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In connection with the EURISGIC WP2 project the authors present those procedures which have been used to construct a map in cells on the electrical resistivity distribution in Europe at least till to the asthenosphere. The data are based on the deep magnetotelluric soundings published in the international literature. This map is the basis of the calculation of the induction risk endangering the electric network and communication systems.

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This paper presents a new approach for precision estimation for algebraic ellipse fitting based on combined least squares method. Our approach is based on coordinate description of the ellipse geometry to determine the error distances of the fitting method. Since it is an effective fitting algorithm the well-known Direct Ellipse Fitting method was selected as an algebraic method for precision estimation. Once an ellipse fitted to the given data points, algebraic distance residuals for each data point and fitting accuracy can be computed. Generally, the adopted approach has revealed geometrical aspect of precision estimation for algebraic ellipse fitting. The experimental results revealed that our approach might be a good choice for precision estimation of the ellipse fitting method.

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Authors: A. Fundo, Duni Ll, Sh Kuka, E. Begu and N. Kuka

A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Albania is carried out using the smoothed gridded seismicity approach. Albania’s earthquake catalogue is already revised and expanded, covering a study area limited by 38 − 44.5°N Latitude and 18 − 24°E Longitude, and the time period from 58BC to 31/12/2008. The ground motion hazard map is presented over a 10 km grid in terms of peak ground acceleration for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to 475-year return period. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m of the crust of 800 m/sec. It is the standard reference site condition used by the European seismic code (Eurocode 8) for seismic zonation and building codes. The main finding is that if this map is accepted as a reference indicator to establish a new regulatory national seismic zonation, design acceleration will be much higher than that applied in the current regulation. This implies that the competent authorities should take into consideration the obtained results to improve the existing design code in a more reliable and realistic basis in order to increase the safety level of constructions in the country.

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The gravimetric model of the Moho discontinuity is usually derived based on isostatic adjustment theories considering floating crust on the viscous mantle. In computation of such a model some a priori information about the density contrast between the crust and mantle and the mean Moho depth are required. Due to our poor knowledge about them they are assumed unrealistically constant. In this paper, our idea is to improve a computed gravimetric Moho model, by the Vening Meinesz-Moritz theory, using the seismic model in Fennoscandia and estimate the error of each model through a combined adjustment with variance component estimation process. Corrective surfaces of bi-linear, bi-quadratic, bi-cubic and multi-quadric radial based function are used to model the discrepancies between the models and estimating the errors of the models. Numerical studies show that in the case of using the bi-linear surface negative variance components were come out, the bi-quadratic can model the difference better and delivers errors of 2.7 km and 1.5 km for the gravimetric and seismic models, respectively. These errors are 2.1 km and 1.6 km in the case of using the bi-cubic surface and 1 km and 1.5 km when the multi-quadric radial base function is used. The combined gravimetric models will be computed based on the estimated errors and each corrective surface.

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The laws of nature in general, and the relations and laws in geodesy in particular can be expressed in most cases by nonlinear equations which are in general solved by transforming them to linear form and applying iteration. The process of bringing the equations to linear form implies neglections and approximation. In certain cases it is possible to obtain exact, correct solutions for nonlinear problems. In the present work we introduce parameters into the rotation matrix, and using this we derive solutions for the 2D and 3D similarity transformations. This method involves no iteration, and it does not require the transformation of the equations to linear form. The scale parameter is determined in both cases by solving a polynomial equation of second degree. This solution is already known, but our derivation is worth consideration because of its simple nature.

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The exact least squares line fit with errors in both coordinates (Reed 1992) is investigated together with the approximate solution based on the formalism of the linear Gauss-Helmert model or the unified adjustment approach of the classical textbook by Mikhail (1976). The similarities and the differences are described in details. In spite of the small differences the exact solution is preferable and the calculations are simpler.This paper does not deal with the errors-in-variables (EIV) models solved by the total least squares (TLS) principle, since the exact line fit solution is used to validate this general approach, which is basically designed to solve more sophisticated nonlinear tasks.In the most general case the fit of Person’s data with York’s weights is iteratively solved starting with the arbitrary zero initial value of the slope. The test computation with different but systematically chosen weights proved that in special cases — e.g. the weighted least squares sum of the distances between the data points and the estimated line is minimised — there is no need for iterations at all.It is shown that methods described by Detrekői (1991) and Závoti (2012) are special cases of the general exact solutions.Reed (1992) derived the variances of the slope and intercept parameters without their covariance. The simple linear estimation of variance-covariance matrix of the exact solution is also demonstrated. The importance of the stochastic models coupled with exact solution is also demonstrated.

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Abu-Dabbab area is characterized by high seismicity and complex tectonic setting, for these facts, a local geodetic network consisting of eleven geodetic benchmarks has been established. The crustal deformation data in this area are collected using the GPS techniques. Five campaigns of GPS measurements have been collected, processed and adjusted to get the more accurate positions of the GPS stations. The horizontal velocity vectors, the dilatational, the maximum shear strains and the principal strain rates were estimated. The magnitude of the movements is distributed inhomogeneous over the area and it varies in average between 3 and 6 mm/yr. The results of the deformation analyses indicate a significant contraction and extension across the southern central part of the study area which is characterized by high seismic activity represented by the clustering shape of the microearthquakes that trending NE-SW direction. The north and north-eastern parts are characterized by small strain rates. This study is an attempt to provide valuable information about the present state of the crustal deformation and its relationship to seismic activity and tectonic setting at Abu-Dabbab area.

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In the region of the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin (44–50N; 13–28E) 81 earthquakes have moment magnitude (M w); 61 of them are crustal events (focal depth <65 km) while 20 earthquakes belong to the intermediate focal depth region of the Vrancea (Romania) zone. For crustal events the regression of moment magnitude (M w) on local magnitude (M l) shows a better fit for large magnitudes using a second order equation against to a linear relationship, and the actual quadratic formula based on 61 events is the following: \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\begin{gathered} M_w = 1.37( \pm 0.28) + 0.39( \pm 0.18)M_l + 0.061( \pm 0.026)M_l^2 \hfill \\ (M_w :1.9 - 5.5;M_l :1.4 - 5.5). \hfill \\ \end{gathered} $ \end{document}.In the intermediate focal depth Vrancea zone of the south-eastern bend of the Carpathians (44.5–46.5N; 25.5–28.0E) the number of body wave magnitudes is the largest one (20) among the local (8), the surface wave (14) and the duration (17) magnitudes. The linear relationship between the moment (M w) and the body wave (M b) magnitudes has the following form: \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $M_w = 1.20( \pm 0.08)M_b - 0.76( \pm 0.40)(M_w :4.1 - 7.7;M_b :3.8 - 7.3).$ \end{document}.The relationships of the different (M l, M s, M b, M d) magnitudes are also presented in the paper.

