Browse Our Social Sciences Journals

In the broadest sense, social sciences encompass society, human behavior, and its influence on the world. Social sciences help understand how society works, ranging from the causes of unemployment, economic growth, what makes people happy, and so on. The information it provides is vital for governments and policymakers, non-governmental organizations, and local authorities.

Social Sciences and Law

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 2,097 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

A tudománymérés varázsa

The Magic of Scientific Research

Educatio
Author:
Gabriella Rosta
Open access

Tudománymetria és tudományszociológia

Science Metrics and Sociology of Science

Educatio
Author:
Péter Tibor Nagy

Mindig jelen volt a tudományra vonatkozó adatok számszerűsítése, de a 20. század előtt a tudományos produkciók elsöprő többségét nem hivatásos tudósok, hanem „civilek” alkották meg, így a mennyiségi jelzés mint „alkalmazási kritérium” nem használtatott – ugyanis a tudományos produktumokat megalkotók nagy részénél fel sem merült, hogy tudósként alkalmazzák őket. A tudománymetria előzményei az eredetileg civil tudomány nagyüzemszerűsödésével, „hivatali feladattá” válásával állnak kapcsolatban, a tudományszociológiai megjelenése pedig azzal – a kiemelten közép-európai élménnyel –, hogy egyetlen tudományos életpályán belül feltűnően sok „rendszerváltáshoz” kell alkalmazkodni, ez csábít a „szaktudományon kívüli” magyarázatokra, a versengő magyarázatokat pedig „validálni” kell. Az esszé második felében egy 2013-as európai kutatás az (Interco-SSH) szubjektív történetét nyújtjuk, mely egy prozopografikus tudományszociológiai adattár felépítéséhez vezetett.

Open access

Abstract

Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for teachers can improve teaching and wider school practices. However, within developing country contexts, research on the CPD practices of vocational teachers remains limited. This study therefore investigated the CPD practices of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers in Kenya, focusing on the content, outcomes and effectiveness of their CPD practices. Adopting a questionnaire survey approach, data was collected from 170 TVET teachers drawn from six TVET institutes in Kenya's Nairobi Metropolitan Area.

TVET teachers in Kenya were found to more frequently focus their CPD on subject content knowledge and less frequently on pedagogical knowledge. Their CPD activities are not always effective as the CPD activities often do not involve active learning and collaboration, and are not always of sufficient duration. Cluster analysis showed that for some teachers, CPD activities are rarely effective and result in limited impact on practice. However, Initial Teacher Education was found to encourage teachers to focus on broader content and to adopt more effective CPD practices.

To improve the effectiveness of TVET teacher CPD practices in Kenya, it is recommended that TVET teachers in Kenya are supported to adopt active and collaborative learning activities that are spread over extended time durations.

Open access

Az állami és nem állami szereplők újragondolt szerepe a biztonság megteremtésében és fenntartásában.

PhD kutatási jelentés

Rethinking the role of state and non-state actors in creating and maintaining security.

Research report
Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Zsolt Lippai

Összefoglalás.

A KDP keretén belül végzett kutatómunkám fókuszában a biztonság megteremtése és fenntartása állami és nem állami szereplői tevékenységének jelenkori állapotanalízise, a komplementer rendészeti szereplők rendészeti szerveket tehermentesítő, nemzetgazdasági szempontból is meghatározó jelentőségű vizsgálata áll. Jelen tanulmányomban az ezzel megegyező tartalmú PhD-kutatásom eredményeiről számolok be, kutatási jelentés formájában.

Summary.

The focus of my research within the framework of the KDP is the analysis of the current state of the activities of state and non-state actors in the creation and maintenance of security, and the analysis of the role of complementary law enforcement actors in relieving the burden on law enforcement agencies, which is of crucial importance from a national economic point of view. In this paper I report the results of my PhD research with the same content in the form of a research report.

