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In the broadest sense, social sciences encompass society, human behavior, and its influence on the world. Social sciences help understand how society works, ranging from the causes of unemployment, economic growth, what makes people happy, and so on. The information it provides is vital for governments and policymakers, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities.

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Ellátásbiztonság az energiaátmenet időszakában

Security of supply in times of energy transition

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Ágnes Csermely
,
Péter Kaderják
,
Balázs Lengyel
,
Anna Mészégető
, and
Pálma Szolnoki

Összefoglalás.

A zöld energetikai átállás folyamatát leggyakrabban klímavédelmi szempontok alapján elemzik. Ebben a cikkben az energiabiztonságra gyakorolt hatását vizsgáljuk a megújuló energiahordozók térnyerésének. A mérleg pozitív serpenyőjében szerepel az energiafüggetlenséghez való hozzájárulás, a széles körben elérhető technológia és a fosszilis energiahordozókhoz képest kiszámítható árazás. A folyamat ugyanakkor számos kihívással is együtt jár, melyek közül kiemeljük a szezonális tárolás lehetőségének korlátosságát, az ellátásbiztonsághoz szükséges nem időjárásfüggő tartalékkapacitások fenntartásának nehézségeit, a hálózatüzemeltetéssel kapcsolatos problémákat, a digitalizációval együtt növekvő kiberbiztonsági kockázatokat és a kritikus alapanyagok koncentrációjából fakadó kihívásokat. E kihívásokra költséghatékony megoldásokat kell kialakítani, így a zöldenergia térnyerése komplex, a szakpolitika koordinációját igénylő, több évtizeden áthúzódó folyamat lesz.

Summary.

The green energy transition process is most often analysed from a climate protection perspective. In this article, we look at the impact of rising renewable generation on the security of energy supply. On the positive side there is renewables’ contribution to energy independence, their widespread availability, and their predictable pricing compared to fossil fuels. However, the process of increasing the share of renewables also carries several challenges, including the limitations of seasonal storage, the difficulties of maintaining non-weather-dependent reserve capacity for security of supply, grid management issues, the growing cyber security risks associated with digitalisation and the concentration of the availability of critical minerals. Cost-effective solutions to these challenges need to be developed, making the take-up of green energy a complex process that requires policy coordination over the next several decades.

Open access

Előszó

Foreword

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Marcell Gáspár
and
Attila Aszódi
Open access

Energetikai szektorban előforduló por közegek robbanási és gyulladási tulajdonságainak vizsgálata

Investigation of the explosion and ignition properties of dust media occurring in energy sector

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Zoltán Siménfalvi
,
Viktória Kállai
,
Viktória Mikáczó
,
Máté Petrik
,
Tamás Pusztai
,
Bernadett Pusztai-Spisák
,
Zoltán Szamosi
,
Levente Tugyi
, and
L. Gábor Szepesi

Összefoglalás.

Ipari környezetben, ahol az alapanyagok között por alapanyagú termékek találhatóak, felmerül a porrobbanás lehetősége, ez alól az energiaszektor sem kivétel. Ebben az iparágban is megjelentek a biomasszák mint energiahordozók, amely termékekről számos esetben bebizonyosodott, hogy porrobbanás-veszélyesek, ezért szükséges védelmi intézkedéseket tenni. Jelen közleményünkben összefoglaljuk azon vizsgálati eljárásokat, amelyekkel meghatározhatóak a későbbi védelmi intézkedések alapadatául szolgáló paraméterek. Ismertetjük a vizsgálati eljárásokat, berendezéseket, valamint néhány konkrét vizsgálati eredményt is bemutatunk.

Summary.

