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Central European Geology
Authors:
Máté Zsigmond Leskó
,
Richárd Zoltán Papp
,
Ferenc Kristály
,
József Pálfy
, and
Norbert Zajzon

Abstract

Although the Mesozoic rocks of the Transdanubian Range have been the subject of a multitude of different studies, mineralogical research is largely underrepresented. The clay mineralogy of Lower Jurassic (especially the Pliensbachian and Toarcian) strata was broadly investigated earlier; however, systematic high-resolution clay mineralogical studies remain scarce. Here we present a mineralogical study focusing on the Upper Pliensbachian strata of the Lókút-Hosszúárok section, located near the Eplény Manganese Ore Field. We identified dioctahedral smectite, randomly interstratified illite/smectite, illite as 10 Å phyllosilicate, quartz and cristobalite. Based on our new results we propose that the smectite was formed by aging of Mg or Fe hydroxide-silica precipitates. The smectite and cristobalite were presumably formed from the siliceous tests of radiolarians, whose abundance was controlled by a local upwelling system. The occurrence of Pliensbachian smectite in the Lókút outcrop shows similarities with the Úrkút smectites known from both Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata, which implies that similar processes controlled the sedimentation during the Pliensbachian as well as during the black (gray) shale-hosted ore accumulation in the Eplény and Úrkút basins.

Open access

Abstract

In this paper we review five cancellariid assemblages from the Hungarian part of the Pannonian Basin (Börzsöny, Bakony, and Mecsek Mts regions) which yielded 26 species. Ten species are recorded for the first time in Hungary. One species, Scalptia nemethi n. sp. is described as new. A revision of the Hungarian museum collections and historical Hungarian literature is also provided. Sveltia salbriacensis Peyrot 1928 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Petitina inermis (Pusch 1837).

Open access

Cseresznyefák terméshozását és gyümölcsminőségét befolyásoló műtrágya kísérletek eredményei

Results of fertilizer experiments on yield and fruit quality of sweet cherry trees

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Ádám Csihon
,
István Gonda
,
Mihály Orosz-Tóth
,
Sándorné Kincses
, and
Imre Holb

Plant nutrition significantly influences yield and fruit quality in fruit orchards. In this three-year study (2016–2018), different fertilizer treatments were compared in an intensive sweet cherry orchard. Trees of cultivar ‘Carmen’ were grafted on Prunus mahaleb ‘Cema’ rootstock, and were trained to free spindle. For NP, NPK and NPKMg treatments, yield ranged between 11.8 and 16.6 kg/tree in the three years, while the yield was 9.1 kg/tree on the control trees. Crop load (fruit amount calculated to the trunk thickness) was 151–166 g cm-2 for fertilized trees, while it was 120 g cm-2 on the untreated trees. Fruit sizes of fertilized trees reached 30 mm in 2018, while the fruit sizes of control trees were smaller with 2.5 mm. Water-soluble dry matter content (%) of the fertilized trees was lower in 2016 and 2017, but higher in 2018 compared to the control plots. In 2017 and 2018, fertilizer treatments resulted in an increase of the content of phosphorus (16–70%), potassium (4–22%) and magnesium (12–43%) in the fruits compared to control plots.

Open access

Kadmiumstressz detektálására alkalmazható in situ és destruktív mérési módszerek összehasonlító vizsgálata búzán

Comparative study of in situ and destructive measurements for indication of cadmium stress on wheat

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Bettina Kelemen
,
Anna Füzy
,
Imre Cseresnyés
,
István Parádi
,
Ramóna Kovács
,
Kálmán Rajkai
, and
Tünde Takács

The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) inoculation were investigated in wheat [Triticum aestivum L. cv. TC-33] under controlled conditions. The experiments aimed to reveal what stress responses belong to the different levels of Cd load in the growth medium (0; 1; 2,5 and 5 mg Cd kg- 1 substrate). To detect the effect of Cd stress, we compared plant physiological and growth indicators measured with both in situ and destructive methods. Electrical capacitance (CR) was evaluated during the experiments as a method to indicate stress responses through of Cd-induced root system changes.

During the growth period, the photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), the chlorophyll content index (CCI) of the leaves, and the CR of the root-soil system were monitored in situ. After harvest, the membrane stability index (MSI), the cadmium and phosphorus concentrations of the plants, the root dry mass (RDM), the shoot dry mass (SDM) and the leaf area (LA) were measured. The root colonization of AM fungi was estimated by microscopic examination. Data matrices were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA) which had been proved to be a good statistical method to the sensitivity between measurement methods.

Taking all parameters into account in the PCA, a complete separation was found between the contaminated and non-contaminated variants along the main component PC1. The measured values of the Cd1 treatment sometimes overlapped with that of control plants, but differed from that of the Cd2 and Cd3 doses. The parameters well reflected that AMF inoculation alleviated the stress caused by Cd. PCA shows a visible effect of AM, but the separation between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants is weaker than that between Cd contaminated and non-treated ones. The Cd stress significantly decreased the Fv/Fm, CCI, CR, SDM, RDM and LA. The CR and growth parameters proved to be the best indicators to characterize the Cd phytotoxicity in the TC-33 wheat cultivar.

Open access