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In the broadest sense, social sciences encompass society, human behavior, and its influence on the world. Social sciences help understand how society works, ranging from the causes of unemployment, economic growth, what makes people happy, and so on. The information it provides is vital for governments and policymakers, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities.

Social Sciences and Law

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Abstract

In 2005 the Hungarian school-leaving examination system underwent a significant transformation. In case of history the aim was to give a greater role to the development of students' knowledge acquisition and source analysis skills by more focusing on students' work with historical sources in classes. However, it was clear that the achievement of these goals would also depend on the new exam tasks. Those determine whether the reform will be able to get real change. So I carefully examined those tasks of the past fifteen years exams that contained primary sources. I wanted to give an accurate picture of which types of tasks were most frequent and how they could be assessed in terms of the original objectives of the reform and the competency requirements of the school leaving examination. Based on the conclusions drawn from the results of the investigation, I formulate proposals for changing the composition of the exam tasks and preparing for writing the tasks.

Open access

Abstract

The study presents the impact of the historical origin of the making and application of law through a specific example. The regulation of nationality, a pivotal field of constitutional law, is considered a sovereign right of the Hungarian state which is exercised in line with Article G) of the Fundamental Law and Act No. LV of 1993 on Hungarian Citizenship. Hungarian naturalization practice, however, significantly changed in the wake of the amendment of the respective act: Hungarians living outside the borders have been entitled to preferential naturalization since 2011. This study aims to prove that this legislative action, which remarkably followed the designation of the day of the conclusion of the Trianon Peace Treaty as the Day of National Unity the previous year, was obviously influenced by historical considerations. The primary objective of preferential naturalization was to grant Hungarian nationality to persons of Hungarian origin whose ancestors had lost their Hungarian nationality in the aftermath of historical events involving the transfer of territories to neighbouring states. The study's point of departure is the Trianon Peace Treaty, the first major instrument to have a profound effect on the nationality of millions of Hungarians. The study explores the peculiar interpretation and application of treaty provisions relating to territorial changes and reveals the flaws in legal regulation which further contributed to the formation of a large community of Hungarians living outside the borders. Having surveyed the historical background, the analysis proceeds to examine the impact of historical traditions on the underlying motives and current domestic regulation of preferential naturalization. Evidence includes the broad scope of eligible persons, the wide range of documents accepted to prove descent, the verification of the required command of language, and the practical implementation of the procedure of naturalization. Research findings convincingly display the far-reaching effects of historical traditions on the regulation and practice of preferential naturalization in Hungary.

Open access

Abstract

Mediation as an alternative dispute resolution mechanism has a very long history, especially outside of the adjudicative space. It has gradually also found its way as an adjunct to the court system in the form of court-annexed mediation. As proven by quantitative studies, mediation in the region of Central and Eastern Europe is still, however, a relatively novel and underutilized instrument. Thus, this study explores the role of judges in court-annexed mediation using the case of the Czech Republic. It presents a piece of empirical research built on a single qualitative case study of mediation practice as seen and understood through the experience of district court judges. The latter represent the core actors that contribute to shaping mediation practice through their attitudes and activities, influenced by their own interpretation of phenomena, when entering into the process at the pre-mediation phase – when the activity of the judge is foreseen by the legislative framework to be the most significant. Offering a comprehensive description of the research methodology, the study also aims to contribute to academic debate that calls for more case/comparative studies of relatively unexplored phenomena in the wider region of Central and Eastern Europe.

Full access

Abstract

The focus of this paper is on the uncertainty and controversy associated with the substantial compliance standard as part of the strict compliance principle in the letter of credit law, as well as the possibility of applying new technology to solve such problems. The letter of credit confirms a payment under international sales contracts and contains a promise from the bank to pay the seller if they can present the complying documents as required in the letter of credit. Thanks to the basic principles of a letter of credit, it is stable and trustworthy. Such basic principles as well as the practice of letters of credit are recognized in the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credit of the International Chamber of Commerce.

To retain the commercial utility of the letter of credit, the strict compliance principle should be revitalized and consistently applied. However, this principle is not associated with exact standards, which leads to the scenario that courts apply different standards. Such a situation might reduce the commercial utility of letters of credit. Hence, the financial industry is trying to apply new technologies such as blockchain, smart contracts, and the Internet of Things to support the strict compliance principle, and try to reduce the uncertainty related to the substantial compliance standard.

Open access

Abstract

Over the past few years, the concept of gamification has gained increased attention in foreign language teaching research as it demonstrates potential to promote motivation and learner engagement. The authors of the paper believe that gamification can become an innovative and promising tool to help students overcome their motivational difficulties. When it comes to language learning and teaching, one of the major issues to be tackled is the differences among students in terms of academic achievement. Applying gamification in the field of education profoundly supports the process of teaching and learning by creating a supportive environment, which is reinforcing and enables individual progress. One specific feature of gamification is that it breaks down learning into elements, similarly to motivation theory, where goals are not uncommonly divided into subgoals. It also includes applying the characteristics of games, and implementing these in real-world situations, while generating specific behaviours within the gamified situation. The most important benefit of using gamification in language teaching is that it provides differentiation. Learners can progress at their own pace, their assessment is individualised, their motivation is strongly influenced by their own skills and abilities that are reinforced by gamification itself. As the process of learning meets the individual’s needs, differentiation can be brought about. This paper highlights the most important outcomes of research into gamification in language learning, while exploring its underlying principles in the field of motivation.