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The paper presents all stages of the development and processing of the fundamental gravimetric network of Slovenia, which consists of a zero order network, which has six absolute gravity stations, and twenty nine first order gravimetric stations. Descriptions are given of the design of the network, the geological assessment of the gravimetric stations, the gravity survey of the first order network, and the post-processing and adjustment of the gravimetric observations, which was performed in two stages. First the observations in the zero order network were adjusted as a free network, and then a standard adjustment of the first order network was performed. Finally, the adjusted gravity values at the stations were analysed against the Potsdam system, which was the basis of all previous gravimetric calculations in Slovenia. In the analyses an equation for the transformation of gravity values between the Potsdam system and the IGSN71 system (International Gravity Standardization Network 1971) has been derived.

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We determined a new one-dimensional P-wave velocity model for the territory of Hungary based on the first arrival times of local earthquakes. During the computations 910 P-wave arrival data of 86 events from the time period between 1985 and 2010 have been used. The applied methodology is a combination of a genetic algorithm based procedure and an iterative linearized joint inversion technique. The preferred velocity profile has been chosen from the best models based on the data of a series of controlled explosions.The resulting flat-layered model consists of three crustal layers and a half-space representing the uppermost mantle. The crustal compressional velocities vary in the range of 5.3-6.3 km/s, while the uppermost mantle velocity was found to be 7.9 km/s. The Moho is located at an average depth of 26 km.Additionally, the V p/V s ratio was calculated by the Wadati-method, which gave a value of 1.74±0.05.

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Treating the Fourier transform as an over-determined inverse problem is a new conception for determining the frequency spectrum of a signal. The concept enables us to implement several algorithms depending on the applied inversion tool. One of these algorithms is the Hermit polynomial based Least Squares Fourier Transform (H-LSQ-FT). The H-LSQ-FT is suitable for reducing the influence of random noise. The aim of the investigation presented in the paper was to study the noise reduction capability of the H-LSQ-FT in some circumstances. Four wavelet-like signals with different properties were selected for testing the method. Examinations were completed on noiseless and noisy signals. The H-LSQ-FT provided the best noise reduction for the noisy signal having low peak frequency and wide band width. Finally, the results obtained by the H-LSQ-FT were compared to those of other traditional methods. It is showed that the H-LSQ-FT yields better noise filtering than these methods do.

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This paper illustrates the application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian-Pannonian Region and on the basis of geodetical data presents verification of a tectonic model of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere with impact on the possible risk and activity of the geodynamic and kinematical zones in consequence of the post-subduction processes. This approach and analyses can be used for the analyses any Carpathian area from the point of view of the recent movements tendencies.All available mentioned geodata were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the remote sensing data, too.Independent GPS epoch-wise observing campaigns took place in several regions and the whole territory is now covered by tens of permanent stations. The long-term observational series from permanent stations generally yield reliable site velocities, however, distribution of such stations is not dense enough to provide velocity field with sufficient resolution all over the monitored region.In the paper we also shortly describe velocity fields available from various national and regional GPS geo-kinematics projects. The heterogeneous velocity fields have been homogenized and used for construction of the intraplate GPS velocities in Central and South-East Europe and their interpretation, focusing on the chosen active zone. As one of most important we consider — so called — “rebounding area” in East Carpathians. The proposed interpretation and solution enable to consider new view on the Pliocene to recent period.

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Abstract

The Oligocene Kiscell Clay is a widespread sediment of the Budapest region. The best-evaluated parts of the deposit are found along the new Metro (subway) line (Line 4) on the Buda side of the Danube River, where cores were cut. The geomechanical parameters of the Kiscell Clay were studied and evaluated using 481 samples from 41 cores. Nearly 5000 data were processed using different statistical parameters. The results of the statistical analyses are compared with previously-described soil-mechanical parameters; regional correlations of the mechanical properties of the Kiscell Clay are made by comparison with the results of previous analyses (Görög 2007a). There are significant discrepancies in the datasets of cohesion and uniaxial compressive strength, but other parameters show better correlation. In any case these analyses provide information for the engineering geologic design and planning for underground structures.

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The Madaras brickyard section found at the northernmost fringe of the Backa loess plateau is one of the thickest and best-developed last glacial loess sequences of Central Europe. In the present work high-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements (at 2 cm) were implemented on samples from the 10 m-section corresponding to a period between 29 and 11 KY cal b2K. One aim was to compare the findings with the ice core records of northern Greenland in order to establish a high-resolution paleoclimatic record for the last climatic cycle and with findings documented in other biotic and abiotic proxies so far. Our results revealed a strong variability of loess/paleosol formation during MIS 2. Millennial time-scale climatic events that characterize the North Atlantic during the last climatic cycle have been identified. From 29 ka up to the start of the LGM, the recorded MS values show a weak, negative correlation with the temperature proxy, and a weak positive correlation with the dust concentration of Greenland. A strong correlation was observed with the local paleotemperatures. Local climatic factors must have had a more prominent effect here on loess/paleosol development than the climate shifts over Greenland. During the LGM the same pattern is seen with a stronger correlation with the dust concentrations and a weaker correlation with the local temperature. Local climatic factors, plus dust accumulation, must have had a prominent influence on loess/paleosol development here. From the terminal part of the LGM a strong positive correlation of the MS values with the temperature proxy for Greenland accompanied by a strong negative correlation with the dust concentration values is observed. Correlation with local paleotemperatures is positive and moderate, strong. Here climate shifts over Greenland, as well as local endowments equally had an important role on the development of the MS signal.

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The present article discusses the results of measurements carried out to assess the distribution of different sulfur types in lignite samples deriving from two opencast lignite mines near the villages of Bükkábrány and Visonta. These mines ensure the continuous supply of fuel for one of Hungary's largest thermal power plant. According to our findings no significant differences could be identified between the samples of the two mines based on their total sulfur (St) content. Both lignite types were classified as coals with medium-sulfur content according to the system of Chou (1990). A majority of total sulfur is accumulated in lignite, while in the intercalated carbonaceous shale total sulfur is present in minor amounts. Usually the sequence of the distribution of sulfur among the different bond forms in lignite collected from opencast mine of Visonta is as follows: pyritic sulfur (Sp) > organic sulfur (Sorg) > sulfate sulfur (SSOorg).

In the samples collected from Visonta and Bükkábrány quantities of total sulfur were similar. However, some difference in their distribution among various sulfur types were noted. Although half of the samples were weathered and the amount of pyrite sulfur must have been higher in the weathered lignite of Bükkábrány preceding the oxidation process, the sequence of the distribution of sulfur was likely as follows Sorg ≥ Sp ≥ SSO4.

