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A nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatásra, valamint kis- és középvállalkozásokra gyakorolt hatásának értékelése adatvédelmi szempontból

Assessing the impact of large language models on higher education and SMEs from a data protection perspective

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
István Sabjanics

Összefoglalás.

Ez a tanulmány a mesterséges intelligencia és a nagy nyelvi modellek, különösen a ChatGPT hatásait vizsgálja a felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások tekintetében. A generatív mesterséges intelligencia felsőoktatási környezetben oktatási és kutatási szempontból egyaránt jelentős hatást gyakorolt, amely előirányozta az oktatás, különösen az oktatási és tanulási módszerek újragondolását. Fokozottabb és egyéni igényekhez igazított tanulási élményeket képes biztosítani a mesterséges intelligencia. A ChatGPT-hez hasonló nagy nyelvi modellek fejlődésének mértéke és gyors elterjedése forradalmasította a kommunikációt és az információfeldolgozást, lehetőséget teremtve az interaktívabb oktatási platformok bevezetésére. Ezzel párhuzamosan az üzleti szektor, különösen a kis- és középvállalkozások paradigmaváltáson mentek keresztül működésük hatékonyságának növelését és az ügyfélkapcsolati megoldásokat érintő innováció terén, amelynek alapja a mesterséges intelligencia alkalmazása. Ez a tanulmány azt vizsgálja, hogy ezek a szervezetek milyen módon használják a nagy nyelvi modelleket alkalmazó eszközöket a folyamataik racionalizálására, az ügyfélkapcsolatok javítására és a döntéshozatali képességek bővítésére. A tanulmány kitér a nagy nyelvi modellek felsőoktatási környezetben, valamint a kis- és középvállalkozások által történő biztonságos és jogszerű alkalmazását érintő etikai megfontolásokra és az esetlegesen felmerülő kockázatokra.

Summary.

This study investigates the impact of artificial intelligence and large language models, in particular ChatGPT, in higher education and small and medium-sized enterprises. Generative AI in higher education settings has had a significant impact from both an educational and a research perspective, which has foreseen a rethinking of education, in particular teaching and learning methods. AI can provide enhanced and personalised learning experiences. The scale and rapid spread of the development of large language models such as ChatGPT has revolutionised communication and information processing, opening the way for the introduction of more interactive educational platforms. At the same time, the business sector, in particular SMEs, has undergone a paradigm shift in terms of operational efficiency and innovation in customer relationship solutions based on the use of artificial intelligence. This paper examines how these organisations are using tools that apply high-level language models to streamline their processes, improve customer relationships and enhance decision-making capabilities. The study also addresses the ethical considerations and potential risks associated with the safe and legal use of large language models in higher education and by SMEs.

First, the study focuses on assessing the privacy risks and opportunities of using large language models in higher education, specifically and separately on teaching and research. In conclusion the study suggest, that large language models have the potential to bring positive changes in higher education, especially in the form of personalised or small group sessions in virtual classrooms, in parallel with classroom or hybrid teaching, applications that support individual preparation and learning and better presentation of the curriculum. It is essential, however, that taking over the administrative tasks of trainers does not justify, or even justify, human supervision of AI. It is the responsibility of higher education institutions to establish ethical rules for the use of AI, especially large language models, balancing technological and pedagogical aspects, which can perhaps best be summarised as development and not substitution. Various large language models can help, but they cannot replace the unique qualities that human teachers can bring to the learning experience. In conclusion regarding SMEs, the emergence and pace of development of large language models has such a significant impact on the competitiveness of a business that their introduction and the associated technological changeover of a business in a very short time will be almost a matter of course. Guidelines and recommendations from international organisations and various market surveillance and data protection authorities are useful to help SMEs to effectively increase their competitiveness while remaining fully compliant with the regulatory environment.

Open access

Abstract

Several researchers have highlighted the need to strengthen school-based career education in Hungary. After reviewing the international literature on similar programs, this study reports on the impact of an innovative, multi-method career education course. It aimed to support Hungarian high school (ISCED 344) students in grades 10–11 in making decisions on further education and career choices, and in dealing with related uncertainties and difficulties, mainly through developing career management competence. Using a quasi-experimental design, the intervention group of 92 students showed significantly better results on half of the 20 career orientation variables assessed six months after the end of the intervention of 12 three-quarter-hour sessions, with low effect sizes compared to the pre-intervention assessment, and the 96-student control group. In addition to a self-developed questionnaire, the CDDQ Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire; and the CFI Career Factors Inventory were used. The effectiveness of the intervention was independent of factors such as gender, age, academic performance, and parental education. The study concludes with the suggestion that an enhanced version of the course could be an officially recommended supplementary career education program in Hungarian high schools.