In an industrial environment where dust-based products are among the raw materials, the potential for dust explosion arises, and the energy sector is no exception. This industry has also started to use biomass as a source of energy, which has been shown in many cases to be explosive and therefore requires protective measures. In this article, we have presented the distribution of dust explosion accidents in the US in 2021, which shows that 4% of the accidents directly related to the energy industry are much higher than the direct proportion. The set of conditions required for such accidents to occur is described and the investigation procedures that can be used to determine the parameters that will form the basis for future protection measurements are summarized. These parameters include the maximum explosion overpressure (Pmax), the explosion constant (Kst), the lower explosibility rate (LEL), the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC), the minimum ignition temperature of dust clouds (MIT), the layer ignition temperature (LIT), and finally the minimum ignition energy (MIE). The test procedures and equipment are described, and some concrete test results are presented. Determining these variables is essential for the design of explosion protection for a dust explosion hazardous technology or area. The description of the test procedures is based mainly on the standard specifications applicable in the European Union. The structure of the measurements and the interpretation of the results obtained are described through the analysis of a fermentation residual solid.

Open access

A hűtési és fűtési időszakot jellemző éghajlati klímaindexek változása Magyarországon

Observed changes in weather-dependent heating and cooling energy demand in Hungary

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Mónika Lakatos
and
Kinga Bokros

Összefoglalás.

Az elmúlt évtizedekben a globális felmelegedés hatásai Európában, azon belül a Kárpát-medencében is nyilvánvalóvá váltak, s ez a hatás jelentős mértékű az energiaszektorra is. A kizárólag az időjárás által befolyásolt függő fűtési és hűtési energiaigényt leíró technikai klímaindexek alakulását mutatjuk be Magyarországon, nevezetesen a fűtési foknap (Heating Degree Days) és a hűtési foknap (Cooling Degree Days) paramétereket vizsgáljuk. A jelen klímát leginkább jellemző éves és havi normálértékek mellett a változásokat is elemezzük. A múlt század elejétől a fűtési foknapok egyértelmű csökkenése, míg a hűtési foknapok egyértelmű emelkedése figyelhető meg. Országos átlagban 314,6 foknappal [°C nap] csökkent a fűtési foknapok éves összege a lineáris trendmodell szerint 1901-től, míg ugyanerre az időszakra 79,4 ℃ nappal nőtt a hűtési foknap értéke. A legutóbbi három évtizedben, a legintenzívebb melegedés időszakában igen markánsak a változások, s ez a folyamat minden bizonnyal folytatódik a század végéig és azon túl is.

Summary.

In recent decades, the effects of global warming have become evident in Europe, including the Carpathian Basin, and this impact is significant for the energy sector. The most obvious impact of climate change in Hungary is the increase in extremes associated with high temperatures. Not only summer, but also winter and transition seasons show a warming trend, affecting all productive and service sectors. Rising temperatures could lead to shorter heating seasons and milder cold months, potentially reducing heating energy demand. However the heat waves have become more frequent and intense due to warming, leading to an increase in cooling energy demand. In the first part of this article, we present the evolution of heating degree-days from the beginning of the last century to the present day for the whole area of Hungary. The heating degree day is an indicator of the energy consumption for heating of buildings, which depends only on the weather. That is a temperature value, expressed in °Cday, which is proportional to the amount of energy required to heat the indoor environment to a given temperature on a given day, taking into account the daily minimum, maximum and mean temperature for a specific base temperature (15.5°Cday). Importantly, its value does not depend on the insulation of the buildings, economic indicators or the type of energy sources. Essentially, the colder the weather, the more the air temperature deviates from the base temperature of 15.5 degrees Celsius, the more energy is needed to heat the indoor environment and the higher the heating degree day value will be. In addition, we present the analysis of cooling degree days. The cooling degree day is derived in a similar way, following the logic of the heating degree day derivation. Therefore, the warmer the weather and the higher the air temperature is above the base temperature of 22°C, the more energy is needed to cool the indoor environment.