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The Oligocene clay units in the Budapest area along the new metro (subway) line show different properties than most others. They are denser and of greater strength than most of the unconsolidated ones. This paper provides an overview of their engineering geologic properties using nearly 4700 physical parameter data. These data were obtained from cores representing sampling intervals of the Kiscell Clay, on the Buda side of the Danube River. Seventeen engineering geologic parameters were used in the description of the clay. The parameter analyses show that the clay behaves as a soft rock rather than a soil.

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Authors: István Marsi, Ildikó Selmeczi, László Koloszár, József Vatai, Ildikó Szentpétery, Árpád Magyari and László Róth

Abstract

The authors carried out geologic investigations in the Kolontár area in connection with the red mud catastrophe of 4 October 2010, and have acquired more detailed knowledge using geologic mapping methods. This study is an evaluation on the basis of the immediate analyses that were made after the accident and are published in this paper.

Based on their research results the authors find that the alluvial deposits of the Torna Brook are highly inhomogeneous, which is manifested in the variability of stability and bearing capacity. Based on the morphology in the area of Kolontár a small, rhombus-shaped pull-apart basin can be outlined, which can be interpreted as a neotectonic event characterized by a right-lateral fault. However, further detailed research is needed in order to understand what kind of role the geologic environment played in the development of the situation that led to the dam failure.

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Palynological and paleobotanical investigation of bonebeds and other strata of the Csehbánya Formation from the vertebrate locality at Iharkút (Bakony Mts, Hungary) reveals well-preserved Santonian palynological assemblages dominated by the Normapolles group, with a minor component consisting of other angiosperm pollen, some gymnosperm pollen, and spores. Eleven species of Normapolles-type pollen grains belonging to seven genera and fruit remains of a new taxon, Sphaeracostata barbackae gen. et sp. nov., are described. The new species is very abundant in the material, represented by ca. 1000 specimens. The genus Caryanthus Friis and an unnamed form previously reported from Haţeg by Lindfors et al. (2010) are also present.

Plants producing Normapolles-type pollen grains diversified during the Late Cretaceous, with a bloom in the Santonian. The palynostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous terrestrial sediments in the studied region is based on Normapolles-related species. The studied assemblage is assigned to the Oculopollis zaklinskaiae-Tetracolporopollenites (Brecolpites) globosus Zone (or Zone C) indicating a late Santonian age. Comparison of the Iharkút palynoflora with other known Upper Cretaceous palynofloras of Central Europe shows diachronous occurrence of Normapolles taxa at different geographic localities and warrants further investigation.

The ecological requirements of the amphibian fauna reflect azonal conditions controlled by the availability of water, which is in agreement with the inferred ecological conditions based on the paleobotanical investigations. The fauna is of entirely non-marine character, further supported by isotope studies, in line with our data showing that the palynological samples contain no marine forms.

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Abstract

A fish otolith assemblage consisting of 173 specimens was recovered from littoral sand deposits of the brackish Lake Pannon at Doba, western Hungary. Co-occurring endemic mollusks indicate the Lymnocardium ponticum Zone, thus an age of about 9 million years (Late Miocene) can be assumed. Most of the investigated otoliths belong to the family Sciaenidae. The otoliths are assigned to 6 taxa: Umbrina cirrhosoides, Umbrina aff. cirrosa, Umbrina sp., “genus aff. Umbrinakokeni, Morone kuehni?, Gadidae indet. This otolith assemblage does not represent the ancient fish fauna of Lake Pannon, because the common prey fish (gobiids) have not been identified. Generally, the Pannonian fish fauna is characterized by a high number of sciaenid otoliths which indicate a shallow estuarine environment. The fish fauna from Doba is a unique otolith assemblage due to the co-occurrence of several Umbrina species.

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Several main tectonic lineaments originating in the Alps and Dinarides merge in Central Hungary to form the Mid-Hungarian Shear Zone. As these structures are hidden beneath sub-basins of the Neogene Pannonian Basin, it has long been debated whether the tectonic style of the shear zone is mainly contractional or strike-slip. New 3D seismic data allowed a detailed analysis of one of these sub-basins, the Adony Basin, located south of Budapest. Its evolution is linked to the tectonics between the southern Tisza unit of European passive margin affinity, the northern ALCAPA block with Alpine affinity, and sheared remnants of Dinaric units in between. During the Oligocene and Early to Middle Miocene, a flexural basin related to the convergent thrusting of Dinaric- and ALCAPA-derived units was developed. On the southern side, N-NW verging thrust sheets were observed. On the opposite front, Triassic carbonates of ALCAPA were thrust several kilometres above Palaeogene formations to the SW. Dextral transpression is assumed for the Middle Miocene. Local deposition of Middle Miocene salt in the basin formed a detachment surface. Late Miocene sinistral strike-slip faulting resulted in a pull-apart basin above that part of the earlier flexural basin that has not been overthrust. The margins of the basin coincided with the fronts of earlier thrusts. Faults on the basin margins partly detached on the salt, decoupling the supra-salt basin fill from the underlying formations. Within the pull-apart basin, gravity sliding on the steep margins resulted in salt welds, detachment and roll-over folds.

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Abstract

Analysis of continental-scale lithostratigraphic data may facilitate an understanding of global sedimentary processes. The number of carbonate-bearing formations established in northern Eurasia (430 in total), northern Africa and Arabia (47 in total), and India (98 in total) is calculated per epochs for the last 145 Ma. The results show maxima in the Late Cretaceous, the Eocene, and the Miocene and minima in the Paleocene, the Oligocene, and the Pliocene. The Quaternary records are somewhat ambiguous. The similarity of the patterns established in the three regions argues for a single globalscale mechanism of carbonate accumulation. The noted patterns also coincide well with some modeled changes in the global amount of carbonates accumulated by epoch. Moreover, increases in the amount of carbonates in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene, and a decrease in the Paleocene, reflect true changes in the accumulation rates. The global process of carbonate accumulation might have been controlled, at least, by eustatic changes (sea-level rise led to broad transgressions on continental margins and consequently to expansion of shelfal paleoenvironments) and climate dynamics (warm water facilitated carbonate production). Interestingly, no dependence between the global carbonate accumulation and marine biodiversity dynamics is established.