Open access

Abstract

Drama in Education (DiE) has been a well-known teaching technique for an active learning approach for students. It utilizes different forms of conventions to enhance a student's learning experience in the classroom, offering alternatives instead of the traditional teaching approaches. Drama can encourage students to learn and think critically and improve public speaking, communication, and confidence. The article portrays the use of drama activities in STEAM education by depicting the benefits and challenges. This study uses a qualitative approach to collect data, including relevant literature, descriptions of drama activities, and observation. The findings display that drama in STEAM education can improve and stimulate students' learning and knowledge in a particular subject. This study aimed to view 19 higher education students' perspectives of drama activities in STEAM. Two activities were completed during this pilot study and observations were made throughout the process. Furthermore, drama in STEAM stimulated the students, were more enthusiastic about exploring, examining and learning, socializing with their groupmates, and the confidence to perform.

Open access

Csővezetékintegritás-irányítási rendszer – válasz a földgázszállító rendszer üzemeltetésével kapcsolatos kihívásokra

Pipeline integrity management system - a response to the challenges of operation a natural gas transmission system

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Péter Chován
and
János Lukács

Összefoglalás.

A különböző szerkezetek és rendszerek biztonságos üzemeltetése gazdasági, környezeti és fenntarthatósági érdek. Ilyen rendszer a hazai nagynyomású, földgázszállító csőtávvezetéki rendszer, amelynek meghatározó része maga a csővezeték. A csővezetékeken előfordult káresetek ráirányították a figyelmet arra, hogy a megjelenő kihívásokra új, 21. századi válaszokra van szükség. A válasz kulcsa a csővezetékek integritásának biztosítása, rendszerszemléletű megközelítésben és informatikai támogatással. A megoldás a csővezetékintegritás-irányítási rendszer (PIMS), amely a kor technikai és technológiai színvonalán ötvözi az észszerű kockázatvállalás és a biztonságra való törekvés kompromisszumát. A közlemény bemutatja a bevezetés előtt álló hazai rendszert, illetve annak legfontosabb elemeit.

Summary.

The safe operation of different structures, of high importance and often unique systems, is important for the designer, contractor, the operator and the user; it is also an economic, environmental and sustainability interest. Safe operation must cover and manage the whole lifetime of the structure, which is a complex task. Such a system is the domestic high-pressure natural gas transmission pipeline system, of which the steel pipeline itself is a major part, with a length of approximately 6000 km. Damage to pipelines has highlighted the need for new 21st century responses to emerging challenges. The age of the pipeline has a negative impact on the occurrence of damages, while the development of technical and technological culture has a positive impact. We can be satisfied if the result is positive, i.e. if the response to the challenges reduces the relative frequency of incidents. The key to the response is to ensure the integrity of pipelines through a systems approach and complex IT support. Integrity is the ability to operate of a structure at any point in its life-cycle, including the reliable knowledge of the current state, potential threats and all relevant elements of their management. Identifying and detecting a threat (non-destructive testing), mapping its assessment principles and options, performing the assessment and then reflecting this through performance indicators, together define the direction to follow. Such a complex task is unthinkable without sufficient data in terms of quantity and quality, and special attention must be paid to the availability of such data. The solution is the Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS), which combines the technical and technological state of the art with the compromise between reasonable risk-taking and the striving of safety. This publication presents the domestic PIMS that is about to be implemented and its key elements. The logic of the regulation in line with leading international practice is described, the levels of assessment of threats to integrity are presented, and a flowchart of the operation of the envisaged system is presented too.

Open access

Abstract

During their studies, Roma university students enter into a milieu different from their family environment and this can affect their identity. In our research, we used life story interviews (N = 108) to study Roma university students who attended Roma College for Advanced Studies (RCAS). We were interested in how their identities were formed and what role their family Roma identity strategy and the RCAS played in it. In our analysis, we divided the Roma students into five categories (separated, integrated, assimilated, negative, marginalized) and these identity strategies were also used to determine the respondents' family identity. In the sample, the largest proportion consisted of those who had an integrated personal and family Roma identity strategy. The majority of the respondents had not changed identity strategies and also interpreted their personal identity according to the family pattern. Some of the Roma university students went to RCAS specifically to strengthen their Roma identity. Overall, it can be said that the family Roma identity strategy can be linked to the development of personal identity, and the RCAS can have a role in preserving and strengthening the Roma identity of university students.

