The purpose of this work was to characterize the flow system of the area by constructing a 3D steady-state model, which is able to describe the zone budget and potential levels of the flow system, and also be able to manage the different hydrostratigraphic units within different geologic zones. In this study hydrogeologic and hydraulics data of more than 100 observation and abstraction wells and springs, recorded over decades, were used and the first calibration results are presented. The VISUAL MODFLOW PRO software was applied to simulate the model.
Remains of Triassic vertebrates discovered in the Villány Hills (SW Hungary) are described here. After the well-documented Late Cretaceous Iharkút locality, this material represents the second systematically collected assemblage of Mesozoic vertebrates from Hungary. Fossils were collected from both the classical abandoned road-cut at Templom Hill (Templom-hegy) and a newly discovered site at a construction zone located 200 meters west of the road-cut. Macrofossils of the construction site are mainly isolated bones and teeth of nothosaurs from the Templomhegy Dolomite, including a fragmentary mandible referred to as Nothosaurus sp. and placodont teeth tentatively assigned here to cf. Cyamodus sp. Affinities of these fossils suggest a Middle Triassic (Ladinian) age of these shallow marine deposits.
New palynological data prove for the first time a Late Triassic (Carnian) age of the lower part of the Mészhegy Sandstone Formation. Vertebrate remains discovered in this formation clearly represent a typical Late Triassic shallow-marine fauna including both chondrichthyan (Lissodus, Palaeobates, Hybodus) and osteichthyan (cf. Saurichthys, ?Sphaerodus sp.) fish fossils. The presence of reworked nothosaur and placodont tooth fragments as well as of possible archosauriform teeth, suggest an increase of terrestrial influence and the erosion of underlying Triassic deposits during the Late Triassic.
A belemnite rostrum collected from the lowermost beds of the Somssichhegy Limestone Formation proves that this Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian) layer was deposited in a marine environment. Most of the vertebrate remains (nothosaurs, placodonts, hybodont shark teeth, perhaps Palaeobates, Lissodus) recovered from these beds are also reworked Triassic elements strongly supporting an erosive, nearshore depositional environment.
The aim of this work is to interpret the geologic structures of the Agourai area (Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures) from processed magnetic maps. The detected magnetic anomalies from different standard methods used in aeromagnetism (Residual map, RTP map, horizontal gradient map) were compared to geologic structures and permit enhancing the mapping quality of some areas, and thus defining many geologic features. Existing geologic maps and geologic field studies allow interpreting some detected anomalies. It was thus possible to define the limits between the Paleozoic basement and the Mesozoic cover, to determine magnetic anomalies according to NE-SW trends compatible with the regional geologic structures and finally to detect a NE to SW-oriented fault system in the Mesozoic cover of the Agourai Plateau. Despite the reliability of this approach, some folded basaltic sills occurring in this region were not well detected, probably because of their reduced thickness.
The loess/paleosol sequence near the village of Madaras is an outstanding record of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes in Hungary and the entire Carpathian Basin. The present study highlights the results of preliminary micromorphological investigations implemented on 24 samples taken from two pre-selected pedogenized horizons of the sequence. Our work yielded interesting results regarding the evolutionary history and modes of pedogenesis in the studied section.
Extreme changes of environmental conditions can alter the soil properties and influence the migration ability and bioavailability of pollutants. Elucidation of the effects of the extreme weather conditions, such as sharp temperature change, drought and floods, on the fractionation of radionuclides in different soil types is especially important for adequate risk assessment after radioactive contamination. The effects of short-term and prolonged freezing and soil drought on the geochemical fractionation of americium in two soil types (Fluvisol and Cambisol, classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources/FAO) from Bulgaria were studied. The changes of the physico-chemical forms of 241Am after storage under different conditions were determined by the sequential extraction procedure and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The impact of the sharp temperature decrease and drought on the association of the radionuclide with the various soil phases was considered in terms of the soil characteristics. The results showed that the risk of increased mobility and bioavailability of americium in the loamy-sand soil with acidic pH and very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) exists under the examined extreme environmental conditions. The soil with sand-loam texture tended to immobilize americium after freeze and drought storage.
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is fast becoming an important tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large dataset is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. Thus, this study intends to demonstrate any linkages between diesel fuels in a large number of datasets where subtlety in the isotopic values is accentuated by the near single-point source of origin. Diesel fuels were obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Aliquots of these samples were diluted with n-pentane and subsequently analyzed with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) for carbon and hydrogen isotope values. The data obtained were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering. A wide range of δ13C and δ2H values were determined for the ubiquitous alkane compounds (the greatest values being −4.5‰ and −40‰, respectively). Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes it is suggested that diesel fuels from different locations were distinguishable and that the key components in the differentiation are the δ2H values of the shorter chain-length alkanes. However, while the stable isotope measurements may provide information to classify a sample at a broad scale, much more detailed information is required on the temporal and spatial variability of diesel compositions. The subtle differences of the stable isotope values within the alkanes of different diesel fuels highlighted the power of CSIA as a means of differentiating petroleum products of different origins, even more so when two or more stable isotopes data are combined. This paper shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical methods can provide suitable tools for source apportionment of hydrocarbons by demonstrating a straightforward approach, thus eliminating lengthy analytical processes.