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Abstract

The Ab Ask mineral springs are located 85 km northeast of Tehran, in the southern range of the Damavand volcano. Deposits of these calcareous springs are mainly precipitated as travertine. Petrographical, mineralogical, and stable isotope studies were conducted on different types of travertine to determine their genesis and factors that govern carbonate precipitation. Based on sedimentation consequence and lithofacies these travertines are categorized as first type (fresh travertine), second type (fissure-ridge, dam, and cascade), and third type (laminated) travertines, illustrating a specific condition of formation, deposition and diagenesis. Combined XRD and microscopic investigations show that the Ab Ask travertines are is composed of about 95 % calcite and a minor amount of quartz along with iron oxide impurities. The origin and transport of springs water from which travertine was precipitated are elucidated by 13C and 18O isotopic studies of the travertines. δ18O and δ13C values of travertines increase (from −13.0 to −6.3% VPDB and from 6 to 9.8% VPDB, respectively) with increasing distance from the spring orifice. This significant increase is attributed to temperature decrease, rapid degassing of CO2, and biological activities. It seems that CO2 content of these fluids may have originated from limestone decarbonation. Based on the integrated petrographic and stable isotope study, the Ab Ask travertines can could be thermogenic in origin.

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Abstract

This paper discusses the assessment methodology of geologic probabilities of success of drillable prospects determined by petroleum exploration geologists. The commonly accepted industry standard assessment methods suggest the probability evaluation of key components of oil and gas accumulation: source rock, reservoir, seal rock and trap, and migration and timing. On the assumption that the risked events resulting in the assembly of the key components are geologically and eventalgebraically independent, the geological probability is computed as the product of the probabilities of each. Without challenging the overall correctness of the approach, this study argues that the presumed independency does not always apply. For these cases, probability evaluation of the actually and truly independent geologic and hydrodynamic processes is advised.

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Abstract

Porosity and water absorption of different binder/aggregate ratios of repair mortar and porous limestone were studied that were used in many Hungarian monuments. Different types of mortars were analyzed by using mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and the water saturation method (WSM). Test results showed that there was a strong correlation between the absorption mechanism and the porosimetric characteristics. Mechanical properties of the tested mortars were observed earlier. Pore size distribution confirms that the total porosity increases with increasing aggregate content. Natural stones mainly have medium and large pore radii (1–100 μm) while repair mortars, even with increased aggregate ratio, have smaller pore radii (0.01–0.1 μm). The comparison of different data allows us to state that pore characteristics such as pore volume, pore geometry, pore size distribution and network connectivity are the key control factors of stone and mortar deterioration.

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This paper presents the principles of a new inversion method used for the determination of 3D geological structures. The horizontal variations of the layer parameters i.e. layer thicknesses and resistivities are discretized in the form of series expansion. The unknown coefficients of the series expansion are determined by an iterative linearized inversion method using weights specified by the Most Frequent Value Method (MFV). The result of the inversion is estimated from the data of the bi-directional VES (Vertical Electric Sounding) measurements with Schlumberger array in each profile and in multiple profiles. A 3D Finite Difference method was applied to forward modelling, however, the structure is approximated along the profile with a 2D model discretized by single-variable series expansion. The 3D forward modeling procedure gives the opportunity to calculate data measured in two or multiple directions. The suggested interpretation method gives an approximate solution. Proceeding more accurate 3D inversion will be provided by the binary series expansion.

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The paper presents the opportunities of archaeological applications of the geoelectric geophysical methods. The electrical conductivity properties of buried archaeological objects (wall relics, roads, channels, graves, metal objects, etc.) measurably differ from the electrical conductivity properties of soils and rocks covering archaeological objects. So these archaeological objects are detectable with geoelectric measurements performed on the surface of the Earth.The paper outlines the relation between the electrical parameters of individual archaeological objects and the medium covering them; and it supports the archaeological adaptability of geoelectric methods with the presentation of the results of field measurements.

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This paper introduces the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm of Breiman and Friedman (1985) in multiple regression problems in groundwater monitoring data analysis. This special inverse nonparametric approach can be applied easily for estimating the optimal transformations of different groundwater monitoring data from the Bükk Mountains to obtain maximum correlation between observed aquifer variables. The approach does not require a priori assumptions of a mathematical form, and the optimal transformations are derived solely based on the groundwater data set. The advantages and applicability of the proposed approach to solve different multiple regression problems in hydrogeology or in groundwater management are illustrated by means of case studies from a Hungarian karst aquifer. It is demonstrated that the ACE method has certain advantages in some fitting problems of groundwater science over the traditional multiple regression.In the past, different groundwater monitoring data (like groundwater level, groundwater temperature and conductance, etc.) had been used for groundwater management purposes in the Bükk Mountains. One of the difficulties in earlier approaches has been the need to make some kind of assumption of the expected mathematical forms among the investigated reservoir and petrophysical variables. By using nonparametric regression, the need to assume a specific form of model is avoided, and a clearer vision of the relationships between aquifer parameters can be revealed in the Bükk Mountains, where karst water is the main source of potable water supply. Complex monitoring data from the Bükk Mountains were analyzed using the ACE inverse method, and results were verified successfully against quantitative and qualitative field observations.

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The use of vertical electric dipole transmitter and receiver turns out to be advantageous in the exploration of lateral inhomogeneities of high resistivity layers by transillumination measurement. Geological information can be made clearer by transformation of the amplitude response to apparent resistivity spectrum. The apparent resistivity calculated by the geometric factor in the quasistationary frequency range depends decisively on the galvanic effect of the high resistivity layer containing the electrodes. In the so called frequency dependent inductive apparent resistivity deduced based on the amplitude response of the uniform half — respectively full — space at low frequencies mainly the effect of the shoulder formation, at frequencies high enough the effect of the resistive layer containing the electrode will dominate. The knowledge of these apparent resistivities on the one hand helps the determination of the effective resistivity, which is independent of the ray-length and indicates the continuity or discontinuity of the resistive layer along the equatorial plane. On the other hand in the case of transilluminations with areal coverage they can be used in the selection of the horizontal-layered, uniform start model, needed in the reconstruction of the spatial distribution of the resistivity-variation. Reconstructions of measured and simulated data demonstrate the applicability of the procedure.

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All the elements of the Eötvös tensor can be measured by torsion balance, except the vertical gradient. The knowledge of the real value of the vertical gradient is more and more important in gravimetry and geodesy.Determination of the 3D gravity potential W(x, y, z) can be produced by inversion reconstruction based on each of the gravity data W z(= g) measured by gravimeters and gravity gradients W zx, W zy, W Δ, W xy measured by torsion balance. Besides vertical gradients W zz measured directly by gravimeters have to be used as reference values at some points. First derivatives of the potential W x, W y (can be derived from the components of deflection of the vertical) may be useful for the joint inversion, too. Determination of the potential function has a great importance, because all components of the gravity vector and the elements of the full Eötvös tensor can be derived from it as the first and the second derivatives of this function. The second derivatives of the potential function give the elements of the full Eötvöstensor including the vertical gradients, and all these elements can be determined not only in the torsion balance stations, but anywhere in the surroundings of these points.Test computations were performed at the characteristic region of a Hungarian plate area at the south part of the Csepel Island where torsion balance and vertical gradient measurements are available. There were about 30 torsion balance, 21 gravity and 27 vertical gradient measurements in our test area. Only a part of the 27 vertical gradient values was used as initial data for the inversion and the remaining part of these points were used for controlling the computation.