Based on the results presented in the article, we can conclude that the annual as well as the monthly amounts of heating degree-days have decreased since the beginning of the last century, with the greatest decrease in mountainous areas and in Western Hungary. One of the few benefits of climate change is that less energy is needed to heat interiors, and this is particularly true for the last decades, when annual heating degree-day amounts were usually lower than normal. At the same time, as heating degree-days have decreased, as the heat waves have become more frequent and intense with warming, resulting in an increase in cooling degree-days. In Hungary, on average, the last 30 years have been characterised by the highest cooling degree-day values over the last century’s climate normal periods. On a national average, the annual amount of heating degree-days has decreased by 314.6°Cday according to the linear trend model since 1901, while the cooling degree-day value has increased by 79.4°Cday over the same period. During the period of most intense warming, the August weather-dependent cooling energy demand increased the most. Due to the urban heat island effect in the inner-city environment, cooling of buildings requires additional energy. The recent trends is likely to continue until the end of the century and beyond. Therefore important to monitor changes in climate parameters affecting energy security and to develop an effective strategy and action plans to address the climate risks for the energy sector.

Open access

Parti szűrésű vízbázisok vízföldtani vizsgálata a Duna magyarországi szakaszán

Hydrodynamic modeling of riverbank filtrated systems along the Danube River in Hungary

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Gábor Nyiri
,
Zsombor Fekete
,
Andrea Kolencsikné Tóth
,
Tamás Madarász
,
Balázs Zákányi
,
Endre Turai
,
Endre_Kázmér Nádasi
, and
Péter Szűcs

Összefoglalás.

Jelen tanulmányunkban két Duna menti parti szűrésű vízbázis vizsgálatát tűztük ki célul. A Tiszta Ivóvíz: a biztonságos ellátás multidiszciplináris értékelése a forrástól a fogyasztóig című Nemzeti Kiválósági Program keretében két olyan kiemelt fontosságú parti szűrésű vízbázist vizsgáltunk, amelyek meghatározó szerepet játszanak a Fővárosi Vízművek ellátási területén, Budapesten. Választásunk a Szentendrei-szigeten található surányi vízbázisra, valamint a Csepel-szigeten található ráckevei vízbázisra esett. A két vízbázis vizsgálatának célja az volt, hogy a területen végzett terepi mérések és mintavételezések, valamint a modellezési szimulációk segítségével átfogó képet kapjunk ezen két terület hidrogeológiai viszonyairól, hidraulikai viselkedéséről. Ennek érdekében számos terepi mérést végeztünk, amelyek fontos adatokat szolgáltattak a két vízbázis hidrodinamikai modelljének felépítéséhez és kalibrációjához.

Summary.

In this study, we dealt with two significant riverbank filtration systems along the Danube: the Surány water base located on Szentendre Island and the Ráckeve water base located on Csepel Island. These are two important drinking water bases of the Budapest Water Works, which provide a significant proportion of the capital’s water needs and are of great importance from the point of view of water security. At these riverbank filtered water bases, water is produced with horizontal collector wells, which, thanks to their design, are capable of extracting large amounts of raw water. The aim of our work was to get to know the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the area using the tools of field measurements and geophysical measurements. To this end, we measured the following parameters in different temporal resolutions: water level, temperature, specific electrical conductivity, pH. In this study, we present the results that have more significant information. Geophysical tests were also carried out at the two water bases, which provided important information regarding the geological inhomogeneity. Using the field measurements, two hydrodynamic model was also built for each study area. Our field measurements were also a great help for the calibration of our model. In this study the calibration of these models was shown. The hydrodynamic models were performed in the modeling environment of the Groundwater Modeling System, using the MODFLOW code. The characteristic of the model is that the tentacle wells were defined using MODFLOW’s Revised Multi-Node Well package. With the help of these models we would like to determine the arrival times in the future, as well as examine different scenarios that can be linked to extreme weather conditions. Based on the field measurements, we can make the following main conclusions regarding the examined water bases:

  • During the entire period of the year, the hydraulic gradient from the Danube side is greater than from the background direction. Based on this, we can say that the Danube is the dominant supply water source in both cases.