I will point out that law enforcement, and thus the state actors in the creation of our security, and in particular the activities of the police, have been and are being dealt with in many different ways. However, only a small number of police researchers have focused their attention on non-state actors in the field of security, on the specialised bodies and ‘peripheries’ of policing, and on the use of methods other than those that might be called traditional policing. The joint work of state and non-state actors, the complementary and mutually reinforcing role of the police in creating and maintaining our common security, and the possibility of rethinking the respective roles are also areas that have been little researched. My PhD research seeks to fill this gap, bearing in mind the fact that law enforcement practitioners expect the Doctoral School of Police Studies to provide recommendations for applied research that can be used in everyday practice.

In my gap-filling research, I will explore my research questions and hypotheses in an unconventional way by drawing on what I consider to be relevant, almost half a thousand domestic and foreign source materials, personal interviews, study trips and the experience of an expert survey.

I will reflect on the significance of private security research and then move back in time to examine the development of the concept of policing over time. I will juxtapose key ideas from works that are perhaps little known to many, but which are still of great scientific value today. In a comparative analysis of state and non-state actors in the field of security, I will present the actors of complementary policing, the ‘stepchildren of policing’, and I will focus on the experience of the domestic organisation of a major sporting event, EURO2020, which attracts large crowds. Internationally, I will look at the development of the public and private security sectors in Estonia, Mexico, South Africa, Australia, Bulgaria, England and Canada, and the activities of private military companies. On the basis of all these research experiences, I will interpret the functioning of the security industry, the value added by private security and thus the new structure of policing in the light of the “Security Rethought” questionnaire survey.

Based on my research, I will attempt to unpack and explain the mechanisms of the relationship between state and non-state actors in the creation and maintenance of security. By interpreting the path to date and suggesting a possible future, I try to combine an academic approach with the knowledge that emerges from the work of practitioners. Emphasising the scientific need for change and improvement, and the fusion of dogmatics and practice, I seek, in the framework of this research, to address some of the issues that I consider controversial and, as a result of this confrontation, to stimulate further research and the development of alternative solutions for those who are open to the development of the emerging science of policing, by setting out the legislative and theoretical problems of the subject.

Open access

Erőművek üzemeltetése és fejlesztése, problémák vagy kihívások?

Power plant operation and development, problems or challenges?

Scientia et Securitas
Authors:
Csaba Kiss
and
Szabolcs Molnár

Összefoglalás.

Napjainkban az energetikai kérdések soha nem látott publicitást kaptak. Szinte nem találunk olyan sajtóorgánumot, melyben az energetikát érintő dilemmák ne lennének a témák fókuszában. E kiemelt szerepet az indokolja, hogy nincs már olyan emberi tevékenység, amihez ne lenne szükség energiára. Ráadásul egyre fokozódó mértékben használunk fel energiát mechanikai munkavégzésre, ipari célokra, fűtésre, világításra, s ez a mai civilizáció fejlődésének egyik igen jellemző vonása. Az energetika klasszikus műszaki szerepén túl az egyik legösszetettebb tudományág. Az energia-társadalom-gazdaság-környezetvédelem négyes fogalmi rendszere úgy biztosítja a fenntarthatóságot, mint az asztal négy lába az asztallap stabilitását. Ha bármelyik láb megsérül, szerkezeti instabilitás következik be. Vagyis az energetika „asztallábainak” stabilitására ügyelnünk kell, mert így biztosíthatjuk a fenntartható fejlődést.

Summary.

Nowadays, energy issues are receiving unprecedented publicity. It is almost impossible to find a press product that does not focus on energy dilemmas. This prominence is justified by the fact that there is no human activity that does not require energy. In addition, the increasing use of energy for mechanical work, industrial purposes, heating and electricity is a very characteristic feature of the development of civilisation today. There is a demonstrable correlation between the standard of living of the population of each country and per capita energy consumption, with productivity being a close function of the kW value per worker.

Today, it is getting increasingly important to ensure the sustainability of development, being one of the prerequisites for this is the availability of the sufficient quantity and quality of energy. At the dawn of the third millennium, society has reached the point where we cannot imagine life without the availability of different energy sources, and the use of energy, or the consumption of energy, has become part of our daily routine.

Just think it over, what we will do if we find ourselves without electricity, even for a short time - in everyday terms, “There is a power cut”. We immediately reach for our battery-powered mobile phones and call our neighbours and the electricity company to find out when we will have electricity again. We have to admit that we cannot live without energy these days.