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Statistical processing of engineering geophysical sounding data is applied to the determination of dry density as an important geotechnical parameter of shallow formations. Dry density has been measured in laboratory or in the field as point information. In order to get more extensive results, dry density is extracted from high-resolution penetration logs. Dry density is related to measured bulk density as well as porosity and shale volume computed directly from engineering geophysical sounding data. The most critical parameter for the calculation is water saturation, which is estimated by factor analysis of all penetration logs. This approach is based on a strong linear correlation between water saturation and one of the extracted variables (factors). The interpretation method is tested in twelve penetration holes drilled in a Hungarian location. A 2D multi-well application is presented, in which the spatial distribution of dry density between the drill-holes is given. A local relationship between bulk density and dry density is also estimated. The study demonstrates that dry density can be estimated as continuous and in-situ information to support geotechnical operations in soil environments.

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This paper presents a new algorithm for the inversion-based 1D Fourier transformation. The continuous Fourier spectra are assumed as a series expansion with the scaled Hermite functions as square-integrable set of basis functions. The expansion coefficients are determined by solving an over-determined inverse problem. In order to define a quick and easy-to-use formula in calculating the Jacobi matrix of the problem a special feature of the Hermite functions are used. It is well-known, that the basic Hermite functions are eigenfunctions of the Fourier transformation. This feature is generalized by extending its validity for the scaled Hermite functions. Using the eigenvalues, given by this generalization, a very simple formula can be derived for the Jacobi matrix of the problem resulting in a quick and more accurate inversion-based Fourier transform algorithm. The new procedure is numerically tested by using synthetic data.

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The results of model calculation (direct problem solutions above model parameter space) determine an embedded continuous and differentiable surface in the Euclidean space of measurements. This multidimensional subspace contains the possible expected values of measurement vectors according to the assumed rock model as a projection of measurement points (expressing the model and real rock equivalences). The model parameters are the natural coordinates of this subspace, determining a contravariant curvilinear coordinate system (“flat world” for the inversion). The local curvature of this surface is very important factor of covariance matrices and the possible bias of estimated parameters. In this article the role of curvature is discussed and the shortage of conventional (first order) inversion is demonstrated by simple example and the possibility of bias correction.

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In this study we interpret the magnetic anomalies at satellite altitude over a part of Europe and the Pannonian Basin. These anomalies are derived from the total magnetic measurements from the CHAMP satellite. The anomalies are reduced to an elevation of 324 km. An inversion method is used to interpret the total magnetic anomalies over the Pannonian Basin. A three dimensional triangular model is used in the inversion. Two parameter distributions, Laplacian and Gaussian are investigated. The regularized inversion is numerically calculated with the Simplex and Simulated Annealing methods and the anomalous source is located in the upper crust. A probable source of the magnetization is due to the exsolution of the hematite-ilmenite minerals.

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Wireline logging surveys are routinely used for the reconnaissance and quantitative characterization of multi-mineral hydrocarbon structures. The interpretation of well-logging data, however, is quite a challenging task, because the conventionally used local inversion procedure becomes either an underdetermined or a slightly overdetermined problem that may result in poor parameter estimation. In order to determine the petrophysical model composed of several parameters, such as specific volumes of matrix components, water saturation, primary and secondary porosity and numerous zone-parameters, in a more reliable way a new inversion methodology is required. We suggest a joint inversion technique for the estimation of model parameters of multi-mineral rocks that inverts data acquired from a larger depth interval (hydrocarbon zone). The inverse problem is formulated assuming homogeneous intervals within the zone to get a highly overdetermined inversion procedure. The interval inversion method has been applied to shaly sandy hydrocarbon reservoirs, in this study, that is used for the estimation of petrophysical parameters of complex reservoirs. Numerical results with synthetic and field data demonstrate the feasibility of the inversion method in investigating carbonate and metamorphic structures.

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In this study we introduce new rock physical models which describe the pressure dependence of seismic velocity and quality factor. The models are based on the idea (accepted in the literature) that microcracks in rocks are opened and closed under the change of pressure. The models were applied to acoustic P wave velocity data measured on core samples originated from oil-drilling wells (27 samples) and also seismic velocity and quality factor data sets published in international literature. During the measurements the pulse transmission and the spectral ratio techniques were used. Measurements were carried out at various incremental pressures and parameters of the models were determined by linearized inversion methods. The calculated data matched accurately with measured data proving that the new rock physical models apply well in practice.

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The paper discusses the characteristics and feasibility of a multilayer kinematic refraction inversion method that is applicable to estimate the — even laterally changing — parameters of a geological model in the simultaneous evaluation of refraction data. The studied method has been developed at the Department of Geophysics of the University of Miskolc for the interpretation of parameters (layer thicknesses and seismic velocities) using series expansion based on adequately chosen basis functions. Besides revealing its resolution properties, ambiguity studies are also presented on synthetic data sets. In the terminology of refraction inversion uncertain and ambiguous results are frequently encountered problems in multilayer cases when all parameters (or all coefficients describing the parameters) are estimated simultaneously in the same inversion procedure. Results of resolution and ambiguity analyses of synthetic data sets and field examples are shown in this study.

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Nowadays, GPS is the best positioning system with its constellation, but number of GLONASS satellites increased to the required number, with launched new ones, for positioning. With recent revitalization of GLONASS, a great number of high precision GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS receivers have been produced. In this paper, baselines of two networks have been analyzed in order to assess the usability of GLONASS on global positioning. In both networks, repeatabilities of results were investigated by using GPS, GLONASS and GPS/GLONASS data. Results revealed that repeatabilities of all baselines by using GLONASS observations are not consistent when compared to the GPS and GPS/GLONASS.

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Estimation of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in the atmosphere using ground based GPS (Global Positioning System) data requires an appropriate model for computation of zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD). Presented herein is a site-specific ZHD model (SSM) for a station at New Delhi, India. The model has been developed by regressing one-year atmospheric vertical profile data collected through radiosonde. The model based on surface atmospheric pressure at the station, has been validated invoking data of three more years. The ZHD values estimated through the model disagree at the 0.3 mm level with ZHD values obtained from raytracing of radiosonde data. Further, Saastamoinen ZHD model provides an error about 0.23 mm rms while about 0.19 mm by the developed model (SSM). Thus, developed SSM can be used for precise estimation of PWV.