Open access

A hazai fosszilisszénhidrogén-vagyonban rejlő lehetőségek

The potential of the domestic hydrocarbon stock

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Felicitász Velledits
,
Károly Kiss
, and
Mátyás Krisztián Baracza

Összefoglalás.

Hazánk szénhidrogén-kutatás és -termelés szempontjából érett területnek számít. A jelentős méretű előfordulások felfedezése és termelésbe állítása már megtörtént. A közelmúlt felfedezései azonban azt bizonyítják, hogy további felfedezések tehetők az országban. A 3D szeizmikus mérések, a számítástechnikai eszközök és a mérőműszerek fejlődése lehetővé tette, hogy új, kisebb telepeket fedezzünk fel. A pettendi felfedezés 30 kútja akár napi 14,2 ezer hordó olajat is termelhet, amely jelentősen növeli a magyarországi olajtermelést. A Vecsés-2-es kút napi 600 hordó olajat termel. A két Komádiban és egy Álmosdon lefúrt sekély kút naponta 750 hordó egyenérték szénhidrogén-termelést produkál. A Nyékpusztai tömött homokkőből (nem hagyományos tároló) évente 45 millió köbméter gázt és 45 ezer köbméter kondenzátumot terveznek a felszínre hozni. Az új találatok bizonyítják azt, hogy van lehetőség az energiahordozó kutatásában, a felfedezett mennyiségek azonban csak a termelés csökkenését tudják ellensúlyozni. Fontos lenne, hogy más energiaforrásokkal, például a geotermikus energia fokozásával pótoljuk a hiányzó energiamennyiséget.

Summary.

In hydrocarbon exploration and production terms Hungary is a mature area. The significant deposits have already been brought into production. Hungary now is only able to meet a small part of its fossil fuel needs from existing fields in the country, and therefore our supply largely depends on imports. The modern tools such as 3D seismic measurements and geophysical methods to detect seismic anomalies have allowed us to achieve a higher success rate with fewer drillings. New discoveries have also been made recently with the methodology used.

The Hungarian Horizon Energy Ltd. and TDE Services Ltd. in a US/Hungarian cooperation discovered a significant amount of hydrocarbons in the Dráva Basin near Pettend. The development of the discovered oil and gas deposits found in Lower Pannonian formations, Badenian carbonate rocks and Palaeozoic successions doubled the Hungarian oil production.

The planned production of 700-1000 barrels from the Vecsés-2 well drilled by MOL will increase Hungary’s oil production by 5%.

MOL’s shallow gas program aims to discover gas fields at depths of 1,500 up to 2,000 meters. Two wells drilled near Komádi and one at Álmosd could contribute up to 750 barrels of oil equivalent per day for the MOL’s production. This means an annual production of about 44 million cubic meters of gas from these wells.

The Nyék-6 well, located in the northern part of the Békés basin, has the potential to produce 1,6 Bcf (billion cubic feet) of gas and 283 thousand bbl (barrel) of condensate per year, according to production data from the first months of operation. It is estimated that up to ten times of the amount already recovered could be produced from this well.

Exploration and production will be carried out under the five-year Corvinus project, which has been declared a priority investment by the government. The exploration and production will be carried out in a joint venture structure with MVM CEEnergy Zrt. and Horizont General LLC. as 50-50% shareholders.

At the University of Miskolc three research projects on the evaluation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbons with significant industrial potential are being carried out, which are novel in Hungary. 1) Investigation of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs by interval inversion. 2) Investigation of hydraulic fracturing technologies and fracture support systems. 3) Investigation and analysis of low permeability marls, and massive sandstone deposits, research into the operation of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Given Hungary’s energy needs, it would be essential to fill the gap with other energy sources. Increasing the domestic geothermal energy production would be a significant step because Hungary has favorable natural conditions in comparison to most foreign countries as the geothermal gradient is about double the average.

Open access

Mérési módszer a hidrogén porózus formációkban történő tárolhatóságának vizsgálatára

Measurement method for hydrogen storability determination in porous rock formations

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Roland Dócs
,
Marianna Vadászi
, and
István Szunyog

Összefoglalás.