  • The hydraulic gradient changes over time, which is constantly influenced by changes in the water level of the Danube and changes in the produced yields.

  • As the hydraulic gradient changes, the speed of the water flow also changes, so the access time changes from time to time, even from day to day.

  • The specific electrical conductivity measurements showed that the Danube’s flood causes a large decrease in the value of the specific conductivity in the northern area. In addition to the decrease in conductivity, the measurement results also show a time shift, which, does not necessarily show the value of the access time.

  • Based on geophysical measurements, it can be said that the Ráckeve water base has greater inhomogeneity than the Surány water base. As a result, the zonal calibration of the hydrodynamic model of the Ráckeve water base became necessary.

Open access

NMR characterization of the permeability and structure of Boda Claystone Formation (BCF)

BCF - reservoir rock by NMR

A Bodai Aleurolit Formáció (BAF) permeabilitásának és szerkezetének NMR jellemzése

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Vanda Papp
,
Róbert Janovics
, and
Mónika Kéri

Summary

High-level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep geological repositories, for which a possible geological environment in Hungary is the Boda Claystone Formation. In the repository site selection, the geochemical investigation of the host rock is necessary including the structural characterization. In this study, the porosity (p%~1.5% and 5.84%) and the T2cutoff value (0.12 ms and 0.10 ms) of two siliciclastic rock was determined by desktop low-field NMR, the value of which differed from the 3 ms accepted for clay-bound water and the 33 ms for movable water in clastic reservoirs. Based on the T2cutoff, the producible porosity was found to be high, however, based on the T2 distributions, the bound-water types dominate the composition of the water phase of the rock.

Open access

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the switch to online training exposed the digital divide between higher education institutions, with some significantly superior to others in terms of equipment and experience, as well as among students enrolled in the same institution. The purpose of this study was to investigate online training and educational inequality in TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) delivery in Kenya, during the COVID-19. A total of 16 unstructured discussions were conducted in four TVET institutions in the Western Kenya Region. Each college organized four conversations (two males only and two females only groups). The study took into account various reports and literature to provide the background and analyze the data to respond to the research questions. Additionally, the study collected data through desk reviews, unstructured conversations, reports, emails, WhatsApp messages, and phone calls that aid in situation analysis, utilizing a qualitative research methodology of situational analysis. Lack of experience with online training by trainers and trainees, along with inadequate training assistance, resulted in feelings of anxiety and unease. Trainees were frequently incapable of self-regulation and remained motivated to learn at home and they were unsure about the quality of the materials accessible to them. Recommendations on four major issues are given: providing complete support to trainees, trainers, and other institution personnel; improving remote and online training; ensuring policy certainty, implementation, and monitoring; and discovering and implementing effective interventions and innovations.

Open access

Abstract

International student satisfaction has become a widely studied topic with the emergence of English-language study programs in higher education institutions (HEIs). Numerous studies arose in connection with understanding what factors influence international student satisfaction, determining service elements as crucial indicators of student satisfaction. There is limited research on understanding international student satisfaction in Hungary, explicitly focusing on degree-seeking mobility. Therefore, the current study analyses international students' satisfaction through the example of a Hungarian university to uncover the factors affecting satisfaction and to determine points for improvement of unsatisfied needs. Based on the questionnaire findings, an importance–satisfaction analysis (ISA) was conducted to depict international students' pain points visually. The focus group discussion and the affinity diagrams revealed that international students need more free-time activities and opportunities to connect outside the university. In addition, usability testing highlighted crucial missing information from the university mentor organisation webpage, while the results of the online questionnaire showed that there is an urgent need to develop university services. Besides determining points for improvement, this study provides insights into utilising a comprehensive, novel methodology in researching degree-seeking mobile students in Hungary.

Open access