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Authors: Y. Srinivas, A. Stanley Raj, D. Hudson Oliver, D. Muthuraj and N. Chandrasekar

Soft computing techniques are widely used for the applications on most of the nonlinear problems related to the real world. Earth’s most of the nonlinear characteristics exhibit the uncertainty problem that has to be interpreted with most of the advanced soft computing tools. Here the three layer electrical resistivity data has taken for interpreting the subsurface parameters of the earth using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference (ANFIS) technique. ANFIS can be predictably used for most of the nonlinear problems. Its membership functions and rules with adjustable parameters will help the interpretation technique with less error percentage results. In the present study, the program is specially designed for the interpretation of three layer electrical resistivity data. The network model is successful in training with large number of data sets available. Interpretation using ANFIS technique will give the promising results with good accuracy. With much less error percentage, the program supports all types of three layer electrical resistivity data more than a conventional method can do. Typical problems with parameter estimation can be done more efficiently with this ANFIS program.

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Nowadays, the Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) network, combined with network RTK corrections (NRTK solution), is a widely used technique for high-accuracy positioning in real time. This “active” network realizes a reference frame and propagates it to the users. In border regions the coherence between the reference frames propagated by neighboring active networks is a critical problem. In this study the test results of post-processed and simultaneous NRTK positions at six test points located in the border region between Portugal and the Community of Andalusia, in the south west of the Iberian Peninsula, are presented. The analysis is based on two GNSS active networks present in this border region, namely RENEP (Portugal) and RAP (Community of Andalusia, Spain), a national and a local RTK network respectively, with similar characteristics. Upon comparing the post-processed position for each test point, as estimated with respect to each of the two active networks analyzed, the discrepancies found in 3D were less than 2 centimeters. The results of network-based RTK positioning were found to be successful within a 2 cm precision level in the east and north components and 4 cm for the up component. The results also confirm that the NRTK positioning accuracy is about 2 cm in horizontal and 4 cm in vertical, which can satisfy the requirement of real-time positioning users at a centimetric accuracy level, even in border regions considering extrapolated NRTK solutions.

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The multifractal analysis is applied to the study of geomechanical monitoring time series. Estimation of singularity spectra parameters within moving time window for this monitoring time series provides a possibility for splitting the history of observations into few adjacent fragments which could reflect e.g. hidden different states of the rock massif in the vicinity of measuring station. In this contribution, analysis of time series of measured distances is presented. A laser distance meter is used for measuring the height of a large chamber in the medieval Jeroným Mine (Czech Republic). This time series separation into individual segments using singularity spectra parameters is important for possible comprehensive analysis of data in individual time periods and/or between individual time periods.

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The Earth topographic masses are compensated by an isostatic adjustment. According to the isostatic hypothesis a mountain is compensated by mass deficiency beneath it, where the crust is floating on the viscous mantle. For study of the impact of the compensating mass on the topographic mass a crustal thickness (Moho boundary) model is needed. A new gravimetric-isostatic model to estimate the Moho depth, Vening Meinesz-Moritz model, and two well-known Moho models (CRUST2.0 and Airy-Heiskanen) are used in this study. All topographic masses cannot be compensated by simple isostatic assumption then other compensation mechanism should be considered. In fact small topographic masses can be supported by elasticity of the larger masses and deeper Earth’s layers. We discuss this issue applying spatial and spectral analyses in this study. Here we are going to investigate influence of the crustal thickness and its density in compensating the topographic potential. This study shows that the compensating potential is larger than the topographic potential in low-frequencies vs. in high-frequencies which are smaller. The study also illustrates that the Vening Meinesz-Moritz model compensates the topographic potential better than other models, which is more suitable for interpolation of the gravity field in comparison with two other models. In this study, two methods are presented to determine the percentage of the compensation of the topographic potential by the isostatic model. Numerical studies show that about 75% and 57% of the topographic potentials are compensated by the potential beneath it in Iran and Tibet. In addition, correlation analysis shows that there is linear relation between the topographic above the sea level and underlying topographic masses in the lowfrequencies in the crustal models. Our investigation shows that about 580±7.4 metre (in average) of the topographic heights are not compensated by variable the crustal root and density.

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Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) team discovered “the striking difference” in elevation between northern and southern hemispheres: “on Mars, the South Pole lying about six km higher than the North Pole, … the planet’s center of mass (is) 3 km north of its geometric center” (Physics Today, Oct 1999, p. 34). The same topography we have for solid Earth: low Arctic and high Antarctic with the same difference 5–7 km. No sound explanation of NS asymmetry was proposed: impact, planetary evolution, mantle convection … are rather artificial and vague. Meanwhile, NS asymmetry is inherent property of any freely rotating flexible celestial body as it follows from Kozyrev’s Causal or asymmetrical mechanics. Relations of Causal mechanics are supported by experimental study of vertical component of causal force by weight change measurement of rotated gyroscope and the study of its horizontal component by pendulum deflection measurement. Kozyrev made measurements at latitudes φ from 45° to 84° and proved that causal force is directed along Earth rotation axis: to the North for φ < 73° and to South for φ > 73°. The magnitude of causal force has order (1–5) × 10−5 of gravity force.

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The results of measuring elevations leveling using an optical beam straightness, contain, besides the desired constant height, variable part caused by the influence of refraction. The latter has traditionally been seen as an error (random and partly systematic). However, these “errors” due to physical causes, are not subject to statistical regularities, but because they can not provide a mean-square error. Fluctuations in the heights under the influence of refraction caused by physical laws, which makes use of classical methods to evaluate the accuracy and altitude adjustment flawed.

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In precise geoid modelling the combination of terrestrial gravity data and an Earth Gravitational Model (EGM) is standard. The proper combination of these data sets is of great importance, and spectral combination is one alternative utilized here. In this method data from satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG), terrestrial gravity and an EGM are combined in a least squares sense by minimizing the expected global mean square error. The spectral filtering process also allows the SGG data to be downward continued to the Earth’s surface without solving a system of equations, which is likely to be ill-conditioned. Each practical formula is presented as a combination of one or two integral formulas and the harmonic series of the EGM.Numerical studies show that the kernels of the integral part of the geoid and gravity anomaly estimators approach zero at a spherical distance of about 5°. Also shown (by the expected root mean square errors) is the necessity to combine EGM08 with local data, such as terrestrial gravimetric data, and/or SGG data to attain the 1-cm accuracy in local geoid determination.