A Nemzeti Hidrogénstratégia kiemelt célja a villamosenergia- és földgáz-infrastruktúra együttműködésével a szezonális áramtárolási képesség megvalósítása. A villamos energia ilyen mértékű tárolása csak fizikai formában (gázmolekula) föld alatti tárolókban lehetséges. A Megújuló Energiák Nemzeti Laboratórium projekt keretében egy egyedi tervezésű és építésű kőzetvizsgáló berendezés segítségével a hidrogénnel kevert földgáz föld alatti formációkban történő elhelyezhetőségét vizsgálja. A már kiforrott API RP 40 szabványban leírt metodikát követve az eszköz újszerűsége abban rejlik, hogy a hidrogén helyett egy kontrollgáz segítségével határozzuk meg a kőzet kiinduló és megváltozott paramétereit. A cikkben bemutatásra kerül a mérési módszer szakirodalmi előzménye és maga a módosított eljárás.

Summary.

Hungary’s National Hydrogen Strategy is giving a priority to the seasonal storage capacity of electricity in cooperation of the existing electrical- and natural gas infrastructure. Although there are solutions for electricity storage in energy form, such as battery packs, none of them are on the scale of the needed capacity.

However, the problem of seasonal storage could be solved with a different method, by converting the energy into a physically storable form via gas molecule, which can be inserted in large quantities into underground structures, thus, the problem of hydrogen storage is important (Bent 2007). In numerous papers written regarding this topic, salt domes were found to be the most potential formations for underground storage (Małachowska et al. 2022). Several existing cases can be found where hydrogen underground storage tanks were made artificially in such formations with success. In the country no salt domes are present, therefore depleted porous hydrocarbon reserves as the second most favorable solution are available for storage. However, before such actions in such formations can be taken, further research is needed regarding the long-term hydrogen storage at high pressure and temperature. One of the major concerns of hydrogen storage is the possibility of migration through the cap rock, geochemical modifications, or even structural damage of the bearing rock material.

The Mining and Energy Institute of the University of Miskolc, within the framework of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory project, takes part in answering these questions. During the research, the effects of hydrogen-mixed natural gas storage are examined on rock samples taken from the potential underground porous formations. Experiments are carried out using custom-designed and built rock testing equipment with a newly developed measurement procedure. The method is based on the measurement of steady state permeability according to the well-established API RP 40 standard and is novel in that it uses a control gas rather than hydrogen itself to determine the rock parameters before and after the hydrogen treatment. The method relies on the principle presented in the experimental work made by Klinkenberg (1941), who found that permeability as a property of rock could be determined by any fluid. In theory changes developed in the samples after the hydrogen treatment can be measured and detected by the control gas.

In the paper, the authors present the literature history of the measurement method and outline their proposed modified procedure.

Open access

Villamos rendszerek kiberbiztonsága az Ukrajnával kapcsolatos történések tükrében

Cyber security of electric power systems in light of the events related to Ukraine

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
János Csatár
,
Péter Görgey
, and
Tamás Holczer

Összefoglalás.

Minden fejlett ország erősen függ a villamosenergia-rendszerek működésétől, ami az idő előrehaladtával várhatóan növekedni fog. A stabil működést számos faktor befolyásolja, ezek egy része véletlenszerű (pl. időjárás), de az emberi tényező is nagy hatással van a megbízhatóságra. Ebben a cikkben a szándékos károkozás azon speciális eseteivel foglalkozunk, amikor a támadó a rendszert felügyelő és irányító számítógépes rendszeren keresztül befolyásolja károsan a villamosenergia-rendszer alapvető működését. Ehhez áttekintjük a két rendszer összefonódását, megvizsgáljuk az elmúlt nyolc évben Ukrajnában történt ilyen eseteket. A cikkben összegezzük és elemezzük a történéseket, valamint javaslatokat teszünk, hogy mit lehet tenni az ilyen káros események elkerülése érdekében, szem előtt tartva a „megelőzés, észlelés, reagálás” elvét.

Summary.

