Roderick B. Salisbury
,
András István Csathó
,
Péter Czukor
,
Dávid Gergely Páll
,
Gábor Szilágyi
, and
Pál Sümegi

The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.

Open access