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In the community of geodesy it is well-known that the famous normal distribution is originated from the mathematical analysis of observational errors in astronomical and geodetic measurements.However, as far as we know this aspect of scientific history which is of considerable interest for the community of earth sciences has rarely been considered in the literature of earth sciences.In geodesy and related areas the bivariate normal distribution is one of the most frequently used probability distributions. Nowadays, in a wide range of problems arising from diverse areas of geodesy, geophysics, photogrammetry and astronomical geodesy we encounter numerous applications of the univariate and multivariate normal distributions.In the present paper the historical role of earth sciences in the origins of the bivariate normal distribution is briefly discussed. Some new evidences of Bravais’ contribution to the origin of the correlated bivariate normal distribution are considered. The new evidences and refinements established in this paper convey such a general methodological and intellectual content that is useful for the community of geodesy, geophysics, and furthermore in earth sciences.

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Abstract

The mineralogical museum of the Collegio Nazareno of the Piarists Order in Rome was founded by Gian Vincenzo Petrini c. 1760. It hosted minerals and rocks the Popes had received as gifts and given to Piarists to support their teaching, as well as minerals collected from Roman and Neapolitan volcanoes. On March 24, 1769, the museum was visited by Emperor Joseph II, officially there as an incognito tourist but, in fact, to organize the election of a Pope who would abolish the Jesuit Order. On June 14, 1785 the Emperor, by now King of Hungary as well, presented eight crates of minerals from mining areas in Transylvania and Upper Hungary, i.e. Slovakia. This collection had been organized by “Baron of Born”, who also wrote down descriptions of all the specimens (mostly ores), as referred to in Petrini (1791–92). The museum of the Collegio Nazareno has survived and the royal gift is partially preserved, curated by the Gruppo Mineralogico Romano (GMR), a private association of amateurs founded in 1982. The museum now exhibits a rare collection of minerals from 18th century central Europe, organized according to systematics that just preceeded the major scientific changes brought about in mineralogy by the crystallographic approach.

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Authors: Tibor Zelenka, Pál Gyarmati and János Kiss

Abstract

The Tokaj Mts, situated in the northeastern part of the inner arc of the Carpathians, forms a part of a Miocene calc-alkaline andesitic-dacitic-rhyolitic volcanic island arc. The ancient volcanic structures were reconstructed on the basis of the 1:50 000-scale and 22 sheets of the 1:25 000-scale geologicpetrologic maps, as well as the revision of the volcanic facies in 150 boreholes. Multispectral and SAR satellite imagery, aerial photos, data and maps of airborne geophysical surveys (magnetic and radiometric), gravity-filtered anomaly maps, geochemical (soil and stream sediment Au, As, Sb, Hg) concentration distribution maps and the K/Ar dating of 132 samples from 80 paleomagnetic measurements were also used.

The anomalies were only taken into consideration in the interpretation if the coincident results of at least 3 methods indicated the presence of any volcanic structure. In consequence, 91 map-scale volcanic structures were identified by morphology — complex calderas, single lava domes, volcanic fissures, subvolcanic intrusions, diatremes, stratovolcanoes and postvolcanic formations. Conclusions were also drawn regarding the link to the volcanic structures and prospective occurrences of the mineral resources of the Tokaj Mts: andesite, dacite, welded zeolitic tuff, K-metasomatite, perlite, pitchstone, pumice, bentonitic, illitic, kaolinitic, diatom-bearing and silicified lacustrine sediments, hydrothermal Au-Ag and Pb-Zn veins, and Hg stockwerks.

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Abstract

The Sanandaj-Sirjan granitoids (SSG) in western Iran are composed mainly of granite, granodiorite and tonalite. Chemically the rocks are peraluminous and metaluminous, and show S-and I-type characteristics. The oval shape of the plutons, with large axes parallel to the Zagros main trend, along with deformational textures and structures, the existence of aluminous minerals such as andalusite, garnet and sillimanite as well as micaceous enclaves and geochemical features, all support generation of these rocks by partial melting of heterogeneous source materials in a continental collision setting, corresponding to the Zagros Orogen.

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Abstract

We investigated three types of shocked feldspar in the Asuka-881757,531-2 sample with midinfrared spectroscopy (reflectance mode). Under the petrographic microscope three types of site were characterized by (1) undulatory extinction, (2) undulatory extinction with isotropic patches and decreased interference color, and (3) isotropic, lath-shaped feldspars, which is indicative of maskelynite. The IR emissivity maximum (Christiansen feature=CF) changes with the chemical composition of feldspar. One of the Christiansen composition features exhibits a wave length peak of 1234 cm−1 for anorthite; another feature appears at 1245 cm−1 for maskelynite (Palomba et al. 2006).

With the help of IR spectroscopy we observed three vibrational types in our spectra: (1) peaks of depolimerization of SiO4 tetrahedra (500–650 cm−1, 950–1150 cm−1), (2) peaks of stretching and bending vibrational modes of SiO6 octahedra (750–850 cm−1), and (3) Si-O stretching vibration of SiO4 units (Johnson and Hörz 2003; Johnson et al. 2003, 2007). All these vibration types were observed at the less shocked sites. In the spectrum of highly shocked maskelynite only a broader band close to 1000 cm−1 was observed, which is the main vibrational band of maskelynite (Palomba et al. 2006). The calculated FWHM showed the disordering rate of shocked feldspars. On the basis of the measurements it could be concluded that the estimated shock pressure range gradually increases from 17–35 GPa for different degrees of undulatory sites, to 35–45 GPa for maskelynite sites.

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Abstract

The Kiskunhalas-NE (KIHA-NE) fractured hydrocarbon reservoir is part of the structurally rather complex crystalline basement of the Great Hungarian Plain. In the course of petrologic and thermometric examinations various rock types of the investigated area have been classified and characterized. There are four basic lithological units in the area. In the lowest structural position orthogneiss is common, which according to its petrographic features is assumed to be identical to the orthogneiss body of the adjacent Jánoshalma (JH) basement high (metamorphic peak temperature T < 580 °C according to Zachar and M. Tóth 2004). The next rock unit upward is the highly mylonitized variety of the orthogneiss with textural features suggesting deformation in an extensional stress regime. In the higher section of the mylonite zone graphitic gneiss mylonite is characteristic, with a peak metamorphic T of 410±45 °C. The lithology in the shallowest position of the area is a graphitic carbonate phyllite, with a T of 375 ± 15 °C. Estimation of the deformation temperature for both mylonitic rocks results in approximately Tdef ∼ 455 °C. All data together suggest that between the top (graphitic carbonate phyllite) and the bottom (orthogneiss) of the ideal rock column there is about 200 °C peak metamorphic temperature deviation. The two extreme metamorphic blocks probably became juxtaposed along an extensional fault zone in the basement at approximately 15 km depth.