All developed countries are highly dependent on the operation of electric power systems, and this dependence will probably increase. Many factors influence stable operation, some of which are random (weather or failures of devices and cables); however, human activities also have a significant impact on reliability. In this paper, we deal with special cases of attacks that achieve a detrimental effect on the electric power system by compromising the controlling and monitoring computer systems. To support the reader, we first analyze the key components of the physical and cyber parts of the system to provide an understanding of the intertwining of these domains – it is a cyber-physical system. We further elaborate on how an event can spread from one part to the other through domains. Then, a series of actual examples underlines the importance of this topic, focusing on malicious acts committed with the goal of sabotaging the power system. Thereafter, we analyze cyber-attacks committed during the last eight years in Ukraine. Most of these attacked the Ukrainian electric power system, aiming for blackouts and device destruction. Some of the attacks had severe consequences in other European countries as well. However, some attacks were successfully stopped before any harm was made. After analyzing the events, we conclude that threat actors’ focus shifted from causing short-term blackouts to device destruction and long-term breakdowns. In the last part of our paper, we enumerate mitigation methods for operators. Our enumeration is based on the PreDeCo principle, namely prevention, detection, and correction. In conclusion, the defender must separate its different purpose networks, use strong authentication and authorization, and have proper patch management policies. These techniques must be verified with regular penetration tests. As the Ukrainian examples show, the threat actor sometimes can avoid prevention techniques; thus, good detection is necessary. The detection is based on analyzing the output of intrusion detection systems and detailed logging facilities. The analysis should be done in the security operations center by experts with knowledge of both cyberspace and electric power systems operations. In case of an incident, the security operations center must make corrective steps with the possible help of external experts. The corrective steps include the understanding of the incident, the recovery from the incident, the prevention of future similar incidents, and the digital forensic of the incident.

Open access
Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Judit Mádlné Szőnyi
,
Ábel Markó
, and
Tamara Tóthi

Összefoglalás.

Magyarországon az energiaválság kapcsán előtérbe került a kedvező geotermikus adottságok kihasználásának szükségessége. A cikkben az európai geotermikus viszonyokból kiindulva mutatjuk be a hazai adottságokat, alkalmazható technológiákat. Az adottságok villamosáram-termelésre csak sporadikusan, magas kockázatok és technológiai fejlesztések mellett alkalmazhatók. Ugyanakkor az ország szinte teljes területén van lehetőség sekély geotermikus és hidrotermás készletek, valamint a hulladékhő további hasznosítására. A jövőben a termálvizek települési szintű, kaszkád rendszerű teljes körű hasznosítása lenne kívánatos. A fenntarthatóság kulcsa a lefűtött termálvizek nagyarányú visszasajtolása. A felszín alatti térrész, a különböző fluidumok és a bennük rejlő nyersanyagok hasznosítása kutatást és új, komplex szemléletet igényel.

Summary.

The need to exploit the favourable geothermal potential has emerged in Hungary due to the war-induced energy crisis. In this paper, we present the geothermal conditions of Hungary with a European comparison. The elevated heat flux of the Pannonian Basin, thanks to the thinned lithosphere, provides beneficial conditions along with the thermal-bearing aquifers primarily for medium enthalpy resources. We detail the potential technologies applicable to exploit the various types of resources and the risks related to their utilisation. Although not all of the technologies can be applied everywhere in the country, our results show that shallow geothermal or hydrothermal utilisation is possible in the entire country, as well as the utilisation of waste heat from used water or natural springs. Assessing geological risks is a decision criterion in the project preparation phase: supporting the investment with lower geological risk leads to more successful projects and, simultaneously, helps to gain more knowledge about the geological formation. With high risks, Hungarian geothermal resources can only be used sporadically for electricity generation. Experience of ongoing international projects in enhanced geothermal systems should be gathered for the future use of deep basement resources. The main unconsidered potential in Hungary lies in the cascaded use of thermal water at the municipal level, which can be a key in constructing low-carbon district and space heating systems combined with agricultural use. The unsolved research-intensive issue of sustainable exploitation is the extensive reinjection of cooled thermal waters, which prevents the overuse of slowly renewable resources. Developing this sector in Hungary regarding conventional and combined innovative exploitation of the subsurface space requires research and new complex approaches.

Open access

Abstract

Hungarian legal education is rarely discussed from a pedagogic perspective, especially in English. This paper would like to fill a gap in the academic literature on this topic by presenting a unique multidisciplinary co-teaching initiative, aiming to mix ‘the best of two worlds’: developing a legal ethics course which is an amalgam of philosophical/theoretical and legal/practical elements. Describing how a compulsory Legal Ethics course was delivered at the István Széchenyi University of Győr in a case study format, the main aim of the authors is to contribute to the international academic discourse on law school pedagogy in general, and on legal ethics education in particular. First, we provide an overview of professional ethics education in law schools, focusing on the origins of the course in the United States of America. Then, after a review of the academic literature on multidisciplinary co-teaching, the context of this Legal Ethics course is presented: the situation of legal ethics education in the Hungarian law curriculum. Then the course particulars, especially the content and the assessment, will be described in detail, based on the personal experiences and observations of the authors.

Open access