Open access

Abstract

One of the critical issues facing Historians today has been the emergence of Strong State regimes and the politicized pseudo history they produce in countries claiming to adhere to democratic norms. The attack on the Capital of the United States was based on a series of lies about voter fraud supported by President Donald Trump and members of Congress. Countering ideology based on a complete disregard for truth is now of paramount importance in the United States. This paper studies Trump's promise to Make America Great Again (MAGA) as a further evolution of Lost Cause mythos that began after the Civil War. The original story casts the enfranchisement of African Americans as a failure touting white supremacy and the righteousness of Jim Crow laws. How can History teachers counter these highly politicized myths? I suggest that the methodology of our profession may provide us with some important tools. John Dewey underscored the importance of critical inquiry to the preservation and advancement of democracy. Teaching students how to think historically goes a long way in the process of producing citizenry who are ready to participate in civil society. To that end I conclude this essay with a course that I teach entitled “Witches, Aliens, and Other Enemies.” The course is designed to set moments of mass hysteria and paranoia in the American narrative against the background of reason and rational legal law utilizing the Salem witch hunt at the end of the seventeenth century and the “red scare” following World War II as case studies to stimulate student exploration.

Open access

Abstract

Sense of coherence (SOC) is a relevant contributor and predictor of the individuals' mental and physical health. There are a number of studies about SOC, but only two validation articles of the sense of coherence scale (SOCS) were found on adolescents and none on children. The aim of this research was to validate the SOC scale in youth under 18. We hypothesized that younger children and children without psychiatric problems will have higher SOC than older ones, and children with psychiatric symptoms. We also wanted to examine the factor structure of both the 13 and the 29 item versions of the scale to study which is more valid in child and adolescent population. 199 children and 198 adolescents were included in the study; the mean age was 14.3 (SD 2.1) years. The sample included average youth from schools and youth under psychiatric treatment. Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Inventory of Life Quality (ILK) were used for validation of the SOCS. SOCS-13 was applied to compare SOC of children and adolescents. Children had higher SOC than adolescents in both samples. Males had higher SOC than females in children but not in adolescents. Psychiatric and behavioral symptoms were associated with a lower SOC regardless of age. Confirmatory factor analysis proved a three-factor structure model for both the 13 and the 28 item versions of the SOCS. The short form of the sense of coherence scale is valid and reliable to be used with children and adolescents from 10 to 18 years of age.

Open access

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical examination on the importance of writing in history teaching in schools to age groups 7–16 year old. It presents a discussion and an overview of best and meaningful practice in history teaching when using written historical sources as evidence for analyses in the classroom. It also looks at how educators can support pupils' own writing in history lessons in effective ways. The paper attempts to do this by reporting on various pedagogical research work conducted specifically on writing in history and its many facets when it comes to history learning in schools. The author offers various pedagogical recommendations based on her own as well as others' research work on the written word in history teaching. The paper looks at written sources from four different aspects. It discusses written sources as primary historical sources in themselves and how they can be made more palpable, that is more tangible and easier to use for pupils. It then looks at Secondary written sources, that is, historians' interpretation of history and how these can be presented to pupils, followed by how Primary written sources can also produce opportunity to practice the skill of detecting bias. Lastly pupils' own writing is discussed and how their writing in history can be made better.

Open access

Abstract

Toppling the statue of the slave merchant Edward Colston in Bristol, removing the monuments of King Leopold II from public places in Belgium, Black Lives Matter protests, and mass demonstrations targeting remembrance of certain chapters of the history of the Global North – these are some of the significant events that drew attention to the ongoing disputes around the legacy of colonialism during the summer of 2020. These developments form an integral part of the long-drawn-out process of decolonisation: decolonising the culture of the former mother countries. From museology through the natural sciences and linguistics to visual arts, vast areas of the academic, scientific, and cultural scene of the Global North are crucially affected by decolonizing tendencies, with the teaching of history arguably among the most disputed ones. This paper reviews the key decolonising aspirations of history teaching in the United Kingdom by studying the goals, messages, methods, and endeavours of three movements: Why Is My Curriculum White?, The Black Curriculum, and Rhodes Must Fall Oxford, address different levels of education and urge the transformation of numerous aspects of history teaching (teacher training, curricula, teaching methodology, etc). Source materials examined include the work, teaching aids, and written, audio, or video content published on various social media platforms by these three organisations, as well as parliamentary papers and reports of public and non-governmental bodies.

Open access