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Authors: Szabolcs Nagy, Sándor Józsa, Arnold Gucsik, Szaniszló Bérczi, Kiyotaka Ninagawa, Hirotsugu Nishido, Miklós Veres, Ákos Kereszturi and Henrik Hargitai

Abstract

We studied optical microscopic and micro-Raman spectroscopic signatures of shocked olivine from the ALH 77005 Martian meteorite sample. The purpose of this study is to document pressure and temperature-related effects in olivine over the entire sample, which can aid in understanding structural changes due to shock metamorphism and the post-shock thermal annealing processes of lherzolitic Martian meteorites. According to the optical microscope observations, three areas may be discernible in olivine of the ALH 77005 in the vicinity of the melt pocket. The first area is the thermally undisturbed part of a grain, which contains a high density of shock-induced planar microdeformations such as Planar Deformation Features (PDFs) and Planar Fractures (PFs). Compared to the first area, the second area shows less shock-induced microstructures, while the third area is a strongly recrystallized region, but not formed from a melt.

A common Raman spectral feature of these olivines is a regular doublet peak centered at 823 and 852 cm−1; additionally, two new peaks at 535 and 755 cm−1 appear in the weakly annealed transition zones.

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This is a brief history of how a small group of people carried out its mandate to survey and map Canada in spite of the hostile environment — the second largest country in the world — in a 100 years.The levelling started from Halifax and by 1916 it reached Vancouver completing the coast-to-coast connection, encompassing about 22 000 km distance of which 94% was done on the railway tracks. The adjustment was carried out in 9 steps, it included the tide gauges in both the east and west coast, and was completed in 1928. The final adjustment used about 37 000 km length, from which 30 000 was measured by the GS. The first order re-levelling started after the Second World War and was carried out on the Trans-Canada highway. By 1994 Canada was covered by a levelling network of about 109 747 km. After this date there was no more conventional levelling.The triangulation used cross-braced quadrilaterals, based on the method used in the USA. In 1961 the GS started to use the conventional methods of chains of triangles. The measurements covered mostly the very southern part of Canada. The mapping of middle and northern part of the country had to await until the electronic era, which was practically made for Canada.The lower order accuracy was provided by Shoran, using about the average of 400 km line length for triangulation. Between 1947 and 1957 this method provided 501 measured triangle sides of about 200 000 km in total length and provided 119 base-point covering about 65% of Canada.The other method, the Aerodist — the Tellurometer version of Shoran — provided second order accuracy. The triangulation, using cross-braced quadrilaterals, with 100 km sides gave 219 points and covered about 25% of the land area of Canada. The measurements were done between 1965 and 1973.Recent measurements make use of GPS for geodetic position determination. A 10 year program started in 1987. In 1992 the GSD defined an official geoid to be used in connection with all satellite work.

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The paper presents field results of the data processing method developments based on approximate TAU-transform of the Time-Domain IP (Induced Polarization) curves. The theoretical basis of these developments was published in Part I by Turai and Dobróka (2011).Two ways for estimation of the type and the value of soil contaminations will be introduced. On first way the calculation of contamination type comes from the time constant value of the time constant spectra. The value estimation of the soil contamination is based on the Weighted Amplitude Value (WAV) of the time constant spectra. On second way we define the corrected apparent conductivity of the contaminated material (σ corr) as a product of time-constant spectrum and measured apparent conductivity. The σcorr parameter is useful for classification of contamination level.These methods were tested over several contaminated area (Offheim — 1992, Nyékládháza — 1997–2008, Ráckeve — 1997, Kecskemét — 1997, Győröcske — 1999, Pásztó — 2000, Tokaj — 2001, Balmazújváros — 2002, Szerencs — 2004, Tiszapalkonya —2004, Berekböszörmény —2007, Nagytárkány —2008, Darvastó — 2008, Miskolc-Hejőpart — 2008, Tiszavasvári — 2008, Nagytétény — 2008, Miskolc-Bedő hegy — 2009, Telkibánya — 2010, Miskolc-Salakbánya — 2010, Miskolc-Gózon L. út — 2010 and Miskolctapolca-Várhegy — 2010).Some results from interpreting field data collected over waste sites and other contaminated areas are presented. The contamination level and the main components of the contaminating material are characterized based on the time-constant spectra.

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Topographic masses have a strong impact on the medium and short wavelength components of the gravitational signal generated by the mass of the Earth, thus digital terrain models (DTM) are routinely involved in gravity field modelling. In this study the verification of the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) which is a joint product of METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan) and NASA has been done by comparing them to the points of the horizontal and vertical control networks of Hungary. SRTM data fit better to geodetic ground control points than ASTER GDEM, since some artefacts have been found in ASTER elevation set which impede further use of the latter without any pre-processing. Since SRTM is an “unclassified” surface model including all those points which reflected the scanning radar signal thus tree canopy height has been compared to the differences of SRTM and DTM elevations in a hilly test area in Hungary where a local and accurate DTM having 20 m × 20 m horizontal resolution was available. Considerable agreement was indicated between forest height and model differences. Model differences were evaluated to determine their effect synthetically on gravity related quantities. Their influence on geoid height is insignificant, but the change of the investigated second derivatives of the potential is considerable.

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In the last decades many statistical tests based on the least squares solution have been proposed for multiple outlier detection. All of them suffer, however, from deficiencies that make them inefficient in their practical application. As recently demonstrated by the author, this situation is unavoidable in the framework of least squares theory. The present contribution elaborates on this impossibility of obtaining an unambiguous response for any statistical test based on the least squares solution and makes use of multiple least squares adjustments for statistically characterizing the equivalent sets of multiple gross error vectors. Several examples and a flexible Matlab implementation are provided.

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Pesticides, chlorinated organic compounds and hydrocarbons are among the most threatening soil and groundwater contaminants because of their mobility and persistence in the subsurface, their widespread use, and their health effects. Hazardous chemicals getting into underground medium can be especially dangerous because they may remain persistently hidden from human eyes for a long time and their harmful impact on health may appear much later than their emission time and spatially far from the source of contamination. Development and combination of reliable and accurate geophysical methods and hydrogeological transport models with the traditional chemical analytics are greatly needed to assess the risk posed by the contamination plumes of these compounds to the subsurface.The paper presents the successful cooperation of these three disciplines in detailed characterization of subsurface hydrocarbon contaminants in a test site of Hungary. Combining the chemical analysis with high resolution geophysical methods and hydrogeological transport modeling the 4 dimensional characteristics of the contamination can be produced. The interdisciplinary research produced new developments and results in all participating fields of sciences.<