In our article, we have summarised the main challenges for the operation and development of power plants. In the course of our work and our writing, we have made a kind of inventory. A clear direction can be seen, whereby all alternative technologies are getting more and more important in the global electricity mix.

However, we must face up to the challenges and difficulties, which must be seen not as problems but as tasks to be solved. Neither in energetics nor in other engineering fields should we delude ourselves. In our opinion, questions arising in the fields of technical sciences and engineering fields, will be answered and completed by investigations based on realities and facts, and the problems that arise will be solved and treated as challenges.

Beyond its classical technical role, energetics is one of the most complex disciplines, which is based on the knowledge of several specialized fields. The four concepts of energy-society-economy-environment ensure sustainable development such as the four legs of a table ensure the stability of a tabletop. If any one of the legs is damaged, structural instability will occur in the stability of the table. In other words, we must take care of the stability of the energy sector’s “table legs”, because this is the way we ensure sustainable development.

Open access

A vállalati biztonsági háló meghatározó tényezői

Determining factors of the corporate safety-net

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ágnes Kemendi

Összefoglalás.

A ma vállalata dinamikusan változó üzleti és kockázati környezetben működik, behálózzák az információs és kommunikációs technológiák. Mindez a biztonság területén is felkészültséget igényel. A sikeres vállalati működés fontos pillére a kívánt biztonsági szint megteremtése és fenntartása. Jelen tanulmány szakértői kutatás eredményeit tartalmazza, és a megalapozott elmélet módszertana alapján készült. A kutatás a nyereségorientált vállalatok szemszögéből vizsgálja a biztonság kérdéskörét, javaslatokat tesz, eszközöket mutat ebben a dinamikus és innovatív környezetben a biztonsági kérdések kezelésére, és azonosítja a vállalatot behálózó belső kontrollrendszer, az ún. vállalati biztonsági háló meghatározó tényezőit. A kutatás lényeges megállapítása, hogy a vállalati biztonsági háló kulcseleme a vezetői elkötelezettség.

Summary.

A company of these days operates in a dynamically changing business- and risk environment, surrounded by information and communication technologies; all this calls for thorough grounding in the field of security. This study contains the results of expert research and was prepared based on the methodology of grounded theory. The research examines the matter of security from the perspective of profit-oriented companies; makes suggestions and shows tools on how to ensure the smooth handling of security matters in this dynamic and innovative environment, and furthermore identifies what is the determining factor in the digital age behind the operation of the internal control system that encompasses the company, the so-called corporate safety-net. Security represents value for companies, its economic benefit must be shown to decision-makers. Resiliency is important from business and security perspective as well.

The safe operation of business processes requires the appropriate management of related risks, i.e., controlled processes, tools, or appropriate management of human risks are necessary. A network-like relationship can be identified between the key factors of corporate security. Safe operation requires safety-conscious, and rule-following behaviour of the human factors. Staying up-to-date in the digital era requires both up-to-date digital technology solutions and up-to-date users and developers of the solutions. This can be ensured through continuous learning and development. The security aspects of digital transformation projects should be diligently managed from the very beginning of the development process of the digital solution, as well as people should accept and support the changes. The design and operational testing of controls are the keys to ensure safe operation later on.

The key finding of the research is that the key element of the corporate safety-net is top management commitment that is the most important factor determining a company’s safety culture and corporate security.

Open access

Abstract

The peaceful settlement of disputes is one of the principles enumerated in the Charter of the United Nations, and the Security Council is entrusted with significant powers to achieve this goal. In today's world, accusations of human rights violations have become one of the primary challenges among nations in terms of upholding sovereignty. In accordance with the United Nations Charter, the Security Council may be called upon by the parties to a dispute, the General Assembly, or the Secretary-General, or it can act ex officio to seek a peaceful resolution or adjust a situation through peaceful means. If the Security Council determines that the situation or dispute in question may constitute a threat to international peace and security, it may invoke its powers under Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent of the Security Council's competence and the powers it possesses when carrying out its conciliatory role in cases involving human rights violations by a Member State and conflicts that may arise regarding the interpretation and application of the United Nations Charter.

Open access